Returns all questions and responses for the year.
Hi. Further to question no. 7650, the pitch actually includes both planning and buying.Currently, the creative agency assumes the media assignment as well.I hope I used AOR in its proper context.Nonetheless, pls provide questionnaire to guide us when asking for a brief from client taking into consideration the full media service AOR service.Thanks again.
Understand that the "of record" part of the AOR phrase identifies the agency authorized to make financial commitments on the advertisers behalf. Thus the buying assumption. Nevertheless, these days an AOR may also be responsible for planning across the marketer's brands.
Considering an AOR assignment that includes planning would add these questions, among others:
Are you aware of any broadcast television stations that DO NOT pay agency commision?
It is the agency that "charges" commission, which the client pays. In the standard deal, the agency marks up whatever it pays to the station by 17.65%.
The station may or may not publish a rate card showing net rates as 85% of gross rates, but cannot dictate what the agency does after paying the station the amount that is eventually called "net."
We are writing a primer on the value of 10s, 15s, and 30s TV spots for a healthcare client. Although the GRPs gained for each of these length would be in essence, equal, we are trying to determine the features and drawbacks of each. After searching online, we were not able to come up with much. Can you steer us in a clear direction, or do you have a "formula" of when to use each length under different circumstances?
Hi.Appreciate if you could share a list of questions we should ask a Client in briefing as potential AOR. Thanks.
Assuming we agree that AOR is the agency buying space and/or time for a large company, typically coordinating for multiple agencies serving that advertiser, then the key questions become, just for starters:
Since you use the phrase "briefing as potential AOR" the Guru immagines there is a competition of sorts among various agencies serviung the client. Chose and phrase your questions with political astuteness, especially if this is an open briefing among the contenders,
What states are included in the Nielsen West Central marketing region? And, is there a list somewhere that I can access that says what states are in each marketing region? Thanks.
Details like this are genrally provided through Nielsen Answers which requires user names and passwords issued to clients.
Ask your Nielsen marketing rep.
I am working on a plan for re-branding a product/service. The category itself is well developed, and the old brand is well developed. Now the brand wants to re-tool its position in the market. Which is more imprtant for the re-branding - Reach or Frequency?
To oversimplify, when we talk about branding, we are referring to managing the expectations of consumers regarding products or services marketed under the brand,
When we talk about rebranding, we may be thinking of
In the latter case, we have an awareness issue, so reach is the first consideration, In the former case, we are probably thinking of targeting those who are already aware of the brand in order to change their perceptions. If we know these people well enough, we know how to reach them; frequency of message, to have the effect of revising their thinking, becomes relatively more important.
In either case, a well considered balance of reach and frequency is appropriate,
What can you tell me about a continuous media schedule?
I am working on a buy for 2Q09 (May of 2009). Which books for Hut and Share do I use? May 07 Hut and May 08 Share?
Use May '08 HUT and latest available share. If it's a 4 book a year market, you may have November '08 by now.
If it's a 12 a year market, average all the Q2 '08 books for HUT.
Is there a place where I can find cost information for syndicated television programming that students could use for a class project?
SQAD Media Market Guide National includes syndicated TV costs.
I need to start an advertising campain for an amateur adult video company. online advertising, etc. where should i start?
how much does it cost to advertise on maxim.com?
Like most web sites, Maxim.com has an advertising information link.
These are typically in small type at the bottom of the home page.
If the site's department of sales prevention is strong, there will only be an email link or information request form. If it is less strong, as in this case, there will be a contact phone number.
If the publisher has completely neglected to establish sales prevention protocols, the link may lead to an actual rate card.
I'm putting together a media plan for a TV show. Some higher ups don't believe in any medium besides television. Any ideas on how to prove ROI on print/radio/ooh/online?
ROI is proved by investing and measuring results. If you don't have your own rsults of advertising TV programs in these media try the vendors.
I need to know that where I can find the TV industry rating, analysis of TV channels in Pakistan
Looking into a pay-per-inquiry program on TV and radio for a client. Two questions, what would be the best steps toward setting this up; and how to figure out what price to offer stations to run these ads? Client works with homeowners on fairly high ticket services.
Since the stations will want full access to inquiry call count records, find an inbound telmarketing call center with experience and credibility with the stations.
The stations may have standard percentages. On small items they may ask 33%. On larger tickets, since you pay per inquiry, not per sale, a much lower percent should be achievable. What is the advertiser's history in conversions?
what does TRP stand for?
Target Rating Point. When used, it is meant to distinguish from Household GRP.
Hi Guru! I'm curious about how to calculate costs pertaining to advertising during television programs airing on the Internet.
It's still a matter of cost ÷ by impressions, no matter that it's TV based video.
How do you convert impressions to GRP's?
(Impressions ÷ population) X 100 = GRP
Good afternoon Guru, I have been trying to get information regarding newspaper readership when a holiday falls on the weekend.
Do you know of anywhere I can find research that would indicate a fall in readership on these weekends.
One of our clients is requesting not to run the Sunday after Christmas, we aren't sure but believe she feels most subscribers will be out of town therefore won't see the ad. We would like some "proof" of whether she is correct or not.
It's ludicrous on the face of it to say that "most people are out of town" on any given day. Where have they gone? To visit other people's homes where those people are out of town, too? To hotels where there is no staff because they all went out of town?
There might be some readership fall-off due to holiday travel. The Newspaper National Network might have data on readership variations for holidays. According to this Dept of Transportation data there were about 8 million 50+ mile trips (going or returning on the Sunday after Christmas a few years ago, and as we are all aware, travel is down now, in 2008. Even granting that people going or coming on the Sunday might combine with an equal number at the beginning or end of a trip on another day of the holiday period, it doesn't amount a majority of the US families. Beyond that, some have come from wherever to the town in question and will read the local paper and otheres will find their home town paper wherever they have gone; the Guru always does (a large portion of the trips counter are less than 50 miles).
You might also try travel associations for some statistics.
Is there anywhere to download pdf's of DMA maps without subscribing to Nielsen Data?
Only Nielsen creates DMA definitions. You can buy the map from Nielsen without subscribing.
how do you find online grps
GRP=impressions ÷ population
You will need to decide whether to use total population or online population as your base, and label accordingly.
You must also consider whether an "impression" is any exposure or to count all exposures during a single site vistit as one impression.
Rating points for Gossip Girl
what is the CPP for NBC?
Depends on program, daypart, demographic, negotiation. Call your rep.
I am researching Bmi airlines for a university assingment, where can I find what media they chose to use for their previous campaign 'mi bmi' or more about their media planning?
I would really like to know a few things, I would greatly appreciate any help, I am not in marketing, just creative and trying to pitch a music tour to a few companies.
1. if there is a formula for calculating gross impression for a logo that would be on the side of a bus, spending a certain number of hours driving on major highways? or a formula to figure out how many gross impressions for certain milage?
can i multiply a number by the hours spent on the road, or multiply a number by the miles driven to each location, and if so what is that number and where does that number come from?
2. The bus will stay overnight in cities and be parked at Nascar events, so is there a formula to figure out how many gross impression for a event attended by a certain number of people? or by the size and population of the city?
I know this is different from the usual questions, but I need to list the possible gross impressions, or views that the company's logo will receive on this LIVE tour.
The Guru finds all this to be unique and not within standard formulae. Perhaps companies which do this sort of bus decorating or somone in a NASCAR promotional postion has useful data.
In checking my tv affidavit I noticed that several of the spots I purchased ran in the opening break (ie., at 7:57pm for an 8-9pm program)rather than within the program. Is this acceptable or should a makegood be received?
This would be an "adjacency" rather than in-program. Depending on the specifics of the contract the Guru wouid be inclined to seek makegood. Check the ratings. If you were sold an 8-9pm program rating and this spot should be rated as 7:45 to 8:00 and that is a lower rating, as it probably is, then a make good should not even be questioned.
I am looking to initiate a coverage and frequency research project for our outdoor sites. We have a number of outdoor advertising panels on UK railway station barriers and therefore have good data on numbers of people going through. The question is how do we get to coverage and frequency with a cost effective research project and what sort of sample size would be normal to establish convincing information for media planners and buyers? We have TGI research data which has a sample of attidudes and frequency of usage of railway stations already. Up to now we have always used OTS numbers but believe a lot of our larger competitors are using coverage and frequency and we wish to be able to explain our medium's effectiveness in this language.
Sample size should be determined by how reliable you need answers to be and how large you expect specific critical reponses to be. In other words, if you expect to find out that 5% of your sample exhibited some important behavior, you want a sample large enough that 5% of it produces an answer with a tolerance (+/-) swing that you find acceptable. This might mean a sample big enough that a 5% answer reflects 100 respondents, or a total sample of 2000. Or pehaps you need have a reliable answer from 5% of the women 18-34.
Also consider the sample size used by competitors.
our client is a local tv,i want to canculate the actural cprp level of its every ad breaks.
i want to apply the formular as below:
CPRP= average cost of ad break /average rating of ad break
if an ad break have 7 spots and consists of different length of TVCs,such as 15 sec,10 sec ,5 sec, 30 sec etc.
if i can use these spots' average rating?
brand start time spots number of spots lenths cost rating
Brand 1 18:27:30 1 13 61 4000 0.3
Brand 2 18:28:31 2 13 7 400 0.3
Brand 3 18:28:38 3 13 10 800 0.3
Brand 4 18:28:48 4 13 5 400 0.3
Brand 5 18:28:53 5 13 5 400 0.3
Brand 6 18:28:58 6 13 5 400 0.3
Brand 7 18:29:03 7 13 5 400 0.2
Brand 8 18:29:08 8 13 15 1200 0.2
Brand 9 18:29:23 9 13 5 400 0.2
Brand 10 18:29:28 10 13 5 400 0.2
Brand 11 18:29:33 11 13 15 1200 0.2
Brand 12 18:29:48 12 13 5 400 0.2
Brand 13 18:29:53 13 13 7 400 0.2
Depending on how your ratings resource operates, the answer differs. If you have only a program rating, then use that average rating. If you have commerical ratings, average them, weighted by length. Bringing it all back to something like a :30 equivalent is common.
