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Media Guru 2014

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Returns all questions and responses for the year.

Wednesday, December 31, 2014

What is the best way to build reach in a TV schedule? Adding dayparts?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, December 31, 2014)

Yes, more dispersion is the answer to reach building, unless the new dayparts are much less efficient.

Wednesday, December 31, 2014

I have a scatter plan that I want to compare against another scatter plan from the same quarter a year prior. The daypart mixes are slightly different. Can you please explain how to re-weight in order to get an accurate CPM increase?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, December 31, 2014)

Simply weight by spend. Unless you have specific value adjustments for dayparts, this means you may divide the sum of the dollars by the sum of the impressions in each year.

Saturday, December 27, 2014

Dear Guru!
What is the GRP / Rating of an out door Blimp? If the Cost is $500000 and audience is 8 Million, what would be the CPM?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, December 28, 2014)

If cost is $500,000, for 8million audience, cpm is $62.50, which is horrible for outdoor. The GRP in this case is 8,000,000 ÷ the population universe, with the decimal moved to make the answer a percentage. I.e. if the universe is 8million, GRP = 100.

Monday, December 15, 2014

We have a client who has franchisees in most of the top TV DMA's in the US. Is there a rule of thumb on how many top DMA's a company needs to be in before they should consider buying TV on a National level vs. a local level?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, December 15, 2014)

The trick is to sum up the DMA's costs per point until they total more than the national cost per point. Depending on the specific markets, dayparts and demographics, this could be 50 markets 75, 100 or more.

Thursday, December 11, 2014

how do i calculate cost per spot?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 12, 2014)

Divide your cost by the number of spots purchased. This assumes that you know a spend amount and the number of spots in question. If this is not the case, the question becomes quite different.

Monday, December 08, 2014

I am looking for actual creative samples of commercial catalogs - similar to what Competitrack offers for TV, print, and OA. Is there a company out there that provides that type of service but for direct mail/catalogs, specifically in the B2B space?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, December 08, 2014)

The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.

Thursday, December 04, 2014

Hi Guru, How would you attempt to establish a campaign goal R/F for combine media channels?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, December 04, 2014)

Such campaign goals are about communication in terms of persons reached and how often. The simple fact that media are combined is not a determinant. Based on the value you may assign to the specific media, you may shape your goals

Wednesday, December 03, 2014

What is an ideal GRP for 3-week campaign in local market?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, December 04, 2014)

There are too many variables to answer this sensibly. It makes more sense to establish Reach and Frequency goals and learns what GRPs are required to achieve them.

Wednesday, December 03, 2014

Hi Guru, where can I find Nielsen's National Universe Estimates for all the regular demographic breaks based on the 2014-2015 season? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, December 04, 2014)

You would find this data at Niesen's secure Answers Portal, which is limited to authorized subscribers.

Friday, November 28, 2014

Hi Guru,

How do you get the total reach of a campaign?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 28, 2014)

From the phrasing of your question, the Guru imagines you aready have the reaches of the individual media. You may combine the media by random probability.

Wednesday, November 19, 2014

Using average cost per point and a set budget, you can determine an estimated number of GPRs for a flight. Using any combination of those items, can one estimate reach and frequency?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, November 19, 2014)

GRPs is the typical input to a reach and frequency system, but the dispersion among vehicles and dayparts is crucially important.

Even with that, you really need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, such as the lambda funtion, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables

Monday, November 17, 2014

What the cost difference between General market and US Hispanic CPP, please cite specific cases such as:

Prime Time: ;30 US Hispanic is $20,000 . GM is 40,000
And what is the ratio between one and the other: 20%, 30%, 40%?
I know it varies by day part but average. Thank you.


The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, November 19, 2014)

It varies by daypart, demo, Broadcast vs cable (which is more important in the Hispanic market) Today, no one ought to be buying broadcast only or cable only.

In the Hispanic market, where Univision tilts the playing field so enormously, the question becomes almost unanswerable.

In the General Market, if Broadcast Prime CPP for A18+ is $45k and $18k for cable, and for Hispanic A18+ it's $3K without Univsion, that's one example.

But there are no good rules that apply in the absence of planning and negotiation.

Wednesday, November 12, 2014

What is the point of local market TV GRP saturation? And how would you factor in a National presence?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, November 13, 2014)

The point of maximum communication is consumer motivation. "Saturation" is not a term the Guru ever uses. It cannot be defined. While some do not even consider a reach of 100% achievable, 98-99 at more than 3+ frequency would approach the presumed concept.

National presence must certainly be factored, the target consumer does not perceive the disctinction of a local commercial versus national.

Monday, November 10, 2014

Hello Guru! May I know what is your opinion on Ad Networks? It is an industry norm to split the revenue 50-50 between Ad Network and Publisher? Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, November 12, 2014)

Ad networks are generally low priced options with less control of content for the advertiser. Some have more control of relevant placement than others. Price arrangements vary.

Monday, November 10, 2014

how much does this cost??

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, November 12, 2014)

TO advertise see Site info

Sunday, November 02, 2014

how we can calculate trps ,tvm and tvt in tam.
kindly give me the formula

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 17, 2014)

TRP = impressions ÷ population.

TVM and TVT are unfamiliar abbreviations.

