Returns all questions and responses for the year.
Can you tell me how to calculate reach/frequency without a software program? We have the TRPs, daypart mix, and I'm sure we can find out population estimates for the demo. Thanks for your help.
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.
The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta Binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables.
My question is in regard to "retail planning." I work
in my company's marketing/promotions department, and we
are trying to figure out when the best time would be to start "pitching" sponsorship/promotional opportunities to potential clients in the retail industry. Some of the seasons we're looking at is "Back to School," Mother's day, and the holiday season. How long in advance should these opportunities be presented? 4-5 months? I'm sure it varies by client, but we're looking to get a general sense of timing, so we could approach the client before they make any final decisions on advertising allocations. Thanks for your help.
You need to find out the planning cycles of your prospects. Some may plan annually, some seasonally. Some may do their annual plan in December, some in August
A trestle is a railroad bridge over a road. This extremely wide horizontal unit fits the road-facing side of that structure.
My question is regarding broadcast (TV) negotiations for a new client in the las vegas DMA (which I'm not familiar with).
I have the rates client paid last year, along with station shares/rtgs/pvts for all relevant timeperiods in last four books: nov04, feb05, may05 and jul05.
The stations don't have Nov05 in their computers yet, so they didn't send me rtgs/share/pvts for Nov05.
Should I use May05 shares to negotiate 2006 annual rates?
Seems like Nov ought to be available by now, but use May conditioned on Nov being reasonably close when available. You'll be buying GRP anyway.
I am trying to evaluate two non-traditional media opportunitites: advertising on the back of a box of cereal (with virtually the entire back panel devoted to the ad) and advertising on a soda can (the ad would be approx 1.5" x 2.5"). Any suggestions on a method/thought process for determining the value of each of the spaces? In particular, what traditional media opportunities would you compare these to? As you determined impressions, would you count one per package or would you allow for multiple impressions, particularly in the case of a cereal box, which would be viewed multiple times?
Interesting question. The Guru agrees that the soda can will generate one impression and the cereal box several. The vendor should be able to tell you how many occasions of use the relevant cereal box enjoys, or if you want to be strict, how many family members, on average, use the a box.
As a comparison to traditional media, it's somewhere between newspaper (read once, dispose) and outdoor in a familiar location.
For print, I have the newspaper circulation and the # of insertions, how do I calculate impressions?
If you just want housheold impressions, it's circulation X number of insertions. If you want demographic impressions, you need to multiply this result by the relevant RPC (readers per copy).
A great deal of general RPC data is available at The Newspaper Advertising Association
I have ratings nad impressions for TV, how do I calculate the target Universe?
Ratings = Impressions ÷ universe.
Therefore, Impressions ÷ rating = universe.
Keep in mind that rating is a percentage, so treat it as a decimal fraction.
Dear media guru,
Good day! We'd like to know any upcoming seminars related to media research,strategic planning within Asia please. Thanks.
There is the
ESOMAR Asia Pacific conference that
will be held on 19-21 March in Mumbai, India
, and ESOMAR is having the worldwide multi media measurement (WM3)
conference in Shanghai in June.
Is there a basic list available of every form of advertising vehicle measured or not?
Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) would be closest.
do you know where I might find media"props" that would help me demonstrate the overwhelming media messages we consume on a daily basis
Finding pictures of ads and media vehicles should be possible in 100's of places on the web. Before you get too caught up in the "thousands of daily media messages" hype, keep in mind that we are only awake about 1000 minutes per day, and at least 75% of the time in primary media, like broadcast, is not media messages.
Is there a resource to find time spent per medium?We're trying to make a case for increasing spending online other than usage quintiles. Thank you guru.
Many resources provide these data. A relatively inexpensive choice is a reference like TV Dimensions or Magazine Dimensions from Media Dymnamics, Inc.
Guru, when a local media property or station is
promoting itself to the business community or media
buyers, is there a rule of thumb that says promoting %
reach or the number of viewers/readers/listeners is
more effective? Thanks for any words of wisdom.
The only clear rule the Guru knows for these cases is: more is better.
It depaends on what data you have to begin with. It could be:
reach versus frequency
Number of people who see an ad versus average number of times these people see an ad
For b-b publications I have looked at TNS/CMR for competitive media data. Their publication list is not as complete as I would like it to be. Are there any other services that would be more comprehensive in the trade publications or do I just have to contact the publications themselves?
Good day! We are preparing a training module for one big beverage client. Appreciate much if you can share a list of pertinent topics you think would interest a client. Thanks.
Use the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan as an outline.
dear media guru:
give detail about cpm nd cprp
Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use "cpm or cpp " as your search terms.
What are the basic factors I should consider to project an increase of share market? Specifically I was requested to provide the incremental media dollars to increase from a 12%SOM to an 18%SOM in the South Florida hispanic market?
Hi.I was the one who raised question about correlation between awareness and share of voice last Nov 18. I wish to have deeper understanding about the underlying principles and how-to-dos of ideentifying relationship between share of voice to awareness level. Would appreciate if you have both theoretical explanations and concrete examples. Best regards.
Theoretically, more advertising or a greater share of the advertsing in a category will increase ad awareness at least, and of brand awareness as well.
The correlation is demonstrated by observing the measures of these two factors or the change in the measures at various points in time and performaing a statistical correlation analysis. This analysis is readily performed in MS Excel, for example.
what are the "VTM", "RTL" and "JIM TV" networks?
Can you direct me to any available research on the difference in recall between :10 second tv and :15 second tv?
Dear media guru:
Good day! I am preparing a correlation analysis between awareness and share of voice. could you kindly share some guidelines. if for example, the awareness survey was done in May 2005, what period should I use for calculating share of voice? Is past 6 months valid? Thank you.
This is a judgement call. Since you are using a static awareness measure, you can easily look at share of voice for a range of recent periods, if they differ. Why not latest 3 months, six months, and a year?
When you are asked to make a statement on "How to Buy media right"...how would you answer...thanks
For a short pithy answer:
Carefully examine all media objectives, strategies and tactics. Then get the best price for the buy that best meets all these goals.
Please let me know if there are any info available on 'copy wear-out' especially on TV?
We are building a plan with 2 different targets considered and the media planner is adding up and mixing the TRP's of each target group for a grand total. I learned that you cannot add them all together because they are percentages of different universes, am I correct?
Yes, you're correct.
Is there a web site where I can obtain the televison HH poplulation as well as demo population by market? thanks
You can buy the information at Nielsen
i want to know the cost of:
having a one week game on contest to win .com ...its a 2 minute game...?
advertising a half page black and white ad in femina ? not front or back page...
black and white half a page ad in grihshoba and manorama?
having t, not to do tourhe smallest size display shelf at lifestyle lowerparel for keeping glasses and plates?
Contact the vendor. The Guru is about how-to, not doing your work for you.
Dear Guru ,how can i calculate 5+ reach with in a given GRP and universe for a TV PLAN.May be it depends on the program and channel mix but I want to know the basic calculation ,plz
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.
The calculation is extremely complex. For example, in print, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
What are the differences between research currently available for the Hispanic market compared to the general market? What are the reasons for these differences?
The research has become quite
comparable. Nielsen for TV for TV, Arbitron for radio, Simmons and MRI for magazines and product usage, Scarborough and The Media Audit for local markets, comScore for online all measure very much the same things the saem ways for the Hispanic and General Market.
I require a stat on the effectiveness or impact of total mass marketing (i.e 'x% of total advertising breaks through the clutter'). Any help would be most appreciated!
That's too nebulous a datum. How would you define or measure "breake through the clutter?"
Dear Guru- I'm interested in finding out who can help me with Text Messaging marketing, whereby users can opt-in to receive information directly to their cell phone. For example, People Magazine says "Text the word "JOIN" to 72276 and get daily updates on celebrity news." Your prompt response is VERY appreciated.
There are many vendors. Try Marketing Vox
In searchinhg the Guru archives, I found your answer from (Thursday, May 23, 2002) regarding Media Mix where you describe a graph showing TV + Print vs TV only. The graph does not show up in the archives. Is there any way I can access this graph?
The Guru doesn't find the answer you reference on that date.
How much will approximately cost to open a new media planning/buying service in Florida considering all media source info. and systems for the hispanic market?
Could be a few hundred thousand, depending upon the resources you need. Nielsen, Arbitron, Simmons or MRI, Scarborough or The Media Audit, comScore or NetRatings plus processinbg software, mapping ssytems, etc should come to around $200,000 to start.
What media planning/buying system is available in Florida and how approx. are the rates for those systems?
Try eTelmar. Cost varies according to modules and volume.
Can you please direct me to find the definitions or differences among the followings terms
Brand Equity, brand essence, brand value, brand personality. It might not be related directly to media. However, I am hopeful that you can give me a guidelight.
Thank you very much
These are idiosyncaratic terms, used by various prefessionals and academics in various ways. Start with marketing sites like NetMBA
Where can I quickly find average household income by DMA?
Hi Guru. We are running an online promotion with an enter at store element. Our client has asked us about projected response rates. Any advice?
This depends on the offer, the power of the promotion and the availability of stores at which to enter. Try Direct Marketing Association
(DMA) for further info.
What are the typical stardards in evaluating a Direct Mail piece as a media opportunity? Is there a standard rule of thumb for an average CPM?
The key elements for a DM piece are the offer, the creative and the quality of the list. Only the last is a "media" decision.
The CPM combines the production cost of the piece including postage and the cost per thousand of the list. Production and postage
will be the greater costs. A highly selective list might cost $100 per thousand, while the production and postage could be upwards of 50 cent a piece ($500 per thousand).
ID LIKE TO KNOW HOW DO WE CALCULATE THE TV INFLATION
(TERRESTIAL TV STATIONS)
(Current rate ÷ past rate) - 1
I would like to ask you something about print campaigne for the one client/deodorant/.The ad will be published in female magazines.Is it better short time campaigne with large frequency during one month than long time campaigne with small frequency during two or three months?
Thank you in advance.
As with all media decisions, it depends on the marketing goals.
If you are introducing a new product and want a relatively quick consumer reaction before deciding how to proceed, a brief, heavy campaign might suit your needs best.
If you are sustaining an established product which sells continuously and benefits from "being there" (recency) whenever a consumer is making a purchase decision, a lower level of extended presence might be best.
Careful review of the product's market position and goals should lead you to the right answer to your question.
What would tv reach and frequency be over a 3 week period in Chicago with 4stations on buy and total A35+grps of 165.0?
Where can I get a sample of broadcast TV playlist?
Go to any broadcaster's website and look at a "programming" page.
I am desperately trying to find out TODAY how television CPM rates vary across global regions (US/EMEA/Asia/SO. Amer.) and/or countries. Any suggestions?
SQAD provides US pricing. Ask them who does the same job in the other regions in your query.
I would like to know which are the top professional bodies that a media planner can belong to worldwide (i.e something akin to CIM UK etc). Thanks
The Guru does not know of many worthwhile such organizations. In fact, the ones that come to mind are media research organizations, such as Media Research Club of Chicago. For participation in active industry media committees, you may be eligible through your organization's participation in the The Advertising Research Foundation or American Association of Advertising Agencies or Association of National Advertisers.
Hi, Guru. I am trying to show a client that buying cable is more efficient than network TV in a large Metro market, ie. Chicago. I've determined the client's service area is 19% of the DMA.
1) Is it fair to compare reach and frequency of 2 schedules?
2) When comparing number of impressions in client's service area, can I use 19% of total impressions of broadcast TV and 100% impressions on cable (assuming all cable zones fall in service area)?
3) Can I consider 81% of the impressions on broadcast TV waste?
Any other suggestions or advice on the best way to show to compare the two is appreciated. Thanks in advance Guru.
Apparently your premise is that the client's entire service area is 19% of one DMA. The Guru doesn't understand how such a client could possibly consider network TV at all. But,
Although a senior citizen, I am also a student and am attempting to assist my media person daughter. Her advertising agency insists that she does not contribute to revenue for the company. I say she is like an insurance adjuster in a brokerage house, coming up with the best repair price. If she does a poor job, the client suffers. If she places well, she obtains value-added and improved runs for her client. Question: how may we present graphic and other data to prove that good media buying contributes to overall ad agency revenue and ultimately greater profits?
Thank you for this service. You contribute ideas that serve this profession so well. Digby Clarke
Obviously, media services are part of the offerenigs of a full service agency and typically underappreciated.
