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Media Guru 2012

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Sunday, December 30, 2012

Where can I find information on Groupon's (UK) current media strategy and theory on why its not working and how it would benefit from a new one.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, January 02, 2013)

Why would a current media strategy be published anywhere? These are generally regarded as trade secrets. After the fact, a successful media strategy might become the topic of a media trade publication article. After the fact, one could check ad-spend services like StrAdegy
or Nielsen Monitor+,to cite US examples.

Friday, December 28, 2012

Hi Media Guru, Why do Nielsen time period estimates sometimes differ from program estimates (e.g., 8p time period rating is a 0.39 but 8p 60-minute program rating is 0.41)? Does it only affect dual feed networks? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, January 02, 2013)

Feed differences and other clearance issues could well be the core difference.

Tuesday, December 18, 2012

in a small city it is possible to make an advertise of similar products by any media solution company?
how? it is ethically wrong or right?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, December 18, 2012)

Perhaps the Guru doesn't fully follow your syntax, but if the question is:

Can one media buying service handle two competitive products in the same local market?

. . . then the Guru says it is possible and not unethical. However, either advertiser might find it objectionable, and that becomes a business decision, rather than an ethical issue.

Saturday, December 15, 2012

In regards to Puerto Rico, what is the percent spill over from the Miami DMA into the Puerto Rico metro areas? I've heard it might be due to satellite spill over.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, December 15, 2012)

You need to use the local measurment, such as Nielsen Puerto Rico

Saturday, December 15, 2012

At work, I'm trying to localize national GRPs. What is the methodology or logic. I've been converting national GRPs into impressions and then dividing that number by the local market universe to get a localized GRP. Another school of thought is that if you buy 100 National GRPs, it translates to 100 GRPs in a local market. Please let me know if you can help.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, December 15, 2012)

The assumption of 100 national = 100 local everywhere is akin to the "Little U.S." approach to a test market. But the Guru would not use it this way. While it all averages out, few markets will be accurately described.

The idea of dividing the national impressions by local universes won't work at all. The results will be incredibly overstated.

You need a resource that actually tells you the general local delivery pattern of your national media, for example, Nielsen's "Network Programs by DMA."

Thursday, December 06, 2012

I am working on a sponorship submission where they ask for A18-49 CPM. My business advertises on a golf course where individual golfes see ads on every hole. Are they asking for a age group percentage of golfers? Or the CPM of each exposure by the golfer whether they are 18 or 49?
I was going to answer by calucalting the CPM by rounds of golf course per year with ad cost.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, December 06, 2012)

CPM is cost per thousand (M) exposures. Calculate the number of golfers ages 18-49 who will see your ad in the period of time you are selling. For example, suppose you are selling a month of this advertising for $1000.

Further suppose that in a month, 10,000 golfers 18-49 will see the ad. You may count the same golfer again everytime they see the ad.

Your cpm in this case is $100. {$1000 ÷ 10 (thousand) exposures}.

Tuesday, November 27, 2012

Hi Media Guru
pls advice the way to calculate the impact of TV spending/ GRP's on share progress I am in the phase of budgeting I need to find a simple way to convince the board to approve the marketing budget specially the TV advertising

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, November 27, 2012)

Beyond the assumption that more advertising produces increased share of market, all else is idiosyncratic.

The assumption might not be true if competitors are increasing advertising at a greater rate than you are.

Or if your advertising copy is weak / weaker.

Or if your product is poor, etc, etc.

You need a more than simple model.

Friday, November 23, 2012

What is the vision of AMIC?
what the goal of AMIC?
How they implement their Policy?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 23, 2012)

The Advertising Media Internet Community (AMIC) is a site dedicated to media and marketing professionals. Advertising media planners, buyers, sellers and researchers come to AMIC to ask the Media Guru burning questions, comment on hot topics, or skim the best recent articles on media.

The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.

Thursday, November 22, 2012

How can we use negitive Binomial distribution function for TV variables transformations in Market Mix Modelling

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 23, 2012)

The Guru's statistical modeling advisors note:

  • "Negative Beta Distribution (NBD) is the same as Gamma-Poisson
    Distribution, generally used in Outdoor advertising."

The Guru does not deem it appropriate for "TV variables in marketing mix modeling."

Saturday, November 17, 2012


The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, November 17, 2012)

Go to AMIC info.

Wednesday, November 14, 2012

hi guru,
I'm wanting demographic data for college graduates' tv watching behavior, as well as frequently visited websites and popular magazines preferebly in the Western US. I'm working on advertising an MBA program, and would like to know more about my target audience. Thank you

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, November 15, 2012)

College graduates' TV viewing is available from Nielsen within its "Market Breaks" data set.

Resources like MRI and Simmons each offer web usage / magazine readership / TV viewing in a single source and offer regional options.

Wednesday, November 14, 2012

It's possible you've covered this but I couldn't find it. I've always worked in two week campaigns were we have a goal of 70 and a reach of 3. If we were to do a three month long campaign, is your reach and frequency based on a monthly basis or on the whole campaign?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, November 15, 2012)

First off, the Guru will assume you meant to say Reach of 70 and Average Frequency of 3.

Reach can be calculated over any given duration of schedule. You need to decide what works for you. Obviously, a three month campaign generating 70 Reach and an Average frequency of 3 is a much less intense schedule.

Your two week campaign has about 105 GRP per week. Spread over three months, it would be 16 per week.

But you probably meant to extend your 105 GRP level further out.

Wednesday, November 14, 2012

Hello Media Guru,
I am having a hard time understanding ratings when in regards to bookends. I understand that when converting a :30 to a bookend you are getting two :15s within the same break for the price of a :30. What I don't understand is how the ratings are applied to the bookend.
If the :30 rating is a 1.0, do we assign a 1.0 to the bookend or does it become a 2.0?
I'm getting different answers.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, November 14, 2012)

It depends upon what you are trying to accomplish.

If you have two :15s, and are just counting GRPs, you can add the 1.0 rating twice.

If you are thinking about reach, there is negligible effect of the second :15 vs one :30.

If you are equivalizing, then the two :15s have the same 1.0 total rating as the one :30 in the same break.

Tuesday, November 13, 2012

What is the relationship between advertising and social media,with concrete examples? thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, November 13, 2012)
  1. Advertising is an active form of marketing

  2. Social media, such as Facebook and Twitter are being used as marketing, as well, these days.
  3. A marketer can establish a Facebook page, for example, which is a more pasive form of marketing. Traditional advertising may then be used to drive consumers to the Facebook page, attract "likes" and engage the consumer, to expand the brand relationship. Twitter allows a more two-way, post-about-a-brand / follow-a-brand sort of relationship.

Advertising is a marketing communication field that uses media "vehicles" such as TV, print, the web, out-of-home to communicate brand messaging.

Social media then may be seen a sort of parallel to these media as a vehicle for another marketing field.

So-called "engagement" is just one of many metrics of advertsing media. Engagement is the primary metric of social media.

Wednesday, November 07, 2012

If a TV show with 1/4 hour ratings of consistant hash marks has an occassional 0.1 or 0.2 pop up, is it a real rating or just an error? In a DMA with a population of 3 million and a nielsen sample of 747. In other words considering there is a margin of error what kind of one-off rating number would be necessary to consider it legitimate as opposed to a error?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, November 07, 2012)

If the "constant hash marks" rep.resent findings just barely too low to be reported as 0.1. With a sample of only 747, a rating of 0.1 would be based on a sample of possibly just one respondent. From measurement to measurement, one person will soetimes show up and sometimes not.

The .01 is just as reliable as the hash marks.

Wednesday, November 07, 2012

I am frequently asked by clients "What is the most effective advertising medium for my ad dollars?" My answer is always - it depends... on your message, your objective, etc... Is there credible research that you rely on to answer this question in a more concrete fashion?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, November 07, 2012)

No, your answer is exactly what the Guru would say. The only thing to add is a longer list of what the choice depends on; reach goals, DR history, media mix possibel, etc

Monday, November 05, 2012


Great site. What's your opinion: Looking at Nov overnights in a diary-meter market, but trying to tell the demo story here and there ahead of the diaries coming in, would you estimate demos based on the most recent diary (July), the most recent non-July diary (May) or the Year-ago diary (Nov) to predict what the current Nov overnights will achieve in demo skew?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 05, 2012)

If you are looking at the same program, the latest skew is probably best. For a program, that characteristic is more stable. If you are looking more broadly e.g. dayparts, the most recent is better, if it has pretty much the same programming.

Wednesday, October 24, 2012

to what extent is it possible or even desirable,to distinguish human resource development from human resources management.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 24, 2012)

The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.

Tuesday, October 23, 2012

I'm interested in starting my own media company after working on the agency side. My question is does Kantar, MRI & other media research sites offer free online resources where I'm able to pull information like composition, coverage, competitive and other useful demographic data? Obviously the data would be limited but something is better than nothing! If so are you able to provide a couple of useful links? If not, how do you suggest I get my hands on such information?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, October 23, 2012)

Each of the major syndicated research vendors has some data available on its site. MRI + is probably the most generous.

Tuesday, October 23, 2012

study your organisation or any of your choice to determine the business orientation or orientations used.Give practical examples to defend your choice or choices.give 4 references.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, October 23, 2012)

The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.

Clearly, your query is specific to a particular course you are taking and it does not appear to be media oriented.

The Guru provides guidance and information for media students and professionals. The Guru does not do your homework.

Sunday, October 21, 2012

Hello Guru,

I have a media planning executive interview in the UK I was told they want to test my analytical abitlities to gauge my media knowledge and also ask me about my ability to analyse numbers, What do you suggest they might ask me to guage the above.

Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, October 21, 2012)

The Guru suggests you browse through the Guru's answer page to see the topics media people are asking about.

The UK might have different emphases, and you may face the more advanced questions or a trendier selection of topics, such as social media measurement.

Find out any specialty of the firm where you are interviewing, or of the particular position.

Thursday, October 18, 2012

I am new to on-line buying. I know there's a very different negotiating scenario than traditonal media's discussion of CPP and reach.
What's the best way to describe your
buying goals to a digital seller?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, October 21, 2012)

First, think through your overall campaign goals. Are you building awareness or generating traffic to build ecommerce sales? Or some intermediate idea.

Are you focused on reach, which might require the biggest, broadest sites or will you seek your best prospect in very narrowly targeted environments?

Is your offer so good that simple cheap impressions tonnage is your best bet? Or is your brand so upscale that where you advertise is most crucial?

In simplest terms, size of audience, price of audience, kind of audience, uniqueness of audience are the descriptors your vendors need to know.

Thursday, October 18, 2012

Follwing up on my previous qquestion about attribution, what is the methodology behind being able to track attribution? How do I
get this from all the sites on which I place ads?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 18, 2012)

In June, the IAB offered several useful presentations regarding
attribution. This
link will take you to attribution papers.

You will see that attribution is complex. Not all publishers might be attempting this, and even among those that do, there might be significant variance in approaches, leaving you with the burden of organizing a sensible comparison.

Wednesday, October 17, 2012

I am a new media director at a shop with a major digital practice alongside traditional media. One question no one here seems able to answer is "can we buy impressions with full attribution of before and after exposure opportunity?"

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 18, 2012)

The term "attribution" seems to have an unduly flexible meaning. Let's work with this one:

The Internet Advertising Bureau defines attribution as "the process of identifying a set of user actions ('events') which contribute in some manner to a desired outcome . . ."

If we assume that a 'desired outcome' in the digital space is making a sale, or registering a user or even leading a user to read or request some information, then it is hardly feasible to expect a seller of online advertising to be able to provide all these 'event' data. Many of them will occur on your own site, beyond the point a referring site could track. Others will occur before the user reaches the referring site.

A vendor should be able to tell you the referrer to its page, whether someone clicked a linked, typed a URL or conducted a search. And a vendor should be able to tell you which ad impressions were served on its site, which were clicked and whether the click led to a landing on your site.Important factors such as user exposure to non-digital advertising or the branding effect of your own digital advertising,that led the user to conduct an online search for you will be missing from the data.

Other key events within your site, such as navigation, registration/requests, purchases, etc will be up to your own tracking.

Tuesday, October 16, 2012

Hi Media Guru - I'm looking to invest in TRANSIT MEDIA -- in particular TRUCK SIDE ADVERTISING. How do I determine the right number of trucks to by based on my desire of reaching 25% of the population?


The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 17, 2012)

Your vendor will have the statistics on persons exposed versus population data.

Sunday, October 14, 2012

what is your company name?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, October 14, 2012)

Saturday, October 13, 2012

I want to ask my agency when they buy clicks can they also get the actual unique impressions delivered
against those clicks so I can get the real click rate

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, October 14, 2012)

Both metrics should be readily available together from the sites you use, or any tracking service you have engaged.

