Returns all questions and responses for the year.
what is a good grp level per week when launching a brand on tv
There is no objective standard for "good."
Determine what level of reach and frequency you need. As a basic starting point you could plan to reach most of your target (50%+) a minimum of 3 times in a four week flight.
Then you will need to determine how many GRP get you there, depending on the media mix you choose.
How much does a long gap between TV flights lessen the chance of a commercial wearing out?
If the gap is long enough to allow the commercial to be forgotten, it won't be worn out. But only experience will really tell you when that occurs.
The size of the campaign will affect the duration of memory, of course.
I am looking for information on the invention of GRP.
I have found (if I am correct) that its origin lies in radio and was later adopted by broadcasters but who was the father of the gross rating point and when was it invented.
Thank you in advance for your help,
The earliest citation the Guru can find, based on Oxford Dictionaries states that the origins of audience ratings is
"1940s; earliest use found in Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science."
However, tracking down this apparent source,at SagePub Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science. shows this exerpt:
"Possible Social Effects of Television
The ANNALS of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, January 1941; vol. 213, 1: pp. 145-152.
...have been rated by the audience on the following basis: Excellent, 3; Good, 2; Fair, 1; Poor, 0. The average audience rating of an entire week's programs usually lies between 2.0 and 2.3, while the best program of the week (usually..."
Obviously this is a TV reference and implikes that the term "Rating Point" is already well understood in the industry, no doubt from earlier radio usage.
Adding the term "Gross" merely indicates a summing of the ratings. GRP was not "invented" per se, but is an mathematical artifact of the need to measure audience.
Are there any discernable differences between the cross-tab program Gfk/MRI offers with their data versus the Telmar product (other than being able to use with other data for the latter).
You have mentioned the key difference already.
The results of queries in MRI data from both systems would be the same. There are some differences in how results may be displayed that may appeal more to one user than another. One should try both to determine which input method is more suitable for the user.
Bottom line,though is the same query gets the same result.
What paid mediums, traditional, digital and social, do you see fitting best for each stage of the consumer purchase funnel - Awareness, Interest, Desire and Action? I know there is no one right answer, but which mediums typically perform best at each stage? Thanks.
It is somewhat erroneous to think of all these as being in a linear relationship.
Awareness is a function of reach, supported by frequency. In other words, awareness comes from exposure of a message.
Out of home media has the best reltioship of R&F build versus budget. Television has the broad reach versus budget in a medium with the most powerful message form: sight / sound / motion.
Interest and desire are factors of the message content more than of the medium, with frequency again as a supporting factor.
Another consideration is to remember that in many of the non-traditional media, any one message / campaign does not reach a great portion of a target, even though the medium as a whole may have vast reach.
are :15 seconds bookends giving the same value as a stand alone :30? are the rating for :15 bookends doubled
The rating points for two :15s are twice as great as for a :30, unless you are equivalizing. There is potentially a bit more reach and there is more frequency.
Can you please advise how to calculate the cost index for a specific TV media campaign?
First, consider that the term "index" means comparing value "X" to a given basis value. The basis value is set to 100 and other values are divided by the basis value to find an index.
So if your basic cost is $100 and another cost to be compared is $75 then the index is 75. (75 ÷ 100).
In media, costs in such an exercise are typically expressed as Cost per Gross Rating Point (CPP) or Cost per Thousand Impressions (CPM).
This means that for media campaigns, the lower the index, the better. In TV, the cost of dayparts or vehicles or channels, etc. might be what is compared.
how to calculate internet reach and frequency
Like other media, the calculation of R&F is very complex and really requires specialized software connected to actual audience measures and duplication information.
With hundreds of thousands of major commercial websites, general rule-of-thumb formulae are not very useful.
When we have run the post reach frequency analysis we see that 8000/10000 GRPs in TAB 1 but in TAB 3 it turns in to 40/50 GRP. Why is that so?
Should we select the channel based on Reach or Share?
Select the program based on TVR or reach?
The Guru need to know the software you are using. It may be proprietary to your organization.
I am planning local market tv and radio where we are targeting A18-49, both general market and Hispanics. In Los Angeles, for example, 51% of my target is Hispanic; 31% of the overall target is Spanish Dominant, but 42% of the viewing is Spanish language. Any thoughts on how we divide the budget/TRPs between the general market and Spanish language stations knowing that Hispanics are likely consuming both English language and Spanish language stations?
