Returns all questions and responses for the year.
Do you have any information regarding the impact or projected impact of devices such as DVR on television commercial effectiveness?
There is no doubt that DVR users skip more commercials than VCR users had. DVR is not, thus far, growing at the rate that VCR did. There have been numerous trade articles regarding users commerical skiping behavior. Try Ad Age and MediaPost. As you read, be aware that the TiVo brand, while it is becoming a generic reference to this technology is actually a minority of DVRs in use, and its users behavior may vary from the mainstream of DVR behavior.
When you begin to look at buying a new market, what is the best way to find out a reasonable CPP for that market?
2. Ask all the vendors at what price "the other guy" is selling.
What is the percentage of homes that subscribe to satelite television? I'm looking specifically for the Stockton-Modesto area, but if there is a national percentage I can use that as well.
I am looking for an up to date CPM rate comparison across traditional media that includes Blimp (Airship) aerial advertising. (TV, Cable,Radio, Newspapers, Magazines, Billboards, Blimps) The recall and retention rate with viewers of a blimp, unlike traditional types of media, is extreemely high - 70 to 80%
The Guru has not seen this in one place. Perhaps Outdoor Advertising Association of America can compare blimps to other out-of-home placements. Even something as "niche" as blimps has several variables: small to large tethered blimps or piloted blimps or radio controlled blimps. Blimps reaching enormous audiences on New York City public beaches versus much more targeted blimps at spoecific events.
What is the standard used to determine GRP value of product placement and integration. Does your experience say that those GRPs whould be represented as part of the overall plan's deliveries, albeit shown as added-value versus purchased? In other words if total planned weekly GRPs are 100, where 20 are added-value, then should you show the plan deliveries based on 100. Even though the 100 is not guaranteed. Anything you have on this topic would be helpful.
Most new automobile dealers in the states treat cars as they are low-involvment products. The creative is often crowded with messasges trying to sell everything at once. TV commercials often so silly they assume that the consumer is a plain idiot. Those new car dealers use all of the media budget into those hard sell ads, often black and white print ads. What do you think about this, since those are new cars?
The main question, what if that new car dealer is also the one only importer of the automibile brand? How much % of the media spending budget you think should be allocated in hard Sell, how much into softer ads, such as brand image building ads?
The simple answer is that factory advertising, usually heavier and more continuous than the dealers', carries the branding burden. The dealers contribute to local factory advertising. The dealers are generally promoting short term and looking for the immediate sale of a product with established characteristics, benefits and values based on national marketing communications. Dealers are competing with other dealers more than with other brands.
Can you give me a list of good media representatives in Asian and European countries
Consult International Media Guide
Hi Media Guru. We're a national advertiser who uses one agency for TV planning and another for buying. Typically, what role does the planner play. I've found I'm mostly getting recommendations on how to flow the media (e.g., GRPs p/wk, number of hiatuses) and broadcast-type (syndication, cable, prime or sports). Where the buyers reco. networks, evaluate value add and negotiate the buy. I feel like I'm not getting much value from the planners. What's your thoughts on what the planners role shuold be on planning TV?
"Value" is a matter of what you get for your money. If media planning is an included service of an agency you are using for everything short of TV buying, than the planning may be a good value. If, however you are using a totally separate agency for TV planning, which means only "GRPs p/wk, number of hiatuses) and
> broadcast-type (syndication, cable, prime or sports)." than it is hard to think it's a good value. The value of media planning is to look at all communications needs and recommend what should be done across all media, not simply TV. On the other hand is your plan looks at all of this, then one agency should be capable of doing what are now separated TV planning and buying functions. This does not necessarily mean that either your current TV planning or buying agency is the right one to combine the functions.
is there any national rep firm for magazines?
Yes, several. One listing is to be found in the front of an Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) Consumer Magazine source.
demographics for Desperate housewives
Can you tell me who invented the systems (schedule makers/optimizers) like Telmar and about what year were they developed? (Yes, some clown in my office claims he did it). Thanks and hope all is well!
Overall, Telmar histroy dates to .Otimizers, have been in use for 30+ years in print and TV. Telmar's date back to the 70's. The currently "hot" optimizer is based on Nielsen beginning to offer respondent level data in the 80's. Telmar "Xpert" ans "SuperMidas" were among the earliest. What changed in optimizers was the detail level of the data, not the analytical poprcess.
Do you know of a case study study that shows outdoor can successfully be used for direct response.
Try Outdoor Advertising Association of America, Direct Marketing Association
(DMA) and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.
Hello, Guru! Please give me an advise how to plan an appropriate ad campaign to promote a newspaper. Please help me with some ideas?
Are you promoting readership or ad sales? These will have different targets, consumers vs advertsers. Decide whom, within whichever group, is the target. If readers, is there an age / gender / interests / ethnicity skew? If advertisers, do you need to talk to the advertiser itself or its agency; to media planners or account mangers?
Then it's primarily a matter of deciding which other media reach the specifc target best and will accept your advertising, as you may be considered a competitior.
What are some pro's and con's of advertising in trade
magazines? Is there a resource I can use to look this up myself?
The first question is "advertsing what?" For example, if your brand is aimed at specific vertical categories, which are served by a trade book, then waste circulation is avoided. I.e. if you sell oil drilling rig parts, then advertising outside pertroleum industry trades would likley involve a lot of waste. On the other hand, if you sell a business service, like inventory control systems, which is useful across many industries, then general busienss media would probably be more efficient. There are also issues such as the authoritativeness of specific trade media which strongly benefit narrowly targeted products and have little effect on selling more general brands.
A key comparison is trade magazines vs trade web sites. Often treade websites are moore efficient or can be more narrowly targeted than trade print; e.g. do you need to address petroleum engineers or pertroleum marketing executives?
We have been asked by our client to provide spending for key competitors who use mobile/truckside media.
Do you know of a source that would track this information?
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) includes trucks/mobile in its outdoor data collection.
I am student doing research for a proposal of the production and airing of a television commercial for a small business such as a website or local store. Will you please provide me with a lead on statistical info such as increased sales or business after comercials air, and or any other salient information that might be helpful to me.
The question of the benefits of marketing spending or advertising spending is very much broader than the effects of a TV commercial. Variables as simple as whether it is the first advertsing ever or is an addition to a robust ad scehdule override the smaller question.
See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan and visit TV Bureau of Advertising and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers. for information
Need an opinion on using a rep firm vs going local to do a buy in a market ranked in the 50 to 100 rank range. The nature of the buy is not an annual nor is it retail-oriented so the total is probably 8 weeks or less during the entire year.
In radio, definitely the rep firm. In TV, probably the rep firm. Contractually, a station must pay the rep commissions on buys where the rep is authorized to service it, so price advantage is less likely than you might suppose. Sometimes better pricing is achieved locally because you deal with someone more familiar with the possibilities, so reps must be carefully managed. Convenience always favors using the rep, unless you know in advance exactly what stations you want to buy.
In outdoor advertising, who pays agency commission to the agency - the client or the outdoor vendor? For example, Agency (with 15% commission and 2% fee) proposes to client a $1000 gross board. This is presented to the client as $890 client net (85% of $1,000 + 4% of $1,000). Who pays the agency the $150?
If the agency deal with the client is for GROSS + a fee of 2% of gross, then the agency should be presenting gross media cost plus fee to the client and collecting gross + fee from the client. There is no difference for outdoor unless it's specifically in the client / agency agreement, and again the deal is between client and agency.
I am currently working in a sales capacity with a "new concept" advertising agency, we install flat screen televisions on mass transit buses in many large markets in the U.S. I as a salesperson would like some insight into ways to position this type of media by comparing it to other more traditional means of advertising. Can you help?
Assuming there is also sound, then you have a medium with the audience profile of transit and something like the communications power of TV. Perhaps the sort of TV encountered in doctors offices or bars, though. Not watched by choice, but still intrusive.
Do you have planning CPP's for Chicago radio and TV for 2005?
How do we determine the distinct demographic appeals of national news programs like CNN or Fox News?
Nielsen would be the primary choice
Do you have a list of media careers (e.g., agency buyer, planner, media sales) and a description for each?
No specific list, but the archives contain several descriptions. Go to Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use the titles as your search terms.
Dear Guru, I have two questions:
1.What is the difference between "print run" and "circulation"?
2.What is the most precise word for the price of the magazine - price, cover price or some other word?
"Print run" is a count of copies coming off the press. Some are spoiled, destroyed or returned unsold.
"Circulation" is a count of copies in the hands of potential readers.
2. Cover price -- the price literally printed on the cover -- is the single copy selling price at the newsstand. It is a precise enough term. THe price at which a magazine is actually sold varies, with subscription prices and other discounts.
MG, I believe I've seen recent news about efforts to
align methods for measuring online and offline media.
My first question: Are you familiar with these efforts?
Second: Have you seen any data ranking the "effectiveness" of specific channels online and offline. (Clearly "effectiveness" is a tricky label, but I'm referring to it only in the sense of the effort to align measurement methods referred to above.) Thanks.
Yes, the Guru is aware of such alignment efforts. They have been going on almost since the dawn of internet advertising in 1995. Organizations like CASIE, Association of National Advertisers, American Association of Advertising Agencies and The Advertising Research Foundation have led these efforts.
More recently, The Internet Advertising Bureau is a leader. The newly linked I/PRO and BPA internet audit effort, with the participation of Agencies for Internet Audits, is also a force for this goal.
The essential unit of media measurement is agreed among traditional and online media to be the "impression;" one exposure of one ad to one person. Although measurment methods differ among media types, once there is agreement to impression numbers, moving to reach, frequency and GRP figures is relatively easy.
2. As you acknowledge, "effectivenss" is subject to interpretation and is best examined within an advertising category. One medium may be best for selling real estate another for cars and a different one for diamond jewelry. Within a medium, it is more reasonable to compare the effectiveness of various vehicles, while controlling for copy variations. And of course defintions of effectiveness are variable; sales, awareness, share change, etc.
One great advantage of online advertising is its accountability and immediately measurable results.
How do I find out media costs and availability in France?
Whitch are the basic components in a media presentation, regarding a magazine presentation?
What determines an A, B or C county ?
Nielsen sets these definintions. Click here to see past Guru responses about A/B/C/D counties . Note that the definitions change over time.
My question is two-fold. We are trying to project the number of responses from a print campaign in trade publications. Realize that there are many variables to consider (offer, response mechanism, size of ad)
but are there any rules of thumb on response rate. Would the response rate be applied to gross impressions, net impressions, of net effective impressions (e.g., % reach at 3+ level).
Thank you, in advance, for your thoughtful consideration.
The Guru does not know of any specific rules of thumb here. The various publications may have some parameters. Generally, the Guru is used to seeing rates applied to gross or net impressions.
What is the percentage or increase in viewership/readership when using color advertisements versus black and white?
Where can i find information on reader profiles of various US magazines?
See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan
honda civic media budget
Hi Mr Guru,
Could you tell me what effect you think online media will have on print based media such as Newspapers in the future?
Online media is already having a notable effect on newspaper clasified sales. Newsreaders, on the other hand still appear to enjoy holding the printed page.
Dear guru ,in answering questions abt budgeting u have mentioned it is the planners Job to advice the client ,How much he should spend, I know one can use SOV:SOM CONCEPT OR AD:SALES, is there any other calculation for this as well as what should be the benchmark for a new product launch.
This depends on goals. For example, is awareness, trial, or market share the objective. Each of these could lead to different budget reuqirements
How to calculate Commercial Wear Out
Click here to see past Guru responses about wear out
Click here to see past Guru responses about wear out
I have a client that has a one county market area. The billboards selected for the campaign are within the market but the DEC counts that relate to reach and frequency relate to a wider marketing area. The other elements of the campaign are within the one county market. How do I establish measurable goals for the campaign?
DEC is calculated for individual boards at a stage of the prosess. Be sure to focus on boards in the right area.
How much would it cost to create an ad for an airport? It would be a diorama
Not a media question, but try JC Decaux
Where can I find average unit costs for Australia TV and radio.
Start with Budde
How to determine commercial wearout for each media (TV, Radio, Print, Outdoor, Cinema, etc)
Click here to see past Guru responses about wearout
where can I find studies on the effects of D/PVRs (digital/personal video recorders)on advertising that have used in-home observation via cameras?
I am a graduate student and I am trying to find out how much a retailer like Best Buy spends on various media (in percentage terms).
HI, I am looking for some creditable research I can show my client that reinforces what we have been telling them, which is; smaller ads more often is more important and beneficial than a large ad once or twice a year (print). Think you can help me out? Thanks!
There have been studies to this effect. Try
The Magazine Publishers' Association and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. ARF materials will also be available through American Association of Advertising Agencies and Association of National Advertisers.
Hi Guru could u please tell me how can one decide on the media mix i.e the primary medium and sub mediuum for different product categories and with what what proportion one needs to spend in those media.
There are no absolute rules. Target, budget, marketing strategy and other factors contribute.
One good process rule is to use each medium until it hits a point of diminshing returns, with respect to reach, awareness, sales or whatever is your goal.
Click here to see past Guru responses about media mix.
