Returns all questions and responses for the year.
I have been charged with researching several sites for a fast food advertiser. We want to advertise on 3 sites on a local basis. The primary target is Male 18-24 and secondary is Female 18-24. The sites are Facebook, MySpace and Photobucket. I have looked on their sites and cannot find any information about advertising rates or even a contact. Where do I go from here?
History of Radio and Television Programs in the Philippines
The Philippine Communication Centrum is a resource center on communication
and mass media in the Philippines
In national industry with quiet competition, not much advertising - strongest competitor did unprecedented national cable TV buy and acheived significant brand name recognition resulting in gains. Moved the bar. We need to place more nationally now to keep up - currently doing regional spot cable buys in few larger DMA's. Would it be more cost effective to do national cable network buy or national spot cable in mid-sized and up DMA's for max reach(Service not typically used as much in rural areas.) Also, any research on how much average TV ad spend it takes to achieve national brand name recognition? I've heard $25 million but don't know the source of that figure.
Every case is unique, but in rules-of-thumb terms,
I have two questions about a wearout standard according to the frequency in the next-to-highest quintile, something like "when the next-to-highest quintile has a frequency of 20+."
My first question is whether quintiles should be made based on only reached target audience (whose frequencies are 1+) or based on all target audience (including the audience with frequency 0).
The second question is how the frequency of “the next-to-highest quintile” is defined? The average frequency of that quintile is 20+? The lowest frequency is 20+? Or, the highest frequency is 20+?
When thinking about wear out,
obviously only those reached are relevant.
Frequencies of quintiles are the average frequency for that 20% of audience.
How to evaluate a radio media chance?
Quantity analysis and quality analysis? How to?
would you please give me a main structure for doing this work? thanks.
This question is somewhat unclear. If by "chance,"
you mean a specific buying opportunity,
such as a given station's promotion or event, then there are both quantitative and
qualitative elements to consider:
Media Guru, we are currently having a research about the level of awareness and attitudes towards a certain radion and television program of some local executives. Do you know some research conducted in relation with our topic?
Hi,do you have any information on how to write a media strategy?
See the Guru's "Parts of a Media Plan," Media Strategy section.
Hello - how can I determine a blended CPP using radio demos that I have data for, i.e., A18-49, A25-54, A35-64, but I ultimately need to report A18-64? Is there a formula to use? Thanks.
In addition to the CPPs you have you will need the population universes for the demographics you will work with and the cost of the related spots or schedules.
We will need to find the impressions for A18-64.
You need to have data for other CPPs that can conceivably be manipulated to get to A18-64.
Obviously, if you had 18-34 and 35-64, you could get there. Or if you had 18+ and 65+, or if you had 25-49, 18-34, 25-34 and 50-64.
The first step is to get the "pieces" of the 18-64 audience together. For example, assume:
Divide your budget of $100,000 by each of the relevant costs per point to see how many GRP in each demo you have:
$100,000 ÷ $100 gives you 1000 A18-34 GRP
$100,000 ÷ $110 gives you 909 A25-34 GRP
$100,000 ÷ $85 gives you 1176 A25-49 GRP
$100,000 ÷ $130 gives you 769 A50-64 GRP
Multiply each population by the GRPs to determine the impressions in each relevant group:
1000 GRP X 80,000 population 18-34 gives you 800,000 A18-34 impressions
909 GRP X 50,000 gives you 454,500 A25-34 impressions
1176 GRP X 150,000 gives you 1,764,000 A25-49 impressions
769 GRP X 60,000 you 461,400 A50-64 impressions
Now add and subtract to get A18-64 impressions:
800,000 A18-34 minus 454,500 A25-34 yields 345,500 A18-24 impressions
345,500 A 18-24 impressions + 1,764,000 A25-49 impressions + 461,400 A 50-64 impressions = 2,570,900 impressions A18-64.
Divide 2,570,900 impressions by the 18-64 population of 240,000 to determine that you have 1071 GRP A18-64.
Your spending of $100,000 divided by the 1071 GRP yields an A18-64 CPP of $93.37.
When buying paper, how does impressions compare to readership?
On 6 Dec 2007 at 16:10, WWW Ask Guru Form wrote:
Dear Media Guru,
Kindly compare a 15" spot with a 30" one. Sate the advantages & disadvantages in addition to when is each duration better used.
In the days when the TV :15 was new and
controversial, various studies seemed to find that
:15's generated about 77% of the recall of :30"s, which was close to a typical
price trade off. So, when the price advantage is better, you can be ahead. On the other hand there is less messaging time, so you may need twice as many spots to convey the same information or you may find the message can't be effectively conveyed in a :15.
In today's clutter and DVR zipping climate :15's are easier than ever to miss or fail to capture the viewer.
:15's are best used as reminders in a well established campaign.
We're trying to raise unaided brand awareness for our Insurance client. Do you know of any research that proves that increased reach positively impacts unaided brand awareness scores? It seems like a "no-brainer" but I know in the past you said that brand awareness is a trickier subject than ad awareness. Please let me know what you think. Thanks in advance!
What is effective cover? Is it the same as effective reach?
"Effective cover" is unfamiliar. Effective coverage might be a term you have seen
abbreviated that way. Adding the word "effective" to
another media metric like reach means that there
is some limitation to the measurement, as effective reach means
that we are counting only the portion of the reach that has received some designated amount of frequency of exposure.
Coverage is generally used in one of two ways:
The limitation that might be intended by any particular use of "effective coverage" is unclear. Often cable and syndicated tv programs use coverage to describe the portion of the U.S. in the markets where the programming is available, regardless of whether or not everyone in those markets subscribes to that cable network or ever choses to view the program. In such a case, "Effective coverage" might be one way to put it.
in internet buy, what does the term mean "ad book (lifetime)"
The Guru does not recognize this as a standard term.
It may have idiosyncratic significance for the site on the buy where you found the reference.
What is the current practice for calculating the most
effective daypart mix? Are there new media tools or
research to do this analysis?
Optimizers have been around for 20 years or more. Reach and frequency analysis is even older.
But you have to define "effective" first. Is it based on reach, frequency, efficiency, sales, awareness, recall, etc?
What is the average ROI for newspaper advertising? Where can I find this info?
The question is inherently unanswerable and
the answer would be virtually useless if found.
There are far too many non-advertising variables involved, on top of the
many, many advertising variables that would make almost any result non-applicable to another scenario.
Beyond all this, since ROI is specific to brands and thus proprietary information, it is not likely one could get ROI on enough of the various campaigns to average anyway.
Nonetheless, try The Newspaper National Network for possible useful information.
When determining how many spots you need on a station in any given market, can TURNOVER be used as a baseline to provide how many spots per station are needed? Do you have the formula for turnover?
Turnover is usually calculated as daypart cume ÷ Average quarter hour audience. It can certainly be a factor in deciding on number of spots to run.
This is a follow up to question #7444. I don't know of any data or software that quantifies audiences in cable households, (or non-cable households for that matter). We of course subscribe to Nielsen data showing television audience size for the entire marketplace, but not separating out people who live in cable homes vs. non-cable homes.
One of the characteristics Nielsen uses in describing households is availability of cable. Subscription reports do not include this charactersitic, but custom analyses should be available. Contact your Nielsen account exec.
Would it be valid to use the Arbitron cume audience ratings to compute a frequency distribution for a flight spanning periods of various lengths? For example: 1) a flight of four days, and 2) a flight of four weeks?
Thanks in advance....
The Guru is not clear on why you would want to use
cume ratings here.
The Guru would use AQH to compute
reach and develop frequency distribution
within your reach system. Cume ratings aren't used to compute reach, because
they are artifacts of stations and dayparts, not of advertising schedules.
As to applicability of frequency distribution to analyzing flights of various lengths, the Guru supposes it depends on what conclusions you might make from the results. Offhand, the Guru says "why not?" Assuming the flights are not greatly separated over time, that is.
what are the latest difficulties and problems do advertisers face in the present day?
From a media perspective, which is all that
the Guru addresses, the biggest "problems" are
Certainly there are many other current media issues, but these are the ones the Guru sees as "problems."
I have a question about online reach and frequency. We are planning 1,500,000 targeted impressions over 4 weeks in a market where the A25-49 population is 1,300,000. Is there a way to hand calculate expected reach and frequency of the campaign? Is it more accurate to use the population as a whole, or to use only the online population?
So you have 115 GRPs, to begin with.
The range of reach possible in online is
enormous, depending on the sites and
placements selected. If you use a third
party ad serving system e.g. DoubleClick, you can determine
reaches of schedules that have run, and build yourself
a model to roughly estimate reach.
Ultimately you want to know a number of target persons reached, soit really doesn't matter which universe you work with until you turn the results into reach percents. Then, be careful to label accordingly.
I have been struggling to find recent information about kids media consumption - specifically interested in kids 3-7 and television consumption. Nielsen has not been able to help thus far. Do you have any information or a source I can go to? Thanks.
Nielsen is the only practical source for this sort of
information, but "3 to 7" is not a standard
demographic cell for them.
Nielsen might be able to sell you a special tabulation of this demographic cohort.
Still love your website...you have been very helpful. (The archives are awesome)
Here is our question: What are C3 ratings, and how do they impact programming in regard to the writer's strike?
What was the impact of the last strike (and what was the fallout)?
C3 ratings are the commercial ratings in programs, counting live viewing of the commercial plus commerical viewing on DVR recordings up to 3 days after original broadcast. See also past Guru responses about "Live plus three"
The Guru does not perceive any particular relationship of C3 ratings and the writers strike. All ratings are likely to be lower if repeat programs are broadcast. If unscripted programs replace scripted programs they may do better or worse.