Friday, October 31, 2014

Dear Guru,
Thank you so much for your reply! I would love to highlight the value of my site to the planners/buyers. However, other emailing/calling the general line or trying to add people on Linkedin, would you suggest any other channels where I can reach them? Thank you very much.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, October 31, 2014)

You could advertsie on trade media sites such as AMIC , AdWeek
, etc. You could find the people you want through
AdWeek Directories and Redbooks
or TheList

Wednesday, October 29, 2014

I have recently been cold-calling media planning/buying agencies to introduce my website as a display-advertising option. My previous experience with Media planners/buyers is that they receive a budget by client for advertising during a specific duration.

1) Is it true that up-selling is useless if it exceeds the said budget?

2) Some agencies seem reluctant to forward my call to the media planning/buying department. How can I reach all of them? (If I were them I would really like to meet suppliers of ad space)

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 29, 2014)

Yes, planners are usually working with a set budget.

Calling a switchboard and asking for a "department" that my be 5 or 10 ot 200 people is a nuisance to whoever answers. A professional vendor starts out by finding out who is the best prospect to see, and be armed with reasons why your vehicle is so valuable that it's worth diverting some budget before the next round of planning.

Think: there are literally millions of ad space opportunities out there. Planners need to filter them to what's most relevant and can't take time for every vendor who does not have the consideration to self-filter.

Tuesday, October 28, 2014

This is a question related to estimating a TV Commercial wearout. I have ran my spot for two years during the Holiday season, so the spot rests most of the year. How much more life do I gain by resting the spot for such period of time? Is there a factor that I can use to estimate the incremental life of a TV Commercial (e.g. one more week for every 4 weeks of rest)?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, October 28, 2014)

Depending on the weight used it will last a long time used this way, if the creative is good

Monday, October 20, 2014

Dear Media Guru,
Under what circumstances would you weigh one tactic more than another when you're combining reach and frequency across tactics? Is it generally accepted that each tactic would be considered equal when combining tactics? We currently use Telmar to combine our reach and frequencies.
Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, October 21, 2014)

This is inherently a judgement call, informed by experience. If you know the value of one tactic versus another, weight it, if you don't, don't.

Wednesday, October 15, 2014

Which vendors provide ad monitoring and tracking services?

Can we get alerts on breaking creative for a brand's competitors in New York in Television (incl. local cable), and Radio?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 15, 2014)

CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
and Monitor-plus are the leading competitive reporting vendors. Both offer a creative alert service. Both report on NY. Neither has much coverage of local cable. Monitor-plus has more DMA's sampled for local cable, but limited coverage of systems and networks.

Monday, October 13, 2014

How do I convert HH GRPs to to W25-49 GRPs? I have my W25-49 Universe size

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, October 13, 2014)

There is no one way to make such a conversion. Different media vehicles, program types and programs all have different ratios between these two measures. Sports versus soap operas are two obvious examples of how different these can be.

If you have a history of ratings on both bases, you would have an index of w18-49 to Households.

If you have records of viewers per viewing household (vpvh) for the vehicles in question, the ratio between that measure and the target persons per Household population (PPH) becomes a "conversion factor" which you may multiply by the HH GRP to get target GRP.

Friday, October 10, 2014

If I have an Overall GRP goal of 23GRPS for a 6 week flight (~3.84 total grps/week). And the Unit length mix is 50% :30s / 50% Equivilized :15s. what would the weekly GRP break out be?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, October 11, 2014)

An equivalized :15 is worth half of its ordinary GRP value. So let's imagine you are buying spots with an average rating of 0.384. You would need 10 :30's OR 5 :30's plus 10 equivalized :15's.

Or at equal units, the weekly GRP breakout is 6.67 :30s = 2.56 GRp and 6.67 equivalized :15 = 1.28 GRP

2.56 GRP + 1.28 GRP = 3.84 GRP. Adjust accordingly for other ratings.

Sunday, October 05, 2014

Hi Guru,

I have recently started a digital publishing business creating DigiMags for large clients (the Digi mag is a free mag and is downloadable through all the app stores. We are trying to work out what we could charge for advertising in the magazine. If it was print I would know that I could use the Abc figures of the readership to make a educated answer. Because it's on the digital version only, I need to find a way of using the amount of people on the current database that we are pushing this content too before the download. Is there a way that we can use existing database (forms part of the clients customer database) to come up with a price per full page colour with Interactivity? If we had to go in the current readership, it would be very low based on Cpc through the email sent to the current customer database. I hope this makes sense

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 09, 2014)

You make it unclear whether you do or do not have a readership count.

Assuming you do, are you selling impressions or clicks?

Study other rate cards out there for similarly targeted e-mags, and price comparably and add a premium if you have some justification.

Thursday, October 02, 2014

HI Guru,
Thank you for answering my last couple of questions.
It was a great help.
Is their a provider for competitive reports that covers phone book/yellow pages.
From Kantar, I am currently getting dma specific reports for all media coverage.
Their reports do not cover expenditures for phone books/yellow pages.
Do you know who would monitor this media and that supplies these competitives.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 02, 2014)

The Guru is not aware of such a resource.

Saturday, September 27, 2014

Hi Guru,
I have a product that is dma specific. I need to identify injury attorneys in each dma who advertise in their local market. My product is available for all 210 dmas.