How do you convert TRPs from one demo to another manually, not using a proprietary software system? For example if the GRPs for W18+ is 250 and I need to convert that into W25-54 GRPs, how would I do it? Thanks
This is not simply arithmetic. If you assume that whatever media vehicles you are buying have exactly equal appeal to w25-52 as to women 18+, then the ratings and TRP are equal. If you know the difference in appeal, i.e. the % audience compostion vs the % of population for w25-54 then the calculation is as followsp
w25-54 audience ÷ w18+ audience = w25-54 composition
w25-54 population ÷ w18+ population = w25-54 population percentage
w25-54 composition & divide; w25-54 population percentage = w25-54 conversion factor
w18+ TRP X w25-54 conversion factor = w25-54 TRP
How many coffee drinkers are there in the southeast Texas area?
Do you have information on the effectiveness of outdoor advertising?
Have national news programs like CNN and Fox News evolved a new niche "entertainment" market?
No. They are news programs with distinct demographic appeals, rather easily distinguished.
Hi Guru. Can you define what bulk circulation consists of?
Generally, this refers to large quantities of a publication, which may in fact be paid for by a third party but not by the reader, for instance newspapers provided to guests by hotels.
See the ABC rules
I would like to explain me in the meaning of media typology: why I should use for ex. 3+ or 2+ reach level, or even 1+. How I can know what the right planning measure is?
The classic approach is represented by the Ostrow Model
what is advertising?
why is advertising used?
how is advertising used?
when is advertising used?
Advertising is marketing communications through purchased (or occasionally, donated) media. It's purpose it to influence the target's attitudes or behavior. The questions otherwise seem to be at a level of simplicity outside the Guru's scope.
My client is launching a new food product in Sunday newspapers, but he can only afford 3 insertions. The ad unit will be a 1/6th 4-color strip ad.
My client and I are debating what will be the most effective and impactful way to the schedule the insertions. I think they should run every 2-3 weeks. He thinks they should run once a month so they're aligned with the FSIs. What do you think?
Thank you for your advice.
- A Big Fan
The Guru's gut reaction is that a 3-time, one-sixth page schedule is so insignificant that the refinements of timing are of little consequence. Unless they will expicitely refer readers to the FSI's, the Gurus instinct is to schedule separately, for what little reach impact might be gained.
How do I figure out a rating for a newspaper ad? Some of the papers I work with are small and do not have a research department and I need some clarification. Thanks!
Circulation ÷ household universe = houshold rating
circ x demographic readers-per-copy (RPC) = demographic audience
demographic audience ÷ demographic population = demographic rating
For some approximate average rpc's go to The Newspaper Advertising Association
I have several clients that like to say they want to place a media campaign with the main objective being to "raise awareness." Even if they give me an actual set percentage to measure from, say increase awareness by 20%, how do I know what GRP's to plan to? Besides the old rule of thumb of a min. of 3 frequency, are there any set "standards" in the industry of a min. reach and GRP goal to have an effective awareness campaign (I know that sounds very broad...that's why I need help!)
We are discussing ad awareness, of course:
Consider the current level first. For a newly advertised product, growing awareness from 10% to 30% might be relatively easy as comarey to grwoing awareness of a product with 70% awareness to 90%.
The Guru would posit that the first step in growing awareness is by assuring reach is at least at the desired level of awareness; i.e. you won't attain 80% awareness without reaching 80% of the target.. . You will likely need to reach them 3 or more times. However, if advertising is contiuous, you may consider frequency over longer period of time.
I'm writing a newsletter and am wondering how to best explain how reach and frequency are calulated in a newspaper buy. Thanks.
Click here to see more than 100 past Guru responses about reach calculation.
How do you feel PVR's are going to affect the television advertising industry?
PVR's make skipping ads easier. VCR zipping never became a great problem, but by the time that PVR penetration reaches 50% of VCR levels, commerical viewing measurement of recorded material will be an industry-wide demand.
how acn an advert grab the attention of the consumer.
Being different, being annoying, being frequent. Attention however is only the first step. Being memorable and leaving a memory of something favorable to the advertised brand is also crucial to success.
are well-liked advertesments always the most effective
No. Many "well liked" ads are rembemred, but don't leave a lasting brand impression. As just on example, the popular (Eveready) Energizer Bunny was commonly misidentified by survey respondents as a Duracel commercial.
On the other side, the notoriously annoying Mr. Whipple for "Please don't squeeze the Charmin" left a strong branding imprint.
Are you aware of any Special Reports on the Black American Market for Myrtle Beach-Florence?
No, but local Black American formatted radio stations may have such info.
I'm a communications student taking a marketing course. We've been asked to put together a media plan. My part in the project is to locate rates for television advertising in the los Angeles area. I've called various stations and have gotten nowhere. Are there any online resources I could access to get this kind of info?
What are the most frequently used methods for evaluating the effectiveness of media plan?
Hi Guru: I an interesting in statistics on clutter rates for broadcast tv - could you suggest a source?
Dear Guru, I will be very greatfull if you give me some more advices about the calculation of media inflation. Some of the TV stations in our market sell guaranteed TRPs. Sometimes these stations increase the cost of the spots and decrease the guaranteed TRPs and this leads to increasing of the CPP and the media inflation. So, when we calculate media inflation do we have in mind the guaranteed TRPs, the length of the program and the days in the week when the program is broadcast and on this base we calculate the media inflation? Or when we calculate media inflation we have in mind only the change in the cost.
Pls. give me some guidelines for forecasting the media inflation. If you can recommend me some sites or other places where I can get more information about this topic it will be great. Many thanks!
Discounts can be achieved by buying in volume, buying inventory perceived as less desirable, making the seller understand that the deal is in a competitive enviroment or other ways of giving the seller a rationale for lowering the price with dignity; they want to deal.
Most important is to convey that you are willing to walk away from an unsatisfactiry offer.
Dear Guru, I will be very greatfull if you give me some more advices about the calculation of media inflation. Some of the TV stations in our market sell guaranteed TRPs. Sometimes these stations increase the cost of the spots and decrease the guaranteed TRPs and this leads to increasing of the CPP and the media inflation. So, when we calculate media inflation do we have in mind the guaranteed TRPs, the length of the program and the days in the week when the program is broadcast and on this base we calculate the media inflation? Or when we calculate media inflation we have in mind only the change in the cost.
Pls. give me some guidelines for forecasting the media inflation. If you can recommend me some sites or other places where I can get more information about this topic it will be great. Many thanks!
Inflation is a matter of the rate of change in cost.
Forecasting involves examination of pricing trends, foreseeing economic factors that will put pressure on inventory, such as elections or Olympics (in the US, for example) or factors that will reduce or increase demand, such as economic upturns/downturns, holiday shopping seasons, war, etc.
Are there any good websites that offer free demographic research by lifestyle (such as environmentally active segments)?
What are the demographics for environmentalist?
I am doing my senior project on a new product, a kitchen appliance, somewhat like the Pasta Pro, and I haven't decided where to campaign first, either by U.S. region or nationally. How many new product launches were there last year, and how many were successful, and from where... I was thinking California. I wanted to use media channels such as QVC or infomercials, Good Housekeeping magazine ADs, Lifetime TV and whatever suggestions you may have. I have no prior knowlegde about the household industry. Please help... Thanks!
You need to have a media plan, not merely to imagine individual vehicles that might work. Before that you need a marketing plan. By the way, QVC is not a medium, it’s a sales arrangement.
See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan
Hi media Guru,
Pls. let me know how to calculate TV media inflation, Print, radio and OOH media inflation?
Many thanks ;)
If you mean literaly to calculate the rate of inflation, it's
(new cost - old cost) ÷ old cost.
If you mean how to forecast, that is very complex and requires a good overview of marketpalce forces in each medium.
Hi Guru. Do you know of a vendor who sells advertising on dry cleaning hangers?
You can start with Ambient Planet
Abby, given Nielsen's inability to measure niche networks, and planners' desire to provide ROI via
post analysis -- how can a highly targeted Spanish-
language niche network get on the planning radar?
Skip, first of all Nielsen doesn't put any vehicle on the radar, though it meay help prevent some from being ignored. Making direct contact with the media professionals, as you have been doing, will make you known. The key is to figure out how you are a unique solution to brand communication needs. Custom research can describe your audience, if it cannot acceptably quantify it.
If you are the only in-language non-cartoon kids programming, or if you reach a more upscale Spanish-dominant family, or if your content offers better message integration, such selling points can be important. Without ratings, you can't go into the "me-too" boxcar numbers game rgardless of target.
How are radio ratings affected by the length of the spot? Why do some agencies use 50% of the rating for a 30-second spot?
Ratings are absolutely unaffected by spot length. Buyers may discount the rating as a short cut to comparing efficiencies, but this only makes sense when prices are 50%, which is rare in spot radio, bu common in network. Or, it may be a way to short cut the impact value of a longer vs shorter spot, although 50% greatly overstates the ratio.
How do I find out about media rates in another market in another state without having to contact the media directly.
What does it mean if HUTs in a market are continually increasing? How does the affect media buying and the mareketplace?
If HUTs are rising, a greater portion of the populaiton is watching TV at any time. In marketplace terms it means the supply of GRPs is increasing, thus if demand does not increase, CPP inflation will at least slow down,
Hi I need to know the definition for effective frequency, could you please help?
I am a new media supervisor. The agency I worked with before had a list of media tasks and the amount of time we needed to do them for the Account Service Department. I can't remember what they were. Is there such thing as a standard timeline for media projects? Or is there someone else who can help me? Please any help would be greatly appreciated!
If there were such timelines, they were probably established in consideration of experience with the need of certain brands. For example,
Similarly a post analysis will vary based on similar issues, as will other media tasks. Perhaps others in your new agency can agree on average times.
Where would I find a list of advertisers who appeared
in electronics trade journals?
Hi Guru , what are rules of thumb to hold market share, increase market share.
The only general rule of thumb, per se, is to advertise a share of voice equal to share of market to hold, greater to grow. This, of course, is a vast oversimplification.
Dear Guru, In the past we used to assess media plans based on CPM. More than ten years ago, planners started to use CPP as a base of comparison and not CPM anymore. I would highly appreciate if you could elaborate on this evolution from CPM to CPP. Thank you & regards,
This is not an evolution, this is apparently how your company has changed. Both of these measures have been in use for 40 of more years.
CPM is a more absolute measure, while CPP is in relation to a target population.
Network buyers may look more to CPM, since they don't deal with geographies of varying sizes, while planners look more to CPP, which relates directly to GRP, a planning metric, from which reach and frequency are most readily calculated.
The growth of internet as a medium brings more emphasis to cpm, as CPP is not typically used in online media.
how do you find sales volume?
1. Who does the auditing of digital signage networks to validate their traffic and demographics?
2. Is there any software to process this data?
The Guru is not aware of such a third-party auditor.
Do you have a good media brief template for advertisers to use with their agency
The Guru is not aware of such a third-party auditor. Contact Outdoor Advertising Association of America
What are the trade/consumer Promotions for Glaceau Vitamin water and where can I find there Marketing Objectives
Search trade media, such as Supermarket News
What impact has the internet made in media technology
The Pros and the Cons
The internet has made possible online media analysis software such as eTelmar.
Easier acces to rate and editorial info of the media
Increased expectaions of planning options considered.
Allowed geodemographic analysis to be used in plans, like GeoScape.
In short, faster access to more information and analysis.
On the other hand, the interent as a medium has raised new challenges in audience measurement, duplication analysis, environmental evaluation and difficulties in considering the impact of ever changing ad units.
Hi MG ,could you please tell me when a planner decides for a frequency what time limit he takes in to consideration i.e weekly or monthly and is it differnt for print and TV. 2> SECOND thing is there any calculations to split your money across various media I.e certain % in tv , othres in print and out door, thank you and take care
In the US, four weeks is the standard period for setting planning frequency goals.
Setting media mix is a complex process including judgement of media effectiveness, copy issues, and target impact. There is no simple formula
Who (e.g. Nielson, Census Bureau) defines the media "county size" as "A, B, C, and D"? Also, what is the difference between each of the county sizes?
It's a Nielsen definition, using some Census metrics.
"A" counties are the counties of the top 25 metropolitan areas
"B" counties are all remaining counties with a population over 150,000 plus counties that are part of the metro areas of cities in B counties
"C" counties are all remaining counties not included above with populations over 35,000 plus counties that are part of the metro areas of cities in C counties
"D" counties are all other remaining counties
Hi MG , could you pleasetell me what is the significane of awareness index in setting media objectives.
If a the marketing objective is to grow awareness, then media objectives focused on awareness building will have more importance. These tend to call for strategies which use more reach-oriented, intrusive media.
Guru, I am from Indonesia, can you speak Indonesian language?
WHERE CAN I FIND A MARKET DESCRIPTION OF PLANNED PARENTHOOD ORGANIZATION?
Visit Planned Parenthood
What is the difference between cable subscribers and cable penetration?
Cable subscribers is a count of the number of households which subscribe to cable. Cable penetration is the comparison of cable subscriber housholds to total households. See Cable TV Ad Bureau for recent subscriber and penetration data.
I need to have a list of owned and operated markets for each of the Major TV Networks.Thanks
Try Who Owns What, the Columbia Journalism Review's media ownership index.
Could you please tell me where to find the standard weight (in pounds) for specific magazines. I need this information to calculate shipping rates for my overseas bookstore. Thank you.
The Guru has never encountered this datum. The weight of a magazine can vary substantially from issue to issue, depending on seasonal advertising swings (think about a Spring issue of Modern Bride) and the variance of ad sales. In any case, not a media planning / buying issue.