Do you know a way to calculate underdelivery of a broadcast TV schedule into cable homes (i.e. individual deliveries of a schedule into non-cable and cable homes)? And as a follow up, how can I estimate how much cable is needed to even out delivery in both non-cable and cable households?
This is a matter of measurement more than calculation. A post-analysis type computer run
should be able to separate audience for the cable subscriber universe vs the entire market.
Once this has been done, the added cable GRPs required are readily calculated.
Note that there may not in fact be underdelivery. Cable homes may watch more tv of all types than do non-cable homes, and of course, cable homes receive all the broadcast channels.
How do you determine what the added value dollar value is for:
1. advertising within online streaming?
3. pop-ups, ect?
The Guru imagines you are asking about
these 3 types of media given free when you
have bought other media from the vendor. The vendor
should be able to give you current selling prices for these positions.
What is definition of CTA
CPA is cost per action, an inrternet transaction metric, but CTA is unfamiliar to the Guru. What is the context for "CTA?
I want to test high profile TV & Cable in 3 mid sized markets. What are good A35-54 GRP levels just in Prime? What kind of R/F will that deliver?
"Good GRP levels" is a nebulous term.
100 per week is a nice round number. That might deliver 78 reach in 4 weeks. Short term promotions call for higher levels, continuous maintenance needs lower levels.
What are you really testing? Something versus nothing? or TV / cable versus alternate media?
Is there an industry standard or formula I can use to estimate length of time it would take to brand a new company in small regional areas from a media standpoint. Is there a goal to set for GRPs or impressions? I understandn the short answer is probably "no" with so many variables to take into consideration but I am hoping for maybe some parameters and goals to shoot for. thanks.
You are right that there are many elements here
beyond duration of media exposure.
Your biggest issue in looking for formulas is quantifying your terms.
First off, how do you quantify "to brand?" What factors define a "branded" company?
The latter depends on creative as much if not more than media. The creative must say something positive about the company, it must say something that supports the branding message and it must be memorable.
From a media perspective, awareness correlates strongly with reach and frequency. Ad awareness will never be greater than the reach level achieved, and will not equal that level without sufficient frequency. This is why some planners look only at reach at 3+ frequency or some other frequency level judged effective.
Using the best media, whether described in terms of environment, "engagement" or other impact descriptors, is important.
Budget is also a controlling factor. Time-wise, "branding" would be likely to be achieved sooner if higher GRP levels were used.
Dear Media Guru, Any practical guideline on how purchase cycle affect flighting pattern?
Click here to see past Guru responses about "recency."
Hi.Where can I find latest media advertising expenditures of at least the Asian countries? Thanks.
Many world wide adverting agencies compile such figures. Start with the Robert Coen Presentation On Advertising Expenditures,
from Universal McCann.
Also try Zenith Optimedia
where can I find ads rates for both media types -- print and online?
Approximate rates can be found at Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS). Otherwise see media's online ratecards.
What is combined reach and frequency?
Assuming the Guru correctly understands your
question, combined reach and frequency refers
to the overall reach and overall average frequency of a
schedule consisting of two or more media,
such as televison and print. Click here to see an example
I was hoping to know what the top children's entertainment/educational publications were last year? I am attempting to compile a list of the best children's books that were made for children, not for parents to better understand their children. Thanks
Assuming you are asking about lists of children's entertainment or educational
magazines, in hopes of learning about
children's paperback / hardcover books, try Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS). If on the other hand you are inquiring directly about books, that is not a media question.
Could you please, explain definetely what is GRP Wieving in Outdoor
advertising. Is it daily potential reach (%)or cumuilative audience
(GRP,s)calculated basing on estimated D.E.C.?
It'll be so usefull in case you demonstrate some formulas and examples
of GRP Showing calculation.
Thank you for the co-operation.
As in all media, GRP's are impressions ÷ population base.
DEC may be used as the daily impressions figure for outdoor.
GRP's are neither reach nor reach potential. Outdoor schedules' GRPs are typically in the several hundred to 2000 - 3000 per month range while reach can only be up to (theoretically) 100%.
Typical outdoor buys are 25, 50 or 100 GRP ( or "showing") referring to GRP per day.
100 GRP outdoor buys do approach 95% reach per month.
We are looking into buying spot cable, and had a few questions.
- Where NCC talks about Syscodes and zones, this is the same as a Retail Zone?
- The Cox or Comcast provider will sell certain zones at certin prices, and even mix and match the zones into "packages"?
-Also, if we buy an interconnect, this is one big retail zone/unit with a certain price for programs, or should these also have smaller zones in them?
- And, are there usually large price differences between zones?
- Lastly, do we buy directly from NCC or from someone like Comcast in an certin DMA?
Thanks for your help.
Syscodes and zones are based on cable operators' ("MSO's") systems'
structure and physical head ends.
Retail zones are a matter of shopping and
business patterns, typically used in
For an illustration, see
the New York Interconnect system map. The NY Interconnect includes Cablevision sytems plus some Time Warner and Comcast in the NY DMA.
Zones can vary greatly in their coverage and hence their price. SpotCable is a good way to buy local cable. ViaMedia is another. If your buy only uses a single MSO's area, you can work directly with them. In come cases, a single operator may offer a multi-MSO interconnect, as Cablevision does with the NY Interconnect. The flexibility in selling individual networks varies.
If I wanted to explore the possibilities of enhancing my clients advertising reach through the use of the Internet as a new media, barring that I will be only utalizing the route of Information and Entertainment and I am reaching persons in Jamaica, what suggestions would you give as I venture along this journey?
Begin by learning about internet users in Jamaica. The Guru suspects internet penetration is low, but your target may be atypical.
I am setting up an independent media shop out of my home. Of course I have my own opinions, but I am interested in your thoughts regarding which tools should be "essential" versus "nice to have" for a small independent dealing in largely local campaigns (i.e., spot radio, local cable, out-of-home, etc.)
For newspapers, is it better to evaluate based on GRPs or impressions knowing that GRPs will not be as indicative considering the position and size of the ad?
GRP and impressions are equally unrelated to ad size and position. GRP is simply impressions divided by population
Can I add print to tv grps?
Are magazines engaging?
Some magazines in some situations are as engaging as some TV or some vehicles in any other medium in given situations.
The short answer is yes.
What is the Starch Study? How can I get access to some of its findings?
Gfk Starch measures several aspects advertising response, best known for print ad "noting" and readership measures.
Why is 100 GRPs the standard or minimum for a weekly radio buy in a MSA? Is there a research article I can show our clients in order to explain?
100 GRP is simply a nice, round number. Other relevant radio "standards" include buying a minumum of 12 spots a week on a station or buyung enough spots on a station to reach 75-80% of the cume (reach) potential.
More practically, 100 GRP per week will deliver about 45 - 65 reach over 4 weeks, depending on number of stations, demographic target, average rating, etc.
What ACV distribution level should be met by a new product introduction in order to warrant national media support? 50% ACV? 60% ACV? Higher?
This is not simply a media decison. But, from a media
perspective, it depends on the geography
contributing to the percentage of volume.
Your question makes it seem like you are looking
at markets which would contain the specifed ACV%, rather than distribution channels for the ACV%.
In this case, if your markets were the top 25 by population to get 60% ACV, then it might well make sense to use spot media and concentrate all efforts where sales are. If the markets in question were a scattered 100+ small markets, national media might be more efficient in covering them. A specific cost analysis is necessary.
If, however, you have distribution everywhere geographically, but in stores which only account for 50 or 60% ACV, this is not a media question, but turns on other marketing issues.
what are internet usage rates in canada for people between the ages of 18-24
Can you tell me about cable "fushion" ratings. What are they and how are they measured?
Cable fusion ratings are estimates of local cable ratings in non-people-meter markets, based on combining Nielsen's local HH meter and national people meter demographic ratings.
This is done using a model created by NCC. Details are available at SpotCable.com "Fusion"
what does the "roster agency" refer to as it appears in media area? i wanna know which kind of agency it is. such as in the context" *** consolidated its global media chores at roster agency ***"
In this context, it appears to mean that the agency was one of several with which the advertiser did business, i.e. agencies which were "on the advertiser's roster," and has moved all media assignments to one of them.
Request for proposal.
Can you tell me what a "spot load" buy is within cable? And when would would you purchase cable utilizing this method instead of against your GRP goals?
"Spot load buy" does not seem to be a standard cable buying term, at least among the Guru's major cable-player associates. The implication is that it refers to buying spots in high volume, most likely in cases where locally concentrated promotional frequency is mandated or where the cable outlets are too small or too localized to have ratings available.
Is there any measurement of the value of a promotional item? Eg how many impressions does a t-shirt create? What's the value of a key-chain with a brand logo? Thanks, Guru
Promotion is not media.
This is why it is treated separately
in marketing budgets.
However, promotional items are frequently included
as value added in media programs. They are to increase impact, not audience. Trying to calculate impressions genrated by tee shirts being seen is a waste of time. These items are a part of that currently overused concept of engagement, they are more of a reminder to the recipient than to others and are aimed at solidifying loyalty and other such Brand relationship issues.
I am from a chinese ad afency .when i skim over some latest news in advertising and media website ,i encountered a word "review".some times it coexists with creative ,some times with media ,i know exactly its literal meaning ,but i have no idea of its real meaning and whoch kind of work it refers to.would you please kindly explain it for me ,so appreciated.