Friday, October 12, 2012

Hi Guru. My question is around net reach in radio schedules. Can you give any insight as to what the formula is for net reach? Is the net reach "curve" (law of diminishing returns) different for every station? Does the X axis for every curve = GRP and the Y axis = % of net reach? Once you get the % of net reach in the curve, do you then multiply that by AQH persons to get net reach in a given schedule line? Does every station in every market have a different curve and how often is it updated? Does each station curve change with demo, daypart, etc?..so would a GRP for 1 station or schedule line have a different net reach than a GRP on another station? If so, why do GRP's have different net reach values?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, October 12, 2012)

Your question touches upon issues that cross

  • syndicated research survey
  • the particular R&F software you have
    chosen to use
  • the realities of audience development
  • By common definintion, a "reach curve" is a graph of % of universe reached on the vertical axis and GRP along the horizontal axis
  • A reach curve's "diminshing returns" is a matter of the audience duplication between one spot and the next. Different stations have different duplication patterns;
    News/Weather/Traffic stations get quick audience visits for updates, easy listening might be continuous listening by regular listeners, thus the "turn-over" of audience members differs, and the reach curve differs. The turn-over or weekly cume versus AQH may be found in the ratings reports.
  • Demos and dayparts do differ. X GRP will have different reach results on different stations, dayparts, demos.
  • The Guru doesn't understand your question about applying reach to AQH. Reach is only applied to a population universe. The curve
    is a description of what happens, not a tool that generates reach results.
  • Updates are done by the software vendor on whatever schedule they establish. The stations have no input.
  • Reach estimation
    is a major mathematical endeavor. You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar or online through

    The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function.
    There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables

Thursday, October 11, 2012

Do you know of a company that handles advertising during in-game high school football games, as well as in college and NFL games? I am interested in electronic boards, scoreboards, sponsorships and announcements.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 11, 2012)

In the Guru's experience, reps in this space are often quite specialized, like Scoreboard Sports Marketing, for example.

You may find reps for electronic arena signage, others for high school and college newspapers, others for sports sponsorships.

Google seaches are your best starting point.

Thursday, October 11, 2012

I am a new digital buyer. It has been suggested that I only buy viewable (above the fold)
impressions for my next campaign.

Can I buy such impressions from everyone and what is the premium?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 11, 2012)

"Above the fold" is an old newspaper concept, referring to the part of the page visible on a folded, stacked broadsheet (NY Times / USA Today size) newspaper.

The concept has come to refer to the portion of a web page visible when a user first lands on the page, before there is any scrolling.

The validity derives from the fact that all ad-units on a page are credited with impressions, even though they might not be visible immediately. Their opportunity to score a click is reduced.

However, there are other considerations:

  • The users' window size setting and type size setting increase or reduce what eventually is above the fold.
  • Web sites typically rotate ads through the page positions, so that being consistently below the fold is not such a problem.
  • Larger units are more likely to be above the fold.
  • Being adjacent to specific content which might be lower on the page might well outweigh abstract page position

The Guru would not generalize to say that "above the fold" buys are always available. When available, they are likely to have a premium attached or be part of volume negotiations. Pay-per-click deals can also obviate page position concerns, but again, there would be a premium involved.

Thursday, October 11, 2012

Hi Guru,
please if I bought 100 GRPs against each of the following timelength: 15sec, 45Sec, 60Sec and 90sec, how do I calculate the conversion factors which I would then apply to each timelenght GRPs to get the 30sec equivalent GRPs delivered respectively by 15sec, 45Sec, 60Sec & 90sec?

Kind regards.

Jonadab Egbowon

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 11, 2012)

It is all in proportion to the length vs :30.

  • :15 converts to 50% of :30
  • :45 is 150% of a :30, etc

Thursday, October 11, 2012

get my bussness on top pages

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 11, 2012)

You appear to be asking about how to show up higher in results of online searches in your business category, which is known as "Search Engine Optimization."

The link will take you to a google search for descriptions of the process and vendors of such services.

Sunday, October 07, 2012

My supervisor has assigned me to draft the media strategy and tactics for a digital element for our client's plan. But I hear click rates are low. What are average click rates and why are
they low?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, October 07, 2012)

What does "low" mean? Click rates today generally average under 0.2%. Part of this is the great number of inexpensive impressions generated on broad general sites like Yahoo, AOL, Facebook, where the percent of those exposed to any given ad who might actually be interested enough to click is relatively low compared to targeted DRTV or Direct Mail.

To what can we compare this to decide it's low?

A click is an action by a member of the audience you have reached that expresses interest in your product or the offer in your ad.

When you advertise by direct mail or in tv direct response, what is the comparable response rate and at what cost?

What do the impressions of direct mail or DR TV cost you? The true test is comparing cost per click or response.

Thursday, October 04, 2012

Hi I am a mathematician and quite fascinated about Television Ratings, Reach and Market Share.
1.Assuming I have 10 sample homes.
2.Population is of 100 homes.
3.Each of my sample homes has two TV sets.
2.I want to know percentage of homes reached for Channel "A" and "B" in a day part 10:00 PM to 11:00PM.
Now Assuming in all homes both the TV sets were ON and Channel "A" was running on TV set1 and Channel "B" was running on TV set2 for all homes in the above mention period.
Following the traditional method I get 100% home reach for Channel "A" and 100% home reach for Channel "B" which in my view is incorrect.

Could you please suggest the method to calculate Reach and Ratings in this kind of scenario.
Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 04, 2012)

Reach is defined as the percentage of the defined population exposed to a campaign or program or media vehicle. Homes exposed divided by population = reach%. For a single unit, reach is the same as rating.

As you have structured your scenario, 100% of homes are "reached" by channel A, which has a 100 rating, and 100% of homes are "reached" by channel B, which has a 100 rating.

It is not clear whether, in your phrase "in all homes both the TV sets were ON," you refer to all home in the sample of 10 or all homes in the population. If you meant all in the population, then there is no question about the 100% reach.

If you meant all homes in the sample of 10, then you need to consider the enormous statistical tolerance of such a uselessly small sample.

Share is completely irrelevant.

Tuesday, October 02, 2012

steps towards planning digital media

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 03, 2012)

See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan.

Obviously certain aspects of digital have their own specific metrics to consider, one your goals and strategies are set.

Friday, September 28, 2012

I am working on a spot CPG plan. I have determined the best opportunity markets based on BDI/CDI analysis where I have weighted the BDI and CDI according to marketing goals. Now I want to incorporate CPPs to determine the best & most affordable markets.I knowI could weight the CPPs & incorporate it into my analysis - but I'm just not sure how. Hoping you can help.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, September 29, 2012)

The CPP of a market is the CPP. It can be converted to CPM. CPP ÷ 1% of population = CPM.

Your weighted CDI/BDI presumably yields a market importance index which can tell you how to divide all the impressions you can afford among the markets: [ (index X market pop) ÷ total pop = % of impressions to deliver to the market].

Tuesday, September 25, 2012

Dear Guru,

I hope this email finds you well...
I have a project to do as a Media Advisor(out of home)..To brief the concept, We are doing a Media Advisor project for a mall..we will be developing and managing the whole media ..but ownership lies with the mall....
I have to prepare an estimate chart , as to how much the sales and expenses will be(ie. 2charts, one in the worst scenario and good scenario)...i have no clue of the market ..and there is no one in my office to help me..kindly help me, please....
Looking forward to hearing back from you...

Best Regards,

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, September 25, 2012)

Unfortunately, the Guru cannot possibly know every detail of every medium and market in the entire world. The Guru must rely on hopefully universal principals and guidelines in unfamiliar countries like Oman.

Details such as sales potential and costs in such a small, remote, place are beyond the Guru's capacity.

You do seem to have the needs established. Your next step is to contact vendors and look for advisory groups, such as a national or regional out-of-home advertising association, akin to the U.S.'s Outdoor Advertising Association of America

Tuesday, September 11, 2012

How are daypart HH imps calculated?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, September 11, 2012)

HH imps are always the sum of HH impressions from all the commercials in a schedule. These come from the audience measurement service you use, such as Nielsen Media Research.

Depending of how you receive your data, you might be adding up the audience impressions of a set of spots or multiplying your total rating points (GRP) by the HH universe. Other than separating your schedules by daypart in the first place, there are no special calculations to deal with dayparts.

Monday, September 10, 2012

I have a hyper local new segment that I would like to sell to news stations as a insert (market exclusive) in various markets.

I am having a problem finding out how much I should be charging for these 45-60 sec spots.

Also, should I be going station to station selling this or should I be looking for a company to sell this for me. If the later, what companies would you suggest?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, September 11, 2012)

The Guru is perplexed at your use of "hyper-local." In his experience, this means content localized to a much, much, more micro-geographic level than "market" (DMA). For example, Cablevision, one of the top 5 cable operators, which is concentrated primarily in the New York DMA, has separate "News 12" operations in the major geographies of its market, for instance, "News 12 Long Island" which covers perhaps one third to one half of Cablevision subscribers.

When they talk about "hyper-local," it's typically about a village or township or school district or traffic issue within that area.

So, if your content is truly hyper-local, a good place to start with large scale sales would be the major cable operators, Comcast, Time Warner, Cox, Cablevision, etc.

Monday, September 10, 2012

How many ad impressions does the average adult see per day

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, September 10, 2012)

The Guru has addressed this issue frequently. Click here to see some past Guru responses

Thursday, September 06, 2012

Thanks for your reply to question #8756. I have a follow up question: what if they are in the same pod? they the frequency is counted once? What if they are different promos, but part of the same campaingn? would the frequencies be summed then?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, September 06, 2012)

If two commercials are in the same pod, you could add their GRPs separately to the total. But the Guru would not add to the reach separately, thus the frequency would be increased.

If they are different copy for the same campaign, then you have to decide whether you are calculating reach and frequency for the campaign of for each version of the copy. If simply for the campaign, then the fact of differing copy is not relevant.

Thursday, September 06, 2012

Does showing the same advertisement(promo) during the same wathcing session increase frequency?

Will they take the sum of the 2 promos frequencies?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, September 06, 2012)

In terms of reach and frequency standards, yes, as long as they are in different commercial pods.

Thursday, August 30, 2012

Hey guru,
Eyes on Impressions is taking place of Daily Estimated Circulation (DEC) as the new measurement for how many views your ad will receive.
Eyes on Impressions are based on weekly numbers. Is there a way to break that down for a daily average between a certain time frame, say Noon-5?
Most cases, more people will be viewing an ad during the day rather that at say 4am, so is there a way to calculate Eyes on impressions per a given time frame?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, August 30, 2012)

The Outdoor Advertising Association of America defines Eyes On Impressions (EOI) as

  • The average number of persons who are likely to notice an ad on an out of home display for either 12 hours (un-illuminated – 6:00 am to 6:00 pm) or 18 hours (illuminated – 6:00 am to 12 midnight). Unless specified as In-Market, EOIs include all persons who notice the unit, regardless of the origin of their trips. EOIs are reported in weekly increments.

Either the operator(s) have done traffic estimations throughout the day at various times or they have not. If they have, then there should be factors availalable. The Guru expects these would vary greatly from suburban highway locations to downtown business districts, for example.

Wednesday, August 29, 2012

Guru, thanks for this blog. In comparing the effectiveness of 15 second v. 30 second ad spots, wouldn't the short 15 second spot mean that price appeals as opposed to brand building appeals would be more useful?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, August 29, 2012)

That's one possible distinction. More commonly, in the Guru's experience, :15s are used to reinforce branding messages already established via :30s

Tuesday, August 28, 2012

Hi Guru, do you have it within your power to look into radio frequency distributions. For example, can you compare the individual frequency distributions for Adults 25-54 for three different station types in Toronto CMA for April, 2012: 680 News, The FAN, CHFI-FM?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, August 28, 2012)

You need software like eTelmar and a subscription to Canadian radio ratings.

If you have all that, you still need to be measuring specific schedules.

Monday, August 27, 2012

Hi Guru,

How do you call that rate card sheet of any given TV station, that contains the prices of any given duration from 5 seconds till 60 seconds?
Would it be "seconds breakdown rate card" or "rates by the second"?
Please advice


The Media Guru Answers (Monday, August 27, 2012)

That's simple the "Rate Card." Including various unit lengths is normal. There will be limits to the options. There might be :10, :15, :30, :45, :60, :90, :120, but no other options, or even fewer.

Wednesday, August 22, 2012

If you are doing a one time media plan and buy for one week in a top 10 market with a significant budget. What should the commission structure look like for the larger media buying services?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, August 25, 2012)

Apparently, you are wise enough to know you don't need to pay traditional 15% agency commission merely for media planning and buying services. There is quite a range of options. You might be able to simply pay 1.5% commission for such a straightforward assignment.

But, it might be more advantageous economically to make a deal on a percentage of savings basis, if you have a set goal for your budget. That is, if your budget is expected to buy 200 GRP, a media service could offer to deliver the goal not for commission, but for half of what it can save you.