In your opinion what effect does the increase or decrease of HUT levels from year to year have on a market?
The question is not entirely clear. But by way of example however, the constant decrease in national HUT lead to increase in CPP. A decrease in HUT is a decrease in supply of GRP.
Click here to see several past Guru responses about upfront
I am applying for an account executive job at a national cable network. What skills and knowledge would make me a shoe-in for that position? Thanks!
Skills: you're selling yourself as a salesperson. Do a better selling job than any other candidate.
Knowledge: know the research you will sell with. Know the history of your medium and the key competitors of the network you want to employ you.
I'm trying to find out if there's any comparison amongst different media's cpp.
Specifically -- if TV'c CPP is 100, what should radio be? what should direct mail be? DO you know if theres any established market guideline?
No standard. For example, in a young demographic, radio is more competitive with tv. In an older demographic, print is more efficient relative to other media. In different markets, the picture changes.
I have a really stupid question, but I think that I have looked at these cost per points and cost per thousand analysis until I have confused myself. I have three markets. Two of the markets of very small and the other is a larger market. Why is the cpm more in the two small markets and in the large market the cpm is higher. Cost per points are much lower in the small market, but why the cpm out of line? I hope this is clear. Thanks for your help.
How do you do a trend analysis using arbitron target listener trends?
The question is unclear (the Guru regrets sounding like a Magic 8-Ball).
A "trend analysis" is generally an evaluation of change over time, which is the point of Arbitron's "trends." One may add observations regarding the implications of the trends, such as the aging of the audience of specific formats, or revenue forecasts related to ratings trends.
Where would one go to find more research on alternative advertising, such as register receipt advertising or utility bill ad inserts, etc.
A list with the major european advertising magazines.
last year under Think Pieces' you had an excellent article by Steve Fajan on 'recency.' where can I find this?
It was not a "Think Piece", but probably one you saw on Steve's Media Director's Inc page, within a different area of AMIC.
One of my clients has asked me to research satellite radio. He asked, "How is satellite radio, ie. XM and Sirius (commercial free radio) going to impact traditonal radio in the near future?" Can you help me with this question? Thanks.
XM has commercials and Sirius doesn't, but the issue will be about programming and sound qualtiy at first. FM radio used to be about low commercial clutter, too.
The question may be can non-local radio displace local? Car radios, in general, probably can't fully demonstrate the supposed sound quality. In-home radios may take longer to develop penetration. The Guru believes the impact on commerical radio will be a long way down the road. There has ben ample trade coverage of penetration of the two systems. Hardware prices are dropping, which will accelerate penetration, but the Guru still sees a slow growth process.
what is the responce curve?
This refers to the consumer behavior pattern of action or learning (response) as a function of the amount of message weight. When graphed with a response, such as "awareness" on the Y axis, and weight such as GRP on the X axis, the line is curved, rising rapidly at first and then flattening. A reach curve (below) operates similarly.
I wish to bring out maximum points in favour of my study "Importance of Media in Advertising. Can u suggest some point from your end
The Guru would define "advertising" as communicating marketing messages through mass media. Hence, Advertising, per se, does not exist apart from media, so the question as stated does not make sense to the Guru. If you mean to ask about the uses of media in advertsing, see the Guru's media strengths page and the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan
Are you aware of any case studies of Magazines that have used Direct Response on cable to boost subscription sales?
tv cpp estimates
How does the search engine work? How to optimise it?
A so-called search engine is an online tool which allows users to find online material relevant to search terms which are input.
There are various ways in which sites commonly referrred to as search engines index pages and how they rank pages. Some search engines have robots which explore the web tio find and anlayze pages, others are based upon site owners' submissions. Some index based on the number of times search terms appear on a page, other based on position on the page, still others based on how many other sites link to the referenced page. Still others sell rankings in their listings.
Optimizing is a matter of understanding how the search engine you care about functions and desigining to appeal to their algorithms.
iam a media planner in a media entity in the ME. we have on board continuous viewership research from one of the top & accredited research agency in the region. the viwership data is recieved on a monthly basis. The methodology is CATI (Computer Assisted Telephone Interviews or TELEMETRY)and the the sample audience is representative of the total population. Given this strenght of this continuous research which is considered as an edge versus other agencies around to track teh latest viewership trends, yet we are facing a major major problem when comparing pre and post buy deliveries (what we are planning is not what is achieved and the variations are drastic and huge almost more than 50%). accordingly, we would appreciate your guidance and input on the above, what is the ideal route to follow i.e is there any strategical route that we have to follow or any international standards? please assist
In the situation you describe; 50% variance pre/post, the Guru first considers three possibilities:
In any of these cases, the Guru wonders why having the research is considered "an edge."
You need to carefully examine what is going on. Does Program "A" actually have a 50% swing in audience from one month to the next? Are predicitions being made without regard to external changes such as competitive programming or seasonal variance?
I'm looking for information on different alternative media outlets such as, cooperative projects, inserts and ride-alongs. where would i find info on the different types of alternative media and the names of companies that specialize in the field?
who does the music for the bud light radio ads
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.
Is there a source to find what commerical did/are airing in a specific market for a specific client
One source is
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
What is reach?
Reach means the unique, unduplicated members of a target group exposed one or more times to a message or campaign. More often expressed as a percentage of the target universe, it may also be expressed in simple numbers.
Click here to see nearly 800 past Guru responses about reach
Do you have a resource I could turn to for product placement on game shows, like Price is Right, Wheel, etc?
Try Save on TV
Hi MG . My question is regarding FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION , could you please tell me how can one design a frequency distribution tabale if only the reach data is available over a period of time. For example I have the reach of a particular TV program which is tecasted 4 times a month.
An approximation is possible. For example if you are considering one month and
you have had an announcement in each program, and the reach is 40% and the program
rating is 15%, your table will have rows for reached 0 times, 1 time, 2 times,
3 times, and a maximum of 4 times. It will begin to look like this:
(# of exposures)
1 or more
2 or more
3 or more
Beyond this, lacking specific measure of the program, old actual schedules
may be compared to approximate the missing cell entries.
I am currently searching for cable tv penetration trends over the last several years. I want to compare this to the Regular TV viewing trends over the same period. Can you provide that information say for the last 10 years?
See Cable TV Ad Bureau. Under the "research" tab.
I am looking for information on cable viewership trends over the years. Where can I find that information?
Look at Cable TV Ad Bureau under the "research" tab.
When using an MRI Index - do you have a range of an acceptable index. In other words, is there a 2-5% either way that you would consider within the average range? Would you consider a range of 95-105 as average or no margin of error, and stand firm on 100 being exactly average.
Results of all media research or marketing research which is survey and sampling based, including MRI, Nielsen, Arbitron, etc. are subject to a "tolerance" range and should always be interpreted with that understanding.
What does this mean? Suppose a study has a sample of 25,000 of which 12,500 are women and tells you that 50% of the women use product "A." The technical data would inform you that this answer has a tolerance of plus or minus 0.872% at 95% confidence, which means that if you conducted the same study 100 times with the same question and sample, the result would be between and 49.128% and 50.872%, on 95 of those 100 occasions. So if the results said that 48% of the total population used product "A," women have an index of 104 to the total population. Now, if the total population sample is 25,000, there is tolerance on the 48% result as well, roughly a tolerance of plus or minus 0.62. Therefore the 50% of women result is actually equally likely to be 49.128% and the 48% result is equally likely to be 48.62% If so, now the index is 101.
With smaller samples, like women 18-34 or in smaller studies, such as individual DMA's reports, these tolerances can make indices of 110 swing to 90.
As a rule of thumb in any study, the Guru uses a minimum of +/- 10 index points (over 110 or under 90), before treating the result as truly indicatiive of actionable behavioral differences. In crucial situations, sample size and tolerance projections should be examined.
I am applying for a Research Director job at a local TV station. What skills and knowledge do I possess that make me a shoe-in for the position?
Please explain the difference between estimated ratings and projected ratings on TV avails.
The terms can be more-or-less equivalent. In simple English, "Estimate" refers to a best approximation of what a situation is or was and "Projection" is a best approximation of what a situation will be. The U.S. Census Bureau uses these terms in this way in regard to population figures. "Estimate" is also employed as a label to cover the fact that statistical techniques are used which are subject to some variablilty, rather than being absolute fact. In media research, "projection" is sometimes used to refer to the actual number estimated based on sample in the report and in that case is exactly equivalent to estimate.
The Guru imagines that you are comparing avails from different sources which use these two terms to mean the same thing. But if you see both in the same avails it probably uses "estimate" to report an actual rating already measured, and "projection" to report the rating anticipated at the time of the buy, given seasonal viewing changes, competition changes in share in the time slot, etc.
I have overnight household ratings for a program and I want to know ratings for specific demo, say Men 18-49. What is formula to convert HH ratings to M18-49 ratings?
The only way to develop a formula for this purpose is to have past comparisons of actual HH and demo ratings from which to develop a factor.
So for example, if in the past, you found that an overnight program had a HH rating of 2.0 and a M18-49 rating of 1.2 then the factor would be 0.6 (1.2 ÷ 2.0)
You could develop factorsa like this for program types or other broad groups with which you work.
Hi guru ,could u please tell me what the difference between program TVR and program share , whether they can be used intechangbly or ther is any specific criteria .
TV rating represents the percentage of a specified total demographic group that is in the audience of the program.
Program share is the percentage who are watching the specified program out of all the members of the demographic group who are watching TV at the point in time.
Does SOV has to be higher than SOM, or at least be equivalent for brands which SOM is not leading in the market? On the contary, A brand with high SOM can invest less on SOV, right? Remember learning this from John Diagram, but not sure if it still works. Any new theory to help determine budget based on index of SOM and SOV? Thanks very much!
Generally it is theorized that SOV must be greatert than SOM to grow SOM. There are many external factors including media mix and existing brand awarenss
Thank U MG . Is there any standard TVR as such ,or u can say any difference in two TVRs to select a program over the other.e.g Does 2.4 TVR make any sense?
The question is quite unclear. TV rating represents the percentage of a specified demographic group that is in the audience of the program. It is one consideration in program selection.
how do you advertise fizzy drinks
Consider the elements detailed on the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan
IS ADVERTISING REQUIRED FOR SUCCESS?
If you mean sales success/growth of consumer products, most generally, yes.
how to skew overnight household ratings to specific demos
"To skew . . . ratings" would mean to cause overnight program audiences to be greater among particular demographics, which is a matter of airing programs appealing to such demos. This would be based on past performanace of the programs or similar ones.
If however, you mean to cause your purchased schedule's ratings to favor demos, again it is a matter of examining past performance of programs and selecting the most appropriate ones.
Hi MG ,could you pls tell me what the standard ots for deciding a schedule in a multi vechile medium.
plese explain with an example
Many people believe that a minimum of three exposures is necessary for an ad message to communicate its sell. Click here to see past Guru responses about OTS and frequency
How much money is spent on TV advertising for all professional and college football games local, regional and national.
define the target market for techno savy people earning R3000.00 and more per month, looking to do online banking.
The Guru does not have specific market research on South Africa, from which you appear to be writing. The nature of the people, the banking industry, internet infrastucture and value of "R3000" are all unknown. Assuming you mean 3000 Rand ($450), that is quite low, by US standards, to expect techno-wise online banking interest.
Can you once and for all please give the mathmatics involved to calculate a local r&f into a national r&f, and vice versa. If I am mixing a national schedule into a local market, will the GRP's remain the same? If not, how is it cacluated?
Thanks in advance
Local to national is simple arithmetic:
Local reach X % US coverage translates Rreach and GRP to national.
E.g. if you have a Reach / Frequency / GRP of
70 / 4.0 / 280 in a market which is 10% of the US, then national reach is
7 / 4.0 / 28. Note that frequency is NOT recalculated, it is simply the same. In most cases, this doesn't make a difference, but when it does, keep the original frequency. This is because it is a count rather than a percentage. So the same people that were reached, even when expressed as a percentage of a different universe, simply experience the number of exposures originally calculated.
National to local however, invloves estimation or measurement as much as arithmetic: If you have a schedule delivering a national R/F/GRP of
70 / 4.0 / 280, then you may estimate that its local delivery is
70 / 4.0 / 280, because, by defintion, that is the average reach across markets. However, various vehicles have differences in market-by-market audience, and if you have a specific market in mind, you can get the actual value of the schedule's delivery in the designated market. Then reach and frequency can be calculated for the market using whatever R&F model you have at hand, or perhaps using GRP delivery indices established in past experience. A delivery index would apply only to the GRPs; reach grows along a "curve" and would not vary in a linear fashion proportionately to the variations in individual vehicle audiences.
need your advice on how to ensure our hotels restuarants have the greatest success for hits on the web. The restaurants are located at a Hotel in Bangkok
Normal considerations include
I am working on an Asian media audit. Do you know if there are any helpful sites available that will tell me what Asians and Asisan Business Owners are consuming?
This sort of data is generally for sale rather than provided free on line. AC Nielsen is one data source.
Is there any research out there on Recall for Spot radio vs. Traffic sponsorhsips? Is there any standard on what is the most effective use of both traffic and spot radio?
Is there a source to find the most visited "home
improvement" web sites?
which is the tendence of the consumption of television compared against other types of media in Europe and the US?
What are the benefits of using spot radio?