In these contexts, 'review" means
that whoever is conducting the review
is seeing presentations to win a business assignment.
They may ony be looking to award
creative business or only media assignments or full srevice.
Who is responsible for developing the creative rotation? And who is responsible for providing the creative rotation instructions to the media outlets? Account? Media? Traffic? Is it the same for all media?
Understanding that any agency may set this up as it wishes, and that some do not have traffic departments or may have the function handled in production, here are some norms:
Kindly suggest the best print media soln for the retail automobile player across south indian states?
The Guru does not do your media planning for you.
You need syndicated audience research. One possibility is IMRB
HOw do I reserach changing the demographic target
The Guru assumes you mean how do you confirm or revise the demographic target,
i.e. define the best prospect to purchase your brand.
The typical starting point is
in syndicated product-user research, such as MRI, Simmons, and The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study(national media, brands and products), Scarborough, and The Media Audit (local and retail) or MARS (drugs and medical conditions).
Dear guru :
First , i d'like to say i love this website so much.it has been 7 months since i first came here and almost every day i came here to find something, thank you for all your kindness.
i want to ask some Pricing question on TV station. In our city, the rating measurement wil be change from Dairy to peoplemeter. it is said that the rating will decline. our company will offer some advice to one of our client, a Local TV station,to make some adjustment on its pricing sysytem. Because The TV station sighed the order with its client according to a projected GRP,if the rating declined ,TV station will lose some bebefit,what do you think how to adjust the Price, to waht extent we should adjust?
Thank you for your comments.
First of all, examine the specific terms of the deal. If the deal is based on a specific ratings system, it should be judged on that ratings system. Typically, ratings services keep an old system running in parallel to a new system for some months to allow subscribers to determine what differences are artifacts of the measurement.
Going forward, the station should change its cost per GRP according to the new system so that cost per spot remains constant. Advertising value of a spot has not changed, merely its measurement. change
I have recently heard about "noticeability" value to compare media, in a paradigm shift from CPT (cost per thousand) to CPNP (cost per noticeability point) thereby creating a new currency for press planning and buying. Can you shed some light on this and are there "noticeability" values generally agreed upon by media buyers for specific media? For example, I kow a media buyer who uses 37% of traffic counts as her noticeability value for a given billboard. Thanks Guru!
The concept is not new. Under the name "noticeabilty," it seems to have some currency in India, promoted by Lodestar.
Overall it is a matter of developing factors to adjust GRPs based on measures of noting, or awareness.
That is, an ad in a given magazine has the same GRP whether it's 4-color or black and white, whether it's a spread or a quarter page. GRP is only an audience measure.
Obviously, the 4-color spread has a better chance of being noticed than the b/w quarter page. Measures like Starch AdNorms have historically been the primary scale for this concept in print, and can allow planners to build adjustment scales for noticeabilty points if they desire. Since judgement is involved, the Guru doubts this will become an actual currency for media negotiation, but it can be a useful planning tool. The media already sell 4-color spreads for a different price than b/w quarter pages, but the price difference may be far out of proportion to your noticability scale.
Is there a basic handbook on classified advertising?
Try AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com). Search for "classified advertising" in the Amazon search box. This will take you to a book called "The New York Times Classified Advertising Manual for Advertising Agencies," which you will find useful.
Our client is a franchisee of a national company. He has asked us (in so many words) what is the local penetration of national cable into his markets (GRPs or reach/frequency). Can you let me know how to calculate this. thanks.
GRPs or reach are results of buying a schedule, not factors of market penetration. What your client should ask is
In either case, consult a spot cable vendor like SpotCable
Where do I find Spot TV rates for political advertsing for Texas TV Stations?
Political rates are based on lowest rates
charged in the recent past.
You need to be in touch with your stations
Hi.We're in the process of enhancing research services of our medium-sized media agency.Would you pls advise necessary next steps.Thanks.
The Guru can't fully answer without knowing where
you stand at present.
But start with your resources; library as well
as online. What do you have,
what do you lack in tools for any
imaginable service you would provide.
Our agency charges a 6% commission for media. I was figuring out the commission by taking the net dollars and dividing that by .94 (100-6%). It worked both forward and backward. A director told us that we were figuring commission incorrectly, stating that the real way to figure a 6% commission was to take the gross dollars and multiply that by .91 (net plus 6%). However, this does not work in reverse. To figure standard 15% commission, we multiply net x 1.1765 (roughly) and gross by .85. Thinking that the director was incorrect, I asked a media planner and he stated that the commission was net + 6%, or gross times .91. I think that they are incorrect. Can you please comment on this?
Commission deals must always state their
basis. If commission is stated as "6% of gross,"
it's confusing. "Gross" is an artificial concept, based on the days
of a standard 15% commission. "Net" is the only absolute number,
the dollars payable to the media, although most major media (other than online) do publish a traditional gross rate card.
Commission deals other than 15% are usually
expressed as "net plus X% of net" to be explicit. At net plus 6% of net, this works out to 90.1% of traditional gross. If the commission is stated
to be net plus 6% of gross, then 91% is correct
Can you tell me if the following thing is true? It comes from an article in the economist.com, which I've seen reprinted in a few places, including here: http://doublefusion.com/posts/economist.com--the-ultimate-marketing-machine24.php
The article is all about how the internet is making advertising less wasteful. There's one particular sentence that I must be misunderstanding, which seems to say advertisers are paying for a CPM of $500 to get their ads on a website that comes up in a search. Here is the relevent section:
"By contrast, the new advertising models based on internet technologies amount to innovation. Instead of bombs, says Mr Tobaccowala, advertisers now "make lots of spearheads and then get people to impale themselves." The idea is based on consumers themselves taking the initiative by showing up voluntarily and interacting with what they find online. In its simplest form, this involves querying a search engine with keywords ("used cars", say), then scanning the search results as well as the sponsored links from advertisers, and then clicking on one such link. In effect, the consumer has expressed an intention twice (first with his query, then with his click). The average cost to an advertiser from one such combination is 50 cents, which corresponds to a CPM of $500; by contrast, the average CPM in traditional ("exposure") media is $20. A consumer's action, in other words, is 25 times as valuable as his exposure. "
Am I reading this right? Is this some kind of typo or drastic miscalculation? I've never seen anything like a $500 CPM anywhere (I'm not too confident on the $20 CPM for traditional media either, but it's the $500 that shocks me). Do $500 CPMs exist anywhere at all?
Search engine results should not be compared to other media
on a cpm basis.
This is a highly advanced form of direct marketing. In ordinary media, such as magazines, cpm is based on a theoretical "opportunity to see," as if every reader of the magazine not only saw your ad but was shopping for the product when they saw it and then decided to call for information or visit your store. What percent of a magazines audience do you imagine would qualify on that basis? Probably less than 0.1%.
So a magazine with a $20 cpm would deliver a $20,000 cpm on that basis, to compare to your $500
In search engine results, you only pay 50 cents for those people who have decided to shop for what you are selling and then have visited your your online "Storefront."
So it's a good deal, and traditional cpm is an irrelevant measure in this case.
Isn't a consumer who actually browses your catalog or visits your store 25 times more valuable than one who may or may not have even seen your ad, much less cared about it?
I am placing an online ad campaign and some sites require that we use a 3rd party adserver. Can you tell me a bit about this and what I can expect it to cost? We are creating the ads in-house. Thank you.
Third party ad servers are systems that store your online advertising materials and manage their display ("serve them") to sites where you have placed ad schedules. They also provide information about the number of times the ad is displayed, clicked on and post-click activity.
You might expect to pay an average cpm in the 25 to 75 cents range, varying greatly according to volume.
Dear Guru: How would you calculate gross impressions for a 30 minute long form program? For example, if the program does a 1.0 rating would you estimate add'l weighting for the messaging being exposed for 30 minutes vs. the typical :30 second?
GRPs are simply a factor of audience count. They don't reflect duration. GRPs don't change for :10, :30, or :60 commercials. You may make any judgment you believe about the added added value for a 30 minute exposure. The value probably should reflect a sales or response difference.
I am from India. Recently there has been an increase in order monthly shopping from home/over the phone. ie.. Call the store and have it home delivered. This means the customers usually stick to their known brand or the marketer is dependent on retailer push. This makes it difficult for new brands or even variants from big brands. I am sure this problem hit US or Europe years back. Now they must be facing online ordering problems? Is there any research available on how marketers have tackled this? Any published papers? Or any suggested solutions? ANYTHING on this topic?
We are being offered a bonus advertorial page based on a paid ad schedule in a trade magazine. Are we better off running the advertorial opposite our paid ad to create a Spread execution? Or should we place the advertorial and paid ad in separate sections of the magazine opposite editorial? Which placement will generate higher awareness overall?
As a rule of thumb, multiple smaller ads generate higher recall than equal space in one esingle ad.
It somewhat depends on ad style and placement of course. In one test, three One- column (outside edge) ads on consecutive right hand pages far out-performed a single full page ad of similar content.
How do you express spot grps on a national basis? Or,
how do you take spot grps and make them equivalent to
Spot GRP x %US coverage in market = national GRP.
Convert market by market and sum across markets.
Is there a way I can measure ad wear-out for both radio and TV? How many of the same ad does it take until you saturate awareness and creative becomes moot within a span of a month?
Click here to see past Guru responses about wear out
Keep in mind that a TV ad and a radio ad are not the same ad so they don't wear out as a unit, even if they share the same creative concept.
Can you please put light on the top three cable providers in U.S that should be considered Locally.