For example, your net budget is $1,000,000, but the buying service can deliver your goal for $700,000. It would then get half of the $300,000 savings. This might at first strike you as more than 15%, but you have spent far less at $850,000, than if you paid out $1,000,000 which inluded 1.5% commission.

Tuesday, August 21, 2012

Hello Media Guru,

What is the difference between unequivalized and equivalized units when dealing with broadcast?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, August 22, 2012)

Equivalizing is simply a way to compare the value of units of different lengths.

A :30 is treated as the standard. A :15 or a :60 airing in the same minute actually has the same rating and impressions. But a :15 would be sold for half the price, while a :60 in the same minute would be sold at double the :30 price. To equivalize, the :15 is treated as if it had only half the audience and a :60 as if it had double the :30 audience.

Tuesday, August 21, 2012

Dear Guru,

Are you aware of a resource that can provide average costs for placing a 30-second commercial before a movie on a DVD? For example, an ad that runs before the movie starts, often seen in children's movies available for purchase (Toy Story on DVD, for example).

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, August 22, 2012)

The Guru believes that these opportunities are rare enough that there may not be meaningful averages. Try contacting studio marketing departments.

Tuesday, August 21, 2012

What are recent U.S. average Cost per Impressions (CPMs) by media? I keep finding a chart based on 2008 stats by Jefferies & Company, Media Dynamics, Intermedia Dimension. I'm looking for the same info but more recent than 2008.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, August 21, 2012)

One must understand that certain data like TV ratings, product usage, and industry average cpms are compiled by for-profit companies to sell and are protected by contract limitations and copyright.

Sample data is occasionally published as a teaser. Trade media such as AdWeek
or Ad Age sometimes also publish overviews.

The latest edition of MediaDynamics' Intermedia Dimensions is not prohibitively expensive.

Thursday, August 16, 2012

Dear Media Guru,
On an average OOHM campaign, what is the percentage of the DEC that is comprised of the marketer's target audience? I know this varies substantially from product to product, but I'm looking for what the average marketing entity would use to calculate how many people that are actually in the market for the product they are advertising would see the ad. Also, is there a name for term for this figure?


The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, August 16, 2012)

See Query #8743, below

Friday, August 10, 2012

I am planning a series of 10-day flights to support attendance at different events in the Top 20 markets. What is the best mix of points for TV, Cable, Radio, Online and OOH to achieve a 70 reach, 5.5 effective frequency?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, August 10, 2012)

There are too many "ifs" here; you need to build and compare several options. The Guru can't do your media plans. And what does "best" mean to you?

If we assume best simply means cheapest, think about local cable and OOH. OOH gets high reach and frequency very easily and cheaply. In fact, you would probably get past your reach and frequency goals before you know it. But 10 day flights of OOH are difficult to place and manage. Further, message communication may be more important than price or need to be balanced against price, arguing for inclusion of TV, for example.

Friday, August 10, 2012

Dear Guru,
Can you please help me with such question - we got here average daily GRP 18+ numbers for differnt OOH formats. Average 6*3 billboard =1,86 daily GRP, we are going to buy 20 billboards for month(37,2 GRP per day). Is there any opportunity to calculate DEC with only GRP numbers (total population aged 18+ - 1 500 000)? Is it also possible to calculate reach and frequency for 4 weeks campaign (I've heard about gallop math model - can we use it for our market?) Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, August 10, 2012)

GRP = DEC divided by population

The result is expressed as a percentage; 100 GRP means DEC equal to population size. Without knowing to which market you refer, it is hard to say definitvely whether the Gallup model is appropriate.

At a guess, the Guru would say, "Probably so."

Monday, August 06, 2012

I was wondering if there was any information regarding the average number of relevant impressions for particular OOHM ad. For example, what percentage of consumers would a billboard expect to fall within their target audience? How many people, on average, do marketing entities hope are in the market for their product or service? Also, is there a term for this?

Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, August 06, 2012)

The Guru hates to fall back on "it all depends" but you leave the Guru no other options.

It should be obvious that if the target is persons 18-24, billboards near college campuses would have a much higher composition within the target than billboards near retirement communities in southern Florida or Arizona. And if the target is A50+, the opposite is true.

Similarly, if your product is Mercedes Benz S Class, perhaps with a target of A45-64 with HH Income of $100k+, there is only a small possible portion of your audience that might qualify. If your product is basic toothpaste then a large portion of any audience is in the target.

Your vendor may have audience data for locations or routes.

Friday, July 27, 2012

Hi Guru,

Is Reach and Coverage same? if not, how would you differentiate between the two?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, July 27, 2012)

Some people will use one where they should use the other.

Reach is a measure of the unduplicated audience actually exposed to a program, schedule, campaign, etc.

Coverage is an exposure potential measure and is used differently in various media.

  • In newspapers, coverage is a ratio of circulation total for the different papers in the buy vs. population total. In a given market, one may buy two or three newspapers which combine to 60% coverage of the market (i.e. Total single copy circulation of all newspapers divided by HH population of the market). With duplication, reach is less than coverage

  • In magazines, the syndicated research may use the term coverage to describe single issue audience, or rating
  • In broadcast, coverage properly describes the sum of the population of the markets included in the buy. I.e. if a TV program is aired in all 210 DMA's, that is 100% US coverage. But if that program only has an average of a 2 rating everywhere, then its reach for one episode is 2%. Many vendors will refer to this coverage situation as "reaching" 100% or whatever coverage their program achieves.

Wednesday, July 25, 2012

Hi Guru,

What is a good rule of thumb to generate a copy rotation recommendation? If we have a priority message, is there a level of TRPs or R/F that we'd have to reach in order to ensure our messaging was effective? Any best practices?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 25, 2012)

Monday, July 23, 2012

Are there any place based ad exchanges that you know of?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 25, 2012)

Sorry, no.

Saturday, July 21, 2012

Is there anything that will pull a high,average, low CPP for local cable? How do you know that your cable rep isn't taking you to the cleaners?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, July 21, 2012)

There are usually comparisons somewhere. First there's SQAD for local broadcast efficiencies. Often, there is a local interconnect whose pricing can be compared to what's offered by individual MSO's.

Pricing will depend on packages as well; budget, network mix, etc.

Thursday, July 19, 2012

What can you use to determine the low, average, high CPP for Cable? Does SQAD pull that or do they only handle broadcast?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, July 20, 2012)

SQAD's most basic cable resource (national cable only) is SQAD Media Market Guide National Report, a hard copy resource issued quarterly.

Thursday, July 12, 2012

Hi Guru, How can I get the impressions for a quarter? I have the universe and budget but I don't have a CPM. I only have the % of rate card and the CPMs for ROS + Special dayparts are all different.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 12, 2012)

If you have budget but no cpm you won't get impressions. Perhaps you can learn the ratio of your cpm to the ROS. Otherwise, using the budget divided by ROS cpm will give a rough estimate.

Wednesday, July 11, 2012

Hi Guru, Could you please explain Zapping in Ratings . I appreciate if you could suggest some book regarding TAM...

Many Thanks in Advance for your reply :)

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 11, 2012)

Click here to see past Guru responses about TAM and Click here to see past Guru responses about zapping

Also visit the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)

Tuesday, July 10, 2012

Is there any way to combine Rentrak and Nielsen data as far as overall reach and frequency of a schedule if one station in the marketplace uses Rentrak and the others use Nielsen?
Thanks, you rock!

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, July 10, 2012)

Each service reports on the full market spectrum of viewing sources. Either one can support R&F calculation across all stations regardless of whether a given station is a subscriber. Since definitions and measurements of viewing will differ, you need to understand the differences between services before chosing either one as an R&F basis. The Guru does not know of reach software that allows bringing in some stations from one source and some from another, but there does not seem to be a good reason to do so.

The good news is that both use Nielsen's definitions of DMAs.

Wednesday, June 27, 2012

How much to advertisers really use GRP we are a small out of home firm trying to calculate this for our media format? Does it matter if our media provides an 8 minute impression time? What is the best way to sell

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 28, 2012)

Advertisers running "branding" campaigns rely greatly on GRP.
Advertisers in Direct Response do not.

The Guru is not clear as to your media format. It seems as if you have an electronic display in out-of-home locations to account for the long "impression time."

  • The Guru doubts you mean this as stated; is the commercial message you carry 8 minutes long or is it a more typical, :30 to :60 second ad message within an 8 minute entertainment / information loop?
  • If the first, why would you imagine a viewer would pay attention to 8 minutes of commercial message? If the latter, then 8 minutes has nothing at all to do with any selling measure.
  • In either case, GRP is a measurement of audience exposure, and is not based on unit length.
  • For comparsion purposes, some advertisers "equivalize" or create an artificial GRP or CPM weighted by length.

You should probably sell based on location / content / audience demographics. Otherwise you will be selling against ordinary outdoor, which pretty much the lowest CPMs of all.

Monday, June 25, 2012

Hi Media Guru –

One of our clients has asked a couple of times for any secondary research that exists regarding the below:

• How do retail (offer/acquisition) ads affect brand perception, preference and consideration?
• What is the optimal split of retail and brand messaging per ad and/or per media plan?

Do you have any insight or have knowledge of secondary research that exists for the above questions? I have come across general information regarding individual topics above; however, I have been unsuccessful at locating research that answers these questions directly (I have already looked at various research sites – Forrester, Pew, Nielsen, RBR, etc.) Regarding the second question, I believe the optimal split is in reference to point levels/# of ads based on the quarterly media plan.

Obviously it’s a hard question to answer, especially with the second point (optimal brand vs. offer split) as many factors contribute to the media plan/media mix. Any insight would be extremely appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, June 25, 2012)

For research resources on such a topic, contact American Association of Advertising Agencies, The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers, and the Direct Marketing Association

You are correct that the split will depend on the total level. One side or the other will peak before the other. The % of one would probably describe a curve if graphed against total message weight.

Friday, June 22, 2012

i am planning to start a media planning and buying agency in new delhi from july 2012 onwards. what basic pointers i need to keep in mind as a agency owner before heading out with this venture?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, June 22, 2012)

Keeping in mind that the Indian media serices market may be somwhat different than the Guru's home market, basic media advice would be:

  • Know your marketplace and what you will need to service it; set pricing accordingly

    Then, have answers to these questions:
  • Do you have first clients already in place which will guide your growth plan?
  • Are you going to compete on price, service or skills/knowledge?
  • Do you have the resources and contacts you will need?
  • Do you have a business development plan?

Wednesday, June 20, 2012

Hi Guru,
Where can I get a 2012 Media calendar online?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, June 20, 2012)

TVB or RAB or Large & Page or most rep firms' sites, etc

Tuesday, June 19, 2012

Does anyone have research or evidence of what makes a successful Radio Remote Broadcast? We would like to encourage more use by a client who is looking for back-up research. Alas, no research seems available at Radio Advertising Bureau or Radio Marketing Bureau... Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 19, 2012)

You are most likley to find anecdotal evidence, than solid "research."

The definition of success is too variable. Is the goal simply engaging the consumers or generating direct sales?

Is crowd size the metric or follow-up action?

Start with defining the goals.

Tuesday, June 19, 2012

Dear Guru,
What is the best theory to calculate year-on-year media inflation? Knowing that we have all the figures on ratings & media costs.
I'm particularly interested in TV inflation as a first exercise and multimedia inflation as a second exercise.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 19, 2012)

You can use a simple, straight line projection, which would not be particularly valid. Or you can build a model looking at the economy, the changing state of media, capital expansion forecasts and dozens of other factors.

There are just a handful of major forecasters to whom the industry looks for guidance.

Monday, June 18, 2012

Should frequencies for cable generally be determined on a weekly basis or over the life of the schedule, i.e., 6 months? If a client runs the same creative for the life of the campaign and has a long product life cycle, it seems a waste to set a "3" weekly frequency as they may be at the point of ignoring the message within 4 weeks.


The Media Guru Answers (Monday, June 18, 2012)

If you are referring to the average frequency of the schedule's Reach and Frequency calculation, in regard to copy wear-out, 3 is much too low a frequency to worry about.

General media theory is that it takes at least three exposures before a message is fully ingested / undestodd / genrates action. Hence, many planners use a "3 or more exposures" reach as their standard.

In any case, if this query relates to wear-out, it should be life-of-schedule, not weekly.

If you are simply referring to how many units to place on a cable net per week, again, three is far too low a total to consider if over-exposure is your issue.

Saturday, June 16, 2012


The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, June 16, 2012)

The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions. You are raising creative issues.

Tuesday, June 12, 2012

I have a budget, total GRPs, and a daypart mix by percentage. Is there a formula to find weighted daypart CPPs from this information alone?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 12, 2012)

Dividing budget by GRPs will give you an average CPP.

Friday, June 08, 2012

I need to convert Gross rating points from target Households into Women 18-34. What do I need to make that conversion?
Example: If recommended levels for are 100 GRP's in Households, how does that translates into Women 18-34? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, June 08, 2012)

Different media and dayparts within those media convert differently.

    To start, you need to know your household (HH) universe and your w18-34 universe.