Do you have research information on the effectiveness (or not) of Yellow Page and Regional Telephone Directory advertising?
Yellow Pages vendors have lots of research. Beyond that, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230
I've been planning and buying media for a few years now at a smaller ad agency. I've been to a few media conferences, but all seem to be very basic (i.e. - this is rating point, this is reach, etc.) Are there any conferences out there that really focus on advaced media buying? I"m interested in negotiation tactics, how far you can push, what you can expect for added value, etc. Thank you.
The Guru never recommends these conferences.
How can I get cable subscriber numbers by zip code? I want to compare to subs by syscode to see how much/little waste there is. (Client can only provide there geographical information by zip.) Thanks, dorian
Nielsen would also have the data but would probably release it only to subscribers, if at all.
My agency is in a debate with a media auditor in regards to "quality" audience in relation to ratings. For instance, does lowering the minimum spot cable rating from a 1.0 to 0.5 jeapordize the quality of the audience or integrity of the buy? Same goes for broadcast... does lowering the minimum 3.0 prime/2.0 non-prime rating jeopardize integrity so long as you're not deviating from the approved daypart mix?
Much of your question depends on somewhat arbitrary definitions of terms:
The common rating size standard actually comes from a false premise:
A rating of 0.5 has a 95% confidence range of +/- 0.437 or 0.063 to 0.937 or 87% relative error.
This view overlooks two key facts:
So the lower ratings-based schedule might deliver reliably more GRP.
In short, make sure your "quality" standards are meaningful for your schedule, not simply bigger must be better.
cati vs face to face research, which is better for audience research
Telephone coincidental is considered better than door to door asking questions about past behavior. There is a "please-the-interviewer" effect thought to occur face to face, wherein the respondent is more likely to claim viewing / listening, etc. as well as the problems of memory vs reporting current action. Ads the foregoing indicates, it depends on the questions to be asked. One type of face to face, "the pantry check" where the interviewer actually examines products in the house, is a high accuracy product usage technique, but it's been 15 or 20 years since the atmosphere in this country made interviewers welcome in homes. CATI too, struggles for cooperation, outperforms face to face
Inquiring if you are able to perform the following function:
I am making media buying recommnedations for an optical client:
If I supply you with the necessary information(Target audience, annual budget, demo, etc), can you send back your media recommendations?
If you are able, here is the Necessary info:
Client: St. Charles Vision (Optical)
Geo: New Orleans, La metro area
Demo: Male/female, 40/60 25-64
Look forward to your feedback.
J. Blotner Advertising & PR
The Guru does not do media planning in this space. This would be a project worth a few thousand dollars through a consultant of the Guru's calibre.
Hi again, Can a network that goes on VOD strip out commercials? Or do the national commericals just go with the programming? I was just wondering if FitTV goes on Comcast VOD, what happens to any spots that are scheduled on FitTV.
Comcast's VOD system allows viewers to control viewing as if they were watching a VCR. So programs on commercial networks are free and presumably still have their commercials but viewers have a fast forward option.
View a demo of Comcast VOD here.
Hi, my name is Adam Cohen. I work for a non-partisan, non-profit voter research library called Project Vote Smart. I'm looking for information on Web Based PSA distribution and the best way to go about looking for outlets. Thank you for your time.
Start with PSAResearch.com
I'm getting some political rate cards that have 2 separate rates, one gross & one net. I thought political buys were supposed to be one rate. Can they do this? Are there regulations somewhere regarding political?
All media rates have a net and a gross version. This simply reflects the allowance for agency commission of 15% - i.e. "net" to the station = 85% of "gross."
Political rates have to be the lowest charged by the station within a prescribed period prior to the election, but this has no connection to net/gross.
Am looking for a source that indicates a USA average for TV dayparts (EM,DT,EF,EN,PA,PT,LN & LF)with male/female splits, age splits, marital status, education, children/no children, employed/retired, income, own/rent home....used to rationalize new/recommended daypart mix.
Dear Media Guru:
On average, for a fashion/entertainment magazine, what would you say is the ratio of editorial pages to advertising pages? Thanks.
These are two very different categories. There is no reason to compare Vogue and People. The Guru would estimate consumer magazines are averaging around 50% advertising with fashion books on the high side.
what is "trade marketing?"
Trade marketing is business to business marketing. "Trade media" for example, are publications and websites aimed at decision makers in specific industries rather than consumers, for example, InformationWeek for computer IT professionals or Advertising Age
What is the 2003 breakdown of ad revenues by industry?
What do TV ratings such as 3.7/13 1.9/6 stand for? I couldn't find an answer on Nielsen.com or in the Guru archives, so hoping you can help now. Thanks.
Numbers like that probably mean a RATING of 3.7% of the specified demographic category watched the program, which is a 13% SHARE of all those watching TV at the time.
If you see a double set such as 3.7/13 1.9/6 it may be that the first pair refers to HH and the second to a certain demographic, all for the same program.
Can you please clarify the differences between objectives, strategies and tactics within marketing and/or media planning?
It's forest versus trees:
Objectives are the broad statements of what is to be accomplished, such as "increase awareness," "grow share," etc.
Strategies are the general ways in which the objectives will be persued, such as "build reach at high levels of frequency via network television."
Tactics are very specific approaches to eexcuting strategies, such as "select most efficient programming to extend budgets and build highest reach," or "select programming which enhances product image to build awareness in the most favorable light."
I've been searching your archives for information regarding advertising on the satellite feed. I found the info on the national satellite advertising, but was curious about local advertising. Are the satellite companies inserting spot locally (by DMA) or regionally at this time?
In one of your answers re efficiency of :15 spots vs :30 you said: "In a campaign, these latter measures may mean overall recall and impact favor :15s, if the message can be communicated". Can you give me any references to such studies.
The references I have been referred to so far support the opposite view: "Television viewers' attitudes and recall of 15 second and versus 30 secund commercials. James S.Gould" and "Max Sutherland & Alice Sylvester "Advertising and the mind of the consumer". Thank you.
The issue is what do you measure; under almost any circumstances, a :30 has better recall than a :15. But the consumer experince is not about seeing a :15 or a :30. If a campaign has 50 to 100% more exposures because it is executed in ;15, the reach and frequency will definitely be increased and if the ;15 communicates the message, overall effect may be better. It's about camaign versus creative. i.e the media director view rather than the creative director view.
newspapers by circulation
How do you interpret TV ratings
Dear Media Guru, what is your feeling about E-tear sheets? A newspaper that I have worked with for years recently made the switch from traditional tear sheets to E-tear sheets and I have two concerns. The first concern is that I can not see the quality of production of my ad because the whole E-page is fuzzy when I open it. My second concern is that I can not tell what ran on the back of my ad. If a coupon backs my ad, my ad is likely to be cut out of the paper and never seen by the consumer. Please give me your thoughts on E-tear sheets.
As you state so well, an e-tearsheet is not adequate substitute for hard copy. MAke sure the publisher understands your requirements. The Guru, in fact prefers a complete copy of a newspaper carrying ads to judge page-opposite and other issues as well.
what are reach an frequency
Click here to see over 160 Guru responses regarding Reach and Frequncy
Hello, I'm trying to find national averages for click thru rates on web banner advertising placement. Do you have a reference or recommendations?
In this day in age would it be a good idea to purchase on-line advertising on a flat rate basis rather than on a CPM or impression basis? Thanks a lot Guru!
The coin-of-the-realm is cpm, which is, in effect, a guarantee of audience. Nonetheless many smaller sites without sophisticated trafiic and server software still sell at flat rates.
What up G,
Hi i was just wandering if there was a good resource for buying online Advertising as far as the prices i should be paying for it?
No good broad resource. Realistic prices range from under $5 cpm for very general targets in simple ad formats, to several hundred for rich media advertsing to narrow niche b2b targets.
Dear Mr. Guru,
I currently sell on-line advertising space for a chatroom search directory web-site. We have great target advertising and average about 35,000 unique visitors a month. I think the search engine is a great place for big businessess to advertise with. The problem I have is gaining the contact information for the media buyers or whoever is responsible for making these purchases within a big company. How do I go about getting this contact information from these companies and find out which companies are interested in buying ad space on the internet?
Can you give me some rationale on why spreads are better than full pages. Thanks.
From a media viewpoint, there is little justifcation in light of the price; creative issues are key. The noting is better. Creatives often act as if twice as big is twice as good, but from an empirical perspective, no measure increases in proportion to the price difference vs a single page. Noting in better, the impact is better, the reach / frequency is no different. Intangibles of "impact" are the primary argument. Sometimes brand positioning issues support some large units.
why british teenagers is more appealing to television advertising compared to newspaper advertising.
please list down the points n the relevant website for this question. thanks
Teenagers generally don't read.
Are you aware of any directory that provides a comprehensive list of commercal online newsletters (newsletters that take advertising)?
Start with Newsletter Access
Is there an industry average on number of clicks and click through rates for banners, skyscapers, and overall online ads?
The key discriminator these days is rich media versus static banners.
According to DoubleClick's "The Year in Online Advertsing 2003," non-rich media averaged around 0.28% click-thru while rich media, although declining, was at 1.24% in Q4, better than 4x the rate of non-rich media.
What exactly is print media?
Narrowly, print media are those advertising vehicles carrying ad messages on paper, or paper equivalents, including magazines and newspapers.
Some people would include out-of-home media.
What type(s) of print media does this company specialize in?
This company (www.amic.com) does not specialize in any particular kind of print media, but encompasses all of them in our scope.
Hope all is well. I was wondering how I can get information on a small, new cable network. The information that I need is the number of satellite and cable households broken down by market. The rep keeps telling me that that information isn't available, but they quote 35 million HH. That has to come from somewhere? Can you stear me in another direction?
Hi again, Dopey. A network will know from its business dealings with cable systems how many total subscribers are able to receive it. Its audience however, will be a matter of Neilsen survey measurement, and a new network might not be subscribing. The subscriber data ought to be available on a localized basis, but perhaps not a DMA basis. Satellite is also less likely to collect subscriber data by DMA - nothing is sold on that basis. In cable you might need to find out which systems are carrying it and how their distribution runs by DMA. The further the information gets from the ways in which the advertsing is sold, the less likley to be available.
what are the theories on effective reach and effective frequency
(Tuesday, July 13, 2004 #6536)
My question needs to be restated using more facts. The digital screens are playing exclusively on college campuses and currently are in front of 1.1 million students (P18-24) daily. By end of year (2004) that number will easily exceed 2 million as more campuses being added daily. Campuses are located coast-to-coast, thus forming a nationwide network. Forty-two inch digital screens equipped with sound deliver a “loop” anywhere from 9-20 minutes long each day for one week. Playing between commercial messages are campuses messages (making it a “must read” for students). Would you then consider it competitive to network TV, albeit, even a small cable net? Would CPM’s closer to TV be more realistic than outdoor? It's TV, Place-Based Media, OOH all rolled into one. How do you judge this 16 ton gorilla? Thanks…RON TUN
The value here is in the highly desirable college student audience, rather than any comarison to network TV. As a program environment, it still is not very desirable otherwise.
It is small compared to the college universe, as well.
Compare pricing to the various campus media of 360 Youth
Our automotive agency is using propritory research using GIS to match past buyers to PRIZM Clusters then using MRI reports to target our best prospects in media buys. All reporting is based on indexes. Narturally cable is intexing much higher than broadcast television but I am having difficulty explaining that an Index is only an indication of interest - not people. I am concerned about using 100% cable and missing the reach possible with broacast in markets where cable penetration is 50-75%. Am I looking at this wrong or how could I better explain my position?
It isn't clear what you're indexing, nor why it's "natural" that cable does better. It isn't clear why GIS maps tell you something that the PRIZM / MRI data didn't, and the Guru is a big fan of GIS mapping, himself.
You may have too many links in the system. What not just plot customer data base on a map and look at cable the same way?
If the index is cable subscribers rather than viewers, that's one way to be misled.
In any case, you're right to have reach concerns. The Guru would use the indices you are getting to adjust the cpms of cable and broadcast to copmapre them, but not apply the indices further. Then you can consider gross efficiency or efficiency of reach appropriately given the data you have.
How do you calculate a weighted CPP?
Click here to see past Guru discussion of weighted averages .
In your case, the weights would be dollars. But, the the simplest way to calculate is to add up all the spending and divide that by the sum of all the rating points.
Digital networks offering sight, sound and motion (TV spots)are popping up everywhere. Some are being strung nationwide with "viewership in the 100K's. How would you calculate a fair price for its audience delivery? If CPM, would you pit it against network TV or out of home?
"Audiences in the 100K's" are pretty small in mass-media terms. The Guru looks at these networks as enhanced out-of-home. They are no more comparable to TV than the audience captured incidentally by people walking past TV's on display in appliance stores, or perhaps TVs in bars. TV research explicitly excludes these audiences.
Do you know of any models that allow you to project what your brands advertising awareness could be based on different variables such as spending, current awareness, etc? I have a client that wants to know if he doubles spending, can he expect to double awareness? Are there other ways to answer this question?
Like reach, awareness grows along a curved -- not straight -- line, since it can only approach 100%; and in ever-smaller increments. Further, awareness can decline over a period of communications inactivity.
So the simple answer is no, doubling spending does not double awareness -- unless the earlier spending is on low reach / awareness vehicles and the next dollars are invested better.