Can you please help me on this one or point me in the right direction, I am looking over a contract agreement from a media buyer and it states "The initial term of this agreement is Jan to Dec. 2008. Either party may cancel this agreement in writing, certified letter, 30 (thirty) days prior to the end of each term.
My question is when is the term regarding cancelation? 30 days prior to Dec, or can it be given anytime with 30 days advance notice?
This is a legal question, not a media question. However, in the Guru's personal interpretaion, since there is no language saying that the term renews if not cancelled, the Guru would expect that cancellation may occur within the term, on 30 days notice.
Hi, Me again #7621. I need to back up. If my frequency is 57 total spots per week - how do I calcuate the average? this is direct response - so do I divide by total days or specific time periods? When I divide by days (7)I get 8.14 - which still makes my reach terrible (4.91%). What am I doing wrong?
Over a 4 week period my total GRP's are 40 and total spots airing are 57.
Although arithmetically, GRP ÷ frequency = reach, it does not mean you can get there the way you are going.
Reach is a complex calculation of the net number of different people exposed to your campaign, taking into account the duplication of audience between one spot and another on one station and between the audiences of different stations. Once you have determined reach, typically with a computer model, you can devide GRP by reach and get the average number of spots (frequency of exposure) seen by each of the people who were exposed at all. No manipulation of the numbers of spots you buy will get you to this average frequency that is a quotient of GRP and Reach.
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.
The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
I have been asked to do a direct response media plan and include reach and Frequency. I have 40 GRP's and Frequency of 57. When I calculate to get Reach I come up with .7017 - does this mean my reach is 70% or am I doing this wrong...?
If you are right about the 40 GRPs and 57 Frequency then the reach is actually 0.7017% (Reach can never be greater than GRP). But the Guru doubts your frequency. How would you get to frequency without having calculated reach? Don't confuse the total number of messages (commercials / mailings / etc) in your plan with the average frequency of exposure of your schedule.,
I am currently working with a major fast food account. Our agency handles 3 co-ops. For the past two years I have incorporated internet into our annual plans. I started working with my media TV media partners and have also added some national sites (bought on a local basis). I look at impressions, CT's and % of CT's and of course CPCT's. Our creative messages in my opinion has been product driven and has not offered any special couponing or discounts. Our impressions have been high, but CT's have been low. I feel that if we add couponing to drive interest that will drive the CT's up. How do I need to judge my results...impressions or CT'. Also, what is the average click thru rate that I need to try to achieve.
Naturally, Click Through Rate is a much more meaningful metric than imopressions.
These days, beating 0.1% CTR is an achievement. In-page video and very large sizes are usually required to get there. See The DoubleClick research index for details.
I am looking for current information on the importance of marketing through a recession. I have a very well done peice from 1982 and would like an updated version...that tells you how long I have been doing this.
Have you seen anything great lately?
In addition to the standard trades, try Google Scholar. You might only expect these pieces to appear in down economies, so keep your eyes peeled.
Please explain the following on how are they calculated as I cant get it. I couldnt paste the Table so for your understanding the data has 6 Columns & 3 rows.
Markets| Pop ln 000s| Reach 1+%|AvgOTS| Reach 3+%|Avg OTS
MumbaiUA| 3703 | 64 | 9.29 | 53.4 | 11
BangloreUA|1139 | 61 | 7.36 | 43.8 | 10
The calculations are not apparent from the data.
The populations of the markets are probably adjusted census data created by your media measurement resource.
Reach 1+ is the unduplicated number of persons exposed at least one or more times to the relevant media schedule, expressed as a % of the populaiton Complex algorithms are used to model actual, measured media consumption,
Average OTS (Opportunities To See) or "average frequency" in US terms is the average number of times each person reached one or mmore times has seen an ad in the schedule.
A missing datum is GRP. Reach X OTS = Gross Rating Points
Reach 3+ is the % who have been exposed to the campaign at least 3 times and the next OTS column is the average number of exposures among this more heavily exposed set of persons reached. The same model algorithms will have been used.
Good day! Is there a minimum budget for an advertiser to use AOR? how do we determine whether it makes sense to use an AOR? what kind of information should an advertiser provide to pitching Agencies of record?Thanks.
The generally accepted definition of "Agency of Record" is:
an agency designated to make media or other purchases on behalf of an advertiser when that advertsier uses multiple agencies for various assignments. This could mean multiple brands at different agencies or a separation of creative from production or media.
So, if the budget is big enough for more than one agency to be involved, it's big enough to have an agency of record. If only one agency is in use, "AOR" is an irrelevant term.
When planning traditional out-of-home media buys I use the eTelmar Outdoor Synergy system. From day one when I started working at my current media planning and buying group I have been told that the media delivery goal was to be between 60% and 80% market 5+ reach. In the cases where OOH is to be the only medium used the goal is to be between 70% and 80% and if OOH is to be used in combination with other media the goal is to be between 60% and 70%. My question is in regards to the "5+ effective reach" we use. I can't find anyone to tell me why we use "5+" versus "3+" and I was hoping maybe you could shed some light on it for me. Thanks!
Click here to see past Guru responses about setting effective frequncy levels
What is the average number of daily messages a consumer receives by medium. Any idea
Click here to see past Guru responses about number of messages per day
Dear Guru! May be you can give me some informatoin about copy wear - out - I mean whо and how analyze level of GRP or Reach, main theorys or somethin like that
Click here to see compiled Guru comment on wear out.
My advertising agency is currently doing the creative work for a hospital; however, the hospital doesn't intend to switch the media buying from their previous agency because they are happy with the low rates and makegoods. What topics would be important in a media pitch to change their mind? Are there any "typical" performance standards that media firms should be required to adhere to?
How does the incumbent assure "good" rates? Constant decrease over time? Comparison to an easy-to-beat benchmark like SQAD? Are you in a position to guarantee better rates?
If your buying is really strong, you could do the buying service trick of offering to buy media for a fee of half of what you save them (net) vs current rates. That applies to the first buy. Then you calculate how far below SQAD that is, to set your ongoing benchmarks based on SQAD.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using ten-second commercial spots?
Please describe how to do a tv post buy analysis.
A client's tv buy for July and Septebmer just ended.
We do not subscribe to Nielsen. When should the post
be done? What ratings book should be used?
At its simplest, a post buy compares what you said would be delivered, in dollar and audience terms, to what was actually delivered.
The post should be done as soon as all invoices are received, and ratings are available.
As to what book, it depends on when the market is rated. In a 4 sweep a year market, the July book is typically used for the JAS quarter. If the market has 12 books per year, each month should be rated on its own book. In a 5, 6 or 7 annual books market, you might average July and October to post September.
Media Guru, why do the sweeps always start on Thursday?
Going back to the days of paper diaries, respondents filled them out day by day. The start day of a diary was always Thursday. Why? Who knows? But what happened, according to some theories, was that repondents were more compliant about filling out the diaries at the beginning of the survey week, so the Thursday programming appeared to have the best ratings. This led to Thursdays appearing to be best viewed, and programmers would put their best programs on Thursday nights and eventually Thursday really did have the biggest audiences. So the Thursday ratings cycle start has been perpetuated.
In our market, putting an ad in the beginning of an ad pod is roughly 50% more expensive.
Given a fixed budget, would you recommend lowering the GRP level in favor of first positions or not?
(Background: the client was off air for 2 years)
Ask your self, what metric will improve by an equal amount to justify spending the extra 50%? Reach? Certainly not. Attentivenss? Probably some. But look at minute-by-minute measures to see how 1st position compares in ratings.
If we don't have software to combine different reaches on a media plan, how do we establish an acceptable, unduplicated reach and frequency when buying both boradcast and cable, and combining it with print and internet? Also, can we have duplication in broadcast since TV is a "moment in time" rather than print pubs where you can subscribe to more than one but you aren't reading more than one at any given time? Do ratings account for multiple stations or networks viewed?
Click here to see past Guru responses regarding combining reaches.
Reach is calculated over a period of time, typically 4 weeks, so that TV as well as print may duplicate.
Ratings are about a point in time, multiple stations viewed are not a factor, except that ratings have generally decreased as viewing choices have burgeoned.
What is considered to be the optimal reach/frequency for a radio campaign?
No such animal.
"Optimal" is determined by strategies in each case.
I am planning on buying 3 broadcast networks and a handful of cable networks and need to determine the reach of my total buy. Is it appropriate to take the total GRP's across all networks and divide it by my frequency to get my total estimated reach? (Using the reach X freq = GRP equation.) If not, what is the better alternative? I do not currently subscribe to a R&F program for TV and need to do a hand calculation. Thank you!
If you knew your average frequency, this would work. But how would you know it without an R&F program?
This sounds like a fairly expensive buy; why wouldn't you have R&F software if you're spending this kind of money?
Try AMIC's eTelmar on a pay-per-use basis.
Hello Media Guru,
I am currently running a client in three local markets at 100 TRP's per week. How can I equate this to a national campaign that we are looking to run.
At its simplest, this would equate to the same 100 TRP schedule in the national versions of the local media you are using.