  • If you are working with TV, for example, you need to calculate the HH impressions of 100 GRP, which would be 100% X the HH universe.
  • Then you need to know the audience ratio for w18-34, most typically, this would be found as "Viewers per Viewing Houshold (VPVH)".
  • Multiply the HH impressions X VPVH to get the W18-34 impressions.
  • W18-34 impressions divided by W18-34 universe = W18-34 GRP. Remember that GRP are a percentage, so that if the answer to your division is 0.87, you have 87 GRP

Thursday, June 07, 2012

We have a client looking to run 4 different creative messages on a 22 week 2813 GRP media plan. Are we giving enough weight to any one message at this point? How many messages can this level of weight ideally support?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 07, 2012)

One old standard was that a commercial would wear out at about 2000 GRP. But that was when that many GRP was many fewer airings due to higher average ratings. But you are not talking about commercial wear-out, your concern is apparently about getting enough weight behind each commercial.

This depends on whether the commercials are a pool of different executions of the same copy strategy or supporting different strategies. If they are all the same strategy, there should be no problem. If they are quite different, then you have to think about what needs to be accomplished in the 22 weeks and whether there will be further use of the copy.

Monday, May 21, 2012

preprinted inserts vs page 4 color ad

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, May 21, 2012)

Visit The Newspaper National Network

Go to "Research Insights"

Wednesday, May 16, 2012

what factors do merchants consider when setting cost per acquisition rates for affiliates and how does a affiliate manager fit in to the equation

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 16, 2012)

The Guru deals with media buying / planning / research and media department management, so this is outside the Guru's sphere.

However, the Guru would venture to assume that, like other cost-per-sale and cost-per-inquiry arrangements, main considerations are cost of goods, revenue and profit margin per sale and overhead.

Monday, May 14, 2012

Hello - we are buying several different cable zones within one DMA. How do I provide an accurate, overall weekly total of GRPs for all of these zones combined? I don't think I should be combining each of the GRP totals from all of the zones for one main total, correct? I would appreciate the correct formula to use. Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, May 14, 2012)

If you have the actual GRP in each zone, then it becomes easy. Presumably, you have the population for each zone as well. The GRP for the combined area is simply a weighted average of the zone GRP. The weights are the populations.

Multiply each zone's GRP by its population for the relevant demographic. Add all the products of these multiplications and divide by the sum of the populations.

One check on the accuracy is that the result must be within the range from the lowest to the highest zone GRP.

Wednesday, May 09, 2012


The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 09, 2012)

Tuesday, May 08, 2012

Two Media Schedules one for 30 and the other for 46
days = 30 Spots = 7500 GRPs = 2400
days = 46 Spots = 8000 GRPs = 2100

Same filters applied for desired TG but sample sized changed

on 30 days schedule sample size was 87
on 46 days schedule sample size was 101

How this variation in sample can be explained ?

Many Thanks in advance!

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, May 08, 2012)

When the time period changes the effective sample changes. If your target group has an average of 3 members in the sample every day, then in 46 days, the effective sample is about 50% larger than in 30 days; in effect a sample of 90 in 30 days, a sample of 138 in 46 days.

Monday, May 07, 2012

What are trends in Local radio

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, May 08, 2012)

Monday, May 07, 2012


The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, May 08, 2012)

Sunday, May 06, 2012

luxury brand launch

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, May 06, 2012)

Guru queries need full sentences, containing actual questions, in order to generate useful replies.

Friday, May 04, 2012

Dear guru....what are t criterias for selecting print media for a campaign....and how do v measure it...this is fron india pov.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, May 04, 2012)

Planners will primarily look at audience size and composition within the target, cost efficiency, reach contribution and environment. All but the last are based on syndicated audience research. The last is judgement combined with available analysis.

Thursday, May 03, 2012

Dear Guru,
I'm interested in knowing how much foreign broadcasters pay per hour for US shows, particularly talk/reality formatted shows? Thanks so much!

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, May 03, 2012)

The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.

Trade media in the various countries you are considering may have some information on the topic. Or consider US trade media like Broadcasting & Cable which may comment on producer's overseas sales.

Wednesday, May 02, 2012

compare donovan and telmar

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 02, 2012)

Donovan (now MediaOcean) is primarily a stewardship system. It processes data like Nielsen ratings and vendor invoices to facilitate media buying and post analysis / billing.

Telmar is more oriented to media planning; processing various media survey data (Nielsen, MRI, Simmons, etc.)
to facilitate media selection decisions, advertising targeting analysis, plan reach & frequency and the like.

Wednesday, May 02, 2012

How many media messages does the average person see in a day?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 02, 2012)

The Guru would estimate something below 500 at the high end. Click here to see past Guru responses that covered similar questions in more depth.

Tuesday, May 01, 2012

actual ratings vs estimates

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 02, 2012)

Estimates are forecasts, before the fact, of what a ratings service's reports will show for a given advertising exposure.

Actuals are what that ratings service eventually does report, after the fact, for that exposure.

Saturday, April 28, 2012

Dear guru...how do u calculate average frequency for print campaign.thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, April 28, 2012)

GRP ÷ reach = average frequency

Saturday, April 28, 2012

Dear guru...is soe calculated for media expenses only....can non media expenses also be added in this like outdoor ... Btl activities like van promotions...thks in advance

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, April 28, 2012)

Assuming you mean "share of expenditures," yes. The problem is finding competitors' btl activities' expenditures to generate the denominator of your equation.

Saturday, April 28, 2012

Dear guru...how do u calculate shate of voice...is thr any thumbrule for getting t feel of it.thks in advance

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, April 28, 2012)

"Share" always means a percent distribution of contributions to a whole. So, share of voice could be what percent of all the impressions generated in a product category are contributed by your brand.

Friday, April 20, 2012

How do you convert Online Video GRPs to HH GRPs?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, April 20, 2012)

Don't confuse a medium with a demographic nor with a coverage issue.

If you have HH GRP for online video, then you must be talking about converting the online coverage area (penetration) GRP to the total US HH population. In that case, you would simply multiply the Online HH GRP by the US penetration of online. For example if you had 50 GRP of online video and U.S. internet penetration is 80%, then you have 40 US HH GRP. The issue is having HH GRP online. Some media, like radio, are only reported for persons audiences in typical surveys.

Thursday, April 19, 2012

What does ADU stand for?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, April 20, 2012)

"Audience deficiency unit." When a schedule does not meet its guaranteed auudience delivery, additional units (spots) are provided to bring delivery up to the guarantee.

Thursday, April 19, 2012

how does media buying work in mexico

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, April 23, 2012)

Generally, it is the same as the U.S. system:

Agencies buy on behalf of advertiser clients. Media vendors give 15% commission to the agencies. This is the general rule for national media and established agencies. New agencies or very local media scenarios may exhibit variance.

Wednesday, April 18, 2012

national theoretical

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, April 18, 2012)
  • If A: we are planning to test a new national approach to media, such as a heavy-up or revised media mix, by implementing the plan in selected local markets
  • Then B: we first create the new national plan we envision so that it can be "translated" into the test markets. This new national plan becomes the "National theoretical" in the context of the test.

There are various ways of translating a national theoretical into test markets.

Tuesday, April 17, 2012

How do you find the reach percentage if you don't have the frequency percentage?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 17, 2012)

You imply that you do have GRPs or some other schedule information. You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar or online through

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables

Tuesday, April 17, 2012


The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 17, 2012)

Daypart is a broad time segement within TV or radio. For example, Monday - Friday 10am - 4pm.

Tuesday, April 17, 2012

What does Rating and Share of voice mean?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 17, 2012)

Rating and share of voice are not directly related.

Rating is the audience of a media vehicle expressed as a percentage of a population universe.

Share of voice is an advertiser's total media weight expressed as a percentage of the total media weights in the product category.

Tuesday, April 10, 2012

What is media management?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 10, 2012)

The phrase could refer to operating an agency media department or to running a media vendor, such as a broadcast station or a publication.

Some of the responsibilites are peculiar to the media industry, which is the Guru's area, and some are not, like dealing with rent, building maintenance, insurance, janitorial services, etc.

Tuesday, April 10, 2012

What is gross rating points

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 10, 2012)

Gross rating points (abbreviated GRP) =

    Impressions within a demographic category ÷ population universe for that demographic, or

  • rating X # ads, or
  • the sum of all the ads' ratings

Click here to see over 500 past Guru responses about GRP

Monday, April 09, 2012

what is reach

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, April 09, 2012)

Reach is the unique audience exposed to a program or campaign.

Click here to see over 1000 past Guru responses about reach

Friday, April 06, 2012

hi guru, i have read a table made by TAMpeople meter about top 5 channels in india. below its mentioned, TG: All 4+yrs , what does this mean, is it that this data is for all sec classification and 4 years TAM meter holders or is it something else.
Also in the same study in a different graph its mentioned CS 4+ yrs, what does this mean then,thanks guru

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, April 06, 2012)

In the typical ratings book context (not specifically Indian), the Guru would expect the "4+" to indicate persons 4 years of age or older. All would indicate, as you suppose, "all."

Wednesday, April 04, 2012

traffic instructions

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, April 05, 2012)

. . . inform networks or stations what specific piece of commercial copy is to run within specified dates, times, program types, etc.

Wednesday, April 04, 2012

Re: your response to my question #8610 on April 3.

Thanks for the clarification. We are fortunate that we are talking about Florida, so with the exception of the Northern border, the DMAs don't cross state lines! We’re working on accounting for those places where there is crossover though, and appreciate the point.

My last point was not clear, though I promise I don't believe that GRP=reach, or that reach=awareness :-) . Just that GRP=reach x frequency, and reach=the number of people exposed to the schedule, expressed as a percentage of the population.

Thanks again.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, April 04, 2012)

Even though reach X frequency = GRP, you can't assume the same GRP produces the same Reach in each market unless schedules are closely matched.

Very different media vehicle / daypart
/ programming / mixes of 300 GRP might produce 75 reach at 4.0 freqency or 60 rech at 5.0 frequency.

Tuesday, April 03, 2012

what's the difference between Household rating and 2+ rating

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, April 04, 2012)

Household rating is a percentagve of all households.
2+ rating is a percentage of persons 2 years or older.

Tuesday, April 03, 2012

What is share?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 03, 2012)

In media terms, share is the portion of media users that are using a specific media vehicle, or,

rating divided by usage.

Tuesday, April 03, 2012

Dear Media Guru,

My colleagues and I have talked ourselves in circles over the question of weighting GRPs. We are in agreement (hopefully correct agreement) that we should weight GRPs by DMA population to create a statewide "average" (this is for a social marketing campaign).

However, we also are looking the influence of GRPs on ad awareness (a survey measure) and comparing the results by DMA.

In that case, should the GRPs for each DMA be weighted (e.g., an index created), or is it not necessary because GRP includes reach as a % of the population?


The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 03, 2012)
  • Yes, you would weight GRP by DMA population to get an average across a larger piece of geography. Unfortunately DMAs have no respect for state borders, so this will not be a clean process. The New York DMA, for example, touches 4 states.
  • If you are comparing DMAs, no weighting would be involved; each DMA has its own GRP total
  • Your final point is bewildering; either you are assuming Reach = awareness or that GRP = reach. Neither is true.

Friday, March 30, 2012

4. You are give the following data
i) Mean of X = 36
ii) Mean of Y = 85
iii) Standard Deviation of X = 11
iv) Standard Deviation of Y = 8
v) Correlation Coefficient = 0.66
Now calculate the two regression equations and also estimate the value of X when Y = 75.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 30, 2012)

The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.

Thursday, March 29, 2012

media guru, i'm trying to work out the frequency for outdoor advertising (specifically London Underground). I have the footfall for my target audience, the footfall is 3137464 for one of the stations i want to advertise in, and the reach for that station is 34%. thank you

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, March 29, 2012)

The information seems to be incomplete. The Guru is also uncertain about the meaning of "footfalls," not a term in use in US outdoor advertising. Let the Guru assume this means what the US refers to as "traffic" or impressions.

Reach must relate to some population universe. So the reach is 34% of what? And if the footfalls is impressions, then it can be turned into a percentage of this universe, which would be the GRPs. Then GRP ÷ reach = frequency.

Thursday, March 29, 2012

tv and radio reach overlap

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, March 29, 2012)

The prevailing theory is that radio and TV duplicate at random .

Thursday, March 29, 2012

Media Guru, thank you for your reply which was:
The data you have offered does not support ROI calulation.

* A = What will you spend on creating and sending your DM?
* B = What is your anticipated sales rate per mail (not a media question)?
* C = profit per sale
* D = # of mail pieces X B X C (sales return)

but my media plan is for a health insurance brand (BUPA) and so the rate per sale changes depending on the insurance the consumer buys, so it is not simple to find that information out.

is there no standard predicted ROI for the information i gave you below? thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, March 29, 2012)

There may be a standard in your industry or in your brand's experience, but not generally published.