Thank a lot Guru, actually from an association.
How to describe Creative Media Planning and Creative Media Buying ? Thank you
Generally this refers to doing planning or buying in a new way. Using different ways to analyze or select media, different standards or perhaps using new objects as media, as truck sides or toilet stalls might once have been. Another approach is having content created explicitly for your client within existing media.
What a better way, if I want to create a Media Award for Media People ? Thank You
Would this be an award from a persons own employer or from a media vendor? Creative planning, creative buying and effective sales results seem the best possible bases.
new product launch models
There might be launch examples, but as far as models, the Guru would apply the launch factors as input in any other media plan model
how can I get hispanic penetration among dish network subscribers
Ask the Dish Network ad sales departmen
Hi Guru. i am willing to take a master degree related directly to media planning. I was wondering if there is any University offering such gradute programs. if yes, i kindly ask u to advise me on the best accredited and worldwide known university (not necessarily in the states) and whether i can do it by correspondance or at least fly there to sut for the exams only. i have checked many websites and frankly speaking couldnt make any decission. appreciate ur help
The Guru has not encountered a masters level media program and would not be influenced in hiring media staff by seeing one on a resume, paticularly on of the sort you describe. Media skill is about experience, far more than academic fact.
Hi, im working as Media Planner in Madson communication limited second largest Media group in India on Hyundai account worked on couple of other big accounts with 2 years of experience.*My concern is that in few months i wud b shifting to US i wanted to know *what are the basic requirments for Media Planners there. *Do they require some minimum qualification wil my 2 years experience help. *im willing to start from the scratch also *since i love my proffession.Please enlighten me on this. *How can i continue with my profession there also. Thanks......
A bachelors' degree is typical, but experience is the primary qualification. Since each country and culture has unique media, measurements and standards of planning and buying, the applicability of your Indian experience in the US must be demonstrated to potential employers. Agencies which deal with US minority markets, including Indians or US Indian media may be a good starting point.
Are you familiar with any books,aritcles or publications on buying political? Any suggestions for a first time political buyer?
Try AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)
Are you aware of any companies that provide a service for television news broadcasts that's similar to what a clipping service provides for print? Looking for specific news content for an industry. Thanks.
One is VMS
I recently encountered a local radio sales rep who was quoting from and distributing "Secret Formulas of The Wizard of Ads," a book by Roy Williams. The resulting proposals from this sales rep. were atrocious. Are you able to comment on this author or book (supposedly a #1 Bestseller of the Wallstreet Journal?
The Guru is not familiar with Roy Williams. What may be gleaned from his web site and reviews at Amazon.com does not incline the Guru to expect media planning applications.
What is a good source to learn all about US broadcast and cable? I need to learn everything from the basics up, as I am a European media planner who recently moved into the US market. Thanks.
Hello Guru. What do you thing about recency planning for a telecom image campaign? Best regards.
Recency is a about being the most recent message received when a purchase (or other decision) will be made. It would be less relevant for a pure image campaign.
M.G., what do you consider to be a "sustaining" level of GRPs in a mid-size local TV market for a major auto dealership? Thanks.
If you ignore any competitve activity or seasonality or promotional calendar an auto dealership might have, a shedule sufficent to reach 30% of target weekly would be "sustaining."
What was the projected percentage cost increase for spot radio for 2004 vs 2003?
What percentage increase has actually materialized - specifically for 3Q 04 vs 3Q 03?
how much does it cost to advertise in newspapers, travel magazines, radio
Hi media Guru, is frequency as important in a print campaign versus a broadcast campaign with a direct response product?
In direct response, generally only one consumer action per consumer is sought, as opposed to general campaigns to build awarenss or support ongoing sales.
Realistically, in a print campaign, frequency of exposure will never be comparable to what broadcast can deliver, so depth of message becomes more important.
hi, what has been the significant changes that the media has seen in the last 3 years, be it publishing, planning, buying etc?
In the US, the rise in online use, growing recognition of Spanish-language media, opposition to the network "upfront," and closer scrutiny of audience research are among developments. In other countries, issues will vary.
hi guru, would you please some methods of budget setting in a typical media planning scenario.
Budget setting typically preceeds media planning. Budget is input to media planners.
Budget may be set based on any of the following, or other factors, as well.
Product intro versus known product, awareness goals, promotional plans all may be factors. The possibilities are idiosyncratic and virtually limitless.
I am urgently trying to confirm whether there are any copyright and licence restrictions for publishing already exisiting pictures of Ayers Rock Uluru in advertising? Thanks Hannah
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.
This is my first e-mail to you. Hope you'd reply soon.
I currently work for an Advertising Agency as an account director. However, I recetly accepted a job as a group brand manager handling 10 print publications at a regional media company. i'd like your advice on MEDIA MARKETING books, websites or any other channels that could help me in my new assignment.
many thanks in advance
Visit AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)
Hi Guru. I have been given the task of planning and buying some spot TV in 5 DMAs to promote a live event in one of those DMAs. There will also be follow-up spots right after the event. On rare occasions in the past when we've bought TV spots, it was on a cost per spot basis. I've been told to do it on a CPP basis this time. I understand what a CPP is and how SQAD works, but how do I determine how many points I need to buy in order to effectively reach my target audience? I don't have my budget for this yet, and anticipate them asking me how much $ I would need to do this right. Can you help me?
The essence of your needs is in determining what portion of your target audience you need to reach, how often, and over how long a period of time. Reaching the majority of the target (at least 50%) at least three times is a starting point.
Then, you need reach calculation software to see what level of GRP gets you there. The Guru's favorite software, naturally, is our own eTelmar.
My company is beginning a new program in which we trade donations of product for "in kind" advertising. Do you have any resources for quantifying the value of this; in other words, since buying decisions are rarely made from this type of exposure, in what way are we benefiting from this, and how can I place a dollar amount on that benefit?
Any idea who might run media audits for internet advertising? I need to find someone to work with for a client. Thanks - Steve
You might try the general media auditors to see if they have added such a service. The standards of price and audience measurment online are so wildly variable, it makes "auditing" -- beyond verification of placement -- quite a challenge.
hi guru, could u please tell me is there any tool for evaluating post ad campaign in press as we can calculate the GRPS of particular campaign for TV.
Print GRPs are calculated in the same way as in TV:
(Impressions ÷ universe) X 100
What is the average reader response rate from a magazine ad?
If you mean a direct response ad, probably in the 1 to 1.5% range, but averages are almost meaningless.
Also see Direct Marketing Association
I am currently doin a research on homeware products in the USA and UK. Will you please provide me with top 5 brands in both the continents, incl market share and adspend.
is there a global equivalent to mri? i'm looking to find a database equivalent to mri that measures magazines across europe, australia, in short, across the world. thank you!
The closest is probably Kantar's BMRB, but there are others.
is there a list of the top women's beauty/fashion/lifestyle across the globe? i'm looking to put together a list of all these titles that covers the entire world. thank you!
You need various resources from Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS)
What is the difference between the circulation and the ratebase of a magazine?
Circulation is a simple count of copies sold - hopefully audited. Ratebase is - in effect -a guarantee. It is a circulation figure that becomes the base of ad pricing on a cpm basis. It is usually somewhat less than the latest circulation audit. If copies sold during your schedule fall short, you are entitled to refunds.
I'm placing a buy for a client...the buy is only a 2.5 week buy. This is basically the only time in the year that they advertise, but on a very large national level. How can I post this? Most of the reps/companies I've worked with, make me use my makegoods within that quarter. So, if the ratings fall short, it is too late - my client's campaign is over. Is there some other standard in the industry for cases like this one?
If you are buying with guarantees, then you need to get credits / refunds instead of makegoods.
If by "national," you mean "network" then you can post or "rerate" daily from the overnights and get makegoods on that basis. "Recaps" or extra sposts scheduled but cancellable by the vendor if not needed, is a hedge against this problem.
Are you familiar with any research on the necessity
of running advertising for a new line extension of an
National Ad unit informtion for television stations
I work on a automotive account on the retail level. The national plan is provided by a different agency, but teh DMA plans are done by us. A retailer has just stated he does not get his "fair share" of the National TV plan. We have no control over what the National plan is, but have been asked to provide something that would prove he gets his fair share. I am uncertain of what he considers fair, and don't no anyway I can analyze the national buy in a local level other thatn explaining the way national TV works. Do you have any suggestions?
The Guru wonders why it becomes your job to provide this, since if there is a fault it's in the national plan, not the one you work on. Perhaps you're expected to makle the local plan balance inequities in the national?
Whichever, we must first understand the complaint: Does the complainer believe the DMA as a whole doesn't get its fair share of national? Or that the portion which is his particular trading area is short-changed?
In either case there must be some assessment from the dealers to compare against a "share." In the DMA case, if the DMA receives 5% of the national impressions and the group of dealers in the DMA is assessed 5% of the national dealers' allocation of contribution to the budget, then that would seem fair. If the assessment is based simply on DMA population or sales or something unrelated to media delivery, then that could be unfair. To consider fairness against smaller geographies will depend in part on whether there is a measurement of that geography. Nielsen provides various tools that measure network program delivery by DMA or by county with which to address the issue. Other than counties or metro areas, that is less likely to occur. There are some geodemographic systems which can estimate narrower geographic delivery of broadcast media, but balancing problems at this geographic level with local TV is only sometimes possible.
Using the OTS formula (GRP/Net Reach), if we set an OTS target with a predetermined reach, can we arrive at the required GRP for differrent OTS targets.
Why effective frequency is more popular over OTS when setting frequency objective. In my experience we need to achieve more GRP's to achieve a predetermined reach for an effective frequency over OTS target, any reason for that methamatical relationship.
As a matter of simple arithmetic, Reach and GRP are inextricably linked by a multiplying factor which can just as readily be effective frequency. This does not mean that you can set any reach goal at random and assume a given GRP number will relate back with a specifc OTS. Different mixes of dayparts and media elements have different capabilities in reach / effective frequency generation.
Why more GRP for an effective reach level? Again, simple arithmetic explains it. "Reach" in an ordinary "reach and frequency" calculation, means reach 1 or more times. In other words, a frequency of 1 is treated as "effective." Typically, when we talk about "effective reach" we are working on an assumption that 3 or more frequency is needed for effective communications so that only those reached at least 3 times count. Naturally, more GRP are needed to get a given reach 3 tiems than only once.
We are currently purchasing local broadcast television combined with local cable television in a large number of markets. We have been grappling with the question of how to report the ratings achieved by each medium. Our initial thought was to add the broadcast DMA ratings to the DMA equivalent ratings of the cable activity in order to keep the figures "apples to apples." How do other agencies report cable ratings back to their client? (Local cable reports their audience delivery a number of ways including: DMA ratings, cable universe ratings, cable zone ratings within cable universe, etc.).
However, there are some cases where we may be purchasing select cable zones in a market, rather than the entire market's cable interconnect. In these cases, the cable television activity probably won't be efficient when compared to the broadcast TV DMA CPPs. On the other hand, purchasing the entire broadcast television DMA probably isn't an efficient way to reach just the geography surrounding a few stores. How do other agencies rationalize purchasing select cable zones (surrounding store locations) to their analytical clients? In these cases, the DMA CPP comparison probably isn't realistic.
What this boils down to is a basic question--is local cable forced to compete on exactly the same playing field as broadcast television? Are both forms of media judged against the same CPP goals or is cable allowed to compete based on a different CPP (based on the cable universe or percentage of cable penetration)? Does this answer change if purchasing an entire market's interconnect versus a single zone or multiple zones?
How is cable television posted when buying an interconnect? When buying a zone or zones?
What other factors should be considered in this analysis (i.e. are we overlooking anything)?
How is the budget (or TRP goals) allocated to between cable and broadcast television?
The Guru reports ratings on the basis that makes sense for the clients' marketing needs. If the client is a retailer, ratings localized to cable zones in store trading zones make sense and will reflect the efficiency of this localization, while also put the waste of DMA ratings into perspective. On the other hand a national consumer goods marketer with interest in entire DMA's should use DMA ratings as a comparison basis.
hi guru , I have avery fundamental doubt, i.e about reach , does reach mean the number of hose hold have access to a particular channel whether they swich on to it or not. If it is so how relevent is reach in selecting a channel.
Reach is about the number of people actually exposed to ads or programming. Coverage is the appropriate term for the number of homes or people who are able to watch.
What is the difference between qualatitive and quanatative research?
The great difference is "projectability."
hi guru , I am doing an analysis of channel trends during a particular season ,say christmas what are the analysis can I do to make it worth presenting to some client , e.g how a particular channel gained or lost during the period or in market ..pls suggest few more analysis that I can do for an impressive presentation
You need to think about what would be useful to the client. If the client expects you to make the right choices seasonally, does he care about this data or does he expect you to deal with it without his having to worry?
One thing advertisers do often think about is whether the clutter factor changes in a season like Christmas, so tracking changes (if any) in commercial load could be of interest. Probably more interesting in potential results would be changes in type of advertising, i.e retail vs national, kids products vs others or products vs services.
I have just learned that I am to do a study on 50 maybe 60 newspapers. Haven't counted them, but it looks like a long list. We are the agency for a fast food chain and the corporation is preparing for a newspaper FSI drop. I have been "charged" with making sure that each of our 122 stores have proper newspaper coverage. My question, I know that years ago there was a book that showed the circulation spill-out in to surrounding counties. It that through SRDS or some other company? (The newspaper list includes both dailies and weekly newspapers)
Thanks for you help.