I presume Comcast( includes time warner i think) is the top and the major contendor, but is there any other provider who might have a better reach than Comcast
Comcast and Time-Warner are separate companies.
On a local basis, either of these or one
of several other MSO's, e.g. Charter, Cox, Brighthouse or Insight
might be more important
in any given market. For example, in the New
York market, Cablevision is the leading MSO,
but has virtually no presence in any other DMA.
Consult SpotCable for further information.
Can you please tell me the average population density in U.S.. is there a way to find out from the same the rural Urban split.
Such data is available at U.S. Census Bureau
We run National broadcast 4 times per year. Generic spots that cover our current National offer. When making placement on a local level, we are instructed that the individual location cannot/should not have a customized spot including his tag. Understanding that this feeds into the national brand message doesn't it take away from local response? Why would offering tag customization to a handful of local locations take away from the national brand message???
First of all, this is a matter of branding policy or marketing strategy, not a media issue.
But from a media point of view, a key question is whether we are talking about a national brand message, e.g. Ford automobiles, or a dealer message e.g. Local Ford dealer associations. In other words is the issue brand values or distribution / availability? IS it a co-op campaign, where local independent dealers or franchisees contribute? Is the national schedule a marketing tool to drive dealer sell-in?
Hi Guru With reference to question #7384 ,i want to ask that TVR is Time weighted reach and if we have reach figures with us ,than can we find time spent.
One would need details of the algorithm used to construct the specific "time-weighted reach" you are using in order to try to work back to time spent.
Thanks for answering my previous question. In my previous question " forecast" means forecast. I would like to know if there is any way to find out future GRP figures for channel on the basis of channel share or reach figure. i.e if we have 100 grp for 'x' channel in this schedule now when i am planning for the same brand and this month on the basis of channel share or reach figures can i calculate have actual GRP figures. example if 100 GRP are planned for 'X' channel then what will actual number of GRP I will have in next month or next two month...
Thanks in advance
The usual process is to estimate ("project")
rating for each program in the schedule,
typically using latest program share and usage levels of the
time period for the season, tweaked with judgement.
Reach will not come into it.
Can we forecast GRP figures using any variable like reach, channel share or TVR. If yes, then could please let me know which formula i should used?
It is not clear what you mean by "forecast."
GRPs are a sum of TV ratings in a schedule.
I'm curious as to how I find out what the demographics are for viewers that watch the Olympics.
Hello Guru: Might you able to provide or direct me to online revenue model mathematical formulas/calculations etc? so I can figure out how much revenue my site will bring in and how much to budget for doing a campaign to launch my site So for example, what is the formula/calculation for "benner ads", "Query Based Paid Placements", "content targeted advertising" etc.?
As far as CPM's go what is the hierarchy of CPM's from broadcast television through to websites?
Thanks so much for your help.
As far as formulas for revenue go, the simple factors are price of unit, expressed as CPM; number of impressions available to sell and number of units (placements) available. CPM X impressions X number of units gives a ball-park estimate of revenue potential, assuming you can sell all your inventory. You would want to separate the calculations for the various units with different CPM pricing.
Online CPMs can vary from under $5 to over
$200, depending on the narrowness of site
targeting (audience rarity) and the type of ad unit;
simple button gifs are lower priced and large,
complex animated materials like Eyeblaster full video is at a premium.
Generally, Television CPMs are relatively high, Trade magazines, next, general magazines next, radio and newspapers next and outdoor relatively low. General online averages might come in around the radio and newspaper level.
I am inquiring about live plus (1) day, or live plus (3) day, or live plus (7) day?
I just recieve an e-mail from a rep. in the Atlanta market and she asked the following question,
"There is some debate over Nielsen’s Live Plus Data. We’re trying to get a feel for what some of our agency clients think...Do you accept live plus (1) day, or live plus (3) day, or live plus (7) day?" I am not familiar with Nielsen's Live Plus Data. Could you enlighten me?
"Live plus" refers to counting viewing measured for the live broadcast of programs plus "timeshifted" viewing of DVR playback within a specified number of days. In April, Nielsen first released live viewing alongside live plus viewing of playback within seven days
The issue arises primarily because of the ease of zipping commericals in recorded playback. Broadcasters woould like to sell based on live plus seven. Advertisers and agencies would prefer live only or live plus fewer days.
Dear Media Guru,
I am currently researching marketing habits, i am looking for a breakdown of say how many adverts, websites, brands etc we see on average per day?
Some say the total number is in the neighborhood
of 2000 a day, a highly sensationalized figure popular in media reporting. Clearly, even when fully engaged in media consumption one is only going to see 30 or so ads in an average hour of TV, for example, and even if you are skimming through a magazine at the same time, would the number double? A person is only likley to be exposed to at most 16 hours per day of ads (gotta sleep, too), and probably takes some time off ad viewing to work. "Brand exposure" is not readily measurable, if you want to count everytime a label might be seen in the day. A person who spent an hour or two shopping the supermarket or Home Depot could well add a couple of thousand brand exposures that day.
In 2004, Media Dynamics, Inc's "TV Dimensions" estimated a daily potential exposure of 288 ads, counting TV, radio, print and internet.
Hello Guru: Years ago I was a media planner for a lg
agency so I'm familiar with media principles/terms. I'm also familar with online "revenue model desciptions"
Now I am in pre-financing stage for a new business
start-up and to get funding need to outline how the offering will be monetized - the online revenue models/formulas and be able to calculate projected revenues/identify CPM,CPC,etc. I'm also doing a marketing plan and costing for the biz plan. Might you able to provide or direct me to these
formulas/calculators and comparative media CPM's etc?
Of course I am bootstrapping at this stage so have
little/no funds to pay for software. Also have or will all of the calculations change given Nielsen's shift to duration versus page views? Thanks so very much for your help.
The Guru is having some trouble finding the media buying/planning questions in your query.
Presumably you know cpm is cost per thousand impressions, i.e. expenditure ÷: advertising exposures, and that cpc is cost per click, i.e. expenditure ÷ mouseclicks on the ad.
The Guru does not yet see that Nielsen's switch to site rankings based on total minutes spent will affect ad exposure measures. The minutes spent measure switch is based on the idea that page content on many major sites changes while the user remains on the same page. The changing content may or may not include the ad content, depending on site design. But it is still ad exposures that matter in cpm and site ad pricing.
We want to test spot tv for a seasonal product (Nov-Feb) to see if it is cost-effective to roll out to additional markets. We want to find out how many trps to run during a 12-week period. We have already determined that we need a 3.4x frequency over each purchase cycle. If the purchase cycle is 15.7 days, would it be correct that we need to achieve a 18.36 frequency? Are there guidelines for test market tv levels?
For the sake of discussion, let's think about two weeks. So if you need a 3.4 frequency in 15.7 days do you need 3.0 in 14 days. Not exactly, frequency does not grow linearly. But this will be close enough. Just plan for the 3.0 to 3.4 every two weeks and let 12 weeks fall out as it may.
By the way, this kind of analysis is a good starting point for setting test market levels.
Hi.Appreciate if you can share detailed Job description of a Business Director in a media agency (which I guess is similar with the head of a media department).Thanks.
A media director takes overall responsibility
for the planning, buying and media research
functions. He assure plans follow and deliver upon client objectives.
He is the arbiter of quality and primary
client contact point with media issues.
He also handles personnel decisions in the
department. Depending on department size
and organization, some of these resposibilities
may devolve to associate directors.
The title "business director"
is not standard in media agencies and may not be at all like a media director.
Does a 10-second TV spot have the same rating as a 30-second TV spot?
Yes, if it's in the same program. Buyers will sometimes adjust the rating for cpm comparison, but that is just a convenient fiction.
Hi Guru I'm Planner from India ,Please tell me how to find time spent ,if i have following data Reach '000 ,Reach% ,TVR'000 and TVR.
Awaiting for reply
Time spent cannot be calculated from these data. It must be directly measured.
Question: What are the currencies used to plan/buy Canadian media? What's
the equivalent to the U.S. MRI/Simmons/NSI?
Click here to see past Guru responses about Canadian media research resources.
Question: figuring CPP and GRPs on radio media buy
GRPs are the total of the ratings of the announcements in the schedule. Ratings coem from an audience measurement service, such as Arbitron, in the US, for example.
CPP is simply cost ÷ rating.
Question: Hi guru
Iam a media planner from India ,i want to know
why is education & occupation taken as parameter for socio economic
The definition of "socio economic" includes education and occupation.
These factors have been found to be predictive of various elements of consumer behavior including media and product consumption.
1.I want to ask if you have information about big campaigns of food&beverage that was made in the radio-
2.any research about radio that food and beverag company use on a regular basis
thank you very much
what information is required from the broadcast operators to plan for local television advertising. If we have a poor budget which is effective cable or broadcast?
You need, at minimum, ratings and prices. Demograpihc analysis of the audeinces is also useful.
Cable is usually cheaper, out-of-pocket than broadcast but has lower coverage / reach, and is usualy less efficient.
Hi, i am looking for experts/ trainer for new media opportunities/media insights, etc for my company, an ad agency in India. Could you help me with some institutes where i could find such experts? or references of any you know in this region? Thanks...
Go to Telmar's page of our site and make contact with the Hong Kong office for help on this question.
Question: hi there media guru, can you please tell me whether it is
possible to buy media time on specific tv shows. For example, can a
company opt to place a creative on during the US Open? or even a specific
Also, if there is a media buyer, is there a media seller?