Admittedly, many clients are better able to appreciates creative than media, and shy away from numbers. But an agency management committed to good media also knows the danger of bad media service.
Hi Media Guru: I have a couple of quick questions in regards to delivery thresholds. Is there any studies done on delivery thresholds in the sense of over deliverying on cable buys. Recently we over delivered by 25% in a cable buy. We (planners)believe this is this due to our buyers presenting us with low CPMs (which is obvious). However our client is concern about this and they are inquiring whether their is a standard on how high you should over deliver. Thanks
The usual broadcast standard is +/- 10%. In media which have less stable measurement, like cable, one might increase this spread to +/- 15%. Keep in mind that "less stable" includes variations under as well as over, so the range need not increase very much.
how does Simmons Hispanic Survey compare with MRI Hispanic Survey in terms of reliability, best representation of ethnic population, etc.
Simmons has had a Hispanic study longer. Both studies now simply include Hispanic as a demographic sub-segment within their basic national study, making it easy to compare Hispanic vs non-Hispanic behavior.
How do I evaluate websites, in general, and specifically for my residential real estate clients?
Typical standards for evaluating websites include number unique visitors, demographics of visitors, interests of visitors, and relevance of site content.
More subjectively, evaluation of site appearenace, ease of navigation and other, judgemental factors apply.
Real estate issues fit within both of these categories.
How do I determine the best media vehicle(s) for a real estate client that is marketing a mid-rise condominum?
The Guru is confident that there would be no product-user media research as specific as "mid-rise condominium."
However, Sunday newspapers commonly have such ads, as do local magazines in resoirt and retirement areas.
If the ad was the first time it was published in a magazine... when should you expect a response? What is the minimum frequency before you can expect a reaction for first time advertisment?
If the ad is direct reponse and you expect a 2% response overall, then you would see some response almost immediately; as soon as a few hundred impressions have been delivered.
If your ads are more branding than a call-to-action, what is the frequency before you can expect a response?Is there a rule about it taking three times before they ever really consciously notice? If so what is it called?
FIrst you need to define "response." If ads are branding, what response do you expect? A change in attitudes or intent to purchase which is measurable in a survey?
The Guru would allow 8 to 13 weeks for a significant change and measure against a control market or other control scenario.
What's the minimum frequency you can have before you can expect a reaction from a magazine ad in a trade publication?
One will do it, three is better. The power of the ad matteres a lot.
What is the earliest response you could get from a magazine ad in a trade publication?
The "earliest" would be a day or two after the mailing date.
Our client is new to online arena. They would like to test the effectiveness of the medium vs newspaper. They would like to have one scenario with just newspaper, another with just online, and a third with online and newspaper. Any advice in determining which markets make the most sense to conduct the analysis.
What may be hardest is to find sites that can serve a single market or deliver the majority of their impressions in one specific market. Sites like these are often ones belonging to local news media. Othere are specifc types of shopping sites, such as restaurant info, for example MenuPages.com for New York city restaurants. After that, markets can be picked using the usual test comparison bases.
what is banana marketing
As a media term, this is unfamiliar to the Guru. There is a website by this name, but that appears to be simply a marketing firm's site.
Unfortunately CARD only covers print, similar to SRDS here in the states. Wondering what broadcast media planners in Canada use for rate projections like SQAD provides here in the states.
SQAD themselves might have the answer.
We have been ask for a point of view on industry magazines. The client's market is heavy B to B with a small amount of consumer marketing for appearance and support of the B to B portion. Can you help me on finding the pro's and con's of business publications?
We must first distinguish between "business publications" and "industry publications." Forbes is a business publication, Oil and Gas Journal is an industry publication in the energy field.
When a marketer is interested primarily in a specific industry, e.g. selling petroleum-specific piping to oil producers, then industry publications provide a low-waste means of communicating with prospects. Because not everyone in an industry reads specific trade journals, broader but less targeted business publications can add reach albeit less efficiently.
The authoritative editorial environment of industry publications is considered more supportive of industry-specific messages
Are there syndicated sources in Canada roughly equivalent to the US's SQAD? If not, how do media planners in Canada forecast spot TV and radio costs?
I have a client whose target audience consists only of Insurance Brokers. I am planning a print campaign and need to justify it to the owner who wants to know only the ROI. I have one weekly business publication and two trade pubs in three markets. I also only have the circulation numbers and nothing else. What is the best way to calculate reach and frequency with this information? Can I also figure the percentage of awareness from these numbers?
In trade publications, circulation tends to be heavy among qualified readers, pass-along is often minimal. A conservative audience estimate is audience = circulation. Again, because of this distibution pattern, issue-to-issue cume is minimal. As far as duplication between titles, random probability
is a safe estimate, but may be a bit high.
Reach becomes a maximum measure of awareness; you need to estimate the required frequency which generates awareness as well. Ad Awareness can't exceed reach.
Who is Justin Quinn?
Google gives many results for Justin Quinn, none that seem to relate to media; nor is the name familiar to the Guru.
what are grp
Click here for over 300 past Guru responses about GRP
Do you have demographic information on current coupon users? Both online and in print. Or can you direct me to a resource that would provide this data? Thank you.
Is the process for buying national television similar to the process for buying spot television? Do you buy direct from employees of the networks or are there rep firms? Thanks for any advice!
As a rule, the networks sell themselves directly. The process has significant differences from spot, especially as to commitment and guarantees.
Let's consider two markets; Market A and Market B. Both markets have aired a TV campaign targeting A2554. Market A is a large metro city (which has metered HH ratings), while Market B is an outer market (HH ratings non-metered), but is close in proximity to Market A.
When preparing post reports for clients, how would you apply the correct A2554 rating to Market B for a special program which aired, e.g., an Awards Show, which isn't listed during sweeps? I've been shown 2 ways to do this and need some clarification:
a) Utilize Nielsen NAD information and retrieve the A2554 rating from the specific zone Market B
is listed under
b) Use the following demo skew:
Market A HH rating x Market B HH rating x Market B A2554 rating
Market A HH rating Market B HH rating
Is either correct? Or is the rationale I've been taught way off base?
First keep in mind that this is an estimating procedure, not science; at some point we are inferring the behavior of one set of people from that of another set of people.Then the issue is to what degree does the special program's rating vary from regular programming in the time period.
The Guru would use this approach:
Yo G - Do you know if there are publications like SRDS TV & Cable Source and SQAD Media Market Guide for Europe. All I have been able to find relates to Print. Thanks
The Guru is not aware of publicly available international publications like SRDS' other than for print.
What can you tell me about buying broadcast "scatter"?
First there is "upfront" buying, when larger deals are made before the new season with commitment s across all quarters and with specifial terms of pricing and partial "relief" or cancellation.
"Scatter" refers to smaller buys over shorter durations, made later in the year.
Can you explain how you would go about correctly getting a R&F on a direct response newsletter, that would be mailed out to 300,000 people in a local market. The market size is 800,000. Would it be correct to give this newletter a coverage # of 37.5? Also if the newsletter has 4 pages, would that count as 4 insertions? My client seems to think so, but I do not. I think it would be 1 insertion. He claims that his ads are on all pages of this newsletter. Would you weight it instead? Please help. Thanks.
Assuming you are trying to estimate communications impact, the Guru's opinion is:
A presumably unsolicited direct mail piece will not be opened by the vast majority, perhaps only by 2%, and thus 2% x 300,000 ÷ 800,000, or 0.75% is a more appropriate coverage estimate.
As a new advertising automotive sales rep at a major local newspaper, I am interested in learning the planning process so I can better relate to them during sales calls. Can you give me some direction? As a followup question, why would/wouldn't planners choose a large local paper to promote an auto dealer's sales efforts?
Large local papers are probably the primary advertising choices of car dealers, offering the opportunity to promote several models with details and much obfuscated lease information.
But perhaps "large local" is subject to interpretation. Long Island Newsday, for example, is a large, local paper, covering three counties of the NY metro and laden with auto dealer ads. The New York Times and Daily News are larger and cover the entire metro, plus. But smaller papers than Newsday are much more local and get much less auto dealer advertising.
MG, do you know where I can find an inexpensive average national TV ad cost per production that would be updated frequently.
Assuming you actually mean advertising media cost, not cost to produce, see SQAD.
what is the difference between trp and grp
When both are used, TRP usually refers to specific demographic ratings while GRP referes to Household points.
We have to run a campaign with 4 different spots. The spots are for variety products under the same brand. How is better to air them - as a separate campaigns or to mix them all together?
If the products are closley related, such as lemonade / orangeade / iced tea / fruit punch, then running together could make a stronger campaign.
If less related, such as radios, blank computer media, batteries and printer ink, then mixing might cause confusion. Targeting issues and comparability of marketing goals are also important considerations in making this decision.
Where can I find info on the written agreement signed in about '86 stating that there should be no difference between the charge to an agency and the charge to a client. I've emailed AAAA, but recieved no response. Can you give me a specific person or deptartment to contact? Thanks.
The Guru finds it hard to understand - and has spoken firmly to his staff about - the modern tendency to consider email a first and last resort, and never pick up the phone to seek information.
Phone AAAA at (212) 682-2500
Is there a difference is the "coverage" a certain newspaper has in a market vs the "penetration"?
In either case, it's the ratio of circulation to market households
I am trying to find an organisation who might be able to help, cardesignnews.com, in its ad sales and general relationship with media buyers. We're the world’s leading automotive design media, with over half a million visits and nine million pages viewed every month with c.3,000 visits per day from car designers - more than any other media.
We sell banner advertisements to various companies world wide (our readership is spread c.40% US, 30% Europe, 20% Asia, 10% elsewhere) but do not have the in-house recourses to grow sales in this area and believe that outsourcing our ad sales might be the best way forward.
Have you any suggestions - where and how might I find a company who could help us?
Please let me know if this area of work might be relevant to you, or otherwise if you can recommend any organizations I should contact.
MediaPost lists internet ad sales reps.
Back when I started in media (1984) I learned a way to hand-calculate combined reach/frequency. Say adding together a tv and radio schedule. I unlearned it over the years, especially when I had software that did it for me.
Now I don't have the software anymore and have been asked to do a combined R/F. Do you have that formula?
Click here to see past Guru responses about combining reaches
We have a client who in the past has typically purchased one tv station in each market that they advertise. We have recently taken over their advertising and are willing to work with one station in the new markets they are expanding into. However, here is where the problem lies. Their budgets are limited. If they're going to advertise with one station, we recommend that they at least heavy up their campaign and run 50-75 TRPs per week for the first weeks preceeding and proceeding their arrival into the market. They however are asking us to consider a plan in which they run as little as 10 TRPs per week so that they can be on the entire year.
Obviously, we do not agree with this and are formulating are answers accordingly. What I was wondering is if you are aware of any research or can point us in the direction of something that may even further help our cause.
There can be considerable value in continuity for appropriate, constant-purchase products and services, but some minimal level of activity is best. Failing that, as your client seems determined to do, flighting or using other media is probably more effective.
See Erwin Ephron on "recency" or The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.
Do advertising agencies/media buying services normally place direct response TV? Or is this normally outsourced to firms that specialize in direct response?
Some do it, some outsource. Production is more likely to be outsourced than placement.
Hi MG -
What are your thoughts on traditional media's frequency vs. the new theory of "engagement"?
Engagement means "probably saw." This moves measurement from simple "opportunity to see," which is based on the traditional Nielsen style of audience impressions measurment onward to a value based on attentiveness or other adjustment that reflects whether a person in the counted audience actually was engaged in the commercial or left the room, started a conversation, etc. It's certainly not new, but is becoming more recognized. Marketers have been using such adjustments for at least 30 years to get more realistic evaluations of communications. Erwin Ephron writes about engagement.
When there's two TG's like Primary Mothers and secondary kids for a particular Brand, when presenting TRP's for the plan in a form of a workesheet showing one plan targeting both TG's, can we add all the programme (Both mothers & Kids)TRP's and present it as a total GRP's for the plan. Is this method correct?. At the post evaluation how do you show the delivery, is it seperately by TG's or any other methods available.
NO. TRP's are percentages of specific totals, like total mothers or total kids. It's like buying 15% of the apples at the store and 50% of the sliced ham. You don't have 65% of anything.
When you have two targets which are somehow additive, such as women 18-34 and women 35-49, you can do a weighted average and calculate TRPs for 18-49.