You are probably thinking of SRDS' Circulation 2004
hey Guru, do you think Advertising makes people buy stuff they don't need?? any links?
In the sense that people only need simple food, water, air, and simple shelter, yes. Otherwise, define "need." Some might say advertising creates needs. Certainly not a media question, anyway
Is there a way to apply a conversion factor to Reach?
We are being asked to run R&Fs to the African American audience and we subscribe to the General Market software.
It is not possible to convert reach without, at a minimum, knowing the audience compostion of each program in the calculation as well as the duplication among the specified target. In limited circumstances, for example if you knew the audiences to all programs was 100% African American, but had to use a general R&F system, you might get close by just using population % as a conversion, but this still ignores potentially unique duplication patterns typical of culturallt defined markets.
I have a company which installs computerized plasma screens in retail stores at our expense and broadcasts ads via the internet. What is the best way for me to secure advertising for my network. I have had very little success with media buying agencies.
You are selling a form of out-of-home media. The internet aspect here is purely mechanical and irrelevant to a media decision. You need to sell to the same buyers who place signage in stores, not the typcial media buyer, more likely promotional staff at an advertiser.
Guru ~ Are you aware of a competitive measurement company who tracks trade show sponsorships? Thanks for any leads.
Do you of any good media schools in NYC to learn about media planning and buying. OR any colleges that has that as major
The Guru does not recommend media schools. He does not know of any NYC colleges with a media planning major. According to US News' college search, in the NY metro area, CUNY--Brooklyn College, Iona College, and Pace University offer mass communications / media studies majors. Generally the Guru finds people with broader business / marketing / liberal arts educations more valuable as medeia planners.
What are the models available for finding out the effective frequency
Click here to see Guru discussion of effective frequency and models
hi guru,I am a student and about start aproject in media planning , can u suggest me some flow chart for getting a plan which may be applicable in general.
It's not difficult to build a flow chart graphically in MS Excel. For a full flow chart system with calculations and data. begin with eTelmar
How can I find advertising/prospecting info on realtors?
What is informercials?
Generally, a long form commercial, from 2 minutes to 30 minutes, with detailed sell and usually a product demonstration, and particularly with a direct response pitch, e.g. a toll-free telephone order line.
What do you feel are the benefits of 30 minute infomercials? Also, do you have research that specifies when older adults (60+) typically watch television? (ie dayparts).
Thanks so much.
30 minute infomercials allow a full demonstration and sell of products that might be difficult to understand or hard to believe, either based on claims or simply price.
Use Nielsen for audience data.
I am working with a cosmetic company that markets to young teens (tweens). One question that has been asked is, how to we advertise in the high school newspapers. I read some where that there may be an company very similar to the newspaper press association. Do you know anything about that and if so can you point me in the right directions? Any suggestions would be appreciated.
There were once several companies in this business; at least three have been absorbed into 360 Youth
I am trying to locate some contact information on a magazine that is not listed in the SRDS. I have tried the publication's web site and there is no contact information listed. Is there a web site that lists contact information for magazines by category? Thanks
The Guru has not encountered a magazine with absolutley no contact info on its web site. Sometimes there is only an email contact offered, which the Guru finds infuriating because it seems to say "we don't want your business, don't bother us" and almost invariably, there is no response to email queries sent to those addresses. If the title is not in SRDS either, then your best hope might be to do an online yellow pages look-up. If the book is in an ethnic niche, there are often specialized guides to such media's contact info.
How much are accredited Not-For-Profit Universities & Colleges spending on advertising (Print, TV, Radio and Internet) each year?
Our company has developed a very powerful software for booking, managing, monitoring and accounting for advertising on digital signage networks. Many advertisers do not want to run their ads back-to-back with their competition. We have automated the process of spacing out ads of competing products.
However, we ran into a question: do we define product categories ourselves (re-unvent the wheel), or use something standard.
My question is: does the advertising industry have their own industry/product categories or do they use standards like NAICS/SIC?
As an example, looking at a portion of the NAICS/SIC codes for "drugs"
(below, left) shows that they are much too broad for advertising competitive issues;
virtually all use the same code number, and even the narrower index entries, such
as "cosmetics" are over-broad. Compare the narrower codes on the right, a sampling of those used by industry-standard resource CMR (Competitive Media Reports) .These are more nearly reflective of what would be considered the range within which conflicts occur.
target rating point
Click here to see Guru discussion of TRPs
hi guru ,yhanks for responding my previous qs. This time I want to know ,how media planners use program -share and TVR for a plan. Is there any differnce between these two as a criteria for vechile selection or can be used interchangebly.If possible give a real life example
Share and rating are more tools of buyers than planners; plans usually describe broadcast media in broader strokes, e.g. 50 GRP per week of Prime time TV.
When used, share is about time-period, head-to-head competition or projecting future ratings. Ratings gives a relative strength in audience appeal. Either is only a small part of vehicle consideration.
Dear Guru, Thank you for answering my question about traffic and stewardship. You replied in part:
"Traffic" is the process of
- Identifying which advertising materials will run in the time / space purchased
- Ordering necessary duplicates of the materials
- Shipping materials to the media vendor
- Issuing instructions to the media vendor specifying the materials -- or pool of materials -- which will run in the time / space purchased
Does this describe traffic on the agency side? Is there such thing as traffic on the media outlet side (newspaper, radio, TV)?
From your answer I understood that stewardship is primarily a function of someone representing an advertiser. Is there a stewardship function on the media side?
Loosely, "traffic" is about the movement of the advertsing materials through the necessary handling to get an ad before its audience, and stewardship is about managing the money and the media value.
Obviously there are elements of both of these functions on the media side; a station must log in receipt of the materials, and schedule it for airiing, these are "traffic" functions. Similary a station must track billing info.
I am trying to Analyse the Media Market by Sector (Print, TV, Online, Radio, Movie, Internet Companies etc... in short all under NAICS code starting at 51) and would like to get the the following information;
· Industry overviews, key business drivers, significant trends / issues / concerns and threats, whether the industry (and segments therein) is growing/shrinking/hiring, etc.
· Who are the leaders / players?
· What are the primary business drivers facing the industry leaders, their key issues and concerns?
· What/where are their opportunities for growth?
· How/where are they spending capital?
· How do they utilize their work environment: Offices / open plan / churn / cost per move, etc.
Any suggestions where I can get this information. I would like it for US and International.
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions. This is about the business issues of operating a media company. The Guru would suggest a literature search through Lexis / Nexis or eLibrary. The business press is more likely than the ad trades to be productive.
Is it possible to purchase a 30 minute (1/2 hour) spot on TV to run a "documentary"? If so how would this work? What would be an average cost? Would it be best to look at informercials or even better develop a DM campaign focusing on a mailer kit sent to a specified target?
The Guru is confused by your use of the term "documentary." There are stations which sell half-hour blocks for outside programming. When you ask about DM are you talking about selling tapes of the documentary?
In any case, "average cost" questions are too broad. A small market cable channel would have a very different price than a large market broadcast outlet; the difference could be 100:1.
Could you please explain the terms: traffic and stewardship. Aren't they the same thing?
Not at all. Beginning from the point when time or space is purchased:
1)what is the significance of OTS in selecting a eedia vechile
2)can u clarify the concept of BDI & CDI with a suitable example
1. Any vehicle offers a measured number of "opportunities to see." Ultimately one may chosse vehicles for a plan based on cost per OTS.
Click here to see Guru discussion of BDI / CDI.
Dear Media Guru, I would like to know what are the various techniques used for identifying/ arriving at what operating levels/ media weights should a brand operate on? Is there any site which would be provide information in this regard? Thanks.
Readership number per subscriber
There is no usable average. The 230 or so magazines analyzed by MRI+ have a range of from 1.28 to 28.18 readers per copy, with no obvious reationship to circulation size or topical focus, although national newspapers and newspaper-distributed magazines tend to cluster aroud 2 to 2.5 readers-per-copy. And these 230 are just the largest consumer magazine titles among thousands of U.S. print media.
What are the key elements that make special features in dailies a good medium to invest for the advertisers?
There are two chief virtues of special sections:
For a new entrant with a small budget in a high spending category,
1)What should be prioritised in terms of Reach, Frequency or , Continuity at the expense of reach & frequency.
2)Is there a rule of thumb to set higher weight than competitors atleast in the launch month for better vicibility & cut thru at the expense of number of maintenance bursts.
The Guru always recommends 'outshouting' competition. For a new entrant with awareness issues this is all the more important.
Continuity can be a uniquely powerful technique if competion is flighted; a careful study of competitors' flighting patterns might show when to be the big noise in a loud field.
Another technique is geographic selection. If your budget does not allow making enough noise nationally or in a big region, it is wisest to begin in a smaller geographic area where your campaign can have significant share of voice.
Going directly to your question, the Guru would priorize continuity over reach and frequency, if you can achieve at least a minimum R&F; perhaps 30% reach.
What is the differrence between avg. OTS & Effective frequency. Which is the most popolar measurement tool used for setting frequency objective & can you illustrate the differrence through a sum.
OTS is generally a raw exposures count (impressions). One could take total OTS and divide by reach to get average OTS, which would equate to average frequency; that is, the average number of times any person exposed to the message (reach) sees the message.
Effective freqeuncy is the number of exposures JUDGED to be required before a person reached is affected by the message, e.g. remembers or understands it. Effective reach is the numer of people reached at this effective level. 3+ is probably the most commonly used effective frequency standard, but there are various models for setting the level. See the Guru's comments on the Ostrow model.
Click here to see past Guru comment on 'Advertorial'
When assisting in building brand within a market, is there a minimum reach percent to aim for? ie, no less than 80%?
"Building a brand" is not a quantified goal. More reach is better than less. More continuity is better than more reach.
Can you tell me how to calculate newspaper costs? What does "per column inch" mean?
A broadsheet newspaper like the NY Times is 6 columns wide x 21 inches deep. Its full page of advertising is 126 column inches (6 X 21 = 126) . Such a newspaper specifies its ad charges as price per column inch and will provide information to translate a fractional ad like a quarter page into column inches. As an example, see the NY Times display ad specs.
I am trying to educate one of my clients about Post Buy analysis. I am trying to get the proper wording to explain to them what it is all about. I understand that 90% to 110% is the acceptable range. Now to the question...the client thinks that if the PBA's do not hit 100% each time, that they should be compensated for 10% underdelivery. How do I explain that it's okay to be 10% either way? Thank you for you help.
Assuming it is not possible for you to negotiate guarantees, then the client needs to understand:
as he sometimes gets less. If your buys are always under, then there is a problem. For that matter. if they are always over, your buyers must be chicken.
Radio data collected via diary gives a signficantly higher reach figure than data collected by syndicated databases.
The methodologies are of course different. In the diary system, respondents are given a diary and asked to record their listening habits. For syndicated studies, the question is "Did you listen to radio yesterday/past month etc.?"
Still, why is the diary data reporting higher reach? The research agency assures us that the panel selection is based on ownership of radio or listernership of radio , and is not limited to those who already listen to radio.
Is it because diary panelists are more aware of radio, and are actively seeking it out? Almost like the phenomenon where if I am thinking of buying a VW Passat, all the cars on the road I notice are VW Passats?
Apparently you are in an unknown country outside the U.S., hence the Guru can not effectively comment on the specifics of your local research systems. The Guru imagines the radio system is meant to measure listening to specific stations and times, while the "syndicated" study, as you call it is a more general measure of radio usage, estimating general listening rather than schedule reach. As a rule such systems are not meant to estimate reach and frequency.
When estimating ratings for third quarter buys, is it best to look at a Jul/Jul book average or Feb'04/Jul'03? What is the best strategy and why?
The traditional approach is to apply the latest share to the came period of time (seasoon) in the past year.
I have heard of a 4 wk TV flighting strategy of 50% of the total TRPs week one, followed by a week off followed by 25% of the total TRPs for the last 2 weeks. Supposedly the TV spot recognition is way higher. Have you heard of this? What do you think?
The idea here is that enough frequency is built earlier in the campaign so that consumer response begins earlier and the later exposures penetrate better.
This is more relevant in higher level campaigns with more continuity.
How've you been? Can political advertising pre-empt regular advertisers? If I end up paying higher rates for my spots in a market, can Bush's lower costing spots bump mine? Or, can he only bump me if I bought early but negotiated lower rates (at the time) than the politicians end up with? How does this work? They are predicting 17 battleground states (most are my markets)wher there will be very heavy political advertising. Thanks again.
A station can bump any advertising for any reason, especially if deemed to be in the public interest.
A station must sell candidates political advertising at the lowest rates charged within a given period.
A station will sell political campaigns pretty much as much advertising as they seek (they pay up front).
Now, who gets bumped is a separate issue. Probably the lowest paying commercial advertiser, unless that advertiser somehow negotiated low non-preemptible rates.
How often do u have to run a 30 second tv spot in the same daypart before your generate awareness?
How much awareness? Every announcemnt generates some awareness. Some planners would view 3+ reach over a short period of time as an awareness indicator.