Thursday, March 29, 2012

media planning resources

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, March 29, 2012)

AMIC is a good start. Please be more specific.

Thursday, March 29, 2012

I am doing a campaign for a market leading brand, and have worked out the areas in which i want to send direct mail, the universe is 3.1m and there are 2,452,447 personalized records available for these regions. What do you think my predicted ROI should be?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, March 29, 2012)

The data you have offered does not support ROI calulation.

  • A = What will you spend on creating and sending your DM?
  • B = What is your anticipated sales rate per mail (not a media question)?
  • C = profit per sale
  • D = # of mail pieces X B X C (sales return)

A ÷ D = ROI

Thursday, March 29, 2012


The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, March 29, 2012)

Reach 1+ is the same as simple reach. Net, unduplicated audience exposure. Any persons exposed to advertisng at all.

Thursday, March 29, 2012

Hi , My client ( i work in GCC ) would like to see the GRPS of TV sponsorship , i tried to explain to him , you can't measure sponsorship GRPs like the spots buys but any how i calculated it based on weighted duration , i just want really good answer to his question saying that what i am sharing with is not accurate

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, March 29, 2012)

Duration is not an element of GRP calculation. GRP is a measure of audience exposure. Depending on the nature of the sponsorship, such as signage at an arena or a booth at a festival, you might be able to estimate number of exposures based on attendance figures. If so, comparing this estimate to universe gives GRP. There are potential complications, but you would need to be more specific about the nature of the sponsorship to explore that.

There is much more to evaluate in sponsorships than GRP, of course.

Tuesday, March 27, 2012

If I have a TV buy with 4 stations and have each station buy's reach, frequency and effective reach id there any way to get the total buy's reach, frequency and effective reach from these numbers?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 27, 2012)

Ideally, you would use software like our own eTelmar's.

A very crude Reach and frequency estimate can be made by

  • summing the GRPs
  • combining the 4 stations' reaches by random probability
    , and

  • dividing the GRP by the this reach to find average frequency.
    • .

      Effective reach definitely calls for software, due to the complexity.

Monday, March 26, 2012

the principles guiding media optimization

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 27, 2012)

Generally, optimization is about finding the most of something a plan can deliver for the least expenditure. In media, this something most often is reach. The optimization process is typically an iterative examination of the possible combinations of media vehicles and ads that are in the consideration set. Software is used to permit a thorough exploration of options.

Monday, March 26, 2012

what does Imp stand for when used in breaking out demographic rating in television

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 27, 2012)

In this case, imp means impressions. Impressions are the gross number of exposures of persons exposed to the campaign.

Monday, March 26, 2012

How do I calulate cume audience in Cable

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 27, 2012)

You need reach and frequency software such as that offered by our own eTelmar

Monday, March 26, 2012

do you need to have a universe for a direct mail campaign or do you just buy the direct mailing database and does that give you all of the people who could potentially see your advert?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 27, 2012)

DM is not a GRP buy. List brokers sell you X number of "qualified" addresses, typically based on factors like having made some specific purchase, living in a certain kind of neighborhood, or other consumer behavior. Sometimes the potential total of prospects can be known, sometimes not.

Sunday, March 25, 2012

What do u mean by duplication ...is it good or bad....learnt that when u calculate reach you have to consider t duplication...say for example if my reach is 30% for publisher a..and 30% for publisher b...then reach is nit 60% but its less...but this is which reach...reach@1 or reach @2+..3+...also u mentioned that duplication happens between medium say same ad in print and tv....but this is an intended campaign called 360communication...then how come duplication is not favarable here.....thks in advance

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 25, 2012)

Duplication is neither good nor bad in itself, it is simply a factor of media audiences which must be considered.

We are promarily discussing 1+ reach, but duplication is a factor in all reach calculation beyond single ads.

If your goal is to optimize reach, as in some, but not all campaigns, then you would want to minimize duplication. If your goals specify a minimum frequency to reinforce your message then dupication would be managed differently,

Spreading the campaign across more different publications, programsor genres minimizes duplication. Concentrating within those increases duplication / frequencyand lessens reach.

Sunday, March 25, 2012

Guru.what do u mean by channel share..what is its significance..what do 20% channel share means? Also is it genre dependent..prime time dependent....u had said earlier that channel share is not important its rating is important..why so.and then why do u need to see channel share at all.thks a lot guru...

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 25, 2012)

Channel share is a distribution of available audience (usage). If the total audience at the time under consideration is just 30% of the target audience - as might be the case in early morning - then a 20% share is equivalent to a 6 rating, or 6% of the target. If the available audience is 60% - as might be the case in prime time - then 20% share is 12% of the target. Share = rating divided by usage.

Obviously then, rating matters in reach calculation and share does not.

Share is an indicator of relative popularity. It can be calculated by genre, daypart, etc, as you see fit, but rating is more absolute.

Sunday, March 25, 2012

Dear guru. How to measure impact in print ...say for example i use a full page color adwith 3inserts instead of 100cc ad with 5insets...for same budget....how will u evaluate this situation since t grp with increase bcos of t additional inserts....also i wanted to know is impact factored in calculating grp..and how...what abt innovations like talking ad done by vw in many countries....or edit wrapes currently goin in newspaper

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 25, 2012)

To be clear, this is how the Guru interprets your query, accounting for the non-US abbreviations, text message-style language and unspecified page size:

'What is the "impact" of a full page ad versus fractional ads in the same print vehicle at the same total budget, and how is the GRP calculation affected?'

  • First, actual GRPs is a simple calculation, only involving audience size and number of exposures. So 5 ads have 5 times the GRPs of the one ad.
  • If the 5 ads are all in one issue then there is really no added reach. If they are in different issues there will be added reach, so if your definition of impact considers reach, that's one major advantage.
  • Other definitions of impact might be noting or recall and you could develop an impact index based on one of those, for example.The wraps and talking ads would affect these factors, primarily.

By way of illustration, the Guru knows of one test where a comparison was made between one full page bleed ad in one issue and three consecutive one-third page ads in another single issue of the same publication. The three ads cost roughly the same, but had far better recall.

Wednesday, March 21, 2012

I've been told it takes about 300 GRP to drive home a message. Does that mean its is 300 GRP for a single market, single station, or single radio show? Can it be applied to all three categories? What would determine the spread of the 300 GRP if any?... if done for a single radio show, can 300 GRP be bought in a single week?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, March 22, 2012)

"300 GRP to drive home a message" is nonsense without context.

If it is assumed to be radio, then you still have to think about reach and frequency which can have a range. "Drive home a message" isn't much of a goal, but it sounds like it's emphasizing frequency.

It should be related to a particular geography (market).

Wednesday, March 21, 2012

media guru, in reply to your comment below about the geographical demographic for a certain regional area in the uk, if i know that the total ABC1 (social grade) in the UK is 26,865,007, and then in my geographical area is 3,714,146 (71%). Then the amount of my targeted age group (35-54 years) of UK population is 16,548,922, and in the targeted geographic area is 2,171,708 (being 27%).

How do i then work out these ratios, i just need the total social grade of ABC1 35-54 year olds in the geographical area? So somehow i need to add, divide or work out the percentage of those numbers to get my universe.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, March 21, 2012)

Keeping in mind that this is only a rough estimate, you need to know the percentage of national ABC1 which is 35-54. The apply this percentage locally, to your ABC1.

By the way, the Guru does not see how you got your 71% figure.)

Tuesday, March 20, 2012


The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 20, 2012)

The former Nielsen Hispanic Station Index. Now NSI includes Hispanic audiences in its single sample.

Tuesday, March 20, 2012

How do you convert NSI TV ratings to NHSI?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 20, 2012)

There is no longer really an NHSI service. Only NSI, which includes Hispanic sample. If you assume that the audience of a Spanish language station is all Hispanic, you can divide the audience in thousands by the relevant Hispanic demogaphic universe to get the Hispanic rating.

Tuesday, March 20, 2012

Hi Guru

We are looking to calculate Reach, Frequency and GRP points.

Ok for example, for our Radio Calculation:

We have a GRP points of 40 points(20 x 2 - because ads was play twice) as statistic show that the particular FM had 20% of the total radio audience. The Reach is 60 as we assume that each time the radio ads was played, a new batch of 30% of our target market listen to the 2nd advertisement of our radio. Therefore, we will have a frequency of 0.67 (GRP/Reach = 54/60).

However, for magazine we have a total target audience of 1138540. But the readers of the particular magazine that we chosen only had 28,000 readers which is only 2.5% of our target group. How are we supposed to calculate our reach, frequency and GRP points?

Please Advise

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 20, 2012)

The only valid number you appear to have is the 2.5% rating for your magazine.

  • GRP is Rating X # ads, the 20% you describe is share, not rating. The reach is definitely not 60. A very crude estimate of reach could be made by random duplication (see past Guru comment here) on the ratings of the ads. Your rating is probably more like 2 - 5%. Even with your figures, if you did have a rating of 20, which would be 20% of the target market for each ad, how could 30% listen to the second ad?
  • Reach can never be greater than GRP, nor greater than 100%
  • Frequency can never be less than 1.0

Print reach calculation is simple for a single ad like such as you describe. Reach = rating (2.5%). GRP = rating (2.5%). Frequency = 1.0. For a schedule of multip[le ads you need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar or online through

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables

Sunday, March 18, 2012

In placing ads from US to Canada and vise versa, do you have to pay taxes?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 18, 2012)

Consult your legal advisor or the vendor.

Sunday, March 18, 2012

Hi guru..reach at 1+, and reach at 3+ ..which one would be greater...as per mu understanding reach of 3+ will always be less than reach of 1+....i guess am right guru....in that case is 1- called reach and 3+ called net reach ..and the additions give you gross reach...is this right guru..thks a lot

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 18, 2012)

There is no such thing as gross reach.

Gross applies to rating points or impressions, counting either including duplicated exposure..

Any "reach" is net, meaning it is counted without including duplicated audience.

Yes, 3+ must always be less than 1+. 1+ means people reached at all. 3+ counts only those reached at least 3 times.

Sunday, March 18, 2012

guru, i am currently looking for my universe in a few geographical areas that will benefit my brand to target more, i currently have the total 35-54 aged adults in the catchment area (which is 2,039,802), and then the total ABC1's in the catchment area (2,056,413). How do I now convert that number into a total universe for the catchment area?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 18, 2012)

You seem to be using British terms and abbreviations. Without knowing all the particulars of your situation the Guru must generalize.

You can look to the national proportions of these demographic groups versus total and apply the ratios to your catchment area.

Saturday, March 17, 2012

How do I know how much heavy-up to give for a direct mail in a geographical region? (i.e. is if 150% or 130%) and what if there are a few georgraphical regions that i want to target with direct mail, how do i write it in an objective and justify it?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, March 17, 2012)

Ask yourself why are you heavying up? Does the region have better potential? How much better?

These answers should shape the answers to your questions.

Also see the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan

Saturday, March 17, 2012

Hi Guru,
in your previous answer we mentioned,
Reach X frequency = GRP.
Ratings X # of units = GRP, etc.
Which reach is this , is it reach(1+) or net reach(3+,or 4+).Thanks Guru

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, March 17, 2012)

The reach being referred to here is 1+, or simple, net reach. The Guru would not use the modifier "net" when refering to reach at 3+ or 4+.

Net reach or reach 1+) always has an associated average frequency, which works in this arithmetic. Reach at specific greater exposure levels is not usually reported alongside an average frequncy.

In the typical chain of events, for a planner, the GRP is the first known value, then reach is detemined and finally frequency is calculated.

In reality, the algorithm of simpler models within some software may be based on calculating frequency to calculate reach, but that is just mathematics.

Friday, March 16, 2012

Hi Guru, u had mentioned that SOV to SOE ratio can be greater or lesser than 1... but then what is the ideal situation to be in.. bcos if the SOV comes to 15% and SOE comes to 30%, that means you have spent more but your share impressions are less in the market... is this a good case to be in .... or if i do the reverse of it say SOV is 30% and SOE is 15% t(ratio being 2) then it means you got more impressions for your bucks... i am right or there is a trick involved
Thanks Guru.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, March 17, 2012)

There is no simple "best" situation

.Consider this scenario:

You use all :15 copy and the competition uses all :30s, while you both invest the same dollars. Your share of impressions will be 67% while your share of expenditure is 50%. The competitor's share of expenditure is 50% and share of impressions is 33%. Who is in the better position?

It depends on how you value :15's. This in turn may depend on how new or well established your brand is, or how new the copy strategy, or how simple or complex the positioning, etc.

Friday, March 16, 2012

hi guru,need some more clarification to your answer no The Media Guru Answers(Tuesday, March 13, 2012 ):
in this u mentioned that impression is one person exposed to an ad once.... and reach is unduplicated impression which is counting one person once when exposed to ad in the campaign... that means reach and impression are same... is it right or there is a twist.thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, March 17, 2012)

You seem to be misunderstanding the word "unduplicated."