Do you have any reader/user information or profile on ValPak or the Valassis Red Plum marraige mailer?
The vendors are the best source.
We have a client with low unaided awareness scores, and I am wondering if there is any research which identifies which medium is best to improve awareness. My instincts say "TV", but I need some hard documentation to help make my case. Thanks.
I have a client who would like us to calculate the combined reach & frequency for a cable, spot radio and traffic radio campaign. Without a media mix program, how can I calculate reach & frequency across these various mediums? Are there standard formulas that I should be using?
Click here to see past Guru responses regarding combining reaches.
I'm trying to get a handle on CPM's... Can you provide some ballpark ranges on the high side, low side and average CPM's for network and spot TV?
I imagine the target audience and demographics play a large part in the pricing -- for example, a show targeting adult males 18-24 might cost more than an episode of the Golden Girls and a broadcast targeting the ultra-rich might cost more than both.
Any insights you can provide around the numbers are also welcome. Thanks in advance.
HH CPMs in net tv might range from about $3 to $30.
The smaller the demographic, the higher the cpm. More targeted shows will often deliver their target more efficiently.
Can you please explain the role of a media buyer AFTER the buy has been placed.
Is this the person who also tracks the buy and presents tv post against the actual buy too, if not who is?
Depending on the organization size and staffing, these are the buyers' resposibility. Often, planners present posts, especially if the cklient is hearing about multi-media results.
HOW TO FORMULATE A MEDIA DECISION STRATEGY
Is there a "rule of thumb" wear out number for print during a 4 week campaign? I understand that there are a number of factors that go into wear out (ie: creative, environment, clutter,etc.). However do you have a general rule one could follow?
No general rule this narrow. Some rules in other media are expressed in terms such as "when frequency reaches 20 in the second heaviest quintile." The Guru does not imagine you will approach such a level in any 4-week campaign, even with only one ad variant.
Is there a way to measure reach/frequency for an overall media plan that includes TV, radio, print and outdoor?
It is a quite common measurement. Tools like our own eTelmar do just this.
I have a clients who operate on different commission structures. Can you please provide formulas for 7.5% commission and 9% commission?
The Guru expects that when you say "7.5% commission," you mean net plus 7.5%.
If so, net x 107.5 = your effective gross.
On $1000 net, your commission would be $75.
I am looking for data to back up media flighting strategies. For a branding campaign, is it better to go with heavy, yet shorter flights to make an impact or to go with lighter, but more frequent flights throughout the year?
The Guru has addressed this question frequently;
Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use "flighting" or "recency" as your search term.
I am estimating magazine rates for 2009. First, do you agree that a 5-7% annual increase is about right for the industry as a whole? And second does the industry have an accepted way of calculating this increase? For example, is it better to divide by .93 or to mulitply by 1.07 for a 7% increase in rates? Thank you!
The Guru believes 7% is closer to the truth.
Multiplying by 1.07 works.
Dicviding by .93 is not quite right. Try 0.9346
What is LPM
You are probably referring to Nielsen's Local People Meter
articles on advertising media selection
Try Google Scholar
In which pods are national ads generally placed? Are they at the top/bottom of the hour and the local ads are in the middle pod of a half-hour show? Back in the day, there were specific places for national vs local ads. Nowadays I know they are intermingled, but where did national ads used to be placed? Thanks!
General rule was local between programs, national within. Hour programs' midpoint break also carried local.
I will be buying :60 TV spots in a local market. Is the TRP value the same as a :30 or doubled?
Not in buying or planning, In valuing a post analysis, perhaps.
Hi Media Guru - I used to sell print advertising and
understand the concept of competitive separation. I am now selling online advertising and have the opportunity to get two pieces of business from the same brand IF we can provide a sort of separation of the two campaigns online. The two campaigns can not appear on the same page. To complicate things abit, I work for a network so there will be a few sites involved in running both campaigns. Is this posssible? What would be involved? Many Thanks
Adservers should be able to prevent the two ads ever being served at the same time on a page
Hi Guru, i was wondering if someone needs an MBA degree to reach the highest Media Director level. Is this something that could put a prospect ahead? Is it worth the $20,000+ for the degree?
In a lifetime career, the $20,000 would probably eventually be repaid by greater earnings.
Dear MG! Can you explain to me - is it any differense between calculating Recah 1+ in media mix (by random probability) and Reach 2+,3+ and so on, or we can use the same sheme as for Reach 1+? Thank you a lot!
It's quite different.
Assuming you are talking about
combining media, in the new 2+ group,
you will have some of the two+ from the
1+ group in medium A
, some from the original 2+ group some
from the same sets in medium B and so on. It's a complex formula.
I am the Director of Sales & Marketing for a luxury Casribbean resort. Frequently I have pop-up requests to purchase ad pages and have a contigency line in the budget for this purpose. What is the quickest and simplest way to determine if the ad is worth the money. We have an ad agency that handles the major requests so I do not want to bother them with some of the smaller ones. The most recent example would be:
A partner is celebrating its 20th anniversary will be producing a unique publication in partnership with Luxury Travel Advisor. It will be distributed with the November issue of Luxury Travel Advisor and serve as a marketing collateral for recruitment efforts of luxury selling advisors in 2008 and 2009.
Here’s the reach:
Luxury Travel Advisor’s qualified readers: 13,000
Virtuoso’s own distribution: 5,000
Full-page congratulatory advertising messages are US $5,000 net and half page options for $3,000 net.
How would you approach this?
Presumably you have a media plan which sets parameters for media selection regarding environment, audience quality and efficiency which you ought to follow.
In the Guru's experience, the agency would rather take care of the "small stuff" than have you working around them.
Dear Guru, I am working for a telecom service provider client. Problems I am facing are that:
1. How to successfully capture consumer mind space in an extremely cluttered environment and category?
2. How to quickly build up TOM & ensure acquisitions?
3. How do we successfully differentiate the brand from key competitors in the mind & media space?
4. The brand launch to happen in phases – circle wise. How do we ensure maximum media mileage without spillovers?
I know this is like asking too much but, still I am hopeful.
The Guru finds that your questions range well
beyond media issues and answers;
some of the media points raised by the answers will take you in opposite directions.
how did ultra luxury brands that are established today such as vertu, maybach..etc launch their brands. How do we create an ultra luxury brand in media? doesn't mass media cheapen these brands that are yet to be born, how do we create awareness of such a brand amongst the ultra rich, poeple who are beyond material achievements?
These brands establish themselves through promoting excellence (creative / marketing issue) and carrying ridiculous prices. Maybachs are essentially super Mercedes, as triple prices. It's a 100 year old brand, revived by Daimler, Mercedes' parent.
The Guru would say that the media key is to select media environments with an audience among the "right" people, but only among the right people so that an audience member reached knows that only avery select group is being addressed.
Consider using Mendelsohn Media Research' affluent study, which surveys heads of households with $100K+ income, and offers data for demograhics up to $4 million HH income.
Hi Media Guru,
I would like to know a bit about how advertising on media sites works.
If I was to sell advertising space on my website homepage, what sort of fees would be suitable?
How long would the ad last for?
Who would supply the ad?
Many thanks for your time
Small sites often just use small, flat fees like $100 per month.
Or, a $5.00 cpm (cost per thousand audience impressions)
is not a bad starting point, if you can document your audience.
One month is a standard advertisdng period
Ads are usually supplied by the advertiser, but you can offer to create them as a service.
We have a client that insists that cable news ratings are higher than broadcast news ratings in his market. Unfortunately, we do not have the books to be able to prove this. We showed him the differences in the universe sizes, plus the county by county share for broadcast vs cable. Do you know of any resource I can cite to help him understand what we are trying to tell him?
The only resource to prove this is a tv audience measure like Nielsen. It is certainly possible that some cable news ratings are higher than some broadcast news ratings in a given market, especially when measured within a cable universe.
How would you buy both a national radio buy and a local radio buy, using the local radio buy to fill in the market? How do you figure GRPs and CPPs?
The concept you are looking at is "spot fill." Many advertisers have used this for years with TV plans, particularly package goods marketers. Process is, roughly:
Local CPPs can scome from SQAD
Our company acquired a new client in Philadelphia where two casinos are about to be built within the next couple of years. How much of an affect would advertising of these casinos on the CPP for the entire Philly DMA?
If you mean will your advertising activity affect the overall cpp averages for the DMA for all advertisers, it depends on two factors;
Unless the answer is a very large unlikely number on both issues, the effect should be negligible.
Hello guru… currently I am working with media department and I am searching media software to improve efficiency of work. Please suggest me appropriate software for planning, implementation and operations.
I am trying to combine the 1+ reach for 3 TV campaigns with the same demo that ran at the same time. I know that I cannot simply add them up. Can you recommend a formula to acheive this number?
The three schedules should be processed as one through R&F software like our own eTelmar
The situation we have is that one of our clients, a luxury hotel, is
interested in acquiring data on monthly advertising expenditure of their
competitors by media in Mexico and Costa Rica from 2006 - 2008.
Is there any service that would be able to provide something similar to
what our client is requesting?
i am an executive student of MBA in preston university,
i want to submit my class project ,on an interview with local advertiser about a local campaign ,and write a report on how and why it was developed,its strategy,its creative theme,its media plan,and its evaluation. plz guide me the process.
What are the pros & cons of running 15 second TV ads or bookend ads?
Using bookends may offset some of the cons, but not without offsetting the pros. :15s typically cost more than half of a :30.
Can you explain the concept of half-life when it comes to media?
Half-life is not a familar or standard term to the Guru. It sounds as if it might refer to the decline of ad-awareness when advertising stops. "Half"-life might mean that for each (period of time) with no advertising, ad-awareness falls by 50% of what it was in the previous period.