Dear Guru -
We are pitching a new biz account. The past buying agency's demo was households in TV and radio instead of a specific demo. Reasoning was that it produced a lower CPP. We want to give rationale to the potential client that the media should be bought against a specific demo,not households. One answer is that "product is bought by people, not households". Can you help with other rationale why the client should be buying against a demo and not households? We need to support why the CPP will go up and that it will cost them more money for less.
The Guru responds, "oy!' That old clunker "product is bought by people not households" sounds so slick and is so silly. Household products are bought by the person -- of various descriptions -- who buys for the household, in many cases the "lady of the house."
The essential thought here is that if a primary purchaser/user with distinct demographic characteristics can be identified, then an effort should be made to assure that advertising concentrates on that person. Using a demographic target is one of these ways.
The idea that HH CPP is lower is illusory. HH appear cheaper to buy because they may or may not contain the right people.
By the way, housholds are not measured in radio ratings, anyway.
Are there any examples of newspapers ads' effectiveness reducing due to their placement in a contradictory editorial context? (eg. say an oil company ad - placed next to an article on controversy at Shell)
In the people meter system of calculating ratings what is:
1. The definition of HUT, is it dependent on the number of households or is it the number of minutes all TV homes view in contrast to the total minutes available to the universe?
HUT is "households using TV." It is a percentage of household universe at a point in time, without regard to numbers of minutes.
What is media guru?
Media Guru is the portion pf AMIC that answers indivdual users' questions and provides general media information of many types. A "Media Guru" is a sage wise in all aspects of media planning, buying and media research.
What is meant by flatter quintiles in terms media plan and how is it important?
| Consider the adjacent sample quintiles. The 20% of the target with
the lightest frequency of exposure averages only a frequency of 1.0, and
the next lightest 1.1. Those most heavily exposed have a freqeuncy of 7.5.
The plan would be more effective, especially among the 40% least exposed,
Is online a valid form of Media for adults 50-64 and adults 65-85?
"Valid" is a nebulous term here. These people can be reached on line, although they might not be as active or available as younger demos. Is there a reason to use online in your plan beyond the quantitative?
What are the online media habits for the demo 50-64?
What percent increase over MMG forecasts do you expect Political advertising to have on Spot TV and spot radio in September
Why do you assume forecasts haven't taken these regular factors into account?
What are GRPs
Click here for past Guru discussion of GRPs
See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan
suggestion for a media buying brief document or form
Think about how you would post-analyze the buy and make sure you specify standards
for all elements, e.g.:
Planned vs achieved audience
Planned vs achieved efficiency Index
Communicating the details is more important than having a form
For each medium / vehicle lay out, to the degree possible:
max 2 / week in
how much to spend for a brand encountered crisis
This should logically be based on the greater of: normal brand spending or ad $ value of whatever negative publicity occurred
i need research on radio changes from 1950?
I am interested in the use of color in newspaper ads and what the reader retention rates are when using different colors. I have had trouble finding any numbers or research done on this. Do you have any information on what colours make readers remember more/less?
How important are gross impressions to a media buy (specifically radio or traffic sponsorships)? Wouldn't eff. net reach be more important? How can I better explain the difference between gross impressions and frequency to a client that has these two efficiencies confused as the very same thing?
Firstly, a media buy must answer the specifications of the plan:
Do plan communication goals specify maximum weight or a focus on frequency over reach?
Frequency is linked to gross impressions but only through other factors and neither is an "efficiency." Budget divided by gross impressions is CPM, which is the classic measure of "efficiency" and no normal cost / frequency ratio with which the Guru is familiar is in use.
Gross impressions takes into account both frequency and reach. 1million gross impressions can be 1 million people each exposed to advertising once or 10,000 people each exposed 100 times. Radio is commonly considered a "frequency medium" but is capable of generating significant reach. Traffic radio is typically a frequency buy. Effective reach, i.e. reach at a specified minimum level of frequency is not the most likley goal for a traffic radio campaign.
In broadcast lingo, what is meant by the term "upfront", i.e., "2004 network upfronts"?
Around May, the networks announce their new Fall programming. Each stages a major screening and party for media buyers. These screenings are referred to as upfronts, because they are followed by a period of negotiations between advertisers and the networks wherein the full-year commitments to major schedules are made. This negotiating period is the actual "upfront."
What are examples of endemic and non-endemic magazines?
"Endemic" refers to a magazine's editiorial content in relation to the advertised product category. For example, for an cooking oil, Gourmet magazine is endemic, Readers' Digest is non-endemic, but might still be included in a campaign.
Thanks for replying to my question on quintiles. If we take the same example (Q No. 3965) how does quintiles help in better media planning or deciding on the media mix.
Quintiles of media allow selecrion of media which are more likely to be cosnumed by the target.
Quintiles of schedules allow balancing frequency of exposure so that a greater portion of those reached are exposed "enough" times to the campaign.
can u help me find out the most reliable information to plan for a tourism client for press and tv? in the european market>
In respose to Q.No. 3965 Dated Nov 13, 2000 you said that reach is devided into 5 quintiles of 20% each. Then we have to look at highest viewing qintile and lowest viewing one. I want to know from how do you find the highest and lowest viewing quintile. Our Media Analysis Software gives data in terms of reach, frequency and GRP for a given schedule in addition to reach at 1+, 2+, 3+ etc exposures.
It’s a fairly simply bit of arithmetic:
Imagine you have the following
frequency distribution for a schedule of 31 Reach, 95.9 GRP and 3.1 average
|Frequency||Reached exactly (%)||Reached at least (%)|
That is, 31.0% reached at least once (1+) and 11.6% reached exactly once. To
convert to quintiles, the steps are as follows:
What is the current, comprehensive definition of the term "advertising media"?
Click here to see past Guru responses defining and describing advertising media
what is the average price per thousand viewers (TV)? would you know where there is information about this price in different countries.
what is the difference between spot radio and traffic radio?
Spot radio is simply radio advertising purchased through individual local stations, rather than on a network or syndicated line-up.
Traffic radio is advertising placed in local traffic (commuter info) reports. It might be spot or unwired network.
radio vs. tv
Hi Guru, I am planning a internet plan for client.
Pleas help me to what data I have to put in plan to convince client the choosen site,the format(logo, banner, popup,..) most effective or approriate. My client is an IT Manufacturer. Thank you.
Given the established target, compare sites for their ability to reach this target (coverage) and their focus on the target (composition). Then consider the appropriateness and supportiveness of site content.
For format, consider effectiveneess measures such as clicks, awareness building and available placement. Also consider audience reaction, for example, there is growing objection -- among some audiences -- to pop-ups.
What is the history and background of interactive media?
Start with The Internet Advertising Bureau
I'm looking for advertising expenditures for industries as a whole over a period of time. Any suggestions?
wht is GRP. can u give me as much info as possible?
Click here to see over 300 past Guru responses discussing GRP.
For a reach DTC plan, do you think it's effective to go into 8 books only once or 4 books twice? Or what do you suggest
This depends on several factors. How thoroughly do the 8 or the four cover the target? If it's truly a reach plan than the one of the two with the higher reach is better. If the reaches are close, then the four book plan will probably have better frequency and be more effective.
What determins an effective Reach at a certain frequency? For example, I have worked on a piece of business where the net effective Reach had to be 60% at a 5+ frequency. I have also worked on a piece of business that required the net effective Reach to be 60%, but at a 3+ frequency.
The Guru is assuming you mean to ask "how does one determine the frequency level at which to consider reach "effective'?" One standard approach is known as the Ostrow Model. Click here for Guru discussion of this model.
I cannot find information on the 4 A's website with a
job description for "Interactive Media Buyer". I know
this is still a relatively new field, but can't find
any job/salary information for such a position. Can
the Guru help?
Click here to see past Guru responses about media buyers.
Interactive buyers perform these duties only within the interactive sphere. As the market has matured, the Guru believes intereactive and traditional media buyer salaries are comparable, generally, althought there are extremes, such as network TV negotiators that are not comaprable.
I am a pharmaceutical sales rep who is VERY interested in moving into ad sales. It was recommended to me by a current ad salesman that I start in ad buying. It appears that one of the basic tools I will need to make this transition is media math. Where can I pick this up? Is there a book or course or place I can do some self-study available? Thanks for your advice!
How do I find media companies that will sell advertising for our newspaper in Ontario Canada
Start with CARD
Hello Guru I receive your comments of my question .
I Want to know , How many weeks is the maximum period I should accumulate for analysis of the reach for one campaign???
The (US) standard is 4 weeks. At times, for various purposes, such as wear-out analysis, 13 week and 52 week cumes may be calculated.
could you help me please, i need whats is means this words.
Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use each of these words as your search term.
Is there a standard for Reach/Frequency for TV over one week and over four weeks?
How many TRPS should be bought per week on TV? This is most likely to differ by product category and media mix, but are there any studies that can be quoted to defend a certain level of TRPs bought per week?
No one standard. Click here to see past Guru responses regarding levels
How does the internet works as a tool to mass media, advertising, sales promotion and PR?
Compare the effectiveness of TV versus Radio
In the abstract, TV is a stronger communicator, adding sight and motion to the pure sound of radio. However, one might get more messages for the budget in radio or be able to associate the message with different programming.
See also the Guru's media strengths page
Please explain the phrase "AOR"
Can you decribe the jobs of a Buying, Planning AOR?
And what benifits if an advertiser choose an agency AOR vs. an normal agency?
Click here to see past Guru discussion of AOR
I have a question. What's the difference between a frequency plan vs. a reach plan? How would you go about putting together a reach plan if needed? Are there any formulas or anything that you need to plug in to determine reach? How do you know what is effective?
A reach plan emphasizes reach versus frequency and the frequency plan is the oppposite. That is, a reach plan is designed to deliver is message to the greates number of different people while a frequency plan emphasizes the number of times each person reached is exposed to the message - no matter how many are reached. Reach plans are used when branding or awareness building are the focus. Frequency plans are aimed at more immediate, direct action such as a retail promotion for a limited time sale.
Some media, such as prime time TV and national magazines produce relatively more reach and others, such as radio, online or daily newspapers are better at frequency within a plan.
Do you have the dates for the 2004 network upfronts yet?
How does advertising on Tivo work? Who is advertising on Tivo and how much does a spot cost?
The Guru has not heard of "Advertising on Tivo." Tivo is a recorder, an advanced digital version of the VCR, in effect. It has no programming of its own. Perhaps a logo display on the program grid?
guru can u please inform me where can i find tevevision viewership patterns in USA.
Click here to see past Guru responses about recency.
Click here to see over 400 past Guru responses about frequency.
What is a doubletruck ad? Is that a spread?
is advertising manipulation
In the sense of changing people's thinking about something, certainly. In the sense of doing something evil and underhanded, no. Everyone understands that the advertising they encounter is meant to do that.
I am working in a market where measurement of radio listenership is still evolving.
The current research supplier measures radio listnership in 4 sweeps every year lasting a month each --choosing a panel, and giving them diaries for a month every quarter.
During every sweep, the same panel is used--i.e., the same set of people used in Q1 are used in Q2, Q3, Q4 and so on (after excluding some for quality control issues).
Does this practice of choosing the same people in every sweep exist in other developed radio markets?
Why can't the research agency use a different panel every time (other than for reasons of cost)giving us a more representative view of behavior?
A more acceptable practice in "developed markets" is to have a different panel every week, thereby vastly increasing the effective size of the sample with less cost increment.
How do you read crosstab runs?
Click here to see past Guru responses and explanation of Crosstabs
Are there any reasearches done or available learnings on print advertorial effectiveness?
I have no idea where to ask this question and am hoping you can tell me. How do I find out: 1. Which advertising agency was used to produce a certain television commercial? 2. The specific person responsible for the original idea of the commercial? 3. That person's business email address?, 4. The person from the company being advertised who chose to use that particular ad? and 5. their business email address? I want to be able to email nasty comments to the makers of idiot commercials and their idiot buyers and commend those responsible for some truly great ads. How do I do this? Thanks!
The Guru began writing the answer to your question, and then considered two thing:
I am reading a text book on media planning but do not understand how it is figuring Average Frequency. It assumes 40 households are viewing television (HUT = 40). 17 homes are viewing one program; 11 homes are viewing two programs; 7 homes are viewing three; and 5 are viewing four. There is one spot in each program. It states that the households are viewing an equivalent of 80 programs (or spots). By dividing the 80 spots by the HUT it produces an average frequency of 2. My question is, how would you figure the average frequency if there were 3 spots in each program? The book does not make it clear on how it arrived at the equivalent of 80 spots. Thank you.
In media planning, we usually deal with HUT as a percentage of the Household universe, but this exercise can still work.
Remember that there are people involved here. The 17 homes viewing one program cause that home to see the one spot in that one program.
The 11 homes viewing two programs eman that two spots are viewed in those homes (think about 2 people in those homes each viewing a different TV). So 22 spots are viewd in these homes, 21 spots are viewed in the 7 homes each using 3 TVs, and 20 spots in the 5 homes viewing 4. Total 80 spots viewed.
If 40 homes view 80 spots, the average number of spots seen per home ("frequency") = 2. With three spots per program the total spots viewed is 240 (80 x 3) and frequency is 6 (240 ÷ 6).
I have a spot TV plan to pull together for a client in Atlanta. Since this is a high ADS market, the question has been asked if one can buy ADS advertising on a local level. I'm receiving mixed responses. Can you tell me this is possible and who to turn to for cost info? Thanks!