For a single exposure of an ad, impressions are the same as reach, because there is no opportunity for duplication. For the next exposure of the ad, there will be some of the same people in the audience, which is the duplication. So, if the average ad has an audience of 10 million, two ads have 20 million impressions, but if one million of the audience of the first ad are also in the audience of the second ad, the net reach is only 19million. As more ads are run, there is increasing likelihood that some of their audience was already exposed, so each occasion adds a bit less to the unduplicated impressions, or "reach.",

Wednesday, March 14, 2012

Hi Guru, What are the different agencies who measure the TRP ratings. How does this TRP rating done for a episode/ad. can a thumb rule be made that how popular the episode is , its trp will be high... what about the data of TG for each episode.. does some data exist about this TG, because even if the episode is not targetted to children its possible that the actual viewers could be majorly children.I am talking about India. Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, March 14, 2012)

Yes, target rating is an indicator of popularity.
Visit vendor's websites for methodological details. Start with TAM India.

Tuesday, March 13, 2012

How can an ambitious intern find ad spending data on specific brands (and the ad agencies that represent them) without spending a fortune?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, March 14, 2012)

This sort of data is provided for a fee. The best option, cost-wise for what you want, might be Ad Data Express

Tuesday, March 13, 2012


The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 13, 2012)

DirecTV is the larger of the two major satellite TV systems, which are ADS (Alternate Delivery Systems) for "cable" network TV.

Tuesday, March 13, 2012

Guru.hi its nice to hear from u always.. Im from client side...for me its always asked that.how can t effectiveness of tv and print campaign be measured..is there any benchmark which can be attained..is any method to quantify it ...thks a lot

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 13, 2012)

Effectiveness can only be judged against goals. Is your goal sales, awareness, purchase intent or what?

Then you can set up research to compare. Otherwise. you set communications goals in terms of standards you can evaluate from models, like reach or frequency, etc, and evaluate the plan's performance

Tuesday, March 13, 2012

Guru. What are t various ways to evaluate media plan

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 13, 2012)

Visit the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan

Monday, March 12, 2012

Hi guru. This is regarding previous query. Tam mentioned is a process followed in india for finding tvr for television..

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 13, 2012)

Monday, March 12, 2012

I learnt that media weight and impressions are same..am i right.. And is yes .how to find impressions...is impression found for 1spot or insert or its founf for a campaign or schedule....also whats then t difference between impression and reach...

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 13, 2012)

The most common, simple meaning of weight is impressions.

Your media audience measurement resource would be the source of impressions. One person exposed one time to an ad is one impression. These are compiled into total weight, which is "gross" impressions.

Reach is net impressions, or unduplicated impressions, counting each person exposed only once in a campaign or measurement period, no matter how many times that person is exposed.

Monday, March 12, 2012


The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 12, 2012)

Coverage generally means the portion of a population exposed to a media vehicle. There is one usage that is equivalent to rating, as in the average quarter hour audience of a network program or a magazine's average issue audience.

Another useage refers to the portion of the population potentially able to be exposed to a vehicle. In this case the sum of the populations of local markets as a percent of national population is the coverage of a spot TV plan. Or the sum of the numbers of copies of different newspapers' average issues, as a percentage of the household population of the specific geographic area is a newspaper plan's coverage. coverage

Monday, March 12, 2012

How to determine the no. of GRPs at the time of FMCG brand launch.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 12, 2012)

Set a communications goal in response to marketing strategy and then see what levels will deliver it.

Monday, March 12, 2012

guru.how do u calculate share of voice in a category... and how to calculate share of expenditure...logically it t ratio should be more that 1right

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 12, 2012)

Share of voice is the advertser's % of all media weight (impressions) in the category.

Share of expenditure is the advertiser's % of all spending in the category.

Either could be larger or smaller than the other depending on media mix and units.

Sunday, March 11, 2012

guru..i learnt that to find grp...reach....tvr....there are softwares to calculate this....in that case a mkt manager hw can a client asscertain the believability of these....and if so is thr a thumbrule to ratify this .....thks

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 11, 2012)

These software systems generally publish their methodologies and describe modeling processes. There are some basic arithmetic relationships that must be observable:
Reach X frequency = GRP.
Ratings X # of units = GRP, etc.

Sunday, March 11, 2012

in case of tv..tam is an agency thru which u get tvr ratings...then thru this u find t grps....how is this in case of ptint media.thanks adavance

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 11, 2012)

Apparently, you are in an unknown country outside the US. The Guru can not discuss tam without at least a country reference.

Sunday, March 11, 2012

hi guru...whats come first ...freezing reach..or freezing frequency...or grp....can u explian in a sequential manner abt t basics...thks a lot

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 11, 2012)

One does not "freeze" any of these. The communications objectives focuses on one or two of these and then determines which best meets objectives, leading to the third.

Sunday, March 11, 2012

hi guru....i present t mkt objective to media planner.....he then comes with a media strategy for the same....in thing meeting what should b t questions asked by brand mgr to ensure that mkt objective is met.thks in advance

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 11, 2012)

This should not be left to questions. The media planner's presentation should explain exactly this.

Sunday, March 11, 2012

guru..i am a brand mgr....what are t key questions needs to be asked from media planner....2)who decides reach..and @what freqyency...then who decides hw much grp required for a campaign if budget is already given to planner...

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 11, 2012)

Given marketing objectives and strategies from the brand manager, the media planner responds with media objectives and strategies and tactics which lead to plan options showing various approaches to meeting the objectives.

Sunday, March 11, 2012

hi guru.from ur previous answers abt grp...i understood that grp for brand manager is %tg exposed to ad (reach@1) and for media planner its trpxno of spots....am i right..pls exlaborate on this..bcos its very imp topic....

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 11, 2012)

% of target exposd to one ad is rating. Average rating x # of spots is GRP (or TRP) total. GRP is Gross rating points. "TRP" is the same as GRP, simply using the "T" to mean Target, with the "Gross" implied.

Reach is reach. a net unduplicated audience generated by the GRP.

Friday, March 09, 2012

Where can I get a sqad report for radio?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 11, 2012)

Friday, March 09, 2012

swad report

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 11, 2012)

Perhaps you mean SQAD

Friday, March 09, 2012

radio duplication

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 09, 2012)

Click here to see past Guru responses regarding radio and duplication. Better yet ask the actual question you menat.

Thursday, March 08, 2012

Followup to your response posted on Saturday, March 3 regarding Network Cable Mirrors: If a dual feed means that two separate broadcast transmissions are set up for two different time zones so that programming will be uniform for viewers on both coasts then why would a 10pm EST show running at 10 PST also be running at 1am EST? Clearly, I do not understand how feeds work.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 09, 2012)

The Guru should have been clearer an perhaps not discussed the dual-feed exception.

The mirror is an artifact of live feed networks. If prime-time programs air at 8-11 pm EST. they are re-aired 3 hours later to be seen at the same hours PST. This means they are seen again at 11-2am EST. This is still the same program set, with the same commercials, so the audience legitmately counts in the buy.

Wednesday, March 07, 2012

Is there an international version of the DMA (designated marketing area) listing?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, March 07, 2012)

DMA is a designation for US markets, defined by Nielsen. Other countires have similar definitions created by the local TV mesurment vendor. click here for a Canadian example

Tuesday, March 06, 2012

brand awareness grp

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 06, 2012)

Generally, more GRP produces higher awareness. But perhaps you have a more specific question.

Tuesday, March 06, 2012

why advertise in NASCAR?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 06, 2012)

Does NASCAR particularly appeal to your target audience?

Is your brand related to auto racing and thus gain environmental support, like gasoline, tires, auto parts, etc?

Otherwise, the evaluation is like any other sports opportunity.

Monday, March 05, 2012

What is proprietary media? Can you pls explain

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 06, 2012)

The uses of the term "proprietary media" with which the Guru is familiar have nothing to do with advertising media buying amnd planning. This "proprietary" term uses media to mean something which holds or stores something, like CD's, DVDs, falsh drives, etc, in a format owned by one specific source. Proprietary in this sense means that the media is unique to the creator, For example if a Sony game player can only play games on chips from Sony, or a Canon camera can only store pictures on a Canon memory chip.

Monday, March 05, 2012

how do advertiser convince people to buy products

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 05, 2012)

The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.

Sunday, March 04, 2012

is sec grid the best way to define tg. i have my client who tg is a farmer.

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 04, 2012)

The term "sec grid" is not familiar to the Guru. It is difficult for the Guru to respond effectively when undefined acronyms are used and the context is an unspecified, possibly unfamiliar country outside the Guru's own USA.

Possibly you are referring to Socio-Economic Classification as used in India.

Off hand, this does not seem likely to be useful, when the target group (another assumption as to your "tg" reference) is already known to be farmers. How much segmentation within a catevgory like farmers is possible, beyond farm size and crop type?

In any case, this is outside the Guru's expertise.

Friday, March 02, 2012

Hi Guru- With regard to Network Cable, what are "Mirrors?" Some networks sell their prime unit in true prime time between 8p-11p, then re-run the unit often in the middle of the night at $0 and call them mirrors. My concern is that they are using the impressions gained in the overnight hours to count toward their delivery on the prime unit. Is this industry standard? Is it common for networks to only sell their prime this way?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, March 03, 2012)

If a dual feed network reruns their 10pm EST show to be 10pm PST, thats's going to be running at 1am EST.

The first question is what Nielsen counts. This reairing should not be counted in the "live" broadcast of the 10pm program. Your contract should b e specific as to whether these impressiosn count toward guarantee or are pure bonus.

Thursday, March 01, 2012


The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, March 01, 2012)

Thursday, March 01, 2012

4. You are give the following data
i) Mean of X = 36
ii) Mean of Y = 85
iii) Standard Deviation of X = 11
iv) Standard Deviation of Y = 8
v) Correlation Coefficient = 0.66
Now calculate the two regression equations and also estimate the value of X when Y = 75

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, March 01, 2012)

The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions. The Guru is not a statistician, but more of a demographer.

A demographer might tell you what percent of women 18-49 watch American Idol.

A statistician will give you the odds the demographer is correct.

Wednesday, February 29, 2012

How would you recommend I combine local and national media into a single variable for analysis? Does duplication come into play somewhere?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 29, 2012)

Yes, duplication is a factor. Decide if you want to analyze locally or nationally. If nationally, the local must be weighted down by the % of U.S. If locally, treat the national as being the same level in each local market unless you have the actual local levels of the national media.

Click here to see about 200 past Guru responses about combining.

Tuesday, February 28, 2012

what are the disadvantage of socio economic classification

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, February 28, 2012)

The disadvantages of socio economic classification stem from using it in cases where it is not relevant or with false assumptions about data. For example,often "upscale" is used as a general positive descriptor for a media vehicle in a sales pitch, when the prospect is working on a downscale or average brand.

Tuesday, February 28, 2012

socio economic classification

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, February 28, 2012)

Socio-economic classification is based on characteristics such as income, education, occupation, job status, etc.

Monday, February 27, 2012

Hi Media Guru,I see that I wasn't particularly clear in what I was asking....sorry about that. What I meant was I don't think the eyes on impressions account for double panels (as far as I know TAB eyes on only accounts for length from road, angle, location RHR or LHR, size etc). I would like to know how to mathematically compare EOI between single and double panels. I haven't been able to find documentation on double panels and how the EOI's are affected. Theoretically if a car is driving down the road, a motorist only has a small amount of time to really notice and give attention to a billboard. So, when I am comparing which panel would be the best option (single panel vs a double panel) how to I account for the double panel mathematically to justify buying a single panel vs a double panel that may have higher EOI's. I am not sure if it is correct to say that if two panels are stacked on on top of the other, someone has a 50% chance of giving attention to the top one vs the bottom (or vice versa). So, I take the EOI and cut that in half to compare to single panel EOI's. I am looking to see if there is a documented way of analyzing this? I typically try to avoid buying units that are double panels. But if the Eyes on Impressions are very close between the two...how can I figure mathematically which option is really the best... If a double panel option is a better on impressions I of course would opt in.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, February 28, 2012)

A stacked double panel, such as you decribe, may score equally for both panels, depending on the amount of time a viewer has to see it. Pedestrians and cars would be different on this point, obviously. Average traffic speed is also a factor. Surface roads versus highways will eb different.

Outdoor Advertising Association of America and TAB (which was referenced in the Guru's prior answer) may each have documents on the topic. If not your vendor should.

Monday, February 27, 2012

HI Media Guru,

This question pertains to OOH. How do you account for double panel Eyes on impressions vs single panel impressions. If the the two options are the same in every other way....I generally try to avoid buying double panels but if the impressions are competitive how do you justify not using double panels to a client?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, February 27, 2012)

"Eyes On" impressions are a matter of counting traffic passing panels on from two different angles (See TAB's Eyes on impressions)

Double panels are about two different panels being visible at the same location, but not necessarily to the same traffic, depending on the relative angle of display.