So, for example, if ad-awareness was at 80% when advertising ended (or went into hiatus), it would fall to 40% one month later.
As far as ad-awarenes is concerned, the Guru has seen estimates more along the lines of each non-advertising week drops ad-awareness to about 90% of the preceding week's level. This is somehat less drastic than the 50% per month theory.
I would to know how much will it cost to develop advertising media plan.
Also the advertising manual
Cost of development depends on
In short, the question is too simple or too complex to answer.
"The advertising manual" is an unclear reference.
what is strategic brand review
Not a standardized media term. In a media context, it ought to mean a re-axamination of the media strategies the barand is following, measuring their success and continued agreement with overarching advertising strategies.
There should also be an exploration of alternative strategies available.
We are currently producing a 26-epiosde TV series (30-minute each episode), which will also be formatted as a 13-DVD set. It's an educational program, called “Global English”. Exclusive domestic and international distribution contracts have already been signed for a 17-year term, various parties including PBS seeking sub-distribution out, as well.
Since English has become the new Babylonian language and the ESL training a multibillion-dollar business, it’s obvious that our program targets worldwide demographics. Thus, we decided to offer long-term media-buying opportunities to advertisers, at one-time cost, as follows:
a) The advertiser(s) will be featured as closed captioning sponsor(s) of "Global English". Each closed captioning sponsor will benefit from two audio/video spots (10 seconds each) and a written credit that will become part of one episode, in perpetuity.
b) We’ll present as Extra Feature on one DVD (two advertisers per DVD) the advertiser’s corporate/promotional video (up to 10 minutes and produced by themselves, or us).
c) The advertisers will also benefit from collateral publicity. The "Global English" Website will link to the advertisers' Websites. Their names will appear on the DVD inserts in perpetuity.
1. What do you think the pricing should be for the media-buying opportunities that we offer?
2. Although my co-producers insist that we make direct Invitations to offer to potential advertisers including international English language training titans such as Berlitz (www.berlitz.com) and others, I opt for retaining a Media (planning/buying) Agency to do the job. In my opinion, an Agency can approach any potential awareness advertiser, including Nicky's Clothing Line. Do you think I am right? If you think I am right, do you have any suggestions as to which Agency we should talk to? Will you refer to us a few names, or would you refer my query to such agencies?
3. Do you have any ingenious suggestions regarding media planning, media buying and media management for the media-buying opportunities we offer?
Thanks and do accept my superlative appreciations for the great job you’re doing!
You first need to quantify the audience you expect, including the current langauge spoken, for each portion .Obviuosly
adversing in English will be less effective in the early lessons. Consider offering opportunities in various languages. This type of advertising will have differing appeal to various advertisers based on whether they are in the travel business, immigration support services, job placement etc. (Nicky's clothing seems an unlikely choice). The adverstising you offer seems much less compelling than traditional :30 spots. Even if one country in Europe typically sold :30 TV for a cpm of €20, and that made your product worth a cpm of €10, you still must account for different countries' pricing standard and the audience you ofere in them.
Figuring this out would certainly be part of the job of your media consultant, but you do not want a planning / buying "agency." Agencies do not sell media they buy it. You want a media "rep firm,"
particulary one that sells multinationally.
One example is Huson International Media.
Hello Media Guru -
I am trying to figure out the best way to combine national magazine reach and national internet reach. I know that I can use the random probability formula to combine two reach numbers. However, the problem I keep running into is that my base for print reach is total US (based on MRI numbers) and my base for internet reach is total US that is online (based on comScore numbers). Any suggestions on how to combine these numbers? Thanks!
Briefly, our company provides software and services for the ground transportation industry. Our software currently supports shuttle services at every major airport in the United States and London. We are looking at the feasibility of presenting advertising to the shuttle audience as our in-vehicle technology could easily support customized, digital
advertising in all vehicles.
I have listed below a snapshot of our shuttle service environment for your information and evaluation:
Media Audience and Features
- 10 to 15 passengers in a vehicle per trip
- Captive audience; average passenger time in vehicle: 30 to 45 minutes
- Approximately 3000 passengers per vehicle per month
- Approximately 4000 vehicles in every major city in the US
- Over 12 million captive passengers per month
- Target marketing - know where they come from, where they are going, which airline they fly......
- Ability to customized Advertising set by software
- Ability to print customized, personalized coupons
My questions are:
1) is our audience of value to channel advertisers?;
2)who are the firms that might have an interest? and 3) would your firm be interested in discussing our model?
This sounds like a valuable vehicle (excuse the pun) for any advertisers in travel or entertainment plus various others.
This includes hotels, aitrlines, luggage, travel web sites, car rental, tourist attractions, specialty local retail, e.g. L.L. Bean at the Portland Me airport. With a gross audience of 12 million, one commercial running on all shuttles could sell for $60,000 or more.
A premium for coupons is reasonable.
Hi. Im doing a media plan for overseas market. Would you pls advise what considerations to take in so doing.Thanks.
Considerations are essentially the same as any other media plan. You need to learn the quirks of the target market. Relative media strenghts and standards of evaluation vary from country to country.
What are your thoughts on ValPak-The Blue Envelope full of coupons?
ValPak is one of many bulk coupon distribution vehicles. The Guru does not have a basis of comparison to all the others.
I'm desperate looking for info related with ad spending and online ad spending in Asia (particularly South Asia) for a market research. The reports on the Internet cost a fortune. Is there anything reliable available for free?
If you mean broad country and media totals, try "Universal McCann's Coen Report". If you mean for specific advertisers, no.
how do I find media buyers for national accounts
Are you aware of any existing research that shows that one TV spot (vs. none) can increase brand awareness? I've seen one report on that and I am trying to see if I can get my hands on a copy.
There may be such studies, but they are
rather pointless. In what realistic situation
would a schedule consist of one exposure?
are recall or laboratory studies, which are based on one forced exposure,
These are typically meant to measure something other than awareness, but may incidentally deal with your question. The best repository of such publicly availabe studies is The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.
Please describe the process of posting a tv buy.
What information is necessary?
Can the tv station perform the post?
What is realistic in requesting makegood weight?
The process is a matter of comparing what was ordered to what was delivered. Key elements of the order are:
So you need the details of your order, the station affidavit detailing what they ran for you and an audience measurement resource which was agreed to at the time of the order, such as a specific "book" or ratings cycle of Nielsen NSI.
As to makegood weight, bringing you to 100% of the weight ordered is reasonable, but should have been specified at the time of the order. Otherwise quibbling about the last one or two or five percent may become an issue.
The station can perform the post but it is far better to do it under your own control. There are too many issues open to judgement calls to leave it to the vendor, particularly rotation issues.
i am creating a marketing campaign which targets colleges students, both male and female, with no regard to race or ethnicity. i need to find statistics on why i should be targeting this group. just as a reference to back up why i am targeting them for a campaign for toothpaste, toothbrushes and floss. please direct me to a source for statistics such as these. THANK YOU!
Ordinarily the Guru would expect a marketer to know a target is valuable before deciding to target it.
Click here to see Quirks' list of college student research resources
I am the Marketing Director for a franchisee, I also buy the TV (free of charge) for the local Co-Op my franchisee is part of. I want to resign from my position and freelance the TV buys for the group and now need to show a fee for my services. I feel doing the buys for only the agency commission would better interest this group. Can you give me an easy way explain this and how do I counter act the question I know will come up...If an agency gets a discount then I can just hire an in house media buyer and License them as an agency and save the group 15%.
Few would think just media buying is worth the full agency commission. So, rethink your potential rates.
Focus on how you can do it better, not on cost issues.
how is CPT calculated
Assuming that by "CPT" you mean cost per transaction, it depends on how you define transaction. Typically a transaction is a sale, but it might be an information request or registration, etc.
In any case, cost of advertising ÷ transactions = CPT
what is an IPO? and what is a corporaye plan?
IPO is a stock market term meaning "Initial Public Offering." It is not a media term, even if a media company is the one being offered, as Google was a few years ago.
Corporate plan can either mean an overall plan in which all the brands and products of one parent company paricipate, or a plan for the corporation itself. In this latter case, it is usually an image campaign, often aimed at investors. "GE brings good things to life" is one. Is that one aimed at having a halo effect on all products with the GE brand or is it aimed at investors? Examine the copy.
For database tagging purposes: how can an advertiser ask a person to self-identify as LBGT or African-American. I know there are programs that work with zip codes and last names, but what is the standard way of getting the answer to this somewhat personal question?
Race is not a particularly sensitive survey question these days, though the sexual orientation one might be.
Of course, this is not a media question. The Guru's approach would be to identify a syndicated study which reports these demographic breaks and ask to see the questionnaire. These are often usually made available to the public sometimes on the vendor's website. Consider Simmons' LGBT Study.
Is there any resource I can turn to that will provide a quick overview of WHY targeting creative and media specific minority segments makes economic sense. Ie, to respond to the questions like: Why don't you just put African-Americans in the mainstream ads?, Why don't you just put the regular ad on LOGO? Thanks, Guru
As a rule, the thinking will be something like:
For optimal effictiveness and bang for your buck, you have decided to go to a lot of trouble in casting your basic core-market commerical to be sure the actors will be empathetic with / appealing to your target. You go to a lot of trouble to pick programming that engages your target. Why wouldn't you approach minority markets the same way for optinmal effectiveness?
Once again thank you for your insight. I understand your view on C-level executives and physicians etc, if we would be able to break down the demographics within day parts this may change the possible CPM.