In your case, it's simply two different groups; two totals must be presented.
Hi Guru, Using a NIELSEN SYNDICATION SEVICE report given Women and Men ratings. How do you get total Adults rating?
Men rating x men's population unverse = total men viewers
Women rating x women's population unverse = total women viewers
(Total men viewers + total women viewers) ÷ (men's population universe + women's population universe) = adults rating
TV Wearout: what is more effective, to keep a weran out spot running or to have nothig on air? and why?
First you need to define wear-out. The most practical general definition is "an ad is worn out when sales decline." But for your question, the answer is an ad is worn out when it costs more to air than the value of sales it generates. Othewrwise, the Guru would say some advertising is better than no advertising.
How to attract potential customers for information diet products and where best to advertise for information diet products.Which web sites would be the best to advertise on.
Google "diet" and see what ad-supported sites you find.
I want to now diskription of media seling, media house,advertising and newspaper
Is there a way to calculate Rtg, TRP's & Reach for media that has no surveys: Biilboards, Cinema??
Hi Media Guru
If you use a sortware program like RBP to plan a radio campaign of more that one week and your input data is from a 7 day diary, is the data modeled? If it is, how is this done?
Your data isn't "from a 7 day diary," it's from hundreds or thousands of different people, each keeping diaries over different 7 day periods throughout a quarter.
A client with a limited media budget has inquired about the merits of entering a market and owning one medium, rather than spreading their budget across several mediums. Is this a proven tactic to succesfully stretch a budget?
Anyone wqith the budget to "own a medium" has the budget to be visible in more than one. How do you define "own a medium?" If it's merely having the largest share in your category, that's probably not much of a tactic. If it's a share larger than everyone else put together, maybe. 50% isn't so impressive if the next guy has 40%, but may be enough against a bunch of 10% players. On the whole, the Guru prefers multi-media plans when decent schedules are affordable.
I am trying to determine ratings, estimate TRP's and reach for a specific target group in Billboards (OOH media). Here is the example for one location:
Location A: 50,000 daily vehicles
Average persons per vehicle: 1.5
Total persons for location A: 50,000 x 1.5=75,000
Target: Men 25-34 (represents 7% of the total population-Census)
Estimated Men 25-34 for location A: 75,000 x 7%=5,250
What i did, is that I assumed that 7% of the total persons passing through location A are men 25-34
Rtg M25-34: 5250/250123 (total M25-34 population)= 2.1
I am not sure if I have to apply a percentage to this rating or audience to eliminate the duplication factor. I have this formula, to eliminate the duplication, but I am not if it's right. The formula assumes that:
10% of the vehicles pass 1 time = 10
10% of the vehicles pass 2 times = 20
10% of the vehicloes pass 3 times = 30
10% of the vehicles pass 4 times = 40
40/100=40% which is my duplication factor.
I apply this 40% to the Men25-34 rating for location A: 2.1x40%=0.8 is my net reach.
Is this a logical assumption?
If I want to determine the reach for various locations, can I sum the net reach for each location and have a total reach?
Both math and logic seem off.
If 10%, or 5,000 vehicles pass once, that's 5,000 vehicle-passings
If 10%, or 5,000 more vehicles pass twice that's 10,000 more vehicle-passings
If 10%, or 5,000 more vehicles pass 3x, that's 15,000 more vehicle-passings.
If 10%, or 5,000 more vehicles pass 4x, that's 20,000 vehicle-passings.
So that adds up to 20,000 vehicles and 50,000 passings, alright. But as soon as you decided you had 4 different sets of 10% of vehicles, you knew reach was 40% of the gross passings without the rest of the arithmetic. And,
the Guru has a hard time imaginging a location that would be passed three or four times per day (in the same direction presumably) by half of the vehicles that ever pass.
Dear Guru, i am a media planner with mediaReach OMD Nigeria. I would like to know what levels of GRP is desirable particularly for developing markets like Nigeria, we have clients that are asking.
Secondly, should GRP's be calcuated nationally or reginally or by key market/locations in the country?Thanks.
Appropriate weight levels and their audience impact are different in every country and culture with its own media; the Guru has no expertise in Nigeria. National or reegional or local depends upon the marketing scenario.
Click here for past Guru responses about levels.
What are the "10 golden rules" of media? (mediaadvertising)
It appears that you are referring to something written or said by a specific author or expert, perhaps about planning or buying or selling. The Guru has not encountered any well know or accepted "10 golden rules" of media.
He could invent a few.
What is the difference between TVR and Reach and How do benchmark effective levels of reach?
TVR is rating. The audience size of a single program or commercial announcement, as a percentage of the populaiton universe under consideration,
TVR is equivalent to the reach of this single instance.
Reach is the net accumulation of unduplicated audience, the number of different member of the population exposed to the entire set of programs or advertsing schedule.
Click here for past Guru responses about levels.
I am an Exec Producer for a national TV show targeting
a predominantly male audience 16-35 yrs old. I am in need of a media sales person/team to sell our commercial airtime and integrated advertising opps within the show. Please advise. Thanks!
Dear Guru.. I from puerto rico and i studing a master and i would like to know where can i find information about USA media, information about the diferents magazines that exist. I hope you can help me. Thanks
What information needs to be included in a media opportunity recommendation/analysis.
If the Guru understands your query, you need to match the facts about the "opportunity" to the objectives and strategies set for your media planning. These should include audience demographics and size, cost and the how well the nature of the opportunity creates a supportive environment for your message.
For example, a NASCAR racing program is better enviromental support for motor oil than for fine jewelry, even if it matches demographics.
I haven't seen any squad costs for about a year or so, so maybe this question has already been answered. Are there any planning cpp's out there for :30 radio? If the cost of a :30 is around 60-70% the cost of a :60, is it logical to deduct 30-40% off the :60 planning cpp's?
There is a patchwork of patterns. Many stations, especiually FM rockers sell "units" with :30's and :60's at the same cost others use a percentage, probably more often 80% of a :60 for a :30.
SQAD is still out there, but won't solve your problem.
There's are especialized publication such as magazine that reach the army. Bottom line you can place ads in those publications?
For advertising to the Army, the classic of the kind is Stars and Stripes
WHAT ARE THE STEPS TO BE TAKEN TO ADOPT A STRATEGY FOR MEDIA PLANNING ?
See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan
One of the leading IT cOMPANIES WANTS TO ADVERTISE ON GOOGLE..CAN U PLEASE TELL ME THE APPROX. RATES THEY CHARGE AND HOW TO CONTACT THEM
Depending on the position in search results you want, and the competitiveness of your search term, rates can be a few cents to a few dollars per click.
Contact may be made at Google Ads inquiry, or (212) 624-9600
in New York City.
I am trying to find information that supports (or not) the use of Tandems (advertisement cut-downs) in the same ad pod and it's effects (positive or negative) on ad Recall. Additionally I would like to know if it makes any difference if the tandem is creatively related to the main spot, meaning must there be a dynamic continuance of the main spot, or can it be simply used to give added information that is not in the main spot? Do you have any information on this subject or is there any chance you can point me in the direction of a study that has examined the use of tandems. I am in a discussion with any agency executive that tells me that tandems make a huge difference in recall, however he has no evidence to back this up, although it has been ask for. I understand the frequency argument, however 15" tandems cost me 75% of a 30" spot. Should I try and communicate within 30" or do tandems really work that well?
What is the relationship between reach & frequency in the US to reach & frequency in Canada? For example, if a flight in the US has 325 GRPs and gets 38% 1+ reach and 17% 3+, how could I adjust those so they correlate to a similar flight in Canada?
There is no simple or specific relationship. Each country and each culture with its own media within a country (e.g. the US Hispanic market) have different reach curves. The different daypart cumes, rating sizes, numbers of vehicles within a medium, etc. contribute to reach derived from GRPs. It's not magic, it's generalizations from measured, consumer media behavior.
I need to explain why you can't add TV, Radio and NP TRPs together to a client. Can you please give me the best answer so I can in turn explain it to the client. THX
These numbers are just artihmetic, so of course you can add them together. TRPs merely compare the number of target ad impressiosn to the target group population, giving a boxcar quantification of the weight of adversting delivered.
At the same time, each medium generates different audience response and differet impact, so ther is reason to show each separately. It is standard in media planning to add these TRPs, but also to add narrative about the impact and role of each.
Best way to get charter advertisers/sponsors for new on-line publication? What data must you provide to sell ad space, particularly when you are new? What studies must be done regularly to show advertisers the value?
Media buyers want know
I suspect that Yahoo and Google hold the lions share of the search impressions. Where can I find numbers that would confirm this and compare Yahoo and Google with other search engines.
Your suspiicions are correct. The two biggies hold about two-thirds of search share, skewed to Google. See "Search Ratings and Stats" at SearchEngineWatch.com
Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use "GRP" as your search term.
I am a media buyer. Can you help me find some research regarding the benefits of flighting a radio campaign. 8 week promotion, one market, budget supports 300 weekly GRPs. I am trying to decide whether or not to buy 4 weeks continuous or 8 weeks flighted (one week on, one week off, one week on...etc for 4 weeks total). Can you help?
For research reosurces, see The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB) and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.
Dear Media Guru,
I am creating a media plan to reach a very narrow audience - moms looking to buy pianos for their kids. What resources do you recommend for research on the best media options to use? The client has a limited budget but needs to advertise in major markets.
Tracy, Capstone Media
what are the meaning of the following: program specifically tv, technical problem, event, spot, breaking news, commercial brake or advertisement?
Some of these are not media industry jargon, but everyday English:
How to count average number of spots (any commercial tv spots) that have been seen by an average tv viewers? Let's take - per day?
Thanks in advance
Click here to see past Guru responses on the topic
hi media guru,
can pls tell me the relationship between reach and frequency and average frequency
Each person reached has a specific number of exposures to the campaign (simple frequency). The phrase "reach and frequency" refers to average frequency among all thosae reached. GRPs ÷ reach = average frequency.
Or, each person reached multiplied by the frequency of that person's exposures yields a number of impressions. The sum of all impressions of all persons reached = gross impressions. Gross impressions ÷ number of persons reached = average frequency.
is there a place to track the industry average rate increases for print over the past 7-8 years?
Try The Magazine Publishers' Association. Keep in mind that such averages are fairly meaningless unless related to specific categories.
Other Mr Erwin Ephron and John Philip Jones, is there other important players supporting the recency theory?
Hi, media guru...Have you seen any research on which medium drives the most traffic to a client's website (in this case they only sell online) I'm leaning towards internet and possibly tv. Radio not as much because you are more likely mobile and not close to a computer. Any thoughts you have are welcome. Thanks!
Certainly, internet first. Try The Internet Advertising Bureau for some others.
Hi MG - How would you estimate cable ratings without taking numbers from the vendor? (i.e. - NCC's Fusion theory, etc.) Can you suggest any resources? Thank You.
You can find some useful data at Cable TV Ad Bureau's research page
Do you know where I could find the total volume of advertising inserts printed in an average month for the US market?
Please let me know what is the formula to calculate OTS of an advertisement in a print newspaper?
The Guru sees OTS used in two ways:
In the latter case, audience of the newspaper times the number of ads gives OTS. In the former case, this calculation is divided by the net exposures (counting each person exposed only once) to yield average frequency of exposure.
We have put together a campaign consiting of print & television in a few spot markets. Is it possible to determine the reach & frequency for those persons who will only see the TV and only see the print? How is it possible to know who has seen only print & only TV?
Now it's simply addition and subtraction:
Suppose you have found the following:
TV reach = 50
Print Reach = 40
Combined reach = 70.
Therefore, 20 reach points of the print are added to TV (saw only print) and 20 duplicated (also saw) TV.
Further, 30 points of the TV are added to print (saw TV only), and that same 20 points as above are duplicated.
So it breaks down to
TV only = 30 reach points
Print only= 20 reach points
saw both = 20 reach points
Total reach = 70
Is there an industry standard when negotiating against SQAD rates that you should be able to come in 15-25% below low SQAD? As a media buyer, what's the acceptable percentage range I should be coming in at and how can I account for seasonality.
Many buyers set ranges of 15-25% below SQAD as a goal, depending on past experience and how much lead time they have, among other factors. Once you have your benchmark against SQAD, SQAD's seasonal variations are the seasonal index to apply.
What is the least expensive way of obtaining income & purchasing habits data for business owners within a specific county in Michigan?