You will pay for the impressions you theoretically receive. Make decisions based on budgets and reach advantages, if any.

Monday, February 27, 2012

Is TELMAR the only media planning and buying tool available to the media strategist? What would you you recommend and why?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, February 27, 2012)

The Media Guru page of AMIC.com is part of Telmar, so the Media Guru page does not recommend competitors. However, there is a media professional behind the page, who has always chosen Telmar for these purposes since well before the Media Guru page or AMIC or the internet came inot being.

Thursday, February 23, 2012

media theory

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 23, 2012)

Go to the Guru Archives

Review all the Guru's discussion. Or if you mean a specific theory, ask about that.

Thursday, February 23, 2012

Dear Media Guru,
I'm a little confused. I know that reach x frequency=GRP's .
If for example I have given a target of Reach+3 60%. Then GRP equal to 180?
180GRP for how long? A Day? a Week?
From what I understand , Effective television campaign needs about 1000 GRP .
How do I get from the number in a formula to the number 1000?
Thanks in advance!

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 23, 2012)

You are confusing arithmetic with measurement.

When you have reach, frequency and GRP, the relationships will always be:

  • R X F = GRP
  • GRP / R = F

But this does not mean you can just pick any reach and frequncy numbers and assume that the resulting GRP from multiplication of these two can actually be achieved. Sometimes a given number of GRP will only produce a limited level of Reach.

Further, within any given R&F estimate we are usually refering to total (1+) reach and average frequency.

So if for example, you had a reach of 60 and average frequency of 3, the plan total would have been 180 GRP. But within this plan, within the 60% reach, there might be 20% who have been reached with 3 or more frequency,

Tuesday, February 21, 2012


The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 22, 2012)

All Guru visitors:
Please take note of Query #8484, below. This is an illustration of the proper way to inquire about a media term, giving the relevant context. In addition to making the Guru's task possible, it will add value to the Guru's reply.

CPTP most likely means "cost per" something. The first thing that occurs to the Guru for the "TP" portion is "target point," but cptp is not a standard usage for this. Normally one would expect to see "CPP" along with a specified demographic target.

Tuesday, February 21, 2012

What does (000) mean in magazine readership? Does that mean to add 3 0's to the number below? (For example, if there are 3,200 and it says (000) above, does that mean there are 3,200,000 readers?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 22, 2012)

Yes, your intepretation of (000) is correct.

Tuesday, February 21, 2012

If you are buying 200 GRP's in each of 5 markets across the state, can you say you bought 1000 GRP's statewide?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, February 21, 2012)

No you may not. GRP are always based on a specific population universe.

If your 5 markets encompass the entire state, then you have bought 200 GRP statewide. If your markets don't add up to the total state, then you would have to weight in the non-covered geographies.

Tuesday, February 21, 2012

If we launch an ad at 362 TRPs and then average about 200 TRPs each month after that, would that be enough exposure of the ad to make an impact upon the audience? I'm aware there are other factors that can effect impact, but I am wondering if a minimum of TRPs is required to really been 'seen'. Primarily on cable TV and network morning shows were the TRPs.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, February 21, 2012)

"How high is up?" These questions need much more detail.

  • What audience?
  • How competitive is the category?
  • How much consumer interest is there in the product?
  • How strong is the copy?
  • What brand awareness exists?
  • One time purchase / Impulse purchase / seasonal purchase / Short purchase cycle?

One common theory is that for regular, short purchase cycle items, a continuous weekly reach of about 30 is good.

Click here to see over 130 past Guru responses on the concept

Monday, February 20, 2012

How can I identify influential/appropriate blogs for ad placement? Is there some sort of quantifiable ratings measurement system for websites? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, February 20, 2012)

comScore and Nielsen//Netratings are the major web ratings measures.

Friday, February 17, 2012

When using :15 second bookends, should I count the frequency twice? I am struggling to understand equivalized vs unequivalized TRPs.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 17, 2012)

Equivalizing is about costing, primarily. If you mean literal bookends, as in first and last position in a pod, then counting frequency twice is reasonable. In effect this means count the TRP twice and reach once.

Since this bookend scenario puts each :15 in a different commercial minute, it is theoretically possible to see a reach lift from one :15 to the other.

Friday, February 17, 2012

what does obc stand for

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 17, 2012)

The only media term the Guru knows that relates to this abbreviation is "Outside back cover," in print. More commonly called 4th cover, in the Guru's experience, or simply, back cover. "Inside back cover" is the only modifcation of the "back cover" designation which the Guru commonly encounters.

Thursday, February 16, 2012

assume that a new japanese company plans to enter indian ttwo wheeler market analysing the exixting brands, what new positooning strategy you would recommend for the company? justify your answe

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 16, 2012)

This is not a media question.

In any case, the Guru is not fully up to date on the Indian two-wheeler market.

Thursday, February 16, 2012

some people believe that adverstising on television is generally beneficial to viewers. others take the position that television advertising has primarily negative effects. wich position do you agree with explain your decision ,using specific examples

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 16, 2012)

This question seems to be outside the bounds of advertising. From the marketing perspective, TV advertsing is conveyance of information. The information is intended to influence viewer behavior in ways such as changing purchase intention, changing attitudes about issues, genrating interest in new products, etc.

So if TV advertising leads a consumer to purchase a Ford versus a Chevy, how can that be labelled as positive or negative except from the perspective of sellers of Fords or Chevies?

If advertising was intended to cause mass murder, then that would have to be looked at as negative, When advertising generates charitable contributions, that would generally be seen as positive. But the Guru does not believe your general positive/negative question has merit.

Saturday, February 11, 2012

What is cost of buying one rating point when
Program duration- 60 mins
Universe- 200
Reach in 000s-120
Avg. Time spent- 36 mins
Kindly show the workings. Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, February 11, 2012)
  • There is not enough information to answer the question

  • Program duration and time spent are irrelevant to the question.
  • One needs the rating and cost. If your "reach" is meant to be the rating, it does not seem reasonable, it would be a 60 rating with a universe of 200 (000)

Thursday, February 09, 2012

What is the difference of SOV and GRPs ? and REACH ?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 09, 2012)
  • SOV is Share of Voice. This referes to the portion of advertisng in a category contributed by an advertiser. Usially expressed in percent of GRP percent of spending
  • GRP is Gross Rating Points. This is a ratio of the total of impressions delivered to the target population. 100 GRP reflects impressions equal to the population.
  • Reeach is the portion of the target population which has been exposed to a schedule. Usually expressed as a percentage of the target population.

Wednesday, February 08, 2012

Is there a source that would provide an average CPP for each media channel (Print, TV, ect) across all the DMA's in the US? I have media spend data by DMA, and I'm looking to see "how far a dollar goes" in the different markets.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 08, 2012)

No there isn't a single source for this data. SQAD can do this for radio and tv. Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) has pricing but not GRP for most local media. Some, like out-of-home or geo-targeted digital are more complex. SQAD has radio and TV efficiencies but just unit costs for some other media, in "Media Market Guide Local."

Wednesday, February 08, 2012

how many GRPs are needed in Greenville

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 08, 2012)

A media strategy, e.g. "how many GRP" can only be set in relation to a media objective or goal.

In other words: Needed to accomplish what?

Wednesday, February 08, 2012

I'm working with a ratings sheet that has Nielsen NTI data with average ratings for different demographic in "PRL+3". Do you know what PRL+3 would be. Also seeing a demographic that is labeled "P+2". Any help translating these would be appreciated. Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 08, 2012)

The Guru does not believe Nielsen itself would apply these labels to the its ratings. The Guru would expect these to be references to the "data stream" from which the ratings are drawn.

NTI data measures the "Live" rating of programs, meaning watching at the time of broiadcast, and other data streams from "Live+ Same Day" which includes recording playback up to 3am following the Live airing, through Live + 7 days. Any number of days from L+1 through L+7 is avialable, but Live, Live+SD, and L+7 are most commonly used. Nielsen also offers Commercial ratings, most typically the "C3" (commercial Live + 3 days), which is the average rating of all the commercial minutes in a program, seen live plus 3 days of playback.

Based on this, the Guru would think PRL+3 is program L+3 rating, and p+2 is program, Live + 2.

The redundant seeming "P" may be to distinguish program from time period.

Tuesday, February 07, 2012

I am looking a national cable avails. What is the difference in Total DEMO in thousand (in this case W18-49) and DEMO VPVH in thousand?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, February 07, 2012)

DEMO will be the W18-49 audience in thousands. You understand that in its simple form.

VPVH is Viewers per Viewing Households. When labeled thousands,
this is a ratio of demo thousands divided by Household thousands. It is an indicator of appeal to the target, when used in comparison to the VPVH of other avails. It is an indicator of audience composition.

If the porogram has 5,009,000 W18-49 and 10.000,000 HH, the VPVH (thousands) is 5009. If it were just VPVH it would be shown aas 0.5009

Monday, February 06, 2012

Hi Guru, Is there any ange for GRPs of TV Ad campaigns , like if a certain campaign delvers 2000 GRPs or 3000 GRPs on its desired Target Group.... what actually is the significance of of these numbers(GRPs).

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, February 06, 2012)

GRP express the exposures of an ad campaign as a percentage of the target group. So, 2000 target GRP indicate that the ad impressions of the campaign are equal to 2000% of ( or 20X) the target population.

Friday, February 03, 2012

effective reach and frequency

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 03, 2012)

Friday, February 03, 2012

media squeeze frames

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 03, 2012)

The Guru is not familiar with the term. It probably refers to video recording media, such as DVD or video tape, not to the Guru's field of advertsing media.

Friday, February 03, 2012

If time spent by universe is 3.12 and reach in thousand is 928000. What is the time spent by each viewer who have been reach with universe size 4323000? Please show the calculation and explain. Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 03, 2012)

These numbers do not connect. Time spent is a measure of the viewing of a medium or daypart. Reach is a measure of a schedule. Reach might be drawn from heavieer or lighter viewers of the medium (more likely to be heavier).

Thursday, February 02, 2012

Can you recommend a site that explains digital (interactive) media terms and digital as medium in general? Like an internet advertising for dummies site? I can't seem to find one. Thank you much!

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 02, 2012)

The Internet Advertising Bureau provides a glossary and more

Thursday, February 02, 2012

I am preparing (or trying to prepare)something to present my client on network TV. Network TV is new to my client and is new to me too. I have bought local TV for over 30 years, but have never had the chance to buy network, so I am starting from scratch. I am trying to decide how to present this to the client. I am getting any my avails and they have ratins and impressions. I don't feeling comfortable presenting ratings, because that does not tell the whole story. Do I need to present number of impressions and CPM's? Do you have any suggestions or samples that I could following. This client is use to seeing GRP's and CPP's and etc. by market. How should I approach this? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 02, 2012)

In network you show GRP and CPP by market, but in this case your market is the entire US. What is missing from your "whole story?" If, perhaps, you mean the avails have ratings by program, then you just need to sum up the ratings of the announcments you will buy to have GRP.

Thursday, February 02, 2012

I am learning to buy network TV for the first time. The first set of avails reflects ratings and impressions. Why impressions? I thought is network was bought off of thousands. Can you help clear this up for me?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 02, 2012)

Impressions are thousands. Some buyers look at cost per point (CPP) which calls for GRP. Some look at cost per THOUSAND impressions (CPM)

Thursday, February 02, 2012

In print, when there are 3 inserts why reach at 1+ is less than reach at
3+. What is the reason behind it?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 02, 2012)

This cannot be. You may be confusing reach at specific frequencies with reach at minimum (X+) frequencies:

If there are three inserts, some of the people reached will see all 3. Some will see only two, some will see only 1.

But if you are sure you are talking about reach at X PLUS, then those reached 1+ (one or more times) includes all the people who see 1 or 2 or 3. Those reached 3+ are only those who see 3. This can't be a greater number than the 1+, obviously.

Perhaps you are looking at the count of those who see exactly 1 vs exactly 2 vs exactly 3 instead of the 1+ vs 2+ vs 3+.

It is possible for there to be more people who see exactly 3 than those who see exactly 1, particulary in publications with loyal audiences.

Wednesday, February 01, 2012

a program delivered a rating of 10% and reach of 8%. is it possible or not?? further to my question and your answer. please tell me if by one announcement you are referring to one program say " friends" and by multiple announcement you meant different programs i.e. "friends" and "lost". correct me if i am going wrong?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 01, 2012)

When we discuss reach, we are generally thinking about a schedule of spots in programs. So when you ask about a program rating versus reach, the Guru thinks about a single spot in a program. A commercial in Friends is treated as having the same rating as the program, unless you are looking into issues of data stream, as in Live, Live + Same Day, Live + 7, etc.

Or, if you are specifically asking about an episode of a program, when one episode of the program has a 10 rating, it has a 10 reach. Or if you are thinking about a program episode with an average quarter hour rating of 10, then the reach of the combination of all the commercial minutes in that episode could be greater than 10. But in this case you would add the ratings of all thiose commercial; minutes to get a larger ratings sum or GRP.