Yes, this is possible. Media sellers are called "Account Executives" when they are employees of the medium itself, such as a network or magazine. The term "rep" (representative) is used when the seller works for a firm that sells on behalf of many stations, newspapers, etc under different ownership, often located in a city other than the one where the sale is made.
Adding onto a previous question: If you start from 0 awareness for a supermarket item, is there a formula for achieving a specified awareness level over a specified time?
eg: 1000 GRPs yields 25% awareness in 6 months
No specific formula, because awareness depends on much more than media weight, including media mix and creative. Click here to see past Guru responses about awareness.
Hi MG -
Is there a relationship between year to year PUTs and market cume share? I am having a difficult time rationalizing forecasted media plans if my PUT levels have increased, but my overall market cume share has decreased significantly. Any insight you may have would help.
Firstly, Share = rating ÷ PUT.
However, the Guru does not understand your reference to "market cume share"
Again Guru, I have been asking questions out of much curiosity as im studying and need to get such answers to increase my knowledge base, So to ask you again, I know the calculation of GRP's but I dont understand its relevance, A rating point is reaching one percent of the universe, GRP is sum of all the rating points. My query considering this formula is, what would a 100 GRP per week plan mean ? This obviously does not mean reaching 100% population as the duplication is not considered. But what does a certain level GRP plan mean? How is the efficiency of a medium being recognised on the basis of GRP ? Thanks again
Let us agree that the definiton of a rating point
is "a number of impressions equal to 1% of the population" and never
use the word "reach" in defining rating point or
GRP, because this can carry misleading
So a 100 GRP per week plan
would have a weekly gross number of impressions
equal to 100% of the population.
GRP only describes weight.
The reach will vary depending on the media mix included.
"Efficiency" is defined as either cost of a GRP ("CPP") or the cost of 1000 impressions
HI Guru, justwanted to know how do get information of the local websites, Basically im looking for reaching audience through internet medium locally, how do i go about with it? I know of google adwords (SEO) and dont want to go for that option, I want to buy banner ads pop ups and pop unders etc,The problem I'm Facing is i dont know the way to search local websites and the category of websites to go for, also Please advice if it will help if i go for local newspapers and radio websites in that case. Many thanks
The Guru's approach would be as follows: "Google" search terms that combine the geographic description with a likely site category for local interests. For example, let's consider Long Island, New York. Googling "radio Long Island" would show you Long Island Exchange high in the results list. This site provides links to sites of a few dozen radion stations listened to on Long Island, including some from nearby New York City. Googling "newspaper Long Island" produces ABYZnewslinks' Long Island newspapers' site links. Searching "shopping," "entertainment," "yellowpages," "sports," etc plus the geographic name works, too.
I need to assign a media value to a client-sponsored radio promotion. The promotion includes an online contest, station promos (a mix of :30s and :15s), and a station remote including live call-ins. How do I assign media values? Is the value different if there is more than one sponsor? If so, should I apply a value percentage depending on the number of sponsors? Thanks!
First give a value to the solo :30's and :15's equivalent to their selling price at the station. Divide shared ones by the number or participating advertsiers. Stand-alone remotes also have a rate card value, and you must estimate a negotiated price depending on the size of your other spending with the station.
The value of a contest itself is very subjective.
How do I determine reach and frequency of a media mix that includes television, radio, print and online? Also, how do I calculate newspaper reach? Is it the same as coverage? Can I calculate by demo? Thank you
A metrics-obsessed client has asked what it would take to move the needle of consumer awareness (on a particular issue) about 2%. They want to know literally how many impressions it would take. I've been told for paid media the answer is roughly 1000 GRPs over 2 weeks. But I'm at a loss to find the answer for earned media. I know this is a bit far afield, but do you know of where I might go to find this? Anyplace that's done this type research?
Hey! The Guru loves metrics, and it's a good
question. Whether it can be answered as a
media issue is quite another thing.
Saying that 1000 GRP will move consumer awareness 2% over 2 weeks is a ludicrous oversimplification. If current awareness is nil, 1000 GRP in 2 weeks will get you much more than 2% in, all probability. If awareness is already 90%, 1000 GRP might get you nothing in added awareness. Since you can't buy "earned" media, the question is pointless in the Guru's opinion. In any case, the Guru is not aware of any link between earned media and awareness impact. It's not an advertising question.
First of all, this is a great site! Your answers are very informative. I have been out of the buying arena for a while and cannot remember how to request avails...ie, if I was completing a buy for 3Q07, what books would I use for HUT/Share. I do not remember the formula. I want to say the current book for Share (Apr in Chicago) adjusted to HUT from NOV06? Please help.
3rd quarter is July-August-September so those are the months of (averaged) HUT to use with the latest book for share.
How these five following terms mean, while they are used in Media Planning?
-Share of voice
Thank you for your help
I am trying to determine GRP levels for buying TV. I have a budget. Where do I go from there?
Find cost per GRP (CPP) from a source like SQAD
How do I attain newspaper rates and circ data to formulate a proposed media plan for multiple markets without a lot of cost
Hi guru, What is the bench mark with respect to reach and frequency in a television plan for a grand opening of the retail store. What would be the ideal GRP or Reach and Frequency we need to acheive for such a plan,It would be great if you can ans similarly for other mediums as well i.e outdoor, radio and internet
For a retail opening, more is better. 90+ reach at 3+ frequency is great if you can afford it.
Simply aiming for those numbers, they will be cheaper in outdoor, depending on how you define your coverage area. Radio can reach those levels, and internet cannot (only 146 million U.S. active home users in April '07, according to Neilsen//Netratings). Reaching even 90% of those on line is unlikely and potentially ruinously expensive.
What is the average return/ctr when purchasing internet remnant space? Have any studies been done on the value of internet remnant space?
There is no reason that ctr should vary according to how you paid for the space. For some CTR benchmarks, see DoubleClick Knowledge Central.
Adding one more point on top of the previous question: For 10s on syndicated shows (like Price is Right) would they still cost 50%-75% of the 30s? Thanks, Guru
Probably so, but it varies.
Adding onto my previous question, if you buy only 10 sec ids, how many GRPs can you buy for $1 million?
You will probably pay 50% - 75% of the :30 cost for :10's, where available.
I know "it depends", but is there a "back of the envelope" number of annual US hh grps that you can achieve for $1 million in today's market. Assume all national buys. What about a reasonable range?
In ballpark, round numbers, about 40 Prime Network points, or about 140 daytime. Other dayparts will genrally fall in between.
Who do you determine ROI for a print buy
First set a standard for what return you seek. Suppose it's sales dollars.
Then determine what incremental sales may be attributed to the print advertising (one assumes there are some sales without the print). The the ratio of print advertsing cost to incremental sales gives ROI.
The most popular tv show
American Idol, when it's on. It scored 16.5 HH rating in the week ending May 20. Gray's Anatomy, Dancing with the Stars, CSI, House, Desperate Housewives and CSI Miami are the others in the top few.
I am planning for television advertising in U.S.I dont know how to go about with it to start off, I just have an idea that there is broadcast Network and Cable. How effective is both n which is the best one for local audience? Which is more cost effective? Also if you let me know which all things i need to consider for cable and broadcast respectively to analyse which is better? Thanks Again
"Network" is a national medium
"Cable" is a network form as well.
"Network" refers generally to national, not local, media.
"Network," meaning broadcast network programming, and cable both are locally available in a form of buying called "spot."
Either can be highly effective if used properly. Broadcast offers greater ratings and reach potential.
Once you establish your objectives and strategies for communication, you need to find the appropriate outlets in the markets you are targeting and discuss price, program environment, audience and demographics.
Is there a mechanical spec that is common accross all the Broadsheets and Tabloids, IF yes then what would be the normal size of a broadsheet and a tabloid newspaper. Also is there a common size for magazines as well.
Thanks in advance
There are many, many variations in all three categories. It's best that determine a size that works best across all the publications on a schedule. It might be a magazine full page that becomes a broadsheet half page and a tabloid three-quarter or two-thirds. Some
resizing or floating will generally be necessary.
See standard ad sizes at Newspaper National Network
What are the names of the companies which sell 10 second game/talk show ids.
Start with GameShowPlacements
Hi guru I am planning to start working from home can you tel me it is good to start with ad words on line
The Guru asks, "start what?"
How do we calculate Outdoor reach? as per the formula that i have i.e reach = (target audience weight x daily GRP's x no of days in the campaign)/frequency) .. This contradicts my answers if I go only one billboard, while I get a respectable no if I go for several billboards...Again If you can try it out yourself how do you calculate reach only for one billboard?
The Guru can't find "number of billboards" in your formula, so the question is confusing.
Otherwise, dividing the cume GRPs by frequency will always be correct math to derive reach. But where did you get the frequency?
Take a look at our own TOPS system for out-of-home planning
Hi Guru, if national reach can be combined with local reach and vice versa, can reach numbers be combine across markets? For example, can you weight average the reach % numbers for SF and Austin, just as you would GRPs, in order to back into a blended 2-market R/F? Thanks in advance!!!
Yes, this is a correct procedure.
Stupid math question...
I know that the net-to-gross conversion for 15% is 1.1765, what is it for 9%? How is this figured?
My method is to try about 100 different numbers until I get it right but I am guessing there is an easier way.
It is very simple. Subtract commission rate from 100 and divide 100 by the result.
100 - 15 = 85
100 ÷ 85 = 1.1765
So for 9%:
100 - 9 = 91
100 ÷ 91 = 1.099
Can you give me an idea what the average radio CPP is in San Francisco these days?