Hi Guru. Can you please tell me what an "average" click through rate is for a web banner? Also what an "average" click through is for an e-newsletter ad? Thanks!
Dear Media guru,
I have recently heard a lot about 'receptivity' research and I am just wondering what it is. Please give me some clue. Thank you.
Receptivity is about the state of mind of the target audience when exposed to the message. It includes the idea that a consumer is more receptive to a message about power saws when reading Home HandyMan or watching This Old House or that the consumer is more receptive to car ads when about to start shopping for the next car.
For research on the topic try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.
What the standard sustaining, maintenance and
saturation GRP levels for a media buy? For what time
period are these levels: one week, four weeks etc. And
finally, what is your source for this information....
is it an "industry standard" or found in a textbook?
Assume the client is an automobile dealer.
There is no generally accepted standard. For maintenance, some like 100 GRP, probably because it's a large, round number.
It makes more sense to think in Reach and Frequency terms, i.e how much of the target gets how many messages; then the logic comes through. It makes some sort of sense to say that in maintenance, you want to reach at lease half of your target in an average four weeks (four weeks is the standard period in which to measure R&F). Ephron has said that cency theory calls for 30 reach every week for products continuously purchased. COmpetitvew pressure migh raise these figures or call for a specified minimum level of frequency. Attaining these levels can call for very different GRP levels depending on medium and daypart selection. All this too depends on what the budget will afford.
So, clearly, GRP levels are a great oversimplification.
benefits of centralized media buying? plz suggest
For the advertiser, the supposed benefits are primarily better schedules and pricing based on more clout behind a more concentrated organization. For the agency, there is saving on overhead and administration, with higher level managers closer to front-lines buying.
The Guru believes the agencies' benefits are more real than the advertisers'.
I have a new client that specializes in remote control cars. Currently they are advertising in every hobbyist magazine out there. I want to tell them that this is not a smart way of spending their dollars. Are there any statistics or info that I can get to help convince the client to reallocate their dollars more effectively?
There are lots of statistics in the world. But what do yu want them to prove?
If you don't have a hypothesis, what will statistics do?
Thank you for your answer about internet grps(#6936). Another question would be, can we calculate reach for internet? and how about reach for a hispanic target
Calculating reach is ususally done in one of two ways:
Using a respondent level audience measurement such as Nielsen//Netratings
or comScore-MediaMetrix, one tracks the actual use by the relevant demographic within the sample against the schedule run.
More practically, one obtains a series of such measurements and builds a model, so that one can then genralize from schedules run in the future, using variable such as # of impressions, number of sites in the mix, share of page loads on the sites, etc.
The issues are what portion of the sites' reach does your schedule get and what is the duplication between sites' audiences.
For example, Yahoo might reach 40% of all those online in a month, but your buy will probably appear in less than 0.1% of all Yahoo page loads. And how many of the persons exposed to your Yahoo buy will also be exposed to your buy on MiGente.com?
Since Hispanic audience is measure by both services, the Hispanic issues are no more difficult in this scenario.
As a ballpark sort of estimate, most major sites ought to be able to tell you the number of unique visitors exposed to your schedule. This number, divided by the relevant universe will give you an estimate of reach on that site. You can combine sites' reaches by random probability unless you can get site duplication estimates from the sites.
How do you calculate Trp's for an internet flight? Which will be the formula? I have # of Impressions and Target Unique Visitors for each site
TRPs are the same anywhere: impressions ÷ universe.
Online, the only special issue should be whether to consider the entire universe (e.g. all Men 18-34 in the US) or only the online universe (e.g. Men 18-34 active opnline in the past 30 days, or however your research data defines the "online" cohort).
Any case studies for brand building without using TV?
What is the suggested,standard proof of performance for FSIs inserted by local newspapers?
An affidavit is the current, common proof.
Hi MG - Now that I've moved from a large agency to a smaller one, I've found that they do not subscribe to basic research materials such as SQAD & SRDS - we do not even have the capability to even pull RANKERS. Obviously, this makes it difficult to analyze media efficiencies.
Aside from asking vendors to put together their own numbers (as I would have to pull this info across numberous DMAs), are there any free online resources you can direct me to which has CPP info for both TV/RD as well as somewhere where I can pull ranker info? ANY help would be appreciated! Thank You!
Radio & Records offers very basic radio audience ranking data. Audience and CPP data are costly commerical products and not genrally to be found at no cost.
An agency buying media regulalry in "numerous" markets needs to invest in research resources or rely on the kindness of reps. They are lucky to have hired a media pro who, at least, knows how it should be done.
Hi, I want to know you point of view about what william arens says about reach & frequency
The Guru has not read Arens' textbook. Available blurbs indicate it is about creative more than media issues.
what is reach & frequency?
Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use " reach and frequency | reach & frequency" as your search term.
How is SQAD information compiled?
See the methodology page at SQAD Spot TV
What is your opinion about reach and frequency, and do you think its worth using this tool?
Reach tells the number of different people exposed to your campaign, frequency tell the average number of time they are exposed.
In the Guru's opinion, these are crucial campaign metrics. Effective reach considers specifc levels of reach at minuma of frequency.
reach & frequency
Click here to see Click here to see over 200 past Guru responses refererring to Reach and Frequency
how do i go about buying broadcast time on South African TV. I have a one hour program of a world championship event, that the sponsor would like to see aired? Any contacts would be most welcomed.
Here are some contacts, courtesy of our South African office:
Great site Guru (Abby?) I'm new to the media biz. I'm working with a
technology company that has developed a unique method of allowing websites
to identify the location of origin of page requests (no cookies or
spyware, this is all done at the server level). Thus it will now be
possible to know where a page request originates (down to zip code/postal
code level). More interestingly, it will be possible for online
advertisers to customize ad delivery by city (and even zip code/postal
code). Online advertisers will finally be able to reliably segment online
viewers by city. No more wasted cpms on eyeballs well outside the target
My question to you: Do you have any suggestions on the percentage increase
in cpm rate that such targeting would allow? What is the value of this one
dimension of the cpm (geographic segmentation)? Ideally I'd like to use an
analogy from other media as a reference keepin it real.
Some sites already serve impressions on a similarly narrowly targeted basis. These tend to be larger, lower cpm sites. CPM premiums for this type of serving may be $5 or about one-third of the base price, in the Guru's experience. There are many ways of narrowing targeting including site registration data.
The Guru believes that this technology may have a better application as a third-party ad server, allowing advertisers to narrow their focus within sites that can't offer the same service, although it leaves the problem of what to do with the less desirable impressions. 3rd party ad servers' base pricing is in the 25 cents to 75 cents cpm range.
Good Afternoon Guru,
Where would I go to find out about TV ratings methodology for the UK?
Dear Guru thanks you for your response on my previous question and I have another question for you.
Please tell me how I should calculate reach in the diary methodology when in the diary’s there is not present question about reach of each program (meaning how many people were watching the selected program in the same time with the interviewers).
Until this moment I am making media plans based on the GRP’s level on weekly basis, but I have requests from my clients to make media proposals based on reach and frequency. Is it possible to make reach and frequency media plans when the research methodology is diary, and how to do this?
Second question is what is the difference between the reach calculations in the diary and reach calculation in the people meters methodology?
Thank you in advance.
"Reach" of a program means the average (time period) audience of the program. Diary or meter, it means the same thing, although the method differs. Diaries do not "ask about reach;" reach is a phenomenon of the total sample, not the individual. Diaires require the respondent to record viewing as the measurement period goes on, just as meters record this same behavior electronically, and rating or reach is a calculation conducted by the reasearch vendor from the compilation of diaries' or meters' results. Reach models may be built based on cumes genrated in either methodology.
As a ball park figure how much would it cost to sponsor a prime time tv show?
Too broad a question. Are you fully sponsoring (all advertising within the program) an episode of an existing program or staging a special? Current :30 network rates may range from $30,000 to $600,000. A ballpark estimate for an hour's sponsorship might range from $400,000 to $10,000,000. Expect economies of scale as a series sponsor.
Do you have any Hispanic oriented studies that speak about the effectiveness factor of 30s vs. 15s?
Is it the same as the General Market?
The Guru has not seen comparisons of :30 vs :15 specific to the Hispanic market. As Hispanic TV may still be somewhat less cluttered, the ratio may be a bit better.
What is the standard response to advertising rate? How does it differ by product category?
Response differs by medium, offer and audience in addition to category. Are you thinking about simple response to the ad, as online click rate or do you mean sales? Such broad generalities as you request are meaningless.
Hi. I'm working on a Q4 spot tv media plan for a client in Michigan City IN. What is the best way to get a sense of what CPPs and ratings should be for the Chicago and Sound Bend DMAs for this time period? (SQAD? - If so, which time periods should I request?) Thanks in advance for your help
I need to find a resource for researching various magazine advertising opportunities in a small niche market. Is there a database or a resource for searching for small magazine opportunities?
Dear Guru, I just wanted to say "thank you" on behalf of all of us who use AMIC, for being here for us for such a long time. I've been a user since 1997.
Which seems like such a long time ago, now.
You're welcome. The Guru appreciates it. He's been doing this since January 1995. Hey, nobody remembered my 10th annivesary!
I'm building a streaming video network across several independent websites, offering original content to a targeted demographic, serving over 1 mil. streams. What average cpm would you recommend?
The Guru does not think the streaming element affects the price as much as the target and ad type. $10 to $200 depending on the target and the ad format. Small gifs at the low end, large Eyelasters or similar rich media at the high end; broad age / gender targets at the low end; small business executive niches at the high end.
Ordered a tv spot 8p-9p. Received invoice - spot aired at 757p. Is there industry standard acceptable time outside of time ordered? I had heard it was two minutes front and two minutes back - so 8p-9p is really 758p-902p? Can you help? Thanks so much!
Buyers set their own standards or accept station standards, which in either case, should be understood in advance. If you ordered in-program, the Guru would consider 3 minutes too much margin.
I am looking for b2b advertising expenditures (europe, USA and if possible International). Actually I would like to know the expenses in media and the b2b communication budgets of the leading b2b actors or at least the % which they represent of the total advertising expenses.
I hope you can help me finding these information.
please give me some brief introduction on the following topic which helps me in my assignments " various steps involved in media planning, when and why media planning assumes relevance and significance for a marketer"
See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan
Iam a marketing student and iam having some doubt on the following " what is fundamental difference between internet advertising vis-a-vis conventional forms of mass advertising" thanks.
I was asked to present Q1 & Q2 local TV buys to my client's new advertising manager. Both buys include daytime and early news only. The Q1 buy aired Mon-Sun/8-week flight: Q2 airs Wed-Sun/8 week flight.
Question #1: The new ad manager insists that the reach and frequency of the 7 days/week buy should differ from r/f of the 5 days/week buy. I say its the same. Who's right?
Question #2: The ad manager informed me she likes marketron reports (because they are easy to read) and asked if I could obtain them for the current buy for her review. My reply was, "Sure I can. No problem". There is, however, one small problem. I don't know what a marketron report is. Please help!!!!
Assuming the same daypart dispersion and GRPs, the same schedule dispersed over more days should have a higher reach; there is greater reach potential in more dispersion. The typical reach model at your disposal may not have the ability to account for this level of detail in the input variables. In any case, the 5 day / 7 day difference is most notable in a one-week schedule. Over eight weeks, little or no difference would remain.
Marketron is a vendor of computer analysis systems for broadcast, nowadays more used by stations and reps than by agencies. One of the stations you buy from may be able to produce the report you need.
Sytems more oriented to agency media buyers and planners include those from our own eTelmar.
What are the frequently asked questions about media math (formulas)
Re: Spot Radio
Do you have any studies or opininons on minimum spots/daypart/station/week? I have a buyer who insists that its ok to buy only 1-2 spots/daypart/station week as long as they reach 12 spots/station/week. This theory seems to be based on the fact that radio listeners listen to multiple dayparts on a particular station and thus frequeny is gained throughout the day. I believe that daypart minimums should be a priority and that its better to buy 4-5 spots/week on a station for one daypart than avoid a station entirely just because 12x/week cannot be achieved. I believe that people tend to be loyal to stations by daypart (i.e. listen to the same drive-time show every day but not to that station at any other times) so we need to build frequency throughout the week on that daypart and that to buy only 1-2 spots/week/daypart (even if you achieve 12x/week) is a waste of money.