The reports I am looking for need to have the spending dollars broken out in all area of media - tv radio outdoor int etc.

Right now I am getting quotes from one company for $1800 per dma or $10,000 for one year subscription to have access to there software to run as many reports as I would like.

Can you give me some guidance on pricing and companies that may provide this type of service.

Currently I have spoken with Kantar and Nielsen.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, September 27, 2014)

$10,000 is a good annual price for full service across all media. Kantar and Nielsen are the leaders. But since you only need one narrow advertiser category, you may be able to get a lower price.

Saturday, September 27, 2014

I have obtained several mixed media competitive reports from Kantar. I am trying to identify local attorneys that are advertising mainly in their local market. I then offer them my product/service which are dma specific.

My problem is knowing who advertises mostly in their local dma.
The reports is dma specific and has the following headings:

B-TO-B DOLS (000)

Can you point me to some reference material or where I could find out what these abbreviations and columns mean?
What would be your best advice for using reports like this to identify my potential clients?
Does one or two of these columns have a better chance of being local guys?
Need some help?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, September 27, 2014)

Any columns including the words network or national won't be relevant for you. Nor will Cable or Syndication or SLN (Spanish Language Network). Columns with "Spot" are definitely local media, and some of the other can be.

if the report is DMA specific, simply find advertisers who appear in only one (or possible 2-3) DMAs.

Tuesday, September 23, 2014

is reach = awareness ? what is the difference?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 24, 2014)

Reach is an advertising measure; a count of those exposed to an advertising campaign.

Awareness is a knowledge metric; a measure of those who respond to research questions by expressing familiarity with a campaign or the brand/product, depending on what question has been asked in the awareness research.

Obviously, those who are "aware" of a campaign will not exceed the reach. Brand awareness relates to reach of any specific campaign less directly.

Monday, September 08, 2014

I am starting my career in broadcast TV sales. Outside of in house training where can I find affordable training that will give me a head start to media math and negotiations.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, September 09, 2014)

The Guru does not believe any of the commercial training resources are to be recommended. Your best bet is an internship or entry level position in a media organization.

Wednesday, August 20, 2014

How to measure product placement on tv series?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, August 21, 2014)

There is the essential audience measurement used by any advertiser, to start with.

There is the standard adjustment for amount of screen time in comparison to 30 seconds of advertising. then there is whatever premium you wish to allow for the environmental support of the program itself.

Monday, August 18, 2014

Can you please tell me the formula for calculating combined 3+ reach? Looking to combine TV and Radio. If could provide an example as well that would be helpful. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, August 19, 2014)

This cannot be combined by a simple formula. It must be processed through R&F software like our own eTelmar, that can consider all the TV / Radio overlaps.

Sunday, August 10, 2014

I am new to media planning in Dubai. Where shud i begin to check the stats from before i buy some space from the inventory. My customers are in the region Middle East & North Africa

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, August 10, 2014)

One starting point for research in the area is Nielsen Bahrain check other countries on interest on Nielsen's site. Explore further on Google.

Friday, July 25, 2014

How do you determine when it is more efficient to place a national broadcast buy vs going to a local market buy? How many DMAs should you start considering national vs local? How do you calculate the number of GRPS nationally and compare it to the number of local GRPS you would receive?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, July 25, 2014)

Set up a table with the following columns:

  1. Markets in rank order,
  2. Market spend for 100 GRP
  3. For each DMA, 100 market GRP multiplied by the market's % of US. (That gives you national equivalent GRP contributed by each market)
  4. A cumulative national equivalent GRP total alongside the market list

Where this cumulative total equals your national total for buying 100 GRP, look at the cumulative total GRP sum. If it is less than 100, then you know national is more efficient at that level of market list.

If you get through all 210 DMAs without equaling the national cost then you know spot is more efficient (not likely).

Friday, July 25, 2014

Dear Media Guru,

Please help to draw reach curve with excel or powerpoint.
We would like to appear at X- axis (Reach) and Y-axis (GRPs). But we want Reach and GRP separate two curves and for all brand's on one graph.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, July 25, 2014)

If the Guru understands you correctly, you want to create reach curves for two different brands on one graph. Reach vs GRP creates one curve, so you must mean reach and grps for each of two brands.

Set up a table in Excel with GRP across the top as column headings and one row of Brand "A" reaches corresponding to each GRP number. Then another similar row for Brand "B."

Use Excel's graphing function to draw a line graph for each Brand series. To get a smooth curve, you will need to use several, equal GRP intervals. GRP becomes the "X" axis

Monday, July 14, 2014

How do ad agencies that adopt Rentrak as their local TV currency instead of Nielsen explain this "new norm" to their clients? We have a lot of historical data (ratings, costs, etc.) that are based on Nielsen. We are finding that more often than not, Rentrak ratings are higher therefore we are able to deliver more points because our budgets were based on SQAD costs which are based on Nielsen ratings.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, July 15, 2014)

The straightforward approach is to calculate the CPP or CPM of spots based on Nielsen next to the same spots' CPP and CPM using Rentrak data
(Only HH data is reasonably comparable).

This procedure will establish a baseline for the difference in the two approaches. You can go back a year, and keep reporting on both bases for a year into the changeover period, when you will have an established basis to continue on.