I work for a company that has a very small and focused market. There is not a lot of print media that is geared to my market but a few options that capture parts of my market. I am working on my marketing plan for next year and my boss is asking my to provide ROI on my proposed advertising spending. I understand how to do the math but have no idea how to get the numbers to justify the spending. Any ideas?
The key is to look at past results. What sales per dollar invested in various media channels? Use averages where you don't have results from the specific vehicle.
How do we calculate the cost of the coverage value in the internet? the case is, We have an article in a newspaper and they also how an online edition, how do I measure the cost of the internet edition?
Assuming you value the newspaper coverage based on the amount of space and the newspapers' charge for an ad of the same size, apply the same procedure online.
Is there any place (in the WEB) where we can take a look at the ratecard of all the newspapers throughout U.S?
What is the "Sainsbury" formula and is there a difference between unique circulation and paid circulation? Thank you!
The Sainsbury formula is a method for combining the reaches of schedules in different media. It varies from the simple random probability method which is based on the generally accepted assumption that there is no particular correlation between exposure to one medium and another. Sainsbury varies by adding a small adjustment to account for an assumed slightly more-than-just-random probability that those exposed to an advertiser's schedule in one medium will also be exposed to its schedule in the next medium. Typically, the adjustment is about a 5% deduction from the result of the random combination.
As you will see at the link shown, we may vary in our arithmetic expression of the probability equation (for the same result), so we can express the Sainsbury formula as (0.95 x random probability).
Unique circulation and paid circulation are unrelated terms.
Do you know of any research that backs up the buying maxim, that all things being equal, a right read billboard is better than a left read? I have always been told this is 15+ years in media, but can't find any research to support it.
Logically, right side boards are closer and easier for drivers to read.
Try Outdoor Advertising Association of America for research.
In our firm we are using PrintAdex softer and we can not get REACH in print. Please could you tell me how can we calculate REACH in print? thank u
Our own eTelmar offers tools for print reach.
Is there a benchmark or thumbrule for buying Television media like there the universal belief about 100 GRP's a week for Radio is sufficient ? This is for the Retail category (casual apparels). Please advice.
100 GRP per week is just as valid (or invalid) for TV. Retail promotions typically operate at higher levels, than maintenance schedules for stores.
Is there a benchmark for buying Newspaper advertising for any market in the Retail category (casual apparels)?
One old benchmark is buying 50 or 60% household coverage.
How can we combine reach between Radio & Television OR Radio & Newspaper OR RAdio & Outdoor ?
Click here to see more than 30 past Guru responses about combining reach
What is the cost of Google Adwords
It varies depending on the popularity of
keywords you choose. You bid a price you are willing to pay to display
your ad in response to the keywords and set the maximum budget you will allow. It costs more to get a higher position for more popular search terms. See the Adwords cost estimator.
Do you know of any Canadian company that is comparable to MRI? Thanks.
PMB (Print Measurement Bureau) provides Canadian measurements similar to MRI's in the US.
Hi! Im from India, handling strategy & media for my client. My client would like to launch a product in canada targetting NRI's. what media would be suitable & what is the media consumption of NRI's in canada?
PMB (Print Measurement Bureau) provides Canadian media and product usage measurements. It offers "South Asian" as a demographic category, which includes "East Indians." If "NRI" means non-resident Indians, then you will find little information. By the nature of household media and product studies, transient populations are less well measured.
Assuming you're asking what "ADS" is, it most familiarly refers to means of receiving TV other than broadcast or cable.
Currently, that's primarily satellite, but there are systems under development that would transmit tv through electric power lines.
Are you aware of any local ad insertion abilities with Direct-TV, Dish Network or any other ADS? If no, are you aware of any discussions of when this many become an option? Thanks
The Guru's local cable sales contacts believe local insertion on satellite systems is about a year away.
Can you tell the cost per market for The Media Audit vs. Scarborough? Any preference?
The Guru values both services. Each has a variable pricing structure.
What is "rack rate" ?
It's the same as "list price."
where do i find specific tv rating points?
The standard source is Nielsen
One more related question. Do companies who own the rights to shows ever buy airtime from networks directly, and then make money by selling ad space themselves? Do you know of any examples of cable networks taht sell airtime as such, and how much they sell it for?
This is more or less the infomercial model. Many networks have blocks of less valuable time brokered for such purposes.
Was wondering how the economics of TV syndication work? Specifically, assuming a show is reasonably solid (let's take something like an HGTV show- maybe House Hunters), if the production company retains the rights to the show, how much could they get for licensing out the reruns to a cable network? For example, I've heard A&E paid HBO $2.5M per episode for the rights for 4 years to air the first 6 seasons of the Sopranos. Do you have an analog to this for a non-drama, like something that would air on Discovery, HGTV, Food, Travel Channel, etc.?
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.
Do you know if there are any studies out there (or a general consensus) on whether there is a difference in TV ad wearout between adults and children? For example, would ad wearout occur sooner (or later) for K6-11 than it would for W25-54? Thanks!
The Guru does not know of any standards or concensus here. The Guru would speculate that kids can take more frequency.
What is the current industry standard regarding the production and installation of outdoor bulletins? Do most outdoor companies provide the initial installation of the vinyl for free or do most charge?
Installation of outdoor marterials should be included in the media price. Production of posters is separate.
I'm Marketing Director for the 3,000 Parent Teacher Associations in Texas and am launching a CMS that will allow all the 630,000 members of Texas PTA to access a customized web-site. If we're successful, I anticipate about to have as many as 200,000 unique user visits per month. This whole thing needs to be paid for via sponsorship. Sponsors would get some real - estate (smalletr than a banner) on each of up to 3,000 PTA web-sites. My question: Given our specific demographic (Responsible Texas Parents) and positive brand cache, what is that sponsorship worth on the open market? What is the appropriate unit (hits, unique visits, etc) to price in? Is there a media network(s) we should associate with?
Pricing these days is in ad impressions. There are many networks of sites, more or less specialized. Search Google for "online advertising networks."
Where is the best place to find costs for internet banner ads and demographic information of vistors?
Can you total gross impressions using different demos ie A25-54 and A18+
No. A18+ impressions include the A25-54 impressions. You may only add mutually exclusive categories.
Through what media vehicles are active seniors most effectivley reached? I am targeting active seniors for a brand new retirement home in a 100,000 pop city.
First you need to develop quantitative definitions of "Senior" and "Active."
Let's imagine you decide it's persons 65+ who regularly participate in any sports.
Then you decide what you mean by "effectively reached." Is it large audience numbers (coverage), high concentrations (composition) or motivation of those reached due to advertising environment?
Then, using syndicated media research such as MRI or Simmons or Scarborough or similar, you can cross-tab that demographic with media choices to determine best coverage or composition. "Effectively" may be based on observing the successes of competitors or your own testing.
Hello. I am planning a print and online campaign for the US and several countries (Japan, China, Canada, India, South Korea, Brazil, Germany, UK and Australia). What are my options with regard to research tools for international online advertising? Also, is SRDS International my best option for International print? Thank you!
Where can I find market profiles looking for Los Angeles and San Antonio.
One good source is SRDS' Lifestyle Market Analyst
Do you know % of consumers who takes action as a result of seeing ad 3x in a magazine?
or what % of consumers are more likely to take an action to purchase as a result in seeing ad 3x?
As a rule, the more exposure to an ad, the greater the likelihood of consumer action.
But there are many variables beyond that. An ad for a new fast food will generate a greater percent response than an ad for a new luxury car, because fast food is an impulse purchase versus a major considered decision, because a fast food choice is an inconsequential expense, and operates on different psychological drivers.
Even two different luxury car's ads may have different appeal, be more or less well targeted in various magazine titles, etc. One could calculate a curve of response rate for a given ad and environment; one could project response based on prior experience with similar ads; but stating a simple, general response rate is not realistic.
What is affinity?
Dictionary.com defines affinity as "a natural liking for or attraction to a person, thing, idea, etc."
Affinity marketing is marketing based on noted behavior of the prospect, for example a direct mail which says "as a member of the Airhead University Alumni Association, we can offer you this special price for our bubblegum of the month club."
Hi, I'm working with a nice ethnic magazine, targeted to people of polish decent and Poles in the US. It's the only magazine published in english that is targeting this over 14million group of readers. Could you advise me on how to go about getting bigger advertising clients, are there any media buying agencies targetting ethnic media? Thank you, Jack
Why do we still deal in "gross" values for TV rather than "net," even though very rarely is agency commission 15% these days?
There are enough 15% deals, obviously. One can always talk net if one wishes to. For those who look at trends, consistency is reason enough.
Who is the founder of Random Media Combination theory? Thank you
The Guru would not consider this a "theory" per se, nor that there is a "founder."
The "random" concept is basic statistics: when the probablity of occurrence of two unrelated phenomena is known, then the probablity of both occurring is calculated by the product of the two probabilites. In media terms, this means:
0.7 probability that print didn't reach the target x 0.4 probablity that TV didn't reach the target = 0.28 probability that neither reached the target or 72% reach (1.0 - 0.28 = 0.72)
Multiplying the two reaches together gives the probability of both reaching the target, which is not reach, but duplication.
Of course, the reach of different media schedules reaching the same target are not truly unrelated phenomena, and various adjustments to pure random have been promulgated by many practitioners.
I am the sales manager for a hard bound monthly magazine that is targeted to Gen Y users and expanding into several college markets through out the South East. Currently, my main challenge is to expand the advertiser base and bring on regional/national advertisers and my biggest obstacle is how to get my product in front of the proper contacts.