The sceens are deployed in different markets, what do you mean by selling individual screens?
What is it you mean by GROSS impressions is the following what you are implying :
3,780,000 (total viewrs on all screens per week)are the unique impressions as this is measured for one ad viewed per person therefore as the viewers are captive and are there for the full 20 minute loop they see all 20 ads therefore creating 20 impressions GROSS per viewer, 20 gross impressions per viewer X 60 viewers daily X7 days X9000 screens =75,600,000 GROSS impressions weekly or 302,400,000 GROSS impressions per month, I do not believe we will be able to charge on this number, correct?
Once again thank you
You should be thinking about this in terms of what you are selling to the individual advertiser.
Are you selling him 20 impressions per viewer? No. You are selling him just one, and then you will hopefully sell the same to 19 other advertisers, correct?
Although the GROSS impressions of your medium may be 75,600,000 per week, the gross for a single ad is only 3,780,000. The net unduplicated is 3,780,000 as well, but there is heavy (virtually total) duplication between one ad's 3,780,000 and the next ad's impressions in that loop.
Charges would be based on the gross for one advertiser: 3,780,000. If the advertiser buys for a week, you charge for a week. If the advertiser buys for a month, you charge for a month. The Guru would expect some king of economy-of-scale discount for a monthly advertiser.
The Guru's reference to selling individual screens is based on your prior references to "$10 per screen." If you do not intend to sell any advertiser less than all 9,000 screens, you should stop talking about $10 per screen, and only talk about the $90,000 price an advertiser must deal with. $10 is strictly an internal number for your system.
Media Guru thank you for your quick response . I understand that you are concerned with the forced exposure, however if this is not the issue, let me ask you the following questions.
I understand your 20 advertisers X.50= $10.00 a week and I follow your $1.19 CPM ($4,500/3,780,000 = $1.19) And I understand charging each advertiser $4,500.00 a week arriving at $90,000.
However anticipating that this amount would have been per advertiser on a national buy leaves us in a position of uncertainty.
Secondly, we were anticipating charging $10 per screen per week per advertiser(I omitted to mention this) in my last e-mail. How can we maintain such a screen rate without using a multiplying factor and remain with an acceptable CPM? The answer I presume is to increase the reach within the 9000 screens deployed (but this is a constant measurement and con not be tampered with)
Thirdly is the screen rate per week the important factor here or is the buyer more concerned with the CPM allowing us to charge a screen rate as desired, and maintaining a desirable CPM.
Fourthly will it be easier for a media buy (and for us) for the buy to be done on a strict CPM basis?
And is there an acceptable CPM for OOH, what I mean to say is there a barrier.
Thank you for your insight this is amazing.
Unless you are selling individual screens, nobody will care about your screen rate. Total cost and cpm are the considerations. And this mjeans it's about gross impressions, not "reach."
Unless you have a special audience, such as physicians or C-level executives, the Guru does not expect a cpm much over $5.00 will be palatable to buyers of such an out-of-home medium.
Thank you for taking my question. We are in the process of deploying an OOH Digital Signage network and I have a problem to solve in regards with the CPM of which seems to be critical in the media buy.
We will be deploying 9000 screens one per location, we know that we have 420 people of which will be exposed to the medium per week, 420 x 9000= 3,780,000 people will be exposed weekly. Is this number considered as the reach or unduplicated impressions? We assume it will be both.
We are running a 20 minute loop of content and advertising, of which 5 minutes will be dedicated to advertising and we know for a fact through our resaerch that each individual will be in front of the screen for the full 20 minute loop.
The ads are 15 seconds each therefore, there will be a maximum of 20X15 second ads per 20 minute loop.
We wish to charge a per screen rate per week, for simplifying things lets say $10.00 per screen per week.
We are also asuming that each individual will be exposed to all the adverts as they can not leave the environment or turn it off. Are we safe in saying that each individual will be have a frequency of 3 ads viewed minimum since there may be distractions etc.?
Therefore if we are at all correct the math would be 420 x 9000 x 3= 11,340,000 impressions weekly?
Therefore, 9000 screens x $10.00 per week per screen = $90,000 per week for total network,now if this is right we have to determine the CPM thus taking the total weekly cost $90,000/11,340,000 total impressions will give us a CPM of $7.93.
The question remains can this formula be acceptable towards the media buy or must we completely eliminate the multiplying factor of 3, thus 9000 screens X $10 = $90,000/3,780,000 for a CPM of $23.80?
If the later is the case then we would price ourselves out of the market, do you have any suggestions to my dilema?
Looking forward to hearing from you.
The scenario of forced exposure you propose is
somewhat unsettling and one must wonder what the audience attitude toward the medium's ads will be. If the 420 people are all different and do not see any of the other 9000 screens, then yes, 420 x 9000 is the reach per week and may also be called the unduplicated impressions.
You do not offer any reasoning to support your minimum of 3 ad viewed out of 20 on the loop. If there are distractions, they will probably be welcomed, but that doesn't lead to any particular frequency assumption. Frequency is the not an issue here. For impressions one assumes one showing of one ad to one person = one impression. Guru would use 20 as the base of your impressions inventory, but each advertiser will only care about what impressions their own as gets. Apparently this would be 420 x 9000 or 3,780,000 as you said.
If you charge this advertiser $90,000 that's a cpm of $23.80 as you said and it certainly is too high. But if you want to make $10 per screen per week, you will only charge each of your 20 advertisers $0.50 per screen per week or $4,500 for a very reasonably cpm of $1.19. You would be charging each of 20 advertisers this way.
What is the TV Quality Rating Point definition?
Is there any formula to calculate it?
The Guru does not believe this has become a standard measure.
Our client has asked for help in setting advertising awareness goals for the upcoming year. What is your thinking about percentages for unaided and aided ad awareness that are considered to be a "good" score? Thank you.
1. More is better
2. It depends on the number of competitors in the market and the spending. This is not really a media question.
I need to buy TV, which I have never done before. I work for a very small agency in Pittsburgh, PA. My previous agency in NY had Telmar, but I doubt they will ever have that here, due to the size. With that said, I know nothing about GRPs, etc. and how it relates to cable & broadcast. How would I learn this, and also, it a client is doing a branding campaign for several months, how many GRPS do you want to buy a week? Is there a book or something you could refer me to?
the reach in my country for radio is 70%. cost of spot is 18000. rating for prime time is 12 points. how do i calculate cost per thousand and cost per point for a campaign using these details?
Cost per Point = Cost ÷ ratings,
so 18000 ÷ 12 = 1500 cpp.
Cost per thousand = Cost ÷ impressions in thousands
12 rating = 12% of the population, so
18000 ÷ (0.12 x population in thousands) = cost per thousand
Is there a formula for Effective (or net) Reach at certain frequency levels? I can figure average R/F, manually, but I need a formula for pulling Effective
You really need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.
The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
My client, has asked us to include in our media plans, a combined r/f total. Meaning, she wants us to take the r/f that is planned for Cable, planned for print, planned for internet, etc. and combine them for a plan total? Is there a formula for this. Can it be done? Thanks!
It's a fairly simple process; click here to see Click here to see past Guru discussion and demonstrations of the calculation.
What is the market average click-thru-rate for interactive banner ads, 0.1%-0.2%?
Last year DoubleClick reported that "the standard CTR for image ads is between 0.1 and 0.2 percent"
Are cable networks able to copy-split by state (ie: different creative in California) or are they only able to split by region?
Networks generally can split by region.
Remember they transmit by satellite,
which has a broad footprint. Spot cable
or CableConnect might be able to help achieve what you need.
Good Morning Guru-
I have been asked by a client to place a spots schedule in the top 20 US Markets. I notice from SQAD that this has the ability to reach 44% of the US households. Where is the "tipping point" where it is more cost effective to buy national instead of spot?
In all my years, I have never bought national...how does this differ from spot and how do I learn.
"National" should mean network. Today
we have broadcast network, e.g. NBC,
ABC, Fox, CW, etc, and spot consists of
their local station affiliates, such as WNBC in
New York, KABC in LA, WNYW in NY and independent local stations.
National can also refer to cable networks like Bravo or ESPN, and the "spot" scenario of buying local DMA interconnects or MSOs. There are national alternatives like Telamerica Cable Connect as well.
Assuming you mean the first of these situations, you can compare buying one network announcement that covers the entire country or a spot on each of the affiliates of that network. In terms of "effectiveness" this should be more or less equal, assuming your brand is evenly sold across the country. If there are gaps in distribution or variations in sales rate, spot in selected markets or some network weight supplemented by spot in key markets could be more "effective."
But, you probably mean to ask which is more "efficient."
Almost invariably, a network spot costs less than the sum of all the local spots that make up that same audience. So, at what point in buying spot markets does the cost equal the national for only a portion of the audience value? It will probably be around 45-50% of US coverage if you are buying top markets, but there can be significant variance depending on daypart and demo.
SQAD also offers network cost tools that can allow you to make the case-by-case comparison easily.
Expandable ads stats
Can you offer guidelines for purchasing a banner ad on a local newspaper web site? The newspaper will only provide me with a monthly fee for a set number of impressions. They won't disclose any info about the number of advertisers on the site or the number of impressions purchased by other advertisers. I can't select dayparts. How do I get a sense of the reach and frequency associated with my buy?
Your reach and frequency do not correlate
to the number of other advertisers nor to their impressions. The site might legitimately consider these data confidential.
You may reasonably and more usefully ask what number of page loads are required to serve your impressions commitment, what share of site impressions you are buying, what the number of ad positions on the site is, what is the overall number of unique visits and unique visitors and what the overall reach of the site is.