Tuesday, July 08, 2014

What is considered a strong reach or GRP level for a Sunday newspaper and a daily newspaper?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, July 15, 2014)

How would you define "strong?"

Wednesday, July 02, 2014

best cell phone for 18,000 rupes

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 03, 2014)

The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.

Wednesday, June 11, 2014

How can I estimate the reach increase when I pay extra for positioning TV spot in commercial break ?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 12, 2014)

You need to go to Nielsen or Rentrak's data to compare audiences of pod positions.

Friday, June 06, 2014

Hello Guru,
i want to ask you about TV Reach & Frequency.
Suppose i have following
GRPs : 766
Add Spots :2,939 Number of Spots
Affinity Index : 111
then how can we calculate Reach & Frequency with out using software....please let me know !!!!!

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 10, 2014)

This can't be done with the information provided.

Thursday, June 05, 2014

my client set these set of goals for his IMC plan.
(For a three-years program)
1-Increase brand awareness in target audiences of 10% up to 80%
2-Define the position of the brand in the minds of the target audience, as an Iranian and vegan brand
3-Encouraged 60% of the target audience to Experimental use of the product
4-Encouraging 50% of target audience who have used the product (30% of target audience) to buy other products
5-Loyalty at 20% of target audience groups more than 5 times a year they have used the products
I want to ask whether there is a special method to classify these goals?
I want to know that firstly i should increase the awareness up to 80 % and then Achieve other goals or . . . . ØŸ

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 10, 2014)

Most of these goals relate more to creative copy than media, although media choices can help. But to start with the media issue, obviously you need a minimum of 80% reach to create 80% awareness.

Monday, May 26, 2014

What was the percentage of unsold print ad space in 2013?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 10, 2014)

Broadcast time is finite, if it is unsold when the time passes, it's "unsold."

Print space is flexible; publishers use the amount of advertising sold to determine how much total content will be produced. "Remnant" space is predominantly caused by advertisers' pulling out at the last minute or by odd bits of space left on a page when small space units don't add up to full pages. There is not real base against which to calculate a percentage which is unsold.

Thursday, May 22, 2014

How do you calculate a TV stations viewership to counties in a DMA?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, May 22, 2014)

You don't calculate it, you need Nielsen's County Coverage study.

Thursday, May 22, 2014

I have noticed that CPM (Audience) divided by CPM (Impression) = Frequency. I reached this conclusion by computing both formula.
Can you confirm it & if right is there any use of the result?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, May 22, 2014)

CPM is cost per thousand impressions. What do you mean by CPM audience? Perhaps you mean CPM reach. Since impressions ÷ reach is the definition of frequency,we just have to think about the "cost" factor.

A schedule has just one cost. If you divide it by number reached you get CPM reach, if you divide by impressions, you get CPM impressions. Since the cost term is the same on both sides of the equation, it cancels out.

Thursday, May 22, 2014

Could you please describe, in detail, the difference between using a MRI study versus Simmons?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, May 22, 2014)

Both studies offer roughly the same metrics for media and products, measured in similar ways. There are methodological differences, that can be examined, because these are two competing research vendors.

Thursday, May 22, 2014

Is the GRP of 15" the same as the GRP of 30 or 60"?
If not how to calculate it?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, May 22, 2014)

In reality, they are the same, but some buyers adjust in proportion to length as a financial tool. In that case a :15 is equated to half a :30'S GRP and a :60 is double.

Tuesday, May 13, 2014

Do you know of any good resources that can compare the buying software companies strata and media ocean? I know that changes are constantly made I am looking for something for management that illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of both.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, May 13, 2014)

The Guru is not aware of any published research on this. The Guru believes that Strata and Media Ocean mostly serve different purposes.

Tuesday, May 13, 2014

What is the seasonal peaks for publishing an autobiography book? Kind regards Julie Lium

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, May 13, 2014)

The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.

Wednesday, May 07, 2014


The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 07, 2014)

Guru queries must be in English and preferably, in full sentences.

Monday, May 05, 2014


The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 07, 2014)

The Guru asks: "What exactly is your question about payment?

Thursday, May 01, 2014

Hello Media Guru,
When comparing CPM's for print ads does the ad size for each newspaper need to be the same? Also, if we buy a newspaper like the LA Times with a 900,000 circulation versus a local community paper with a 50,000 circulation, should the CPM be around the same?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, May 01, 2014)

It makes sense to compare full page to full page, half page to half page. But column inches will have different significance in different newspaper formats.

The Guru would expect community newspapers to have different cpms than major dailies

Wednesday, April 30, 2014

Dear Guru:
I am trying to find the answer to this question: 1 GRP reached X number of Women 25-54 in Detroit in March 2014 and 1 GRP reached Y number of Women 25-54 in Detroit in March 2013.
I have access to the LPM data for Detroit and pulled HUT numbers for the March 2013 and March 2014 measurements. I found this relationship, which was consistent with comparisons of other months.
March 2013 Population W25-54 = 952,000
March 2014 Population W25-54 = 948,000
So, the number of Women 25-54 in Detroit decreased between 2013 and 2014.
However...when pulling the HUT numbers for M-Su 5a-4:59a, I get this result:
March 2013 Imp W25-54 = 223,000
March 2014 Imp W25-54 = 240,000
March 2013 HUT Rtg W25-54 = 23.4
March 2014 HUT Rtg W25-54 = 25.3
So, these numbers went up.
Should I assume from this that while there are fewer Women between the ages of 25-54 in Detroit in March of 2014 compared to March of 2013, the ones who left this demographic in the past year were more likely not to have a TV?
And additionally, how does this data answer the initial question?
Thank you for your help!