Some radio professionals, especially on the sales side, insist on the 12x/week minimum, some flex as low as 10. The Guru has not previously encountered a "4-5 spots in one daypart" as a total schedule theory.
Media theory is best built around the consumer effects. The consumer needs to get a certain frequency of exposure through a medium, and the plan needs to reach a certain minimum portion of the target. The consumer is notr likely to be aware nor affected by the portion of that frequncy which comes from any daypart nor from any one station.
As with any medium, radio should be used until the building of desired communications impact (generally reach) begins to taper off. At the micro level, this may mean 12 or 18 spots on the best station (however judged) before adding another station. Four or five spots seems to be a no-impact minimum, unless your target is specifically only listeners to that daypart and that station. The same thinking says consider station specifics. In some cases, paticularly among Hispanic or Black consumer markets, top stations can generate target ratings in the 5.0-10.0 range, rather than the 2.0 range typical of top general market staions and targets, meaniing these multicultural stations can extend reach beyond ordinary radio levels.
How much does a 15 second radio spot usually cost?
How much would it cost to advertise on a standard outdoor billboard?
Where available, :15's will typically cost 60 to 70% of the cost of a :60.
To the Guru, a "standard outdoor billboard" is a 30-sheet (12' x 24'). Average cost is in the range of $750.
Click here to see past Guru responses about CPM
Dear Media Guru,
Please help me figure out the combined reach and frequency of a multi-station TV buy. To find the average frequency, would I add the frequencies of the stations and then divide by the number of stations? Do I then multiply it by the total number of GRPs to calculate the reach? Since I do not have access to a software program, I need to calculate this manually. I'm in desparate need of your help since these figures are due soon.
Frequencies are never additive. A specific model is the only accurate way to combine station reaches. The reach may be divided into the sum of GRP to calculate the average frequency.
A very rough estimation of combined reach might be calculated by a string of random probabilty parings (i.e. pair two stations and then combine the next with those and combine the next with the cume of the three and so on). Because this is "random" and does not account for the greater likelihood of any TV viewers to view other tv, the result will be overstated, by at least 10%.
Thanks for your response to my question re: media buying through an online system. I believe the WebAD.vantage site you mention below is for advertising online. My question pertained to buying traditional radio media online via some kind of internet based solution. Although your point re: posting rate cards on media sites is well taken......rates for radio stations are for one dynamic so I don't understand how a radio station could effectively post their rates in a meaningful way to buyers. Not to mention other considerations that can effect rates quoted by media companies.
In a recent article Chrysler's Julie Roehm said " Buying ads should be more like buying stocks." She goes on to say "creating a more efficient electronic system for buying ad spots would free advertisers to concentrate more on developing branded content and interactive TV".
Perhaps I'm just looking for something that doesn't exist yet it would seem to me there is a need for a system that leverages the internet to facilitate the buying/selling of radio media....and the efficiencies would save media outlets and media buyers and their clients time/money. If this is not available today then perhaps you can tell me what's preventing this technology from coming to market? Thanks.
The online buy/sell of media "commoditizes" advertising, that is it makes an impression just an impression; it is reduced to buying impressions or spots for a set or low-bid price. Speaking for media professionals, the Guru believes that there are important evaluative steps; audience evaluation, qualitative and quantitative, schedule refinements and actual negotiation, none of which lend themselves to handling online. Surely it is not in the interest of radio stations to support "development of branded content and interactive TV." Nor are the people most likely to have this responsibility the same ones involved in negotiating radio. They are non-intersecting disciplines in the Guru's opinion. The concept seems aimed at eliminating radio sellers and buyers, a direction not likely to be supported by agencies, and probably not by stations seeking a selling advantage, either.
Dear Guru, are cost per point or cost per rating point 2 different terms? and How to calculate CPM based on them? Thank you!
The terms are the same; "point" means rating point.
I'm interested in learning more about companies who are currently providing some version of online media buying....radio or other media it doesn't matter. Do you know of where I might find a comprehensive list of such companies?
Also, how is the internet being leveraged to facilitate the media buying/selling process or is it? And what is the radio industry doing to leverage the internet to help develop/facilitate business relationships with advertisers....if anything?
These appear to the Guru to appeal to discount shoppers looking for "fire-sale" remnant space, not to media professionals trying to execute full schedules.
Radio stations as much as, if not more than, other media rely on web sites to inform media professionals about their medium. Radio stations have the advantage of being able to fully present their medium as well as their information on line. Today, every medium is expected to have a website. The Guru can only react with surprised amusement when a medium's web site does not provide a detailed media kit for planners.
Which magazines are the most popular for advertising food in
Dear Media Guru,
On Sunday, March 17, 2002 you wrote regarding media audits, "The Guru does not see that this has become a major business area; possibly because it is seen as a one-shot fix, and is most relevant to very large advertisers."
Can you clarify what you meant by "one shot" and why it is just for large advertisers. Has Sarbanes Oxley changed your opinion regarding future adoption of broadcast verification services. Do you have differing opinions as to the current or future use of broadcast verification, broadcast verification with analytics, or "all-out" media audits. Why would it only be for large advertisers if they are charged a percentage of media spend (.25-.5%) and are expecting a percentage of savings (1-3%). Shouldn't any size advertiser benefit proportionately?
The Guru was considering media audits as evaluations of media schedule and planning quality more than verifications of schedules running as purchased and estimated.
Certainly if advertisers pay a maximum of 0.5% and are guaranteed a return of a minimum of 1.0%, there would appear to be benefit to all, but many will not find it worth the administrative effort to save half a percent of, for example, $1,000,000.
The Sabanes-Oxley issues are not at all clear to the Guru. Broadcast verification does not seem to be an obvious element of accountancy compliance.
Of course, if these services have in fact become big busiensses without the Guru realizing it, that would be a matter of fact and not a matter of the Guru's speculation.
Have you seen any research on which media drive more donations for a charity? We have a limited budget and we're obviously trying to make the most of it. Thanks for your help
The Guru hasn't seen such research, but suspects it varies by overall budget and who the target benefactor is. Arts or education based charities will do better than medical research charities in one medium and worse in another, etc.
1.What is the difference between rating and share?
2.How you change people's perception towards #1 tv station that gradually decreasing into#3 become #1 again?
3. is it because tha programme itself?
4. how you gain people's trust and perception back to viewing that tv station again?
5. if it is due to the big promotions? HOW?
Share is based on the people currently watching TV: What percent of those watching anything are watching the program?
Hi MG - Can you please outline some basics of planning each medium, as I am sure there are nuances to each? OOH, interactive, print (magazine & newspaper), TV, Radio, Cable. Thanks!
Sometimes OTS refers to average frequency, sometime to gross impressions, depending on context. Click here to see past Guru responses about OTS
media research: where could i find an archive of advertisment for nextel and any other info on thier marketing strategies?
We need to quickly learn how to plan & buy TV in Barcelona Spain. Can you provide a good source?
If you have NO idea at present, how can you expect to learn quickly? You need the help of someone "on the ground" in Barcelona. What is your starting point? Do you know Spain in general but not Barcelona? Do you know Europe but not Spain? Each country has its quirks and cities differ in terms of competitive climate at least. If you know nothing beyond US practices, the only quick solution is an advisor: a few tips might lead to a quick and dirty solution but not professional level work. There will be different standards, cume patterns, reach models.
I'm looking for a statistic on the number of brands the average person can actually remember in any given category. I know that it will differ based on the consumer's involvement in a particular category at any given moment, but I'm just looking for an average.
The Guru doesn't have this data and believes it would be meaningless. In categories with dozens of well advertised brands (soft drinks, cars, shoes), remembering one dozen may be good and in categories with only 2 or three (Satellite tv) remebering all may be no achievement. But try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers
Can you clearly explain the job functions and the responsibilites of a Media Director, a Media Planner, and a Media Buyer?
To keep it simple:
For media vehicles that aren't measured (reach and freq aren't available), can you please tell me what measurement on can you use to show delivery to a client?
A basic impressions count should be available for or possible to estimate for any medium.
Can you give an updated response to the question of how many ads the average person is exposed to every day? I read your 1997 response, but it seems that now with the Internet and so many more types of "interruption" advertising, that number must have increased. And while we're on the subject, what would the number be for the average American 25 years ago?
It is crucial to keep in mind that a person has only so much time in a day to experience commerical exposure, And that hasn't changed much in 25 years.
Assume a person has 16 waking hours a day, or 960 munutes.
Assume that this person works or attends class or otherwise is not experiencing significant ad exposure for 7 of those hours, leaving 9 media consumption hours, or 540 minutes. And assume that one-quarter of that time is consumed by ad exposure, or 135 minutes. And if :30 is the average broadcast ad length these days, that's 270 ads if it's all broadcast. Print must be calculated somewhat differently, but lets say one ad exposure for two minutes of consumtion here as well. If web surfing time has replaced 1 daily hour of TV time for the average person in 25 years, how many more ads per minute does the intenet present than TV? On a content site, even if it's 2 per minute, the overall effect on average daily ad exposure is minimal. The Guru would guess less than 10% change in daily ad exposures over 25 years, again because there is only so much time in which to experience ad exposure.
We get asked often by clients to plan a radio campaign with sufficient budget to achieve a minimum threshold required to sustain market share. Is there any scientific method of analysing this "minimum threshold" or do we use our own insight?
Thanks very much!
You seem to imply that radio is the only advertising at play here.
If you assume that the only influence on share maintenance is advertising weight (which is dangerous, of course), then considerations might be:
In the absence of better factors, the Guru would keep reach at the current aweareness level and share of voice at the current share of market level.
We're looking for a source on what percent of a radio buy can typically be expected back in added value. Do you know or have an "industry standard" we can source?
When stated as absolutely as this, the answer might be 5%, but that isn't a very useful number. Stations are much more liberal with some types of added value than others. Inherently valuable contest prizes such as vacation travel and jewelry from the "trade bin" is likley to be at the low end. Event participation or remotes will have a relatively higher stated value, e.g. a remote package which the station sells for $5,000 might be added valuewith a $30,000 schedule.
how do you calculate the percent circulation on regional inserts?
It isn't clear from your questions what data you believe you will start from, but the simplest approach would be to base calculations on the circulations of the newspapers which carry the inserts.
Dear Esteemed Guru:
For those of us in regional agencies that have regional accounts or agencies with nominal budgets to cover regional/spot market or national goals, which do you consider the necessary tools for proper qualitative analysis (mostly broadcast)? (most bang for the buck?) If you can, please rank on priority.
The Guru will assume that by "qualitative" you refer to audeience data that goes beyond age/gender into product usage and other behavioral data; that you are looking beyond Nielsen and Arbitron boradcast ratings; so the Guru would look first to Scarborough which links detailed audience demographics and behavioral data to broadcast as well as newspaper and local shopping patterns. The Media Audit is another similar resource. They will, among other things, differ in the smaller markets offered. The Media Audit also offers broadcast ratings data.
Hi Guru, I was asked to do a daypart mix analysis and
using that analysis, put together some TV options.
Where do I do once I select a daypart mix?
You need to set the goals against which you will evaluate daypart mixes. Is it highest reach? Most supportive program environment, most selective for the target. The you may compare performance against these goals within budget.
Hi, Guru. Thank you for the answer about combined GRPs.
I'm estimating the media mix in first meaning of two mentioned by you. And my point of view on this calculation is the same like yours: GRPs are GRPs - they are not more than GI in 'shorter numbers'.
Probably, i didn't explain the question correctly.
I have a discussion with friend of mine - she insist that since measurements for different media in the mix are providing by different research companies (which means that respondents are also differ), it is strictly forbidden to sum up GRPs of each media in the mix into the 'Total GRPs' of the campaign, as each GRP has its own base (respondents of one research company are not participating in other company's survey).
I would agree with this if we would talk about two different markets - in this case, of course, GRPs of each market should be weighted to count the total GRPs.
But for the same market... in my point of view, since all surveys are representing the same target group at the same market, it means we are looking at the same people and can easily estimate how often they are contacting with the message whereever they meet the message. (Again, my goal is just estimate the quantity of contacts, not the quality).
.Of course it is not "strictly forbidden" or we could never do media planning, only schedules in individual media. It might be an ideal to have one media source that measures all media, but it is not practical. The rule of thumb in the Guru's book is to use the primary measurement source for each medium. For example, in the U.S. one source MRI, has certain audience information for magazines, radio, and TV. However it is only considered a primary source for magazines. The primary source for radio is Arbitron or MediaAudit, and for TV is Nielsen, which provide much greater detail and much more frequent reports on audience as is necessary for more volatile media.