The key point to add is cosnideration of the the idea that media consumed "in culture" is more powerful than that consumed in English, even for Hispanics fully comfortable in English.
So if you start off with a goal that says you need 100 TRP across A18-49, giving equal weight to Hispanic and non-Hispanic you should assure that you have 100 TRP through Spanish language media.
The value of the Hispanic audience reached through English language media will get you through the "51% of my target is Hispanic" issue.
You could use 51% of budget, but the Guru would focus on communcations weight first. You could do very specific arithmetic to get to 51% of impressions being in Spanish languiage media if you wished.
Is there any rule on having too many TV/radio GRP's in one week, or reaching a point of over saturation/diminishing returns? If so what is that number?
This is subjective. A political campaign or awareness building campaign may have totally different goals than a simple reminder campaign for a well established brand in a commonly purchased category.
"Diminishing returns" depends on what your definition is for "returns."
If it's reach growth, it's fairly simple to plot out a chart showing where additional GRPs are adding only frequency but no additional reach. If it's sales, that can be researched and plotted as well.
How many spots per week on local cable
How many spots to accomplish what?
Set goals first in order to determine tactics. Do you want a reach level, an impressions level or some other achievment?
What is the best proven ratio of content to ads, for any given television daypart ?
Obviously, any advertiser would prefer an environment with a lower commerical versus content ratio.
what is the difference in calculation of GRPs and Reach of Spots vs. Programs ?
as when i set the data type spots from programs the results changes.
Country - Pakistan , Software (Infosys Plus)by Kantar Media.
A program episode, say one hour long, has somewhat more reach than a single, one minute, spot within it. Or,
If you are looking at the reach of particular program series over a given time span combined with other program series, that is a completely different calculation than a schedule of spots scattered through those programs.
GRP is always a simple sum of ratings, but again, any single spot in a program may have a somewhat different rating than the program average.
convert to hispanic grp's
This is not even really half of a question.
Note that in each reference to "population" the meaning is the same descriptor, such as W18-49, other than the GM vs Hispanic qualification.
What multi-platform (outdoor/broadcast
/radio.digital) media planning software is
most economical for a small agency? We need to run
reports and see the most efficient media mix
using reach, frequency and rating point measures
for a given budget. We are using Telmar for outdoor
planning and buying now.
Since you already are using our own Telmar, adding its capabilities for these other media should be very economical and minimize your learning curve.
How do you calculate the reweight CPM and remix of plan? This would be compare two plans - one from previous year to current. Looking to do calculation in excel.
You are using "remix" and "reweight" as simple terms, but they are not general standards.
If the Guru may assume you are referring to assigning special values to impressions based on your own rationale and then comparing two plans' impressions with these values applied in each case, then it's simple.
Using your weights, you will have total, weighted impressions impressions for each plan. Then the budget divided by these weighted impressions give the plan's weighted cpm of each
Is there an average newsstand to subscription ration for local newspapers?
There would have to be. But has anyone calculated it? The Guru doesn't know. There would be considerable variation from newspaper to newspaper, depending on - among other things- the population density of the trading area.
The Newspaper National Network might have such research on hand.
Media Guru - can you calculate local newspaper reach into a nationwide advertising program simply by dividing the total newspaper circulation into the total target audience population? Or, is it more appropriate to only measure the reach of a local paper in the local market and then tier the measurement of the entire advertising program so that the local market has the benefit of the nationwide media and then those markets without local newspaper only report the nationally distribute media.
If you only have one insertion then circulation is equal to HH reach. If you know the single issue demographic audience, then that may be treated as target reach. If you have multiple insertions, then duplication must be considered. Once you have the unduplicted audience of local newspapers then that may be calculated as national reach and combined with national media.
I have not negotiated local broadcast television for quite some time. What is the best way to estimate ratings using PPM?
The measurement method should not matter particularly. The traditional "latest share and usage of the same time last year" is probably suitable.
. . .unless the Guru misunderstands what you mean by "PPM," which the Guru interprets to mean "Personal People Meter," which is not in current use as a TV measurement tool in the U.S.