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, April 30, 2014)

The demographic universe decreased. This means that that are fewer members of the demo in TV homes.

If the TV users went up while the universe decreased, of course, the HUT which is a percentage of a universe increased (actually 'PUT' when referring to persons).

Nothing in all this addresses TV ownership facts about the women who aged out of (or into) the demo cohort. It is equally possible that the members of the demo watch more TV in 2014.

In any case 1 GRP = 1% of the demo universe

Wednesday, April 30, 2014

I'm doubting myself so I'm looking for validation. When it comes to LOCAL DMA TV ratings, a rating of 1.0 against A25-54 is a % of the entire viewing population or is it a % of that particular demo...A25-54?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, April 30, 2014)

It is a percent of the A25-54 within TV households of the DMA

Saturday, April 26, 2014

Defintion of Reach

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, April 28, 2014)

Reach is the unduplicated audience exposed one or more times to a media schedule. It may be expressed as simple numbers or as a percentage of the target population.

Thursday, April 24, 2014

Can you please confirm for me how to calculate a combined Reach and Frequency of 2 mediums? I am trying to calculate for Radio & TV. If you could provide the formula and an example it's appreciated!! Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, April 24, 2014)

Wednesday, April 23, 2014

Can you tell me if there is there is a more accepted version of the reach formula between the two formulas below? It seems that the first formula is more in line with Telmar.

(a + b) - (a x b) / 100 = reach


1-((1-Reach A)x(1-Reach B))
The formula for combining reach attempts to look at overall reach, without duplicating reach audiences. To do this it multiplies the percent of people not reached from two ads. Since this number is less than one for all ads, it will shrink when multiplied. Once the new percent not reached is found, this is subtracted from 1 to find our total percent reached. Using this formula, reach will never exceed 100%.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, April 23, 2014)

The two formulae are arithmetically identical, as long as you remember that reaches being added or multiplied are expressed as decimal fractions. This is called random probability. In probablity, the likelihood of any two unrelated events equals the product of the likelihood of each (when expressed as decimals).

So in these formulae the first looks at the sum of the events and subtracts the likelihood of both occuring (random duplication), leaving undulpicated reach. In the second, we look at the probabiltiy of neither occuring, leaving the probability of one or the other occuring (unduplicated reach).

These formulae are properly used for combining reaches of two different media, not for calculating reach within one medium where duplication is greater than random probability.

Monday, April 14, 2014

How do we relate reach planning to our market share objectives?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, April 14, 2014)

Your market share will relate to brand awareness. Brand awareness will relate to ad awareness. Ad awareness will relate to reach.

Sunday, April 13, 2014

please what are the differences between business, marketing, communication and media objectives?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, April 13, 2014)

Very simplistically,

  1. Business objectives drive marketing objectives.
  2. Marketing objectives drive communications objectives.
  3. Parts of communications objectives drive media objectives.
  4. Media objectives will address who should be reached, in what media environment, in what geographic areas, with what budget, etc. Among the media objectives will be communications objectives which would specify such details as reach & frequency goals, ad awareness goals, etc. These will have been derived from the commincations obectives mentioned in point 3, above.
  5. Marketing objectives will describe broadscale issues like brand building, promotional efforts, public relations, consumer relationships,etc.
  6. The communications objectives that follow from this will address targets, awareness, imagery and so forth.
  7. The business objectives leading up to all this will include sales and market share goals, brand plans and more.

Also see the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan

Friday, April 11, 2014

Do you have studies detailing basic principles or guidelines in developing effective television advertising

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, April 11, 2014)

See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan

Wednesday, April 09, 2014

Dear Guru, in TV byuing we have fix share of placement and floating share of placement. Is there is any approach to determine the optimal share of fix (it is more expensive, but our ads would be right there, where we want, not channels)

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, April 09, 2014)

You need to quantify the value of fixed. Do you know reach / awareness / retention values?

Wednesday, April 02, 2014

what is the difference between sales and communication objective.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, April 02, 2014)

Sales objectives would be expressed in dollars, or product units, or market share increase or % increase of one of these.

Communication objectives are expressed in media metrics, such as reach, frequency, GRP, impressions, etc. Occasionally, awareness metrics might be incuded in the communications set.

Monday, March 31, 2014

what is the difference between the infomercial and commercial?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 31, 2014)

Generally, "commercial" refers to any TV ad. "Infomercial" typically refers to long-form advertising, usually 2 minutes to 30 minutes, selling by direct response, rather than building a brand or supporting a particular promotion.

Friday, March 28, 2014

dear Guru, this my question.if the rate at which information decays within individuals is known, then the task of media planners is simply to place messages at suitable intervals in the path of decay.discuss

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 28, 2014)

Interesting if simplistic theory. Advertising awareness and purchase intent are much more than mere "information."

Leaving that aside, what about:

  • How many messages keep the information fresh?
  • Which media are best to keep the information fresh?
  • At what point in the "interval" must refreshing begin?
  • Must the refresh come from the same media or is it more effective or efficient from other media?
  • Must it come from the same units or can it be from smaller units?
  • How do copy changes / promotional changes / brand positioning changes affect all this?