Looking at it the other way, Arbitron's sample is "different" persons from one report wave to the next, yet we consider each wave comparable.
Although the samples of each medium's research are literally different people, each study is intended to project the behavior of same total population group. (As you note, this is why it doesn't work in different markets; the total popualtion groups would be different people.
Each study, typically follows an established and accepted methodology, presumably. So, bottom line, GRPs may be compared and combined for media planning purposes.
I wanted to know if "Want to be millionaire" as a program does better/same/worse in season 2. What has been the history in the countries that it has run in the second sesaon. What is the drop/increase in rating points for the same?
Hi Media Guru,
Where I can find the data for Elevator Advertising?
I checked SRDS and SQAD, they don't have that.
Talk to vendors, starting with Captivate
Dear GURU, how can I calculate the CPM from CRP or CPP?
At its simplest:
CPP is the cost of exposure to 1% of the target population, so
CPP ÷ 1% of target population expressed in thousands = CPM
If the client servicing peolpe tell you they dont have time to fill a media brief, what do you do then?
Is the issue that these people claim not to have time to fill out some official, prescribed form, or that they don't have time to provide minimum basic information around which to build a plan?
If filling out a form is the problem, then you must ask questions to determine those basic data you need, such as what is the target, the budget, the seasonality, communication strategy, etc.
If they claim not to have time to convey such basic input, it is simply laziness and you must point out that you cannot do a plan until they find the time. Otherwise you are just guessing, and will create a worthless plan, unrelated to any sensible goals.
Hi, Guru. I need to calculate the media mix. I have a set of media, some of them are measured by one research company, some of them by another, some of them are not measuring at all, but i can estimate their reach for my target audicence.
All media are using on the same market at the same time.
There is no problem to estimate the combined reach for the whole media mix.
The question is - is it correct to combine the GRPs, gained by each media to the 'Total GRP of the campaign", which can help to estimate the frequency of the full campaign (for all media in the mix together)?
From one perspective, a GRP is a GRP, simply and litereally a "gross" representation of all audience impressions. This view is most applicable for the purpose you are considering, leading to a frequencty calculation against the reach calculation.
On the other hand, it is not uncommon to apply weights to GRPs representing their medium's relative attentiveness or message retention, etc. But this approach is most applicable at the stage where media are being comared for inclusion in the plan or allocating a proportion of budget
This is the first time i ask you, i work for a local television and i want to know the right time when we dicide that a program is "save", the program must have some evaluation and when we say that a program must be stopped... is there any formula that can explain how we take care that situation with the right way
The Guru isn't sure he understands your question, but it does not seem to be a Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management question.
What psychographic terms best defines for target audience in 20-35 AB class live in urban metropolitan city?
I want to know more about program acquisition and revenue sharing.
The Guru is not certain, but perhaps you are asking about what we call, in the U.S., "syndication."
Click here to see past Guru responses about syndication
I'm from Europe and keep on seeing the term 'FSI' in American texts on media. What does it mean?
FSI = "Free standing insert." This is a small folio of advertising, usually including coupons, which is typically stuffed into newspapers. It is distributed by a national company which has arrangememnts with the various newspapers to carry the inserts. "Free standing" means not printed within the run-of-press pages of the newspsper.
advertising terminology - advertorial, co-op ad, image advertisement...
Click here to see past Guru responses about impressions
hi, can i get the url for the different media terms and their definitions
Click here for Media Terms
What is the current U.S. household penetration of DVRs?
According to a recent posting on IT Facts
"Nielsen, the TV ratings analyst, estimates that 4-5% of US households that own a television own a DVR, while in some places the DVR penetration reached 10%. In April 2005 Nielsen plans to start reporting on TV watching habits among DVR owners."
what does "number of impressions" mean?
Click here to see past Guru responses
Hope all is well! I tried to find this answer in the archives, but can't. Is there a calculation for determining the "visibility" adjustment VAI in outdoor audience measurement? The daily effective circulation numbers quoted on billboards areinflated and not really scientific. I want to be able to deduct circulation based on size of billboard, distance from road, speed people are traveling etc.(if possible). Thanks again!
DEC numbers are entirely "scientific" (based on observation) but, as you note, not terribly valid in estimating outdor audience. See Erwin Ephron's paper on VAI at the OAAA.
Hi Guru, I work in a magazine and I have a question, concerning advertorials, PR publications, etc. How to define a clear description for ads and for other advertising forms. Is there any rule that clarifies the differences between a paid publication, a print ad, a promotional page...? Thank you!
The terms use are using seem to be equivalent. Terms like "earned media" or "advertorial" might be more confusing. Different publications use different definitions..
When I submit a question, how and when do I get an answer?
Queries are answered in this online space only (no emails). Replies are posted between the same day asked and not later than the end of the week in which asked, depending on complexity and other demands on the Guru's schedule
Can you tell me what companies offer billboard advertising in Seattle and what their rates are?
Outdoor Advertising Association of America lists outdoor vendors by market. Major vendors post rates on their own websites.
Hi Abby - You're still my guru. What's your read on a fair commission for buying, tracking and improving DRTV, for the buying agency.
As someone who has worked at a media buying agency would know, the first rule is "whatever the traffic will bear."
The concept of getting paid based on achievment over benchmarks could work here, say 50% of the value of the "improvement" achieved over a specified period of time.
Otherwise, on pure commission, the bogey must lie between a possible high of the "traditional" 15% and the old media service base of 5%. Surely the improvement element has a premium value over the buying and tracking.
I am student of industrial engineering of polytechnic of Tehran. My thesis is writing a media planning software for media planning in Iran.
In our country isn’t any media planner and we having not any software or book or manual about this subject at hand. In our country are not copywriting rules. Internet isn’t used suitable. We have not e-commerce.
I want to know what software exist in the world of media planning. What is the most famous software and its parameters, variables and algorithms.
I don’t have enough information about basic subjects of media planning: targeting, frequency, reach, continuity, CPM, GRP …
If you may, please guide me. If you have any demo of media planning software, and if you may, please send to me.
I know the value of your help.
A graph of a reach curve is shown below.
When does is make better sense to buy Radio using TSA numbers as opposed to Metro numbers?
If the marketing target is everyone within range of the signal equally and there is no reason to focus on persons in the metro, or the centerpoint of the audience is not relevant, then use TSA. If you need reach calculations and GRP's then TSA is not workable
Hi Guru, when we talk about the media rates, why people always talk abut CPP or CPM, not just the price?
If two stations offer an ad for $200 and one will have an audience of 1000 persons while the other has an audience of 1 million, then there is obviouly a reason to consider more than just price. CPP and CPM represent the cost / audience ratio. This is known as "efficiency."
Guru: I need the exact year or decade when the main mass communication vehicles were invented, such as TV, Cinema, Print, Radio
TV; 1940's ("invented" in the 20's, "mass" in the 40's). Cinema; 1895. Newspaper; 59 BC, Radio 1906.
There are many milestones in broadcast and cinema history, from invention to commerical application. See TV Handbook's History Timeline for a detailed timeline.
Do you know where I can get a list of US internet penetration by DMA?
Scarborough is one good source, for the top 70+ markets.
Dear Guru, what is "TV household rating", "cost per TV household rating point"? I'm confused.
TV HH rating is the number of homes in the audience of a program divided by the number of homes in the population covered by the program. So, if a program is watched in 2 million homes and the U.S. has 100,000,000 homes, the program's rating is 2.0.
"Cost per TV household rating point" compares this to the price of advertsing in the program. If a commercial in this program is priced at $10,000, the its cost per TV household rating point is $5000 ($10,000 ÷ 2.0)
Any idea what percentage of television programming is repeat during the summer?
Assuming you mean primetime broadcast TV: the majority. In other cases, the question loses signiificance.
What might be the drawbacks of sponsoring a tv program vs buying normal tv spots
how could i be recognized in the media if i have a small budget while my competitor is running a campaign with a much larger budget.
I've heard a lot about you.My name is Ragheed and I recently joined an advertising agency(media Dept). I was asked to prepare a presentation on the advantages and disadvantages of sponsorship adverting versus the advantages and disadvantages of normal spot buying.My presentation is next week.I appreciate your genuine feedback.
Thank you in advance.
Click here to see past Guru responses about sponsorships
Dear Guru, do you have most updated Media pricing data?
definition for rating point
Click here to see past Guru responses
Hi - You don't need to post this, but I couldn't find an area on this website for comments. You are incredibly knowledgeable and helpful and I wanted to thank you for all your insights on everything media related. Even though my advertising career has started only 4 years ago, I do hope that one day I can be as knowledgable as you are in all aspects. Thanks again and for as long as you are answering questions, I will be asking them until I am blue in the face.
Thank you. Such comments are always welcome in the Guru Query area.
Hi - My agency uses the NCC DMA Fusion Cable Universe ratings and nothing else. What is the correct way to estimate cable ratings? What factors should be taken into account? Thank You.
To the extent possible, use the procedure you would use in broadcast spot: Look at seasonal ratings and balance against latest performance versus competition.
Hi - My agency is new to posting radio buys and we have just recently picked up a client which actually posts radio. From your experience, is it "industry standard" to post off of only one book - EVEN IF the radio buy was negotiated using 2 books? (This would take into account either the Spring/Fall average for a 2-book market or the latest 2-book average off a 4-book market.) For some reason, this dosen't seem right to me. Can you please explain the rationale behind this? Thank You.
You may have bought by using estimates from 2 or 4 books to best project what will happen during a campaign you will place.
However, posting is about what did happen, so the book corresponding to the actual schedule dates is what is used.
Exception: in markets that have only two books, if the schedule ran between two books, then averaging those book is appropriate in the post.
What is the difference between Advertising and Marketing?
Marketing encompasses all activites aimed at selling, positioning and promoting a brand. It includes advertising but also public relations, promotion, packaging, pricing, etc..
Advertiing is essentially mass-media messaging.
What exactly is market share?
Market share is the Brand's percentage of all sales within the specified product category.
can you tell me about radio rates?
When estimating a Q3 buy - is it correct to look at the yr to yr July books only using the tp average, or should other issues be taken into account? I've been taught that we aren't to use the other books when negotiating Q3 buys... AND
In a metered market, are reps ok to use current HH trends to justify a higher rating when negotiating an annual? What index would you use to apply that to past shares/ratings?
The classic approach, at its simplest, is to look at TP total usage levels from same quarter a year ago and then apply most recent program shares.
Obviously, if a program or staion TP had a rating of 10 a year ago and a rating of 2 most recently -- in other words, only 20 percent of the former share, you can't begin from a presumption that the year-ago 10 is still relevant, while the seasonal usage of TV is a vaild factor.
Hi - Are there any classes you would suggest if one wants to learn media buying or media planning? If so, where could I locate those in my region? Thanks.
The Guru never recommends media buying or planning classes.
What are the key components to putting together a well-written POV?
Is there a source that will report the top advertisers in a given market by medium (e.g. the top TV advertisers in Springfield, MA)?
A small change to yesterdays question. If we know the competitors 1 year GRP'S and average reach, can we calculate the effective frequency. This is a little urgent
There are far too many variables of media mix to accomplish this from the data you offer.
The Guru presumes you mean "reach at a given effective frequency level."
The Guru's approach would be to use R&F software that can deal with effective frequency and enter one year plan variants that include wahtever you know of the plan's components, until you find one that matches your 1 year GRP's and reach, and then see what reach at the effective frequency you have.
Hello, I wrote yesterday about media pricing on a late night 30 minute cable informercial. I neglected to mention that it would be national. Do you still think that it would be possible to get it in the neighborhood of $1,000?
There will be a small vendor who will do it for close to that neighborhood.
Hi Guru, If we know the competitors 1 year GRP'S and average reach, can we find out the average frequency. This is a little urgent.
If you mean the 1 year average frequency, just divide GRP by reach.
For a launch, growth and maintenance campaign in a high competition category, after arriving at the reach and the frequency and arriving at the amount to be spent for a month can you tell we how many burst of advertising we will need to do for the year. Thank you.