To clarify the last question, I meant to put TV TRPs i.e. How many TV TRPs does 468 national TV TRPs garner in Dallas, TX?
Specifying TV doesn't really change the answer. Consider all the specific the Guru has mentioned. Networks / Dayparts / Programming, etc. This is not an A * B = C question. It's an analysis project with specific audience measurement tools and Nielsen data.
How can I calculate national TRPs to a local DMA i.e. How many TRPs does 468 national TRPs garner in Dallas, TX?
If media were consumed in the same way everywhere, then a 468 national TRP schedule would get 468 local TRP everywhere. But some content has greater or lesser appeal in various markets, so there is variation that averages to 468 nationally.
Without knowing what medium or vehicle you are talking about, it is not possible to calculate.
Or perhaps you mean how many of the 468 are coming from Dallas in the sense of the national being a sum of DMA's national equivalent TRP. In that case, the DMA's portion of the national population is the primary factor, but the varying local appeal is still an important element.
media lift using radio and TV
Two media will almost always deliver better reach than a single medium for the same money or impressions level.
But the Guru expects you have a more specific or different question.
I know how to figure out weighted CPPs. However, if I have the AVG CPP but need to figure out the CPP by daypart, how would I go about doing so? I think this is an easy one but I've been thinking about it too long!
You need some data from each daypart. If you have the ratings, that's a start. You could possibly work back by reversing the weighting process.
What is Grps @30 sec
Your words do not quite connect.
= impressions divided by population within a given demographic definition. The length of the ad unit, e.g. 30 seconds, has no actual effect on GRP.
There is a financial adjustment called "equivalizing" that is sometimes used to compare the value of different lengths, but that is a different matter.
what is recency
Click here to see
more than 100 past Guru responses regarding recency
how we can calculate cumulative ratings
Cumulative ratings is simply the sum of all the ratings of all the units in the schedule.
Thank you in advance with this question. My agency is interested in purchasing Sqad. However, Sqad only provides CPP for Local Spot TV. Is there a formula to convert Sqad Local Spot TV CPP to Local Cable CPP TV by zone? If so, how accurate is this and do other agencies do this?
There is no logical relationship. Start thinking about the handful of vendors of broadcast tv in a market and think about the dozens of of different sources in local cable, most of those with specific demographic focus, not to mention the variations in DMA coverage.
If you do buy SQAD, then you can get some local cable avails and make your own observations.
I understand that a station, per industry standard, guarantees to post to 90% of the original media buy in terms of GRPs. However, I have a station that is sending a post back with expected GRPs (paid only, no bonus) and delivered (paid and bonus). They state that bonus spots are offered to guarantee delivery of GRPs. I have always performed a post, paid to paid, to determine delivery. Is this a standard in the industry to use the added value toward the paid schedule?
This is quite natural. The whole point of a guarantee is that the advertiser will get the weight ordered. Because of the nature of statistical projections that form the basis of ratings forecasts, some variation is expected as a possibility, and the guarantee means the seller will make up any missing weight. Assuming the make-good spots conform to the standard set for the original order, you are being treated properly. If, however, the make-goods are outside the flght period or daypart without prior permission, you have a basis for objection.
I want to know is there a specific website or physical location I can advertise/market new business ventures? pertaining to job offers? and/or family discounts?
This is an overly-broad topic. Search Google as if you were looking for such opportunities yourself. See what turns up.
I have a client who is fixated at having min 50% Reach @ 2+ for TV (regardless of other factors). Do you know where this piece of advice comes from?
Many thanks, lewis
In the Guru's experience, people with fixations of this sort use reach at 3+ as their basis. So if someone thinks 3+ is the minimun exposure for effectivness and says they want to reach the majority of their target at least 3 times, the Guru can understand.
Consult the Guru archives for "Ostrow Model"
Dear Guru, how can I calculate Reach if I have total GRP for target group and audience potential?
The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
Do you have any current research on print ad effectiveness based on size of ad unit and position within publication? Thanks!
See Starch Reports
Do you have any research to show that having a multi-layer/Multi-Channel is more beneficial than only running in one medium?
Have a client that wants to run only TV, but we want to show them that running TV, digital, Search and Print would give them a better result.
If you have any information/case studies that show that it is beneficial, that would be greatly appreciated.
You need to establish communications goals before you can judge the better media mix.