The Guru believes media planners still have much to do.

Tuesday, March 25, 2014

How do we adjust the February 2014 Nielson ratings (due to the Olympics) to come up with a more accurate/fair rating for projections?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, March 26, 2014)

Nielsen offers "Olympics exclusion" reports.

Tuesday, March 25, 2014

Dear Media Guru,

Are there any resources i can look into in order to find media habits by demographics in the Bahamas?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, March 27, 2014)

The Guru does not know of such a source for the Bahamas.

Friday, March 14, 2014


I am looking for recent industry practices on wearout for Hispanic Ads vs. Total Market- on TV and beyond...are there any white papers out there? would love your insights...

Thanks for your help in advance!

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 14, 2014)

In the Guru's experience, no separate Hispanic wear-out rules have been established. Generally advertisers establish their own standards which may be considered confidential, some based on GRP, some on frequency, but ultimately all an attempt to avoid a drop in effectiveness. The human drivers of this are not likely to be generically different for Hispanics, even if those media have different ratings and numbers of options.

Category competition, size of commercial pool, category interest, creative quality are all more likely to matter more than simple ethnicity.

Click here to see past Guru responses about wear-out

Wednesday, March 12, 2014

Dear Media Guru, im working on this presentation from one of our global clients, and i wonder if you would advice on where to find global media usage statistics, such as:

Time spent watching TV - Radio - Movil devices etc...

The regions im interested in are:

South East Asia
Whestern emisphere

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, March 13, 2014)

Each region will have its own resources. One of the broadest vendors, internationally, is Nielsen. Let that be your starting point.

Another resource is Media Dynamics

Monday, March 10, 2014

whats is the diifrence between total viewership in miilions,total viewership in thousand,opportunity to see and loyality index and how these are calculated

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 14, 2014)

If there are 10,500,900 viewers, it is reported as 10.5 million viewers or 10,500.9 thousand viewers if you are using one decimal place. Simply a matter of precision.

Click here to see past Guru responses about opportunity to see.

Loyalty index can have many meanings depending on context, for example is it a comparison of one-time viewership to 3 out of 4 episode viewership? Is it brand loyalty? Comparison of time spent with the same network?

Thursday, March 06, 2014

What is the industry standard for reach/frequency across local radio?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, March 06, 2014)

There is no such industry standard. Reach/frequency goals are based on

  • Communications goals
  • Existing awareness and awareness goals
  • Promotions vs brand building
  • Other marketing goals

Tuesday, March 04, 2014

Hi Guru,

I wanted to ask you one question regarding post campaign GRPs deleivered. If the planned GRPs were let's say 400 and actual GRPs acheived in the campaign in same cost is 490 GRPs. Should it be cosidered as wastage or additional value delivered? I never wanted 490 GRPs so by eventually by acheiving these additional 90 GRPs, I have actually lost the money which could have been saved. I know there will be some variance in pre vs post but not more than 5-7 percent. Please advise.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 04, 2014)

A buy should come in within 5-10% of planned. Does your planner have an understanding of your goals and limits? Or is there more worry about being under than over, causing estimates which are too conservative?

It can also depend somewhat on the stability of the media measure
being used

Friday, February 28, 2014

Hi, i would like to know - how to calculate a budget for a campaign if the client provides the target GRPs or the target Reach @3+?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, March 01, 2014)

If you have the GRPs, you need a source of cost per GRP, such as SQAD.

If you have a target reach at 3+, work with your R&F software until you back into the necessary GRPs to achieve the reach goal and then proceed as above.

Wednesday, February 26, 2014

Hi Media Guru,
Could you please guide me on how best to set my annual media objectives (that will be used to appraise me) as a media manager when our media activities for the year is so uncertain?

The objectives are expected to be SMART.
Your prompt response will be appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, March 01, 2014)

Please review the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan

Monday, February 24, 2014

Hello Media Guru. How do we estimate the value of an impressions on promotional marketing materials like a cereal box package, a in-store display or a shelf talker?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, February 25, 2014)

The vendor must supply you with traffic seeing your materials. Obviously, the same rules can't apply to cereal boxes as to hardware store displays.

Sunday, February 23, 2014

Dear Media Guru,

Could you please tell me which is the influence of a top&tail media campaign instead a campaign with only one spot? by top&tail campaign I mean a campaign with a complementary message and the fist spot - TOP is broadcasting first in break and after 1 other spot we have the tail spot tail where we have a message related with the one from the top spot. I assume that the reach and the cost will be affected but what other media parameters will be influenced?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, February 23, 2014)

Reach would not be significantly affected by adding a spot one minute after another in the same break. GRPs double and frequency rises sharply.

Otherwise, awareness and retention are the metrics most likely affected.

Thursday, February 20, 2014

Dear Guru, how do i calculate cost per ratings for TV? Also please advise if i have several TV stations is the cost per ratings for all of them the average?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 20, 2014)

If all the stations are within the same geography, then it's a simple matter of adding up all the costs and dividing by the sum of the ratings across the stations.

If there are different geographies involved, then you must do the above calculation for each geography and then do a weighted average of your results, using populations as your weights.