Only the budget will tell you that
Hai Guru, my name is linggom pasaribu from indonesia, my qs is have you a people or staff to answer the qs with translate from english to indonesian languange, thank and sorry if my qs not your category
If using CPM to price web advertising, what is the
going rate? I've seen anywhere from $1/cpm - $35/cpm. Is there a standard?
The range is much broader than you suggest. It depends on how broadly or narrowly you are targeting, and what your content quality standards are. Cheap is cheap.
I am working on a school project and as part of our media plan we would like to run one 30 minute infomercial either on cable or network television anytime from midnight to 3:00am. I am having trouble finding any information on prices. Do you have an estimate, or could you tell me where to look?
Contact the networks. Cable will be cheaper. You can probably find a way to do it for under $1000. Not that the Guru approves.
where can i find sqad reports?
Where do I find lists of newspapers and magazines that target seniors and retirement people?
Click here to see past Guru discussion of gross impressions.
What TiVo stands for?
It's a brand name for digital video recorders. See TiVo
que es recency
Click here to see past Guru responses about recency
In terms of CMR vs. Nielsen Monitor Plus - is there one research vehicle that you would recommend over another, and if so, why?
The Guru can't specifically recommend one over the other. YOu should investigate pricing and techniques of each in regard to your specific needs.
what is a share
Click here to see past Guru duscussion of share
If one advertiser places multiple campaigns through the same media buyer, is the post-buy analysis usually done campaign by campaign or it can be done for all campaigns running over a period of time. For example, all campaigns in the past 4 weeks, quarter, year, etc.?
Usually by campaign or by quarter for longer campaigns. Combining campaigns for different brands would blur actual performance.
SQAD? The Guru asks: "What exactly is your question?
My client has asked me to provide him with an in-depth daypart analysis...not just ratings and attentiveness levels. Specifically, he is questioning way we use/recommend one daypart over another. I haven't been able to find studies on this anywhere (including the Television Audit Bureau). Help!!!!
The Guru supposes that you have a system of sorts in you mind, since you apparently are recommending specific dayparts.
You probably know various other characteristics of the dayparts, such as
All these, as well as ratings attentiveness, efficiency need to be evaluated against the specific goals of the plan. For example if reach is the overriding
goal of the plan, then you would use the first daypart you select up to the point where its reach curve flattens and then select your next daypart based not just on the above characteristics, but also based on which one best adds reach to the first.
You probably have a model of sorts in your head, it's now a matter of writing it out as a set of steps and considerations
Guru, we run :15 television spots as bookends in a commercial pod. My client wishes to count each :15 spot (2 per pod) as seperate commercials, i.e. counting GRPs as if each spot were a seperate :30. We do not recommend this, we recommend that two 15 spots are counted as one :30 spot. Do you have any research that proves the agency theory?
It depends on what you are doing, what conclusions you will draw from the GRPs. If you are projecting reach, then you must count these the same as single :30 units. If you are looking at cpm analysis and adjust :15 for value relative to :30, then again, it's more appropirate to evalue as if one :30. Actually, the Guru would be curious to learn the client's reasoning.
AMR = average minute rating; is this the same as reach?
The average minute rating is equivalent to reach for that one time period. But reach is usually used in describing a schedule or series of epeisodes of a program, and means all the differnt (unduplicated) people who are exposed to the schedule.
I would like to know more about creative use of traditiona and non traditional media ( exsamples reviwes e.t.c.)
That's a whole course in media planing.
Please settle a loud discussion now taking place in my company. What is the definition of "net advertising revenue?" Thank you!
It depends in part on who is using the term. A media seller could mean thte total ad sales income not including agency commissions paid. An agency could mean all fees and commissions collected for advertising work. "Net" is also in general use to mean income after taxes and expenses. It's all contextual.
My media department often compiles "media" market profiles for clients opening new locations/stores. Within this profile we include estimated TV CPP's by daypart pulled from SQAD and a daypart mix by percent (established by past market buys). This daypart mix percentage is then multiplied by the estimated daypart CPP, the result of each daypart is then added and the total is called the "weighted CPP" -- is this right / real? I've looked all over your archives, in glossaries, reviewed formulas and beyond to find out more about "weighted CPPs." Please enlighten. Thanks!
This is right if your weight is percent of spending, wrong if your weight is percent of GRPs.
It would also be be preferable to incorporate the index of your CPP buying experience vs SQAD rather than using pure SQAD CPPs.
I am helping a startup magazine search for a publisher's rep firm to outsource the entire sales function. The initial run will be over 125,000 copies per month targeted to 13 key states with major metropolitan areas. The MPA and Nat'l Assoc of Publisher's Reps websites have been of little help in identifying the firms with the capability to handle 65 ad pages per month. Do you have any other idea's?
Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) maintains lists of magazine rep firms.
I have been asked to evaluate spending money on a transit program versus adding GRPs and/or weeks to our existing radio campaign with the same amount of budget. The problem is that comparing GRPs for one versus the other, transit clearly has higher levels and extremely high frequency if you believe the numbers they provide. Any additional thoughts?
Transit GRP are real, but they are based on traffic with an opportunity to see the poster. The real distinction of out of home is the limited message as compared to radio.
If your message can be simple, and reach/frequency are your top communications goals, then transit can be a powerful addition and probably more effective than adding more to an already adequate schedule in your main medium.
"Point of View"
In about '86 the AAAA & media representatives signed an agreement stating that there should be no difference between the charge to an agency and the charge to a client. Where can I find a copy of this? Thanks.
Dear Media Guru,
I am a media planner from Macedonia and I have one question for you.
Would you please tell me is it possible to calculate average ratings by month?? I have made some PPT charts with average rating developement by TV station by month, but the values are very low ( max average rating of each tv station is around 6% )I present this chart on the presentation to one of my clients and he ask me why the average rating is very low . I have not any other explanation exept that in the research were included all time slots in the month ( including time slots after midnight when the rating is around 0%), but it was not enough for him.
Plese advice me on this because i will have an another presentation and i am asking my self where is the mistake:(.
P.S. From the research institute from Macedonia i vas informed that the presentation of average rating by month is non sence chart?!!?!? Is this true?
Thank you in advance.
Unfortunately, the Guru is not intimately familiar with all the media data for Macedonia.
If the ratings of each TV station in a typical US market were averaged for all time periods in a month, including overnight, the average ratings would be lower than 6%. Your results seem quite reasonable. Are there several competing stations, plus competing cable or satellite program sources?
If there are, for example, six competing program sources, then at the peak time, of 3-4 evening hours when perhaps 80% are watching something, then each station / source would have an average rating of about 13%. Averaged with about 6 or 7 minimal-rated overnight hours and low rated daytime hours, 6% makes sense.
Media Guru, we are beginning a training program at our agency. Can you please recommend any "projects" that the assistants can complete during their official training program? Particularly, "projects" that encompass all disciplines of media. Any original ideas other than "Develop a fully integrated media plan", would be greatly appreciated. Thanks.
It is more challenging to deal with limited funds and targets.
After the "fully integrated media plan" say "now your budget has been reduced to just "20%" of what you had, how will you revise the plan? How will you project results?"
Or, the client has found that distribution will only be supported in 50 markets, some in each region of the country, how will you revise the plan?
Or, the client now believes that 35% of the product may be consumed by Hispanics and 30% by African Americans. What research will you use to confirm this and if true, how will you revise the plan?
What is the best way to project demo ratings in markets that recently converted to LPMs.
Until you have one report to project a trend it is all but guesswork. One option is to average trends in several markets that have made the changeover.
is is ever possible to reach 100% of your target audience?
n theory, yes it is. No single medium reaches 100%, so at minimum, a multimedia plan is needed. The potential of media types is only truly measured on medium at a time so there is no usable respondent level data to demonstrate this. MAny planners will, as a matter of principal, not report a rach above "95+" or even "98+."
what are some facts and tricks in purchasing network television ad spots?
Know some things about your target that make certain spots more valuable to you than the seller will realize. These need to be spots not highest rated against your basic age/gender demographic.
I'm a media buyer who now wants to work on the planning side. Although I have been granted interviews from some top shops (and small shops) I am not able to move to the planning side without either getting a paycut or starting at the bottom again. Can you please give me some insight as to how I can get the "hands-on" media planning experience without losing my current 9 to 5? Thanks for your input.
The simplest path is to get a lateral move within your current organization.
Hello Media Guru:
Now that Clear Channel Radio seems to own half of the radio stations in the major markets and have established their less is more scenario, what percentage of a sixty second spot's average quarter hour rating would you attribute to a thirty second in the same daypart?
Rating has nothing to do with commercial length. It is the same for a :30 or :60 in the same time period.
As far as dollar value, that is negotiable. A :30 is worth between 50% and 80% of the :60. Radio has been selling flat-priced "units" regardless of length for many years.
Local Sales Marketing. With the shrinking shares of
broadcast TV and the effects of Tivo and DVRs, how are
marketing/advertising agencies managing getting the most for their
clients media wise? How do you foresee DVRs effecting TV
The first solution to shrinking broadcast shares is cable, of course. And other media mix adjustments. DVRs will eventually be a bigger problem. Nielsen now tells us that DVR users are much greater consumers of other media, so to the extent these are a key target, meida mix is all the more important. Analyzing reach against this segmentation will become more important. When Nielsen begins reporting DVR-based ratings, better judgements will be possible.
Do you have any idea how much it cost Ameriquest to be the half time sponsor of the Super Bowl in Feb. of '05?
Not really. It will likely be a multiple of $2+ million times the number of :30 spots included, plus more for the sponsorship elements' value.
What is the indusrty standard on added value? I had heard 3%, but don't know which source cited this info.
The usual practices vary widely from media type to media type, and above all it's negotiable. The Guru has seen "official" policies stated as anywhere from 0.5% to 5.0% and actual deals up to 25%+ depending on the cost of the deal to the vendor. Added value delivered in performance such as bonus spots, remotes, and event participation tend to be greater than added value delivered in hard good or other more concrete items like travel.
TV Advertising Rates
I'm making a presentation to a franchise group in which I'm supposed to explaing planning/buying of media (largely electronic). Can you direct me to any web site or book that might be good for finding a basic overview or possibly a presentation?
Franchisees are rarely, if ever, experienced in media planning or buying. Generally, they will think schedules including their own favorite programs or those watched by people they know are the right programs and that the average price per unit of a package applies equally to all units(" I get prime time for $50 a spot!"). They don't think about plans being more than schedules purchased
Please excuse the Guru's cynical voice of experience. They think spots aired when the store is closed are worthless.
The point is, minimize discussion of reach, frequency and research methodology. Talk about effectiveness and consumer response.
I am trying to find a share distribution of ad dollars spent by P&G by medium, all media. Do you know where I can find this out?
What is the formula for combining two R&Fs?
Click here to see past Guru responses about "random probability"
What is a good computer software program to use for advertising budget projections, call projections, analysis, various forecasts, etc. We do national advertising on TV, radio, and in newspapers nationwide.
This is beyonfd the scope of Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.
Are you aware of any recent research regarding the relationship between length of commercials (:15's vs. :60's) and their effectiveness with the 18-34 age group?
Do you know of any research that makes an effectiveness comparision of full-page print ads vs. 1/2-page prints ads (specifically in business trade publications). I would love to be able to answer the question....full-page ads have an x% higher recall rate than 1/2-page ads.
How do you calculate an average 4-week frequency?
Divide four week GRPs by four week reach.
Media Guru: In the LPM Markets (such as Boston), what books should you use in placing buys, such as Q2: use Feb 05 acutals against Feb 04??? I work in a small agency and have just been handed this assignment. Thanks
LPM is not the issue. Use the same time of year last year and consider share of most recent ratings period. When monthly books are available, sue in preference to mid month sweep for the quarter.
who owns what
Go to Who Owns What
What is cummulative audience
It is the sum of all the audiences of all the announcemnts in the schedule. Someone might also use the phrase to mean the net, unduplicated audience of the schedule, i.e. counting each person only one time no matter how many announcements' audiences the person is in.
Does Germany (or any other European country) still run their TV advertising in 15 minute blocks between programs?
If so, do all channels run this way?
No, under EU, the practice has been abandoned.
What is cummulative raitings?
It is the sum of all the ratings of all the announcements in the schedule.
Can you direct me to research sources on the media multiplier
Googling "media multiplier effect" generates numerous relevant links.