So, do you have any advice for the following:
1. How do I know who to contact for each product/company? In some cases it is the company itself, many companies use ad agencies, some use a combination and still more use an assortment of agencies for different purposes such as reaching specific demographic audiences. So what is the best way to compile a target contact list and is there a resource available to expedite this?
2. What is the most efficient way of reaching as many media buying contacts as possible? Is there a centralized database, list serve, etc. that the industry uses or must they be approached one at a time?
3. Is there a resource available to help me figure out the client list/prospective advertisers that each agency represents?
4. Should we pitch our product line to an agency for their entire client base or should we do our research and select specific clients' from their base to pitch to?
5. I know in the online arena there are ad networks that purchase remnant ad space, is there such a thing for the print magazine industry?
6. Any other general advice you would offer to a newer but growing media company to help get its name out in front of the national advertiser base?
Any guidance you can shed in these areas would be deeply appreciated. Thank you.
how media planer success in the business? what are the measurement
How do media planners measure their own success?
Clients' success and their own job promotions and salary increases.
plase tell me about the classes of media
What is the main duty of Media planning? and What is the process of producing commercial ads?
The main duty of media planning is to determine the best place for advertisers to place ads, including how much of each media type is appropriate. Finer distinctions, such as which ad unit type and size may also become part of the process. Marketers may involve meida planners in decisions about target and geography as well.
Production is outside the media depatment's scope.
Media Guru, You recently answered a question in
regards to 'As it Falls' and 'Little America'. Can
you discuss the differences between the two and
further address the reasons to use one over the other?
In Little America, a test market is treated as if it was the full country; if there would be 100 GRP of prime time network TV in the national plan being tested, then 100 GRP of Prime is bought in the test market. The same process may be applied to radio, online, etc. If spot media are part of the national plan, then the test market may be designated as one of those earning spot media or not and scheduled accordingly. This is probably the oldest test scenario.
In As-it-Falls, the tester has realized that when he eventually runs the national media, any given market may experience weight that varies substantially from the national averages (American Idol may generate 50 - 100% higher ratings in Birmingham or Little Rock than it does in NY or LA). Therefore, a market should be tested at the levels that the hypothetical national plan would put into the market to read the effects of such a plan in given market situations. Usually, there would be a group of test and control markets, to allow implementing a range of these local delivery scenarios.
As-it-Falls would be preferred if media more subject to variation, such as broadcast, were more important in the plan or if market reaction to product category were more variable, for instance. Little America is simpler to implement.
Hi Media Guru,
We are researching Hispanic NPPs in a variety of DMAs. Is there an online resource that you would recommended that may house contact info and or rates for the major Hispanic NPPs in the US?
teach me the agency briefing.
Look at what the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan needs for input.
Hello Guro. I am struggling with the following: What is the residual effect of TV advertising? Meaning, if you are on for 6 weeks at a certain point level, and you go off, people will remember your message for x number of weeks later. I always thought it was about 2-3 weeks, but finding anything to support that is posing a challenge. Also, are people enerally claiming that advertising doesn’t affect them. Are they discrediting it? I feel like the answer is obvious, but finding any supporting documents is proving to be a difficult task. Any direction you could offer would be much appreciated. Thanks for all you do!
The residual effects of advertising taper off. One very simple rule of thumb is that each week of no activity leads to a decrease of about 10% from the previous week's awareness. I.e. if awareness was 90% after a perios of advertsing, it will be 81% after a week's hiatus and 72.9% after another week's inactivity, etc.
It has long been a fashionable posture of sophistication to claim to be unaffected by advertising. Yet the people who make this claim are just as likely to use Brand name (advertised) products as other people. Correlating the market shares of brand names with ad budgets is one way to document this. Or consider brand name market shares vs generics or store brands.
What is the best way to advertise for fundraising?
Like any other media choice, target, message environment and weight are crucial. The best choice for a youth organization might be completley different than for a politcal campaign. The answer lies deeper than simply "fundraising."
Do you have any recent data regarding the Television frequency threshold for :30 commercial wearout. We typically purchase 1,200 Adult 18-49 TRPs for each four week product promotion. However, we recently extended a campaign to eight weeks and an additional 1,200 TRPs. There is client concern that the spots have lost effectiveness given the amount of time and number of exposures.
The Guru is not aware of any established threshold. So much depends on the quality of the commercial, size of commercial pool and category interest as well as competitive pressure.
One old rule of thumb was 2000 GRP. More sophisticated analyses looked at frequency of exposure to the heaviest two quintiles.
The best guideline the Guru ever knew was "the commercial is worn out when sales decline."
do you have information on advertising to an older market and what the trickle down is to a younger market? ie, if we advertise to 18 to 24 year olds can we determine how many 16 year olds will be affected?
This is not a matter of speculation. In any measured medium, age cells are measured across a broad range of the population. If you are buying a schedule based on its 18-24 audience, you can just as easily get the audience of that schedule for other age cells from the same audience research. Single years of age however are not usually available.
Hi - Regarding media testing, what are the pros and cons of little usa and as it falls? why would you pick one translation over the other? Thank you
In the Guru's opinion, it depends primarily on the media types you will use in the eventual national plan and the market allocation philosophy you follow.
If you intend to treat the test market(s) as representative of the overall national plan, and you will use local media flexibly to balance delivery, Little US is simpler and quite practical. If you will use only national media or you allocate weight to markets based on sales indices or other rleational factors, As-It-Falls may reveal more about the eventual results.
The differences can be discussed much more extensively, of course.
what are the factors in effective media planning
If you are referring to "effective reach" / "effective frequency" planning, it is a matter of combining media elements to deliver a given reach at a specified minimum frequency level. For extensive Guru comment on this click here to see more than 100 past Guru responses on this topic
WHAT TYPE OF COMPANIES BUY MULTI MEDIAS SERVICES FREQUENTLY?AND THE BEST SOURCE TO FIND THEM. THANK YOU
"Multimedia sevices" is a non-standard term for the Guru. If you consult
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) for example, you may discern companies which advertsie in many media types. They will be of all kinds.
Hi Mr Guru.
Could you tell me the current rates for sponsoring a half hour show on a Cable Network.
Rates are all over the place, from $hundreds to $thousands depending on audience, duration, total buy, etc. Contact networks.
There is an Institute named Sri Sri Center for Media Studies located in Bangalore (http://www.sscms.org/), India which offers a course named "Post graduate Diploma Programme in Print Journalism & Electronic Media"
This Institute is already doing a great job for Media Studies imparting Value-based, Student-Centric education.
I am a Software Professional and as a volunteer, I am trying to promote the Institute for upcoming course in June, 2007.
Please let me know some of the established ways of Promoting the Institute and any links that would help me in strategising the whole promotion.
Thanks and Regards,
The Guru is not privy to proprietary marketing plans, in general. Consult the archives of relevant marketing trade publications.
Dear Guru, would you please tell me how TV Networks deal with different time zones in the US: for example, the 8 PM Evening News in New York local time has the same content of the 8 PM Evening News in Los Angeles, i.e. do the networks exhibit a previously recorded material in LA? Or do they make an entirely new program for Los Angeles? Thank you for your attention. Osvaldo Inocima, TV Globo Sao Paulo
Naturally, news is happening during the time between the east coast and west cost broadcasts and must be covered in the west coast broadcast.
Of course, this is not a media planning/buying issue.
What services offer demographic/psychographic/leisure time info besides MRI, Simmons, and Scarborough for cpg categories?
Can you suggest agencies that represent television programmers for the sale of advertising space on an existing nationally broadcast TV show?
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.
I am a media producer in California who has recently
finished a 12x30min travel adventure series. It has
been picked up by Nat Geo Adventure One Channel and had offers from Fox Reality and Fine Living channels. I am currently approaching 2 companies for
presenting sponsorships of the series and have been
asked for cost involvement. The only snag is I need
a ballpark to start my pricing. Could you please
help me come up with a figure...? They would have a 5-10 second bump at the end of the show ".....was brought to you by...." The clients are high profile Global in size (think British Petroleum...)
The specs are...
National Geographic Adventue One Channel
Territory - Asia, India, Africa, Central/South America
SE Asia, Australia, NZ, Spain, Portugal, Italy, Middle
East and Pacific.
Term - 3 years
Distribution - 22 million households
12 episodes x 30 mins
also Domestic pricing for the same series dif channels
Fine Living - 25 million subscribers
Fox Reality - 35 million subscribers
I really appreciate any pricing you could offer to start my negotiations.
This is a perplexing concept; "sponsorship" billboards only, in a program designed for ad-supported networks?
The Guru would begin with trying to identify similar opportunities and learning their pricing.
Could you give name(s) of "media planning models" particularly "online media planning models". It is appreciable if you can give details and or point to any resources like what you did for the previous query.
Once again thanks for precise answer.
The Guru assumes that you are again thinking of reach analysis models. Try our own eTelmar
WebPlanner, which is described as:
"WebPlanner - is the first software tool that lets you completely evaluate website schedules in terms of targeting, impressions, reach & frequency, cost efficiency, and timing. WebPlanner allows you to build your own site-centric audience database. You can easily import any syndicated web data that you subscribe to such as Comscore Media Metrix2 to create internet schedule buys. You can build and prototype web sites using syndicated data or create your own! "
eTelmar offers models for all media and media mix.
do you know of any studies that speak to the perceived image of broadsheet vs tabloid newspapers?
Thanks for answer. Answer is informative. There are some models for Media Planning such as Hyper Beta Distribtuion, Binomial Distribution, Beta Binomial Distribution, Conditional Beta Distribution, Hoffmans Beta Binomial Distribution. Could you explain each model with variables; at least Hyper Beta Distribution if time isn't permiting.