Wednesday, February 19, 2014

What is the latest trend in Media Planning and strategy?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 20, 2014)

The question needs refinement to be answered sensibly. Probably the broadest "latest trend" is the cross measurement of social media versus the traditional media in plans. I.E. how many tweets did your program/commercial/product generate? How did that contribute to your sales/attitude/audience goals?

Monday, February 17, 2014

I have 150 newspapers I run 10x/year. How do I calculate the overall R/F for all campaigns combined? The same question - I have 1,000 regional magazine ads I run throughout the year, how do I calculate one overall R/F for the magazines? Then, can I combine my Reaches using random probability to get one total Reach for Print?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, February 18, 2014)

Assuming the newspapers are in different geographies, you will need to run a cume for the 10 insertions in each market. Then do a weighted average of the markets. The weights will be the market populations.

The Newspaper National Network has guidance in calculating newspaper reach and frequency, which will include dealing with multiple newspapers in tha same market as well.

The approach to magazines will be the same. The Magazine Publishers' Association is your resource for this.

Yes, you may combine the two results by random probability.

Saturday, February 15, 2014

Advertising media: planning&strategy,types of media, electronic media,outdoor media, media scheduling decisions, media mix decisions.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, February 17, 2014)

As there is no particular query here, the Guru would like you to browse through the entire AMIC site and especially the Guru archives.

This will address every one of your topics, in extensive detail, with little wasted reading on your part.

Wednesday, February 12, 2014

How many auto ads are seen per purchase?
In other words, if the average US consumer buys
a car every 6 years or so, how many
TV/print/radio/internet/billboard/other car ads are
seen in that time?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 12, 2014)

This is a relatively meaningless consideration. A six year purchase cycle is not a realistic consideration for building branding or purchase intent. The Guru is not aware of any resource that compiles such information.

Monday, February 10, 2014

Dear Guru:
Below are the CPT (Cost per thousand) data for various programs of a TV Channel. so please suggest what would be the weighted average CPT of the TV Channel.

Program Cost/spot Nos of Viewers CPT
A 13,750 4,607,000 2.98
B 20,000 6,932,000 2.89
C 17,500 6,447,600 2.71
D 17,500 6,989,600 2.50
E 12,500 2,426,200 5.15

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 12, 2014)

By the way, in the US, we use "CPM" for cost per thousand, from the Roman numeral M, or "mille."

The weighted cpm here is simply the sum of the costs divided by the sum of the thousands of viewers.

Monday, February 10, 2014

I have a client new to TV buying. I have been out of the loop for a while on the TV media front because I have focused mostly in the print world. The client has a budget of $300K. Friends in the industry have said this is too low of a budget to buy national TV. It will be a :30 second spot. I was told to buy DRTV by someone else because they said that would be the only way to spend only $300K and get any decent reach. What are your thoughts on $300K as a national TV budget for a product that has low awareness? Do you agree we should try to buy DRTV? Do you think I should tell the client to increase their budget? Stick to only cable or a Direct TV package? I would love to know your thoughts. The target is W18-34. I am an old Media Guru user and fan. This is my first inquiry in about ten years! Hello again. I hope you have good advice as usual.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 12, 2014)

Without knowing your product or marketing goals or whether you are trying to develop a national plan, it's hard to offer a definitive recommendation. awarteness or just move some product?

Are you trying to establish $300K is certainly a very low national budget. Certainly, network broadcast is out of reach for any ongoing campaign.

National cable is also a stretch.

The Guru would recommend going local, where your budget can have some impact, and develop an expansion plan if you see some signs of success. If you can be considering DR, then there probably is not an overwhelming need to be national.

Monday, February 10, 2014

How do I Calculate Weighted Average CPT?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, February 10, 2014)

The Guru must assume that by CPT, you mean Cost per Transaction (please never use industry specific abbreviations in Guru questions).

The Guru would need to know all the factors that apply to answer properly. If you have a cost of each transaction, then you could weight by the eventual value of the transaction. Otherwise the Guru imagines a simple weighting by total cost would do.none]

Friday, February 07, 2014

Dear Media Guru, thank you for the previous answer.

My next question regards MBA programs in Media strategy and planning. In my country there are no such programs available. Where can I get MBA in Media planning and which faculty should I choose for this? Marketing?

Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, February 10, 2014)

The Guru is not aware of any US programs offering "an MBA in media planning." Media planning is such a narrow subset of Business Administration. This does not mean one such might not exist somewhere.

A Masters degree in Advertising with a media focus is more reasonable, so look to schools with an advertising program.

Wednesday, February 05, 2014

Dear media guru,

I have a such question: what is the forecast period for media planning. I mean, when I plan a campaign in March, should I take ratings of February and than correct it according to TV Viewing pattern?

I am interested in how forecasted periods are taken, especially for media strategy planning. If I am planning campaign for June 2014, ratings of which period should I take as forecast?

Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 05, 2014)

From the context, the Guru imagines you are outside the US. So the ratings cycle you have available may not be what the Guru is familiar with.

In the US, in broadcast buying in a medium where there are only quarterly reports, one common approach is to use the latest ratings along with the report from the same period last year as the one being planned.