The mix you suggest is too specific to expect to find many case studies. The Guru would check websites of search vendors.
We are looking to do a local market test where we double current GRPs in the market. So first, we need to understand how many GRPs are currently in the market based off of our national buy. Let's say we have 100 GRPs nationally and Market #1 has 5% of the population. From this we would derive, in a pinch without pulling schedules etc..., that currently in Market #1 there are 5 GRPs in that market from the national buy.
So here is where our question comes into play. How do we figure out how many local GRPs we need to buy in order to double the current weight in Market #1. It seems incorrect that if we have 5 GRPs based on national that we'd simply buy 5 more GRPs in the local Market #1s dayparts and local CPPs. We would assume there is a way to take the 5 GRPs and convert them so we understand, if that perhaps means say 30 GRPs in local Market #1. Can you advise of how to do this math? Others are advising if we buy 100 GRPs nationally we simply buy 100 GRPs on in Market #1 (local dayparts and CPPs) to in effect have simulated what would happen nationally via Market #1 if we went eventually to a 200 GRP total nationally.
Your advisors are correct, broadly speaking. If your national media delivered evenly across all markets, then you would have 100 GRP in each market. The 5 calculation is a national GRP value occurring in that market. National media however, do not deliver evenly across markets. Your schedule might deliver 75 GRP in one market and 120 in the next, so your local buy goal could be 125 in one market, 80 in the next. Nielsen has data to assess local levels in this situation.
There are techniques to find the ideal national weight to buy to get the most efficient balance of network and local.
I want to increase reach without buying more GRPs. Right now I have a mix of TV, OOH, News Print, Social, and Google display ads. Reach is 63 and frequency is 7.2. Do I need more vehicles to expand reach?
If reach is your only goal, OOH is usually most productive per $, and social least, in the Guru's opinion. Move some money around. It is likely to increase both GRP and reach within your budget
1- In same country can I add GRPs delivered by TV & Press?
2- In 2 different countries can I add up the TVs GRP?
In the same geographic area, GRPs may be added across media. In different geographic areas, GRPs may not be added together whatever the media.
If you define a new geography, consisting of the two countries together, then using the population of each as your weights, you may calculate a weighted average GRP.
How do I learn to plan digital media like a boss?
Find a competent boss for whom to work in digital media.
If you buy 200 GRPs on television, and reach 20% of the audience, how many times did you reach the average one?
If reach is 20 and GRP is 200, average frequency of exposure among those reached is 10.
I want to know , How do I spread my multiple brand creative in tent pole property like IPL ,which is spread across 8 weeks. Example -option 1- should I run all four TVC together for 8 weeks option 2 - 2 TVC for 1st four weeks and then rest 2 TVC for last 2 weeks.
Please help me with the solution.
The Guru prefers queries which do not use non-standard abbreviations. But, using assumptions of your intent:
If I'm planning a 52 week campaign with a target demo in mind for 1 tv station...what would an effective cumulative frequency be over the year..I was thinking a minimum of 20 - 25...does this make sense to you?
There are not enough facts here to answer the question. The phrase "effective cumulative frequency" does not have meaning to the Guru.
The Guru imagines that using only 1 station for 52 weeks and talking about frequency indicates that reach is of no importance to you, so the Guru can't readily imagine your communications goal scenario.
Hope you are good - it has been a while.
I understand the meaning of both terms "average" and "median", but I can't seem to wrap my head around which is more accurate or valuable to when evaluating print demographics. Since publications do not all provide the same information, I find myself comparing one to the other and I know that is not right, I just don't know which I should be requesting.
The Guru is fine, thanks.
Your query depends, of course on what kind of data you are evaluating, and to what degree it might be skewed by its extremes.
If you are looking at tech magazines, the "average" income of the ones read by Marc Zukerberg and Bill Gates would be very distorted by the inclusion of a few people with $billion+ income, while their median would not be much affected by a few people at the high end.
If you are looking at cake mix usage across women's magazines, medians per month would probably be less useful than average amount used.
So the short answer is to consider the degree to which outliers can distort answers each way.
Hi Guru! How do I find both reach and frequency, since they are functions of each other, when all I have is total GRPs?
Is this even possible? It is asked of me quite a bit in hypothetical or proposal questions for clients.