Hi Guru, Are there any lists of all media (tv, print, web, etc) targeted to upscale: African-Americans, Hispanics, LGBT, Women Business Owners?
The Guru is not aware of any single source listing
upscale media for all these segments. There are
many sources of media for any one of
these minority segments, without the
"upscale" overlay. For example many
African-American and Hispanic media are listed
Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) also has searchable listings that might cross the characteristics you are pursuing.
Will u plz tell me "what is the media planning for creating the awareness of subsidy on fertilizers by the government"?
The Guru does not actually do media planning in this space. If he did, the obscurity of your marketing issues as well as the fact that you appear to be inquiring from an unspecified country would be virtually unconquerable obstacles.
Inasmuch as you probably have that information, the Guru recommends you be guided by the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan
Will u plz tell me "what is the media planning for launching a noiseless generator"?
The Guru does not actually do media planning in this space. If he did, the obscurity of your marketing issues as well as the fact that you appear to be inquiring from an unspecified country would be virtually unconquerable obstacles.
Inasmuch as you probably have that information, the Guru recommends you be guided by the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan
My client has asked my to provide the 3+ Reach on the Post Buy. My software (Smartplus) doesn't provide the number for posts, and the tv stations say you can't do it. Any ideas?
Sort the post results into appropriate categories, e.g. GRP per daypart by station or whatever the software requires,
and process through software that does give 3+ reach results, such as our own eTelmar
Can you please suggest some good print media innovations for a low-cost airline?
It is difficult to suggest "innovations" without knowing what you have tried already. One recent trend is pop-up ads that offer samples, play recorded sound, or otherwise involve the reader more than flat ads. Work with your creative people.
Guru i want to build channel feasibility where can i find a perfect help, or do you have a complete feasibility (Forecast) for reference on any website, appreciate your help
The Guru really does not know what
you mean by "build Television channel
Dear Guru, where can i find the Television Channel Feasibility.
The Guru really does not know what
you mean by "the Television channel
Hi Guru - I need to compile a fair-share delivery analysis of our spot tv buy for a typical QSR Fair Share co-op. As I have been doing this on an as-needed basis, I have been using what is reported by county for a M-Sun 6AM - 12M daypart and not specific to the stations or shares on buy....this, out of the nielsen county-by-county analysis. Not the best but for my immediate purposes, was ok.
Now I want to step up and perform the analysis in the best way possible and for the whole 820+ restaurant system.
When I worked on a competing brand in the 90's, we had a software package that allowed us to drop in points and would generate a share of viewership index by county to the full DMA. The software package also took the aggregate of entries and reported spill in and out of the DMA. This, I am pretty sure, was proprietary to the QSR I was servicing.
Are you aware of anything new/available to help me with automation and/or provide more finely tuned readings?
Senior manager - Media
Checkers Drive-In Restaurants, Inc.
The Guru recalls a similar program, called "MARS," created by our sister company, Telmar, in the 80's. It may be currently available and updatable.
Nielsen now offers software to manipulate their own data but, of course, you need something that lets you overlay your chain's geographic distribution, which was a feature of the "MARS" program the Guru recalls. Start with Telmar.
What are the components of a good media strategy/planning documents?
Is 100 TRPs per week the benchmark level for Network TV? Is it the same for Network Cable?
The Guru doesn't support "benchmarks" with some related goal.
100 TRP in Prime versus 100 TRP in Daytime produce vastly different Reach / Frequency outcomes, as do various mixes. Many of these differences realte to rating size, program frequency, etc. Prime network TV, with perhaps a 5 average rating can not be expected to have the same results as 100 TRP of cable network with perhaps a 0.5 average rating.
Numbers like this, with little basis other than being nice and round may make sense for box-car buys such as short term promotions emphasizing frequency, but can't fairly be generalized. Click here to see past Guru responses about levels.
Guru can you please advice me good books about media planning, buying & research even one book containing all media query
Visit the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com; see the media planning and research sections.
Do you have information on TV and newspaper trends over the past several years nationally?
My online campaign is delivering more "views" than my purchased "impressions". I'm happy for the overdelivery, but want to make sure there is no difference between "impressions" and "views".
"Impressions" for an ad campaign are the number of times the ad is exposed to a user. Ad views is the same. Different reporting systems may use alternate terms
What does GRPs really mean in terms interpreting it to a client or anyone. for example if you have GRPs for TV as 537, Radio as 235 and print as 105. Again what does it even mean to rationalise GRPs for 10 selected radio stations. Infact what is a good GRP?
Click here to browse through hundreds of past Guru responses about definition and application of "GRP"
Click here to see more than 150 past Guru responses about CPP
Are talk radio station listeners more engaged than regular music listeners?
That is the conventional wisdom. Try Radio Ad Lab for research.
Ok...I'm grasping the meaning behind GRPs and TRPs. I've read several of your replies to other inquiries. Right now I'm looking at a post analysis summary from our media buyer. So for example, a particular spot delivered 7.6 TRPS. Does that mean the spot was viewed by 7.6% of P 35-64, our demographic used by the media buyer? And if that is correct, why are they added up, showing 264.8 TRPs for the month? If that final number refers more to impressions, please explain. Thanks!
Assuming the TRPs are labeled
"P35-64" the 7.6 does mean the spot was
viewed by 7.6% of that demographic. It
also seems that there are several spots in
your schedule for that month, with the
ratings of all the spots adding up to
264.8 TRPs. Each spot has its own
impressions which equate to TRPs.
I need a clear concept of GRPs. I understand the terminology that it is the sum of rating points but what actually refers to it and what is the rationale behind it. For suppose, I have achieved 235 GRPs over a period of 40 days and my audience is Male - Female, 18-35, SEC- A & B. What does 235 as a weight refers to. What is the minimum threshold level of GRPs. How does the calculation works. I am clear on reach and frequency. Thank you!
For any given audience considered, each time there is one exposure of an ad to one member of the audience, an "impression" is generated; there are 2 impressions whether the same person sees an ad twice or two different persons each see an ad once, and so on.
If the sum of all these impressions is divided by the population base (universe) of the target audience, the result is GRP, which are expressed as a percent of the population. I.e. if the number of impressions is equal to the population size, the result of the calculation is "1" or 100%, expressed as 100 GRP.
Similarly, the impressions of a single ad, divided by the population, is the ad's rating. Thus, the sum of all ratings is also the GRPs. There is no "rationale," these are simply media terms and definitions.
Different theories and approaches set various GRP thresholds depending of marketing goals.
How do I convert Gross Rating Points into Impressions?
Base population of the target for the GRP
multiplied by GRP ÷ 100
I'm working feverishly to expose TravelAdNetwork here in Canada. I have found some list of
Agencies. But I'm finding through my research that many online planning
agencies aren't listed. As one mentioned they like to stay under the
Is there an easier way ie, database that I can access to find online Media
Planners in Canada? I've been told no.. but I'm stubborn. As this does
exist on the US side.
Research and Markets has published articles like "US and Canada top 50 interactive advertising agencies ranked by forecast interactive revenues in US dollars for 2002, with number of employees and actual revenues for 2001."
More promising still are Canada's Institute of Communications Agencies and Canada's AgencySearch.ca as sources. It doesn't seem at all likely that ad agencies, which are generally as eager for business as you are, would want to "stay under the radar."
Googling "canadian ad agencies" would probably turn up additional resources
how about yellow pages
Great forum...I learn more each time I visit.
We have a client that is interested in measuring a branding/image campaign. The person that heads up our client's marketing group is from the online world where everything is measurable. There are several different components (entertainment, restaurants, and then image) which need to be measured. We have no problem with entertainment or restaurants. However, without doing an unaided/aided awareness study, is the guru familiar with any methods of measuring an image campaign besides an increase in revenue?
Quantifying "image" makes the Guru think of
measures of attitudes, intent to purchase,
and brand character.
But these are all survey-type measures and all call for a pre/post measure to judge campaign effectiveness. The Guru can't think of a way to measure "change" without having a baseline. If simply avoiding a survey in judging image is your issue, focus groups are an approach, but these are not necessarily cheaper than surveys, nor more able to "measure" a campaign. One thing focus groups are not is "measures."
chevrolet advertiseing agency
Is there any source that will give DMAs ranked by media cost?
First you need a source that offers
media costs by DMA, such as SQAD.
SQAD offers software to manipulate their data.
I work for a small advertising agency, we are looking to buy SQAD books. We buy in the ten DMAs buy i can't buy them every month. We cater to Hispanic customers and right now i have no bench mark to place my buys as far as where to get my CPP in each DMA's.What would be the ideal month or Quarter to buy this year? Should we buy the one from June or 2nd Quarter last year?
As long as you understand how the
quarters index to each other, the best
bet is probably to buy the latest
Do you know what O.E.S Analsys is? Someone mention that it had to do with the amount of spots you had to have a week, in order to reach your reach and requence goal. I'm not sure, I would like to find out more infomation about it. Where can i look?
The Guru believes you are referring to
"Optimal Effective Schedule" analysis, an old-fashioned
radio scheduling technique from before
the advent of PCs on everyone's
desk and the availability of station-specific radio R&F software or R&F modeling programs like that of our sister company, eTelmar.
concept was that rather than buying each
radio station in your plan to
some arbitrary number of spots per week like 12 or 18, it was more efficient (in building reach) to buy each station to a number of spots that generated a certain percentage of the station's cume potential. As the Guru recalls, the standard was commonly 80% of the cume potential. In this way, stations with higher "turnover" (cume potential ÷ average rating) got more spots, and the best reach of the plan was most efficiently attained. Today it is so easy to analyze reach and frequency of various schedule options that these old techniques have fallen out of use. Still, in developing schedules to test in your R&F software, the cume potential and turnover may be useful, directionally.
what is the best company contact to do national cable advertisisng to Hispanics?