Friday, January 24, 2014

So I have been reading about Recency and am wondering if Ephron re-packaged what we already assume… Isn’t the core principle of Recency really about buying based on weekly numbers instead of the four weeks that is the industry standard? Ephron himself says “The exposure that triggers a response is not the first exposure, but the most recent of a series of exposures.” So frequency is still obviously important.

I use Ostrow’s model to generate an effective frequency per four weeks and this typically works out to less than a frequency of three, which averages a frequency of 0.50-0.75 per week. As I see it, the application of Recency is really about setting the effective frequency in a logical way, i.e. using Ostrow’s method, instead of randomly setting at 3+, then maximizing reach. What am I missing?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, January 24, 2014)

The essence of Recency, or “the most effective impression is the most recent impression” is about advertising being there when a purchase decision is made.

Chasing a 3+ effective reach often leads you to flighting so that when you are active, your plan delivers your reach goal at that 3+ level, but you must have a 4 week on, 4 week hiatus flighting pattern, for example.

Recency says you have missed all the purchase decisions made in the hiatuses.

Recency says a lower, but constant, level is more effective unless there is very strong seasonality or otherwise limited selling windows.

Your interpretation of Ostrow may also be off. Ostrow’s model is a way of setting the effective reach level, e.g. 3+ or 4+, etc. You seem to be thinking of average frequency, which can’t really be divided by # of weeks (nor can effective reach, for that matter).

And of course, frequency can never be less than 1. Effective reach is a focus on persons reached at least “X” times. Ordinary R&F is using the average number of time ALL the persons reached are exposed.

Monday, January 13, 2014

When reporting GRP’s/Frequency/Reach for TV should a :10 billboard get the full program rating? For example: If a Morning News program averages a 3.0 demo rating, should a :10 billboard in the same program also be given a 3.0 rating? What are the pro/cons of doing so?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, January 13, 2014)

Rating is an audience measure. Commercial length is not a real factor. A :10 has the same actual rating as a:60 aired at the same time.

However, some planners do apply weights to ratings proportional to :30 length to represent a presumed value.

Actual reach is not affected. This sort of adjustment is more practical in buying.

Thursday, January 09, 2014

Hi Media Guru,

Ref#8923: I would like to convert local market grps to Household grps. Is this possible? Can I have local market HH grps or should I nationalize the local grps and then convert to HH?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, January 12, 2014)

Your wording is confusing; Do you have local GRP in a specific demographic that you wish to convert to local HH GRP? Or do you want to turn local demographic GRP into national HH GRP?

In either case, there are two simple media math rules to observe:

  • GRP are always impressions ÷ population, and
  • to convert local grp to national, multiply by the local proportion of US; i.e. if the local market is 5% of US, multiply the local GRP by 0.05 to get national.

If you also face the issue of converting demographic to HH, that can be done at the local or national level in the usual way, using viewers per viewing HH &divide: persons per viewing HH to create a conversion factor. Then divide the demo GRP by the conversion facot to get HH GRP.

Thursday, January 09, 2014

Hi Media Guru,

How can I convert local market grps to HH grps?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, January 09, 2014)

If you mean convert local GRP to National GRP:

Local GRP X market % US = National GRP

In other words, if you have 50 grp in a market that’s 5% of the US, you have 2.5 National GRP.

Tuesday, January 07, 2014


Can you please define the term “showing” as it applies to OOH in the traditinal sense and how to calculate. Also as the term applies to Eyes On and the new TAB research.

Thank you,


The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, January 08, 2014)

OOH “Showing” in the traditional sense is meant to reflect a portion of the relevant market covered. A 100 showing was meant to be treated as 100 GRP per day.

The New “Eyes On” approach is complex and is best understood by reading the OAAA Eyes on Primer.

Tuesday, January 07, 2014

How can you convert 18+ impressions to A25-54?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, January 08, 2014)

You need to have other data.

  • Do you know the ratio of A25-54 in the 18+ audience? Probably not, if you need to ask this question.
  • Do you have VPVH for the two demos? If so, their ratio is the same as the audience ratio.
  • Do you have the CPMs for the two demos? If so the ratio of impressions is the inverse of the cpm ratio (that is, if the A25-54 cpm is 200% of the A18+ cpm, then the impressions are 50% of the 18+ impressions).
  • There are other data that might be useful as well.

In short, there is no way to make the conversion without some additional facts. Do not make the mistake of using population ratios.

Monday, January 06, 2014

TV Spillover

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, January 06, 2014)

TV Spillover is the viewing of TV that was broadcast in a given market by viewers in a different market. For example, when viewers in northern New Jersey (which is the part of the NY DMA) watch a TV station in Philadelphia, they are measured as spillover.

Thursday, January 02, 2014

A media buyer recently shared that our media buy “did 21.0 RA35-64.” Does that mean that 21% of the viewers ages 35-64 viewed our ad?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, January 03, 2014)

This points out the importance of clearly labeling numbers. Is this reach or TRPs or some other metric? Coming from a buyer, the Guru would more readily suspect TRP. But that’s a very loose assumption.

And as far as assumptions go it also depends upon who you are. The media planner? Account exec? Client?

The label “RA35-64” would generally mean, to the Guru, “Ratings, Adults 35-64” which would be TRP, not reach. But such abbreviated labels should not be used between buyers and other persons who may not be familiar with the abbreviations the buyer habitually uses. These terms are not standardized. Your only correct course is to ask for clarification.