Once again thanks.
None of these are strictly "media planning models." They are statistical analyses of frequency distributions, some used to project reach of media schedules, some, particularly the last two two, in other business modelling applications.
what is telmar?
Is there any scientific formula involved in Online Media Planning? How do we decide what amount of money out of our total budget should be spend where, like search, banner ads, e-mail marketing etc? What is the logic involved in decision making?
No set "scientific formula." Logic depends on various factors:
In any of these cases, there are varying availabilities on which to spend your money.
As with all media, understanding the target, the communication goals and the options are the path to the better plan. Thinking these though will allow you to build a media planning model with it's own "Scientific" approach.
Banner ad sizes
This is regards to online. Can you elaborate on OAS ad serving platforms? What is it and how is it used in online media buying services?
This appears to be an element of the proprietary ad serving system at
Good Morning - I am updating my insertion orders, where do I find the correct verbaige for the sequential liability clause that I should put on the bottom to protect myself?
How different is writing a media plan for online than a traditional media plan?
(Within the limits of simple Guru replies:)
The same basic elements are required:
The contents of these elements are where the differences occur. The Guru believes that online should be just another media element like TV or magazines in a media plan, but when online plans stand alone,
I have a client that is pretty adamant about stripping ads in any given program during a week. The max is 3x on any given show. My question is if there is any concrete thinking as to why stripping is bad, other than the spots lose their effectiveness after running more than 3x? It feels sort of just rule of thumb to me, and I’m curious if there is more to it. Thanks for your advice.
Stripping produces less reach than spreading the schedule over more programs.
How do you calculate GRP's for Outdoor hoardings for a specific audience?
As with all other media,
specific audience impressions ÷ specifc audience population = GRP.
Keep in mind that GRP is expressed in percentage and the calculation actually yields a decimal fraction result. So if your division results in 1.52, that's 152 GRP
The Media Guru Answers(Thursday, December 28, 2006 ):
You're on the right track. It's Feb '06 HUT times latest share to get Feb '07 rating.
Pl refer to the above statement: What do you mean by a "HUT"?Could you pl explain this in some detail.
Secondly, I am writing from Pakistan. Would you be aware of any media audit companies who could help us in conducting a media planning and buying audit?
The Guru didn't explain "HUT" in that answer since the query used the term. HUT is "Homes Using Television." This is the percentage of all the homes in the market universe that are watching TV in the given time period.
(Share = Rating ÷ HUT).
What's the difference between Dish TV and Direct TV and how they are sold nationally vs. locally?
Dish TV and Direct TV are two competing satellite televison companies. They are program carriers somewhat comparable to cable tv companies. But, their content is beamed directly from satellites in orbit to consumers' homes, thus "local" advertising is not offered. This is different than cable, where the cable companies' local "head ends" receive satellite signals from networks and feed it locally to subscribers. The satellite systems have no local intermediary to insert commercials.
Is there a minimum benchmark for GRP-Reach-and Freq when buying spot TV or Cable in one DMA? For example, I have been using a goal of 150 GRP with a 40% reach at least 3.0 times toward the target demo over a four week period when consulting clients on the miniumum amount they need to spend in a certain DMA. This means if the most recent avg CPP in that DMA is $35.00, I would recomend they spend a minimum of $5250 (150GRP X 35CPP per month. Is this calculation correct or should I be using a different formula when reccomending a budget per DMA?? Thanks!!
The calculation is correct if you have validated your 150 GRP / 40 reach for 4 weeks. 150 seems much too low to generate 40 reach at 3+ frequency in four weeks. A level closer to 250 is probably needed.
Is CPM hard numbers i.e. CPM= $20 in Television (Network Cable) typically based upon households or persons and can number of persons be "generally" calculated from households?
A cpm must always specify its demographic, whether it's HH or persons of some description.
Persons can be "roughly" calculated from HH using Nielsen's persons-per-household population data, but any given schedule will have some skew versus these averages,
based on viewing behavior.
When conducting a breakeven analysis between spot and network, is there a way to do it by using CPPs directly, since a point is a different number of bodies in each market. Or do you have to convert to a CPM to be mathematically correct, then convert it back if you want to express CPP?
Refer to your precedeing Query #7270
spot versus network breakeven analysis
How do you calculate GRP's for internet?
Impressions ÷ target population = GRP.
Someetimes planners chose to use only the internet population (those with internt access) as the base of the calculation. Keep in mind that this calcuation is expressed as a decinal. i.e. if the calculation result is 1.25, that 125 GRP.
Dear Guru: I have been a senior media buyer for an advertising agency for the past 15 years. I have bought spot TV, Radio and Cable. I am interested in how to become an Internet Buyer. That seems to be where all the new jobs are. I am a dying breed so to speak. I have many more years to give to this businesss. I don't want to be left behind.
Yes, internet is where the new jobs are. It is a growing filed and it pays better, because practitioners are rarer.
Guru - I am hoping you can confirm something for me. When planning a media buy, we pull ratings for targeted audiences (for example, W25-54). We report GRPs, Reach and Frequency. A client has asked that instead of reporting GRPs, we supply TRPs. Because we are pulling information for a specific demo, aren't the GRPs the same as the TRPs?
As I understand it, if we were pulling total household information, then there may be a difference between GRPs (total household) and TRP (our targeted audience). But because we're pulling ratings for W25-54 to begin with, then GRP = TRP. Correct?
You are correct.
Advertising page exposure
Do you feel media fees driven more by size of account or type of media? If 5% is average for media buying services, how does that differ by type of vehicle? Seems like 5% would be high for TV, but outrageously low for SEM. Or is is really size of account that usually drives fees? I'm trying to advise a client who used to spend $5 million in magazines how much their costs might change if they move $2 mil of their budget to the internet. They currently have a commission agreement with their media agency.
Internet carries one of the higher fees in media service terms, network TV and national consumer magazines usually fall at the low end. It's a matter of labor-intensity.
In net TV and magazines, it is easy to spend $200,000+ on one unit, with relatively little labor. Internet buys from a single vendor are based on mulitple, relatively lower cost units and relatively detailed stewardship.
The Guru asks: "What exactly is your media question?"
Hi, I am a student from Russia. I have to make a report and I need some theorethical information about pecularities of language in English advertisements(in press)
Could you help me?
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.
I have been receantly been prometed as a Media Planner in my agency, up till now i have been doing clecrical work but now i have been given a bigger responsibility of makeing communication proposals as i am new in this feild i would like to learn more about this feild i would like to do some reading (books) i will be very glad if you can sugest me some titiles.
Try the media planning selections in the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)
You recommended using Telmar for media planning, but there's no way to register for access to the site online. Please advise.
Need to do some baseline R/F analysis on spot tv, radio, cable scenarios. Have a buying group but would like tool in-house to analyze options. Was it Telmar I used to use back in my agency days?
It probably was. Look at our eTelmar now.
Thanks for the advice on the Google searches. I reran the numbers with some new search terms and was able to substantially improve the total number of clicks. With more visitors from pay-per-click, I'm now thinking of eliminating either TV or radio from my advertising plan and going with only one or the other, along with the pay-per-clicks. To help me with that decision I wanted to clarify something regarding the TV and radio rates. I calculate 1.5M gross impressions for my two-week radio schedule (5.0 frequency x 150k reach/wk x 2 weeks) for about $3k. The three-week TV schedule is 750k total gross impressions for about $7k. That means radio ($2 cpm) is only a little over 1/5 of the cost of TV ($9.33 cpm). Am I calculating this correctly? If so, is TV really worth that much more than radio? Thanks again for your help.
The Guru isn't sure you are calculating radio impressions correctly. if your AVERAGE frequency is 5 and your TOTAL reach is 150k, then you have 750k impressions. But if you have 150 reach PER WEEK, that doesn't necessarily connect with overall average frequency. Look at gross impresions only, don't work with reach for this calculation. The Guru would accept a TV cpm 2 to 3 times as high as radio's.
Hello Guru, I know I'm asking a very simple question that everyone understands, but me.
When buying can an advertiser save money buying against a demo with a lower CPP vs. the one's real target demo, but the CPP is higher? In theory is it sometimes possible just to buy many more TRPs against the cheaper demo, knowing that when converted it gets to one's real goal against another demo? Is this a possible advantageous way to buy or does this cause harm? Thank you for your help.
In reality a station is selling spots. If they decide a certain spot is worth $100 and only adjust that based on the total order size, then that spot's CPP varies according to the demo you analyze, but the spot cost what the spot costs.
In essence you are saying "if I buy a demo in less demand, will the station low-ball prices to get the order?"
Guru asks: What is the question?
I need to update guidelines for estimating net cume reach of a radio or TV audience based on the number of spots placed. The number of spots to achieve the staion's cume will be influenced by the size of the station's AQH and cume:turnover rate. Is there any kind of a spot reach simulator someone like Arbitron or Nielsen may have done that documents these relationships so we can develop regression-based guidelines?
Try ours: eTelmar
Happy New Year, Guru. I am trying to establish communication goals for television. We plan on using multiple dayparts- -prime, em, late night, cable- - how does this factor into the effective reach?
Different mixes lead to different effective reach results at the same budget. Set your goal and then the plan must meet it. You don't set goals by projecting a plan's results and making that the goal.
What is the standard time period to measure plan delivery. Is is better to use a 4 week average or total plan?
4 week is the standard for reach. Total plan might be best for impressions or GRP.