The Guru is not sure from your syntax that you are asking
about the best Hispanic cable network for
national advertising to Hispanics. If so, Galavision is the ratings leader.
If you are asking about what ad agency to use, there are numerous capable Hispanic agencies. A good list can be found at ahaa (Association of Hispanic Advertising Agencies)
1.what do u mean by 'pcg'and 'pcp' in TAM terminology.
The Guru imagines that by "TAM,"
you refer to Television Audience
Measurement as defined by AGB Nielsen.
The Guru cannot find anything corresponding to
"pcp" or "pcp" in the AGB Nielsen TAM glossary
What is the viability of in store LCD advertising when the stores are retail chains and the advertisers are all existing FMCG producers in the retail outlet. There hasnt been a lot of research in SA but international research is deeming this hybrid media a huge success. So the question is: Would FMCG producers rally to purchase this advertising space? If yes then what would be a reasonable purchase price; Would it be in the price range of print/tv/radio or cinema?
You are asking the Guru to be a fortune teller.
Assuming you are talking about screens displaying full audio/video TV style ads, the Guru has the following thoughts:
I have a client that want to place advertising ad in facebook? can i do that? How can i get a contact of sale?
Visit Facebook's advertisers contact page ALso try Y2M @ 212-618-6391
I am doing research on HDTV and how it will affect advertising. Besides the clarity issue, I have not found anything. When a station multi-casts (sends SD and HD to a TV set) will we be able to pick our "cast?" I have heard that there will be ads that will either run on the top or the side of the screen, but can't find any definitive information. If you can point me in a direction, it would be greatly appreciated.
Virtually all stations are now broadcasting
both analog and digital signals, until
early 2009 when there will only be
One of the virtues of digital signals is much greater bandwidth, i.e. more "information" within the signal, which allows HD pictures. One needs an HD receiver to see an HD broadcast.
Currently, digital signals are on different channel numbers than the analog signals of the same stations. For instance, in the New York DMA, WABC (analog ch 7), WCBS (ch 2) and WNBC (ch 4) broadcast digital signals on channels 45, 56 and 28, respectively. The digital signals are usually, but not always in HD. The digital signals can be received over the air with a suitable rooftop antenna and digital TV receiver. The digital bandwidths allow multiple signals, so that a viewer with such equipment may find he is able to receive "Channel 4.1" and "channel 4.2" and "channel 4.3" with different programming, which might be SD on 4.1, HD of the same program on 4.2 and all news / traffic / weather on 4.3. People using digital cable or satellite might find that local NBC station at channel 4 and their HD version of the same station at channel 804 with an extra digital signal ("channel 4.3") at channel 884. The Guru doesn't think he would ever choose SD over the same program in HD, but he could change the channel if desired.
The bandwidth could probably allow ads on the top or sides of the screen, just as annoyingly as all those tickers and crawls on analog cable news networks now.
For a list of current digital channels visit NAB. Also try NAB (National Association of Broadcasters) for other technical broadcast questions.
For extensive discussion of industry digital TV plans and capabilities, visit TV Advertising Bureau's (TAB's) multiplatform area.
How do you get the daily effective circulation for specific areas?
Daily Effective Circulation (DEC) is a
characteristic of a particular out of home sign.
rather than of "areas." According to the Traffiic Audit Bureau, "the DEC is the average number of persons 18+ who have the
opportunity to see an out-of-home message during a 24-hour period. DECs
are typically measured and adjusted for hours illuminated and for 18+ vehicle
occupancy (current load factor is 1.38)."
The DEC for signs in specific areas is available
from the operator of the sign or from TAB.
Are there any interactive planning "101" seminars that you can recommend to media planners?
It is a long standing policy of the Guru
not to recommend any specific media planning or buying seminars.
what do u mean by time spent
"Time spent," as in time spent listening is the simple English meaning of the words. For example, an average audience member might spend one hour listening to a given radio station in one listening instance.
what is mean by universe
"Universe" is the total population of the type you are considering within the geography you are considering; it is the base for rating, GRP and reach calculations. If your target is Women 18-54 in the US, the total number of W18-54 in the US is the universe.
The information is taken from whatever audience survey vendor is being used.
I am new to media buying, especially buying radio and i was wondering what is a good GRP to look for? One schedule that a sales rep laid out for me has 42.5 GRP, 24.4% reach and 1.7 frequency for the 25-54 demographic. Is this a good schedule? Please advise.
Schedules are not "good" in the abstract.
Are you emphasizing reach, efficiency, frequency, content or what?
Some very generic rules of thumb:
24.4% reach is rather low level in a market, so mulitple stations are even more likely to be needed. Unless you are supporting a short-term promotion, evaluating reach on a four week basis is standard; the schedule you show seems like it might be a one week schedule or on a low-rated station. Talk stations and music stations have different patterns of reach building, which is why this may or may not be a "good" buy on this station. Cultural market segment stations, e.g. Black or Hispanic, typically have much higher ratings within their segments and cume much higher reaches for the GRPs. In the top few urban markets, as many as two out of three of the top stations will be in these cultural segments; their audiences are focused within these segments. You may need to add other stations to expand coverage to a broader slice of of market if your target is spread across all cultural segments. So called "spectrum buys" address such issues, whether you want to spread coverage across all age segments of the broader target, all cultural segments, all income segments, all sub-geographies or whatever other marketing issues apply.
How can I find out the ranking of broadcast tv stations in a particular market? Thanks!
First, decide on the ranking standard. Rating? What target? Cume? Share?
Then buy or otherwise acquire the Nielsen
or other available measurement.
On his 2008 spot calendar, our media buyer shows a breakdown of total spots, total trps and total cost for a 4 week month, a 5 week month and fluff. It's the fluff that bothers me. Shouldn't the buyer be willing to pay more per spot to increase the odds it will run, rather than anticipate pre-emption and include a fluff buy? He subscribes to the theory of catfish level buying which doesn't seem to be working that well any more. Thanks for your input.
Wow, "fluff" and "catfish," two unfamiliar but sufficiently picturesque terms! As to your question, about "shouldn't the buyer be willing. . . ," maybe so or maybe not.
Buyers don't independently make the rules about how much efficiency to pursue, that should come from the plan and its buying platform.
Some buyers arbitrarily pursue efficiency or reach as if they were an absolute "good" instead of other qualitative values like consistent delivery levels or program mix or other metrics that should have been established in the plan. The plan must guide the buyer as to what is desired. You cannot blame the buyer for using his own judgment instead of that of someone else who didn't communicate in a timely fashion. And while that someone is at it, let him also state the standard for "not working that well any more."
what is the difference between a DMA and MSA?
MSA is "Metroplitan Statistical Area"; a business-based population geography used by the Census Bureau, and defined by the U.S. Office of Management and the Budget.
DMA is "Designated Market Area"; a Nielsen Media Research definition of a measurement geography based on TV viewing patterns. DMAs usually have an MSA at their center but may have more than one within the boundaries. In some cases one MSA may have more than one DMA, such as Baltimore, MD and Washington, DC.
What is expected commission for an advertising agency for clients with an ad budget of 350K plus?
$350K is a fairly low budget unless it's all local in a smaller market.
If $350k is the total available spend, $15%, the traditional commission, would produce $52.5K in commission, leaving $297.5k in working funds for net media and production.
Hi Media Guru-
I need some straight scoop. As the media director pitching new accounts, I have been asked to prove both sides of this argument and I have done my best. Is it more advantagous to purchase media through a local agency than through an out-of-town agency. I understand relationships, the ability to implement local sponsoships and time differences. But, when it comes to cost, what is the truth. All things being equal, am I getting better rates because I am a local agency? I get a different answer from everyone that I talk to.
Of course you get different answers.
Everyone has had a different experience; there
are few solid rules here.
There are various factors:
Hi Media Guru,
I need some broad costs for the US (across all media). Is there a website that I can access in order to get an overview?
I’ve tried searching and been on some websites but I am seriously struggling to get the information, so I would appreciate any help.
Thanks and kind regards
Several companies are in the business of selling these data.
Apparently, you can appreciate the value of the information. Some specialized sites offer some data, depending on what you want.
Hi Guru: we receive impressions reports from our online media vendors during client campaigns. We noticed that the vendors' ad servers are different from each other. Are all impressions reports accurate and can be trusted? If not, how do we know if their numbers are valid? Thank you.
Which organisation would I approach to obtain a report about the increase (both historical and future forecast)in internet sales (specifically in relation to food products)in the United States of America. Please provide the organisation's contact details in your answer. Thank you.
Start with The Internet Advertising Bureau. Contact details are at the link given.
terms used in media analysis and calculations formulas
Hello - when requesting that a tv station provide makegood weight as a result of a post under 90%, how should those makegood points be applied? Can they be applied to a current campaign so the station gets credit for them? Or should they just "wash" against the original shortfall? Thank you!
They apply against the GRP "debt" and don't count as part of the delivery of a subsequent campaign.
Hope all is well. Is it acceptable to enter into a reach model "1" for an ad in both a newspaper and a magazine if they share the ride, or should it be counted as two separate insertions, one for the newspaper and one for the magazine? The geographical base is the same for both.
First, consider what you really want to know, and then what are the actual facts and their impact on measuring your media plan.
Ultimately, you really want to know how many different people see the ads and how often.
On the "actual facts" side, the Guru believes you are saying you are advertising in a Sunday newspaper and its magazine supplement, like the Sunday NY Times (ROP) and the NY Times Sunday Magazine.