Do you have any information on the effectiveness of a 30 second TV spot over a 10 second ad. My organization is ROI driven and we seem to be doing well with the 10's. Since the cost of a 30 second spot is at least 3X, would I expect to see at least a 3X return on a 30 execution?
Media costs of :30 are usually well under double the cost of a :10. When they were new, many tests showed :10's to get about 75% of a :30's recall. But the longer form is more than just numbers of seconds or recall scores. Costs and effectiveness should be roughly in line, especially if you mix the formats. But you know what your standards of success are.
What does the GURU know about the cost of services from companies like AudioAudit and Confirmedia?
The Guru knows nothing about their prices, specifically. Contact these vendors.
We recentrly presented a print plan to our client which we believed would have been highly effective in reaching Prof./Manag Men 25-54. The client then proceeded to compare our impressions against the impressions delivered by their online plan which were significantly higher (20.4MM vs. 3.4MM). Is this really an apples to apples comparison? Is there another way to compare the efficiences of the 2 plans?
"Efficiency" is cost per thousand impressions. So, if that's your only standard, that's that. But experience should tell the client something about the value of a print impression versus an online impression. Generally, online impressions are less expensive than print or tv impressions. If the two plans had the same cost and print impressions were six times as numerous as online, instead of vice versa, among the defined target you specify, then something is wrong.
If the plan is direct response, each thousand print impression might deliver 5-10 times the response of online, if it's static rather than "rich" media.
Yes, there are other standards than efficiency. What else is important here?
In short, comparing print and online solely on cpm is foolish.
Hi Media Guru,
How could I find out the costs of advertising on the radio in the UK? And the demographic groups of those who listen to the station?
spot advertising article?
Dear Media Guru,
Where can I find the costs of advertising on radio stations and where would I be able to find a demographic breakdown of their audiences.
This is a follow-up of my previous question regarding national/standard (local) cable rates. I consider your advice invaluable and, therefore, feel it would be to my advantage to understand this national/local (standard) rate card structure prior to my negotiations with the networks.
Some cable networks have both National and Standard/Local rates, but their rate card states that all :30/:60 DRTV will automatically run in Local and :120 DRTV will air in National. However, one cable network describes their DRTV rate structure as follows:
National Rate Card
Advertisers paying the National rate card will air in National inventory only. If National inventory sells out, units will be automatically pre-empted. Advertisers that submit schedules below the National rate card, without prior approval will be subject to local.
Standard Rate Card
Advertisers paying the Standard DR rate card are subject to local insertion, but will be placed in national inventory when available. Paying above this rate card will ensure better clearance and offer a greater possibility of national exposure.
Obviously, I can pay the National Rate, the Standard Rate or somewhere in-between. So, here's my two questions --
1. Surely, the Standard Rate is negotiable as well?
2. I’m still unclear on the meaning of “local insertion” in this context – does it mean regional feeds? If so, is the difference between National and Standard/Local that National runs within the program and Standard/Local/Regional airs between programs and/or within a local commercial pod?
The short answer is everything is negotiable, but you have to actually talk to your vendors.
How come Light Emitting Diode signs are not considered out of home structures?
They are if they are ad-bearing.
I requested national direct response rates from several cable networks (Lifetime, Court TV, etc.). The DR rate cards they sent me all have two rates for any given daypart -- national rates and local rates -- local rates being approximately half the cost of national rates.
So, say I pay the cable network's LOCAL DR rate for a NATIONAL DR spot -- does this mean my DR spot will air nationally, but be placed in the system's local avail time slots rather than the national pods?
Would each local rate/national spot I buy air in the same local commercial pod simultaneously in each market?
Would my local rate/national cable spot air in satellite homes? (Satellite sells it's "local" avails as national coverage in satellite homes, right?)
For that matter, cable system operators sell their "local" avails as local market-specific avails. So how can national sell spot in the local pods?
Since direct response spots are immediately pre-emptible by any advertiser paying a higher rate, does that mean that any given local rate/national spot I buy could air in some markets and be bumped in others?
I'm a pro at spot TV, but need some education buying national cable. The last thing I want is to sound like a dork during negotiations. Please help!
You need to discuss this with the cable networks. It makes little sense as described, unless they are talking about regional feeds, as the broadcast networks do. In that case the air-time is not actually the "local avails."
At $2.4 million per :30, what happens if the SuperBowl runs longer-- will the network "give" major sponsors the extra unsold commercial time?
Some of the largest advertisers will have been offered the option on spots in over-run time.
Is there any research that shows effectiveness of running multiple print ads in the same issue of the daily newspaper?
I am currently working with a product bottle in the house cleaning/deodorizing retail industry that is : totally black and green, yellow logo. All my research leads me to believe that since the avg. household cleaning product purchaser is female 25+, and prefers strong vibrant colors (minus black)...this color combo will not be effective to induce sales for this "1st time" product roll out.
The company owner feels this color combo will "jump out BAM" and grab atention. I'm afraid it will in fact, grab attention, but in a non-purchase format.
My media question: I am working on a media plan for this product, and fear the colors are wrong for the audience (broadcast, target-F30-64). Any advertising research that addresses this color preference issue?
The recently discontinued "American Demographics" did publish a report about color preferences. Ad Age has taken it over and may have archives.
Otherwise try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.
I'm doing a radio buy for POLITICAL ISSUE advertising(school bond issue). The rate cards the radio stations are giving are too high. Is there a policy they must adhere to for LOCAL political issue advertising? Are everyone's policies different?
The policies are built around time-before-election dates and whether local or national. The policies for candidates at typical November elections, may be different than those for issues at off-time elections like school budgets.
can you explain the three hit theory
Click here to see past Guru discussion of the 3 exposures concept
what in internet planning
Click here to see past Guru responses about internet planning.
what is media planning
Click here to see past Guru responses about media planning.
How do you best calculate "return on advertising investment"?
Most simply, it's a matter of looking at incremental returns per ad dollar. The trick is setting the standard for "return." It could be incremental dollars of sales, for example. That is, suppose I am selling $10 million dollars worth of goods right now and I spend $1 million on advertising. Then I spend another $1 million on advertising and sales rise to $15 million. I have a 500% (or 5:1) ROI for that added ad spending.
What is the optimal percentage of sales to use when developing advertising budgets?
It depends on category competition, brand profitablity and other factors specific to you product or service. There is no useful generality.
what is return on advertising investment
Incremental revenue / profit divided by ad spending.
Dear Guru, is it appropriate to use the newsletter form to promote a newspaper?
The Guru would not consider it to be the best method.
Dear Guru, please let me know which are the main topics / information / that I am supposed to write in a newsletter. Can I use the newsletter form to promote a newspaper?
Newsletters are wide-ranging in topic and content. Promting a newspaper through a newsletter doesn't sound useful, unless you mean something like advertising in a trade newsletter to attract advertisers for a newspaper.
When designing a print campaign in a weekly newspaper, which would you recommend? Smaller-size ads running more frequently or larger ads running less? Is there research to support the retention of messages in either format?
Which would the media guru recommend for a weekly newspaper campaign:
Smaller ads with higher frequency or larger ads with less frequency? Is there research to support retention levels of one vs. the other?
A campaign in weekly newspapers or a campaign for a weekly newspaper? In a weekly newspaper, the Guru believes more frequency wins, assuming the same total amount of space is used and ads are not too small. E.g three consecutive one-third page right hand ads will outperform a single full page. In some categories there could be exceptions,m of course. Try Starch AdNorms for research.
Posting from Local People Meters. Has anyone begun posting by specific day off of the LPMs? We're concerned that the sample sizes may not be large enough. Any advice?
It is simple to look at the tolerance range of any rating. If you find a 2.0 rating is +/- 1.5 on a single day basis, but +/- 0.2 on a weekly basis, then using single days might be inadvisable. If you are buying a strip and have several instances of the same progam in your schedule, your results will balance out just as does the aggregated weekly sample.
Thanks for your prompt answer. In fact my doubt was about the correct way to calculate the average between 2 or more TV programs. All my life I've been doing that in the arithmetic mode, as I exemplified im my message, but some time ago I was told that it was not the correct way anymore. According to some people, the arithmetic average would have been replaced by the weighted average, where the weights would be the duration of each TV program. Do you think that I must change from arithmetic to weighted average?
Thanks in advance, Luzia
Depends on context. If the two programs are on a station from 8:00 to 9:00 and 9:00 to 9:30 and you are discussing the average rating for that time period, you must weight them,
If you are advertising in both, one time each, and want to discuss the average rating of the programming in your schedule, just do the arithmetic (one of each) average. It is not something that has changed over the years, but varies according to the application.
I would like to enter the field of advertising sales for magazines. Where can I find contact information for media buyers of companies? This information is usually not published on company websites.
I have 2 TV programs, one of them rated at 35 and the other at 70. May I say that the average rating is 52.5?Luzia
Yes, you could say that, but why flatten an interesting difference?
Dear guru, I have been asked to plan the launch campaign for a brand new relocations company specialising in the UK market. Any ideas as to what might be effective? This is also my first campaign and I want to impress!
To impress, find the research that tells you who relocates and when. Then find media to fit.
Dear Guru, Do you think that the use of electronic media has affected the political arena by creating a level playing field, for example its effectiveness in the recent US presidential elections as compared to traditional media usage?
The last thing reliance on electronic media has done is level the playing field. It has made money (donations) all the more important in buying elections. Or perhaps by "electronic media" you mean online (TV and radio are electroninc media). Online has leveled the playing field somewhat, but not to the extent other media would indicate by their rabid reporting of bloggers.
I am a media director for a very very small agency. My boss (the owner) has sold one of our national clients on the idea of network radio. All fine and good except that their budget allows the purchase of only 3 spots per week!!!!!!!!!!! I have been unsuccessful thus far in trying to convince him that this will not be effective. Do you have an opinion on minimum levels to be effective on Network radio?
Do they understand reach and frequency at all? Does the network to be used have a rating of 1.0? So the message will reach perhaps 1 or two percent of the target each week an average of 1-2 times per person? Perhaps 5% in four weeks? Can you express the limited POSSIBLE effects? It makes no sense to do this if the money could buy a real schedule in a few markets.
This sounds like a client with a delusion that it is "national." With this plan, it will be nowhere.
As for effective levels, this will depend on target, and what are the marketing goals, but generally the same standards of schedule as in spot radio will work. One possible exception; if you are sponsoring a strongly authoritative commentator, like Tom Joyner or Paul Harvey, their influence can affect a brand, at least among their audiences, with relatively few weekly spots.
We have just landed a new account in the Southeastern part of the U.S. which specializes in the re-building and repair of homes that have had significant damage due to hurricanes and/or storms. What type of a demographic target do you think we should be targeting for a business such as this?
Off-hand, the Guru would target a homeowners demographic, perhaps A25+. Unless there is anything you know that makes damaged homes different than others in the same area.
Do you know of a resource where I can find a reported average CPM range for Direct Response Advertisers for magazine?
No. There are too many other variables such as ad unit and target and magazine type. YOu might be able to calculate from competitve spending records and rate cards.
Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use "media planning" as your search term.
i want to know all about media planning in advertising
Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use "media planning" as your search term.
Where can i find examples of organisations media strategies?
When do I use radio?
National Radio is expected to experience what % of growth in 2005?
If I want to look at a total reach/frequency for several TV schedules that have run over the course of a year (same demo, various creative messages), does it make sense to use the highest reach and to just add up the frequency of all the schedules? Thanks for all your help!
If you are trying to calculate a cumulative reach and frequency for the year, and any one schedule delivers 95 or more, then you can probably safely call the cume "99+." Then add all the GRPs and divide by 99 to determine the year's cumulative, average frequency. You would have a total reach, total GRP and average frequency among the total reached. "Total frequency" must apply to a specified group and this seems to be the most logical group.
If the best schedule delivers much less than 95, then you should process all the schedules together to determine annual cume reach as your first step, then proceed as above.
I am currently dong an assignment in which we have to critically analyse a companies media strategy and come up with a new one. I am using a childrens hospital charity and was wondering if you could tell me which media theory charities tend to use when constructing thier media plan?
Charities have varying goals, as do commercial marketers. Since many below the AdCouncil-supported level rely on pro-bono sevices, media strategy is probably a generally neglected area.
The Guru's observation is that, for basic fund-raising solicitation, direct mail is most often the simple solution. More ambitious image building programs and those promoting specific events may rely on free time and space donated by the media more than they try to execute a true plan based on budget allocation and considering all media.