Reach and frequency are factors of each other in regard to GRP, but not "functions of each other."
GRP ÷ reach = frequency
GRP ÷ frequency = reach
GRP alone is never enough. You must consider media type, dayparts, etc.
we want to put ad on advertisment
The Guru asks: "What exactly is your question?"
Is 3+ reach still applicable in today's media world?
The idea of 3+ is that it requires 3 exposures to information for that information to be remembered. This stems from mid-19th century research. It's an artifact of human psychology, not media structure. The fragmentation of media today has not made reach less valuable, nor should frequency be so.
I'm putting together a report on liability. They are asking to add the total Sold Impressions and the total Delivered impressions across all the deals in our system. My question is- does this make sense across demos?
No, it doesn't make sense, When you add M25-54 impressions to Mothers-of young-children impresions, what can you call the total? Different categories of impressions have different values, indicated by the cpms.
Adding sold to delivered also doesn't make sense to the Guru.
Can you please post the formula for converting HH CPPs to demo CPPs? I know it involves using Viewers per Viewing HH (VPVH), but can't remember the actual formula. Thanks!
The Guru would divide Demo rating by HH rating and get a ratio. Divide the HH CPP by this ratio.
Using vpvh is possible, but involves more steps and other factors.
When calculating net reach and frequency for an advertising campaign, do you have to use similar target definitions across print, online or other media channels?
Reach is a percentage of a target group. It can only make sense if the same arget is used in each medium involved.
I have recently started working at a small agency that manages a lot of outdoor advertising manually. Is there buying/trafficking software for outdoor? Thank you.
How do I convert A25-54 TRPs to A25+ TRPs?
You can only do this based upon experience or data. For example if it's TV, Nielsen can give you a history of how those two demographics relate in various types of programming.
What is the current "reach ceiling" against W18-34 in print media? My reach number is lower than expected and I am wondering if it is because this demo just is not reading mags, or if my book list could be better. 15 years ago I would have expected my current plan to do a 75% reach. I am at 58%. Please let me know your thoughts.
Can't say without seeing the plan. The Guru imagines ceilings have declined
I wan to find an agent in Ct 06067 area
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.
I wanyt to find an agenty
Try a Yellow Pages web site, like superpages.com
Question, planning a schedule with a powerful call to action, is frequency with :30s smarter (2-3 spots in a program) or is spacing out the spots between programs because of a limited ad budget? This is for a new company that recently started TV advertising. DFW market and a local services company...
What you are suggesting will lead to very limited reach and increased frequency. Not something the Guru would typically recommend. If by "powerful call to action" you mean that the commercial copy is instantly persuasive, all the more reason to emphasize reach over frequency.
what is rtg
"rtg" is the abbreviation for rating. Rating is a percentage of population in a media audience.
Hello media guru
Is the unit of GRPs percentage?
Yes, it is.
Thank you for having such a great resource sight for media.
My question is if I have a blended cpp of $1500 @ 52% prime, how do I calculate what the prime and fringe cpp is? What is the formula I can use to calculate blended cpps at different prime levels? Thank you.
First imagine a total budget number, say $1,500,000.
If your blended cpp is $1500, then you must have 1,000 GRP.
($1,500,000 ÷ $1,500)
. If you have 52% prime, that's 520 Prime GRP and 480 non-Prime GRP.
At this point, you realize there is nowhere to go without knowing the dollars invested in prime
Then you can know what prime dollars were spent at what cost per point and by simple algebra deduce the cpp of the remainder. If there is more than one other daypart, you'll need more data.
Hi Guru, I have two similar commericals airing as bookends in the same pod. How can I test if consumers will view this as the same spot? Does this increase my wearout levels?
How similar are they? This seems to call for custom research.
Why are more TRPs needed when you buy local media such as TV compared to national?
You seem to be making an invalid assumption.
If you are buying local TV using NSI as your measure, and then use Nielsen to retrocode your plan and report the "NTI" equivalent trps, you will typically find there is a 20-30% decrease in TRP count.
But the question of need is different. Your plan levels should be based on the Reach and Frequency needed to achieve your communication goals. This is regardless of National vs local. If you are using different R&F tools to report on national vs local plans and there seems to be this difference, it is a matter of the tools, not the TRP per se.