At some levels, this is equivalent to advertising in two different sections of the the same day's newspaper edition. You would not add to the reach, but you would double the GRP's.
In the ROP + magazine situation, the Guru expects that there is a somewhat better chance that the duplication is less than the 2 ROP ad scenario.
However, syndicated research resources do separately measure the newspaper and magazine, and the newspaper itself may have specifically researched your scenario. Get access to these resources and then apply your best judgment as to what use of the reach model best reflects reality.
If you are instead considering a newspaper and the local edition of a national supplement that may have some additional circulation, there may be a slight difference.
We sell high dollar luxury items and advertise in seven markets on local networks. What is your opinion on pulling tv during the week prior to state primaries and the national election this year? Any other recommendations based on it being an election year?
The Guru does not immediately see the inherent problem of advertising high ticket items near an election.
Is your worry about negative effects of talk about problems in the economy? If so, that's not a media issue.
Is your worry about higher TV prices due to inventory pressure from political ads? If so, you just need to decide when prices are too high to buy.
Hi.Thanks for your answer on query no. 7484. Further, pls clarify if the GRP guarantees is a primary responsibility of the Planning or Buying agency?
GRP guarantees are a matter of negotiation.
When planning and buying are separated, only the buyers can have any control.
I am in the middle of an argument with a friend, and we are hoping that you can settle our dispute.
My friend insists that the reach and frequency of a print schedule with 3 insertions in Better Homes and Gardens in the same month will be a different reach than 3 insertions spread out over 3 months. I disagree. We both have access to R&F tools and I even showed her that the end resulting reach will be the same. She now insists that the tools we use are wrong. Please help.
Your friend is right. 3 insertions in 3 different issues will generate more reach than 3 insertions in the same issue. This should be intuitively obvious: the reach of the
3 ads in the same issue
can only be the audience of a single issue,
with virtually no unduplicated exposures from
each additional ad.
3 different issues each have a significant number readers that the other two do not. In media research and research tools, we treat an ad in any print issue as if it were read by everyone who reads the average issue, although there is obviously some overstatement in this standard. But audience measurement actually demonstrates that different issues have somewhat different audiences, even if the majority of the audience is duplicated by the next issue.
Your R&F tools are probably not "wrong." Your interpretation of the results probably is. The Guru would be very surprised to learn that your R&F software offers a way to distinguish the inputting of a schedule of 3 ads in one issue from 3 ads in different issues. If it seems to, but gives the same reach in both cases, then it is wrong.
can you please guide me on how to write a meida buying strategy?
See the latter portion of the "Media Strategy" section Guru's in the Parts of a Media Plan, beginning from "Media categories which accomplish goals most effectively"
Dear Guru, would you provide more info on what SPILL is? I really appreciate your help! Thanks!
Click here to see Guru discussion of "Spill"
I am the Media Director at a full service mid-size agency. The Interactive Director and I have been having a debate as to which department responsibilities for planning, negotiation and placement of online advertising should reside. Any thoughts on how the industry is resolving this issue? Thanks!
The Guru does not think there is an industry
standard here. The Guru has observed that more
online-only agencies are expanding to all media, and more traditional media agencies are adding online services. The Guru agrees that all media should be served from one set of goals.
Given that, is your Interactive Director a part of your media department or a separate department? If this is an Interactive Media Director, it seems obvious that interactive planning, negotiation and placement all belong to the interactive media department, or else what is its purpose? If the Interactive Director is primarily a creative and marketing department head, then media functions like planning and buying are best served by a media department. In this case the media department should have interactive specialists. Conceptually, interactive media is a subset of media. Executionally, there are at least as many differences as between Network TV buying and newspaper classified placement.
Perhaps there are other issues not clear from your question.
Hi. I work in a country where media is state-owned.TV stations do not subscribe to research data.Now, there is a client who would like to have an agency that provides GRP guarantees.Since neither the Tv stations or syndicators are not willing to guarantee ratings, do you have any idea on how to go about it? Thanks.
If you have confidence in your projecting abilities,
it's just a matter of selling the client GRPs at a big enough margin and "guaranteeing" with enough tolerance to allow you to buy back any short fall and make up the guarantee. Stations can offer guarantees because they own the "merchandise" and have it on tap to use as make goods. For an agency, it's a cash issue. This is a business decision, not a media issue. Will you take the cash risk to get the business?
Do you have any research regarding media/news consumption during election years for TV and radio? Do ratings increase or decrease on political news programing?
Is there a service that sells unsold impressions across a variety of websites?
are total weighted 30" GRPs the same as 30" eq. GRPs?
The Guru is not 100% certain what you mean by "eq."
Assuming it is an abbreviation for "equivalent," then it is probably not the same as "weighted."
Equivalent might be a buyers term, analyzing the total value of a buy, accounting for a mix of :15, :30 and longer form units. E.g. :15s are treated as if they had half the GRP of a :30 spot with the same rating.
Weighted :30 GRP is probably more likely to refer to averaging GRP across different markets or population groups.
Our client is not as big as some Major Networks but a local two-tier City TV. what i want to say is would you please give me some indication on how to execute the zero storage management,thank you
Wednesday, January 16, 2008 #7478
Dear Guru: we are doing some consultant work for a local TV network in China, one of our work items is zero storage management,mainly focus on some aaaa clients that of the rating point garantee policy with TV station, these clients may take a great part of the total yearly ad spending, but, they take too much avails at the lowest price, do you have any advice on doing this work? i mean for NBC ,FOX,ABC ,do they have a system on managing these clients.would you please list some steps on doing this work. Very appreciated.
The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, January 17, 2008 ):
Major networks do not necessarily give the biggest advertisers the lowest rates, just to avoid too much inventory being committed at rates too low.
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.
Is there a service that provides "remnant" web advertising opportunities?
The conditions that lead to the existance of
"remnant" space in broadcast and print media don't
really occur online. Remnant broadcast time is unsold time that won't be there if it isn't sold by a given date. Similarly, in print, sales problems or aspects of sizes that have been sold may lead to unused space that must be sold by publication date or go to waste.
By the nature of web sites, these conditions don't really exist. It is not quite the same as a web publisher lowering prices to combat slow sales.
Probably the closest thing to remnant online space would be found at one of the major internet ad network sellers where big "boxcar" loads of impressions can be found a low cpms.
we are doing some consultant work for a local TV network in China, one of our work items is zero storage management,mainly focus on some aaaa clients that of the rating point garantee policy with TV station, these clients may take a great part of the total yearly ad spending, but, they take too much avails at the lowest price, do you have any advice on doing this work? i mean for NBC ,FOX,ABC ,do they have a system on managing these clients.would you please list some steps on doing this work. Very appreciated.
Major networks do not necessarily give
the biggest advertisers the lowest rates,
just to avoid too much inventory being committed at rates too low.
what method can be used to combine frequency between billboards and transit
The Guru is not clear as to your meaning when
you say "combine frequency." Assuming you mean the combined average frequency of the total schedule;
in any media combination, the combined average frequency is determined in the same way;
can the sainsbury formula be used for print, outdoor and radio
As indicated within the prior Guru responses used to answer your query yesterday, #7475, "the Sainsbury formula is a method for combining the reaches of schedules in different media." In other words, yes.
where can i get a the information on the Sainsbury formula, methodology. either web or printed.
Click here to see Guru discussion of Sainsbury
TRP levels change from one market to another and countries. With the globalization, US clients many times don't understand that what works in the US not necesarly works in other countries. My question? Do you have a comparison between effective TRP levels in the US vs other countries?
Even within the U.S., TRP levels' effectiveness
vary across market segments like Hispanic vs Black consumer vs B2B vs general market. E.g. the reach/ frequency results of the same radio GRP can be quite different in Black of Hispanic radio than general market radio.
Even other countries have significant ethnic submarkets, for example Boers in South Africa, English in China, etc.
Media types is another kink.
Your question would have 1000+ answers if it even made senst to attempt it.
Dear sir, currently I am pursuing my MBA in Marketing.Could you please suggest me a specific topic in media which could be taken up for my summer project.
What is the tipping point at which digital
media will overtake traditional media as the
dominant form? What are the marketing factors that will drive this change? How and why will this vary by category?
is there any research have been done by telmar regarding mobile advertising in los angeles
Try Eyecatching Media and other vendors
would you please explain to me the meaning of the word "scatter" when it appeared in a text concerning TV spots buying? thanks
Scatter is the term that contrasts with "upfront."
Upfront buying is a commitment for the entire year, made during the upfront buying season, which usually begins in May and continues for several weeks.
Scatter is shorter-term buying, done throughout the year as need arises or as quarterly / seasonal budgets are released.
I am trying to locate a list of the geographical make up of all 210 DMAs.
Hi Guru, any idea of what was the average TV rating 25 years ago vs today?
"Average" is meaningless without detailed
labeling. The Guru hopes it will help you to
know that the average broadcast network Prime Time
Household rating of the top 10 programs in the 1982-1983 season ranged from 26 for 60 Minutes down to 20 for The A Team.
what is recency
Click here to see Guru discussion of Recency
I am trying to get a quick blurb for a presentation regarding people who use the internet or newspapers to find out about events and/or entertainment. This could be a percentage or some sort of statistic that proves people use these forms of media to get information on local events and entertainment. Do you have any information on this topic?
It is rare to see general, syndicated research
about why consumers use certain
media. Finding out how many use a given movie listings site, like Fandango, for example, is simple with sources like comScore. But it is more likely that a site like Fandango itself or The Newspaper National Network has done research on your question.