Now, perhaps you are talking of a lower rated program. In this case if the program rating is 2.0 and you have 5 announcements in it over a period of time, then you have a ratings sum or GRP of 10, and the reach of all 5 could certainly be 8. But the terminology must be specific.

Wednesday, February 01, 2012

why can't reach at 4+ be greater than 3+. what is the reason?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 01, 2012)

Lets think about what these data actually mean:

  • When we talk about "reach" non-specifically, we are talking about people exposed One or more times to a schedule. So "reach" is actually reach at 1+, or all persons reached.
  • Reach at 2+ is those exposed at least twice, which must be a smaller set of persons within the 1+ set,.
  • And reach at 3+ is a smaller group within that. So reach at 4+ is included within reach at 3+ but must be a smaller group.

Wednesday, February 01, 2012

reach at 3+ is 55% and reach at 4+ is 50% . is this scenario possible?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 01, 2012)

Yes. As long as each increased frequncy level (3+, 4+, etc) shows a lower reach than the previous one, it's possible

Wednesday, February 01, 2012

a program delivered a rating of 10% and reach of 8%. is it possible or not??

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 01, 2012)

No. If one announcement has a rating of 10% then its reach is 10%. Only with multiple announcemnts can duplication cause reach to be less than the sum of ratings

Wednesday, February 01, 2012

What one share-of market point equates to in paging and revenue

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 01, 2012)

You seem to be trying to connect terms which are unrelated, or only indirectly related.

If one knows the dollar volume of sales of the "market" in question, then one share of market point equates to 1% of that volume in dollars. Then one must consider whether share of market is being expressed as a percentage of retail sales, and whether that connects consistently to manufacturer's revenue.

And how revenue is defined.

Share of market might be expressed based on units, which disconnects the relationship .somewhat and differs between the food and drug measures.

The Guru is not aware of any use of the term "paging" in a related context.

Wednesday, February 01, 2012

what is the difference between reach and TVR?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 01, 2012)

Some people use TVR as an abbreviation for Television reach. It is simply "reach" when cited in a TV context.

Tuesday, January 31, 2012

If I am running a geo-targeted internet campaign, is there a way to calculate GRP's?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, January 31, 2012)

GRPs are based on impressions divided by universe. Presumably, you are getting reports of your geographic impressions delivery. So all you need is the universe for your geographic target

Monday, January 30, 2012

macheta publicitara

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, January 30, 2012)

The Guru accepts and answers queries in English. This seems to be Romanian for "Advertising model."

Further, queries should be phrased as a question, not simply by stating a term about which one is curious. The Guru needs to know if you seek definition, explanation, application, history, etc.

Sunday, January 29, 2012

Hi Guru, i know that the formula for calculating combined reach of two media is (a+b)-((.axb). Please how do we calculate when the media that are used are more than 2? Say they there are three or four media used in a plan, how do we calculate the combined reach for the three or four media? thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, January 29, 2012)

Each medium is added to the combination in the same way. In other words, the first combination becomes your new "a" and the new medium is a new "b." This can continue for as many media as necessary. Just to be clear, the two media formula should be stated as (a+b)-(axb)

Thursday, January 26, 2012

radio versus cable

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, January 28, 2012)

Thursday, January 26, 2012

Reach 1+%

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, January 26, 2012)

1+% reach is the same as simple reach, meaning those exposed to the schedule one or more times. The 1+ reference is used for claity when other levels, like 3+ are also under discussion.

Wednesday, January 25, 2012

how do you figure cost per order

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, January 26, 2012)

If you are asking a question about direct response, cost per order = spending divided by # of orders.

Tuesday, January 24, 2012

What is the average percentage cost of :10 TV Spot relative to :30 TV spot?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, January 24, 2012)

The Guru estimates 50%.

Tuesday, January 24, 2012

direct response network

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, January 24, 2012)

The Guru asks: "What exactly is your question?"

Tuesday, January 24, 2012


The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, January 24, 2012)

Monday, January 23, 2012

Hi Guru- With regards to Network Radio, what is the difference between a "re-rate" and a "post". I asked for a posting summary and received "re-rates". Is one more accurate than the other? Thank you in advance.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, January 23, 2012)

A re-rate is generally a mid-campaign re-estimation of results using whatever actual ratings are available at that time.. A post is done after the entire campaign is completed and all pertinent ratings have been published.

Monday, January 23, 2012

Are there any studies on the number of 'ads' people see on a daily basis? Thanks Tina

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, January 23, 2012)

There are many and most are exaggerated for effect.Click here to see past Guru co.
mment on the question past comment on the question

Sunday, January 22, 2012

double truck

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, January 22, 2012)

Double truck is a specific variety of .two page spread in print media, mostly newspapers. A true double truck bleeds across what would ordinarily be a blank seam between the facing pages, more easily acheivable in newspapers, which are printed on double-width paper.

In most cases, because these double sheets are folded and nested, the two facing pages are printed on different sheets. But on the inside of the innermost double sheet, the two facing pages are printed on this one double sheet, so there is not a physical seam.

A true double truck ad can carry a premium price. Wikipedia reports that the term "double-truck" refers to the bigger cart originally needed to carry the double sized frame of lead type used to print such an ad.

Friday, January 20, 2012

Hi Guru- when purchasing a network cable package in the upfront where the deal states the impressions are guaranteed on the year long package deal, is it appropriate for the buyer to request quarterly posts to make sure all is staying on target?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, January 20, 2012)

Yes, the buyer may ask for tracking updates, but under these circumstances, not necessarily expect any ADU's (make goods) before the end of the contract. However, suppose the schedule is tracking considerably low. Since upfront deals tend to finish with the lowest rated quarter, a responsible vendor should begin adding weight, before then.

Friday, January 20, 2012

Print impressions

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, January 20, 2012)

The target audience of the publication carrying the ad is the target impressions for the ad. These are summed for a schedule.

Tuesday, January 17, 2012

There is term "CPV" used in post evaluation report of TV Ad campaigns.
1- what is the use of CPV?
2- How its calculated?

Thank You & regards

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, January 17, 2012)

Media acronyms beginnin with "CP" generally are about "cost per" something. data are calculated the came way: spending divided ny something

However, the Guru has not seen "CPV" before. It is certainly cost per something, but what could the "V" mean? If the TV campaign was for a web site, the metric might be cost per visit or view. If it was a general campaign, then it might be cost per viewer, a term not in common use in the US, where the comparable term is CPM, meaning cost per THOUSAND viewers (or impressions).

Monday, January 16, 2012

how do you figure cost per order on media

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, January 16, 2012)

Cost per order = total spending ÷ number of orders.
But this seems too simple, perhaps you had a more complex issue in mind?

Monday, January 16, 2012

can we find out the Avg Fre and Reach if have
GRPs per say 500
Given Universe = 50000
Gross impression = 250000

Reach = ?
Avg Fre = ?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, January 16, 2012)

No, your data are not sufficent. Firstly, the media types used and the vehiclee within them can yield enormous variation for a given number of GRP.

You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar or online through

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables

Saturday, January 14, 2012

Can you define N-Tiles?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, January 14, 2012)

The "N" in n-tiles is "number." It refers to dividing audiences or other demographic groups into equal sized sets according to a specified characteristic.

Probably the most common you will find in media anaysis is the quintile (5-part) analysis of audience reached according to average frequency.

Suppose your plan had a reach of 60% of the target, and an average frequency of 3.0 with a total of 180 GRP.

To examine quintiles, you divide the 60% of the target reached into 5 equal sized groups of 12% of the target, according to average frequency. So the least reached 12% might have an average frequency of 1.0 (frequency is never below 1). The next least might have an average frequency of 1.6, and so forth, with the heviest group at an average og 10+. Some planners look for the top 3 quintiles to have at least a 3 frequncy. Some evaluate wearout by looking for a frequency of perhaps 20 in the second highest.

In other applicstions, such as product usage, tertiles (3) might be used. Ninetiles sometimes are used for other special analyses.

Friday, January 13, 2012

What ratings analysis would you recommended for a TV Channel just launched. we have ratings software with provision of ratings % reach and ratings by market (region) etc.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, January 14, 2012)

Do analyses that answer questions posed by sales prospects, Other than that, you might prepare rankers for commonly bought demographics.

Friday, January 13, 2012


The Media Guru Answers (Friday, January 13, 2012)

Gross Rating Points:

Sum of all the ratings in a schedule. or

Total of the impressions in the schedule divided by the target population. The decimal is moved so that if the impressions are 1.30 times the population, that becones 130 GRP.

Friday, January 13, 2012

how to calculate a tv program reach

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, January 13, 2012)

If you mean what is the reach of oine airing of one program, rating = reach. If you mean a particular daily or weekly program over time, you need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar or online through

The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables

Wednesday, January 11, 2012

Have talked with a media agency and they gave me this figures for a certain campaign:

- You will achieve around 1300 GRPS
- 8-10 OTS
- 30" spot

How is that possible? won't that mean a reach of 130%?
I am confused. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, January 13, 2012)

Yes, there are various ways different people and countries use OTS, but one is for average frequency, (the other being a gross measure, so that can't be it, here).

You are correct, these numbers imply a reach of at least 130, which is of course, impossible.

Tuesday, January 10, 2012

what does DMA mean

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, January 10, 2012)

"Designated Market Area", Nielsen's definition of TV geographies measured. 210 make up the US.

Monday, January 09, 2012

what is difference between Nielsen data and IRI data?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, January 09, 2012)

By "IRI" in this context, you would seem to be referring to scanner-based consumer product sales tracking. Nielsen has similar services among its many other research offerings. Both systems are vast and complex. Start by visiting their sites.

Friday, January 06, 2012

Hi Media Guru. I am working on a Network Television plan where I need to provide an optimum mix of :30s and :15s spots. My question is, when the mix changes from :30s to :15s, do the GRPs in the plan double? For example, if I use to have 25 weekly :30s GRPs and I convert them to :15s spots do they increase to 50 weekly GRPs?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, January 07, 2012)

Assuming the budget is constant, switching to :15's will double the GRP in the plan.

Thursday, January 05, 2012

I'm working on a plan to reach Hispanics nationally. As a cohesive platform, I'm trying to figure out how to "layer" digital GRP's on top of the broadcast GRP's we are buying. So for example, if we're buying X GRP's on traditional broadcast TV, and X impressions on spanish language websites, how can I convert both numbers for an apples to apples additive GRP? Is this even possible? If both universes were the same, it would be easy, but approximately 63% (according to emarketer) of Hispanics are online.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, January 05, 2012)

See adjacent query #8388.

Thursday, January 05, 2012

digital grp

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, January 05, 2012)

For a given demographic in any medium, GRP = impressions ÷ population.

In some media, such as cable TV or on-line, you must decide whether the population denominator will be the coverage of the medium or the totla US population.

I.e. digital GRP can be based on internet population or total population just as ESPN cable ratings may be based on ESPN's subscriber universe or on total US TV homes. In either case, it is important to label the GRP appropriately when reporting.

Tuesday, January 03, 2012

teaser ad

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, January 04, 2012)

A teaser ad tells part of a the story. Perhaps a new product name with no explanation. Or a product feature with no name. Or a movie title with no opening date. The idea is to generate advance interest or curiousity, before the real campaign spending starts.

Tuesday, January 03, 2012

I'm using an application called "IMS Print" which is made by Nielsen to work with data from MRI. The program can do Reach and Frequency analysis but is mostly used for Cross Tabulation. Do you have any training resources for this tool, such as the program manual? Or do you know where I could find more training materials for working with Crosstabs? (Reading Indicies, putting together codes, ect)

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, January 04, 2012)

Understand that AMIC's parent is Telmar, which is a supplier of comparable, competing crosstab / R&F software for MRI data. So, IMS manuals are not offered here. Nielsen/IMS should supply all the manuals you need.

However, the Guru has answered many queries regarding MRI and cross tabs. Click here to see over 20 past Guru responses about cross-tab

Tuesday, January 03, 2012

Dear Guru, in response to your answer from Tuesday, December 20, 2011 (#8369):

As weighting for unit length is only a technique for comparing values - should weighted numbers only be used when comparing different campaigns? Ie. when analysing a single campaign - unweighted numbers should ALWAYS be used even when different spot lengths are involved? Is this correct?

Thank You!

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, January 04, 2012)

Let's break it down:

    One exposure of a commercial to a member of its target group is an impression

  • Whether the impression is based on a :15, :30, or :60 copy leads to differences in impact on the consumer, but it is still just one exposure
  • Reach is a metric for for counting numbers of exposures of different members of the target group

If two plans have the same reach but one has :30s and the other :15s, there is a clear added value in the :30s plan, but the difference is not the reach.

When one plan has greater reach and another has less but has longer copy lengths, then you must decide how much extra value there is in copy length. But it is not best judged as a reach adjustment.