The Guru will assume that by "ADS" you mean satellite, such as DirecTV and DishNetwork. These systems deliver signals from an orbiting satellite to a footprint much larger than one DMA, probably closer to a broadcast network's regional feed. There is no analog to cable's local system operator who can send commercials down a relatively narrow pipe, generally covering an area smaller than a DMA.
i need some info. about mass media and communication patterns in singapore
Contact Telmar Asia
Supply me with Alluvial Gold Dust Buyers Wprldwide
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media department management questions.
I've looked through the archives but couldn't find anything on developing Spot TV RFP's to the various stations. I've done spot radio RFP's, but want to know if I need to include anything more than: client & brand, target, market and market R/F goals,weekly GRP's, Target CPP goals, flight dates, days of the week within flights,daypart mix, any must buys shows, spot length, RFP due date, and the flight schedule deliveries. Is there something really embarressing that I've overlooked? Don't hold back. Thanks
A good RFP has two key elements;
. It strikes the Guru that you have included everything under the sun that might eventually be used to describe the eventual buy, but do not need as qualifiers of submissions.
Do you have a standard for days of the week to decide what to buy? In retail that's possible, otherwise, perhaps not.
Do stations need to deal with your daypart mix? One station may have different strenghths than another. It might be counterproductive to ask each to submit the same mix, when you might do best with one station's prime and another's news.
Do they need to think about your GRP total if you might buy 2 or 3 or 4 stations?
Can they respond to your reach goal, knowing they are providing only a portion of a schedule?
All these specs would be useful if each station is competing for an exclusive, but the Guru doubts that is the case.
Is there a way to measure impact? is there such a term in media "impact"?
"Impact" is not a media term, it is a term used by advertisers (the dreaded client) and account execs, when they know they are supposed to insist on something special but are too lazy or insufficiently knowledgable to try to define it.
Impact could mean better sales results, more awareness building, more recall,etc, but the essence is to have more effect, somehow, on the target group and to generate better results for the brand. Impact is a useful shorthand term, if one knows the fuller meaning.
i want to know a2zabout advertising agency structure & detailed job discription about its employee e.g. creative art director, visualizer, account manager etc.
Other than the Weather Channel, are there any other cable networks that have local addressability, i.e., the technology to simultaneously run a national announcement with local dealer listings?
The Weather Channel obviously has reson to overlay local info on national content. What other programming categories might have a similar need? ESPN to deliver local sports scores for schools, etc? The Travel channel for local problems / opportunities? Following this line of thought, make inquiries of the networks.
I am a media director at an ad agency specializing in pharmaceutical promotion to physicians. I am working on a multimedia promotional campaign for a new brand. Is there any data that shows in general, how the various forms of pharm promotion (detailing, journals, desktop, internet, etc - compare in terms of cost efficiency, reach, targetablility, etc? Specifically, the strengths and weaknesses of each. I am looking for an overall chart or comparison that will show how each form of media may contribute to new prescriptions (depending of course, upon mkt input, etc).
Most of what you are asking about is promotion rather than media. Try Promo Magazine
describe a rating point
One percent of the specified demographic universe. Click here to see past Guru responses about "rating point"
I would like to learn more about 3rd party data-share agreements, data-share business rules. Maybe some examples.
If you are a data provider, talk to some third party processors, like Telmar
Why do TV signals spill out of one DMA and into the next? Do broadcast signals get mixed up and therefore some homes on the borders btw DMAs are able to receive 2 ABC stations on 2 different channels? How do you properly calculate "spill %"? - What data do you need and where is it available?
Media Guru: Is there a correct % of sales that a retail client should spend on advertising for a G.O.B.
campaign? If so, what is it?
The Guru doesn't think there's any "right" %. It would depend on selling prices and the need to clear merchandise at any cost versus maintain some level of profit.
Where can I find demographics and target markets for cable television stations?
Visit their web sites and look for a "media kit" area. Otherwise, you'll need to analyze Nielsen data.
What is the most cost efficient way to get political information to as many people in the shortest amount of time?
Sunday Supplements have the shortest publication-through-cume cycle for high reach, but network radio is quickest from concept to air to reaach development and can be more efficient.
I am doing an assignment for university based on recruitment for one of the armed forces. i cannot decide which would be most effective- to use higher frequency or reach..any ideas??
The answer has many variables. Reach can be more expensive than frequency. Minority targets can be more difficult to reach and have fewer media options than a general audience. Suppose you had a ridiculously small budget of only $2500 and want to recruit Arab Americans. The problem would then be reach versus efficient targeting. Broad reach might argue for outdoor media in a neighborhood densly populated by Arab Americans, e.g. Brooklyn, New York’s Atlantic Avenue. But that budget would buy only one small posting for 5 months. It could achieve substantial reach in that small area and good frequency but with a limited message and considerable waste.
City-wide Arabic newspapers might offer three different options covering broader geography for the same length of time. This would likely increase reach and lose frequency.
In short, never ignore budget parameters when thinking about reach versus frequency. With a more reasonable budget of $25,000, for the same goals, think more about reach and multiple media and adequate frequency will be there.
Reach versus frequency needs can also depend on awareness. If your audience is highly aware of your offering but needs persuading, then frequeuncy is probably more important; with no awareness, reach is primary.
I am conducting an academic research regarding the business climate in the US. I am an MBA student. I am trying to get a notion of the number of businesses in the US through the active advertising. I was wondering if you have data on the total number of advertisers conducting advertising in the US in all segments. If the data is available by segments it will be easier for me fine tune my research.
Your kind help is highly appreciated.
How does one calculate CDI and BDI
Click here to see past Guru responses regarding CDI / BDI
Could you tell me what the CHR in CHR/Pop stands for in radio terms?
“Contemporary hits radio.” For details see TV Radio World
what are some quantitative value factors that palnners assign to different tv dayparts assuming primetime equals 100
Typically these factors are based on attentiveness as measure by syndicated research such as MRI or Simmons or recall factors from advertisers' proprietary research. These data vary from demographic to demographic and year to year. See sample attentiveness data in our Ad Data area at MediaDynamics Attentiveness data.
I've just recently started a media buying company. Do you know of a place I can get a sample agency/client contract?
What is the best form of advertising can I get information to the most people in the least amount of time, taking costs into consideration?
If you mean least amount of time from advertising start and lowest cpm (including production cost), then the answer is outdoor.
If you mean least amount of time from making the decision to advertise, then the answer is probably network radio.
Do you have an opinion on the effectiveness of vignettes produced by cable networks? My client is considering producing 2-3 which would run in addition to their regular cable schedule. These would run during paid media time, when they could instead run their :30 commercial. Seems to me the benefit is leveraging the relationship the particular cable network has with its audience. The client questions whether or not he should substitute his :30 spot which is created to specifically communicate the brand message. Any thoughts on the topic of vignettes would be much appreciated.
It is not clear that the vignette has any brand message. If not, why use it? Would you be "leveraging" (what an overused term) the audience relationship or only establishing it, with no branding beneift? We need a definition of "vignette" for this discussion to go anywhere. Traditional vignettes, where an interesting topic / question-answer / etc connects to the brand and enhances the sell can be very effective, particularly where the brand message is included and the whole thing is added value.
Are Reach and Frequency goals outdated? If so, how do you measure effectiveness?
The Guru does not see how it can become "outdated" to consider what portion of your target is exposed to a campaign or how often.
In a recent conversation I have locked horns with a large agency media director. The issue is on local cable ratings. It is my understanding that Nielsen (or other) does not currently differentiate between local cable viewers and ADS (i.e. dish) viewers in providing their cable rating estimates. Thus, a cable rating includes viewers not exposed to your specific (or any local) message. As a rating is derived from the number of people "watching" against the total universe, I believe that you must subtract the ADS viewers and adjust the supplied rating accordingly. ie. 100,000 cable homes with 20% ADS(assuming all networks have equal ADS %’s). A 1.0 rating = 1,000 viewers. Since 20% ADS only 800 views can see your local insertion. Your true rating on the actual cable system becomes a .8 against your cable universe, not a 1.0. The director’s contention is that a 1.0 rating is a 1.0 rating on both local cable and a 1.0 rating for ADS and, thus, it is still a 1.0 rating in the cable universe. Again, it is my understanding that the cable universe does not include ADS homes yet the Nielsen (or comparable) rating does. Help. Please enlighten me. Thanks.
p.s. this seems true even if you take a DMA cable rating and adjust to the cable universe rather than a cable universe cable rating…..
The Guru loses track of your issue somewhere, but these facts might help:
A standard Nielsen report uses a Cable+ADS universe for a DMA and reports Cable+ADS ratings (ratings and universe will always match in a given report).
Therefore, a "cable rating" in a DMA which is actually a cable+ADS rating, is correct for program audience but overstates cable commercial audience in the way that you suppose.
(By the way, it is not a 1.0 for cable and a 1.0 for ADS, but an average of the two that comes to 1.0 for the combined universe) Since you are buying local cable commercials from a cable system, they will not run in local ADS (satellite) programs unless you also buy these. Even if you did, the Guru does not expect that they would run simultaneously.
The good news is that Nielsen will sell you a pure cable report.
Dear Guru: I have been studying the STAS index data which J.P.Jones analyzed from the 1995 Nielsen studies and which served as a foundation to recency. I am puzzled by one thing: out of 78 brands analyzed the sales of 16 brands stayed on the same level and the sales of another 15 brands dropped! This makes it 40% (forty!) where advertising had no effect at all! And no explanations. How can any strategy be based on such a poor foundation and still be taken seriously? R.
If 60% support the theory, that is worth considering. As to those that fell, how did that directionally track with advertising levels?
do you have information regarding political advertising guidelines for broadcast?
Stations must offer political campaigns their lowest rates charged 45 days prior to a primary and 60 days prior to elections. Stations generally require cash in advance for politicals.
could you tell me barclays bank current media strategy for barclaycard or barclays business banking at all? or any theor connected with media planning
Barclay's strategy would be confidential, although there might be trade articles. This site is full of theories, look around.
Hello there. I have this list of dayparts. I am trying to come up with a CPP ranking order from cheapest to most expensive. Do you believe, that on a national level, I am close enough to use for directional analysis purposes? Or, would you switch something around? Thanks in advance for your point of view!
Generally this looks OK, but 1a-6a should probably be cheapest. Of course this all depends on the demographic and exactly what medium we are considering, is it broadcast network? It seems silly to generalize. . . you work at a large agency and specific data should be readily available to you.
I am from Mumbai,india,
I have done B.Com & Diploma In Bussiness Management and working in event management company as a graphics designer.
I am interested to work in Media Panning/Management.
My current qualification is enough for this or i have to do other course and (if possible)where i get that course in Mumbai(India),college address/tel no. please guide me as earlier as possible,
Your education should be adequate but the local job marketplace in Mumbai may differ and the Guru is not specifially familiar with that job community nor its educational offerings.
what is the current population of adults 18-49 in the US
As of the 2000 census it was 132,276,109. Some projections have been for 4.7% growth from 2000 - 2004, yielding 138,574,971
which day of the week, on average,excluding weekends, has highest readership for daily newspapers.
I need a consultant. Anyway to get in touch with you, or can you recommend someone? I need someone well versed in spot for a package goods account. Thanks
If the email adress in your AMIC registration is current, the Guru will contact you.
Is it better to advertise in the same medium as your competitors or somewhere completely seperate, what factors would effect your decision?
Is there software which does r/f for business to business mags the way that etelmar does for b2c mags?
If you have the audience data, Telmar's Print Plan can do the job.
Do you know if community access television stations accept advertising, or are they commercial free?
If the Guru understands your question (and since you are a regular, the Guru feels comfortable here), these "stations" are channels of local cable systems and each has its own rules. The Guru guesses few carry commercials, mostly because of lack of demand. The cable systems are probably willing. Whether they allow programmers on these access channels to sell time in their own programs is a different story, but unlikely.
Is there a single media resource available to get average radio ratings by market and demo if you don't subscribe to the whole country?
Arbitron sells individual markets' ratings reports.
What is considered effective for online advertising in terms of reach & frequency?
If you consider online advertsing by itself, why would it have a different effective R&F standard?
Realistically of course, it must. If only two-thirds of people are online, that sets an upper limit. With the millions of web sites fragmenting this audience, what portion of this universe0 can realistically be reached?
Even granting that giants like Yahoo may reach most internet users, what portion of Yahoo's reach can you afford to buy?
In the Guru's opinion, online is a tactical medium. It can reach key prospects in environmentally focused contexts with selectively delivered messsages. It can reach people or add frequency among people not otherwise accessible.
agency of record
Click here to see Guru discussion of Agency of Record
One of the cornerstones of recency is the idea that advertising works in a short period (up to 7 days). At the same time in his writings by Mr. Ephron always mentions 4-week reach and 13-week reach. Can you explain the reason for that. Thanks, R.
More important in recency is that the most recently seen ad is most effective.
4 week and 13 week reach are long-time industry standards, greatly predating recency theory. They are based on being able to combine media types in a common period of time and relate first, to the monthly cycle of many magazines, which were a much more dominant medium 60 or more yars ago, and second, to the common, quarterly (i.e. 13 week) planning / budgeting cycle.
What challenges are daily newspapers facing today? What factors cause their current problems?
Declining circulation and readership are the key problems.
Younger consumers are
We currently have spot fill radio slated for 2004 to make up for underdelivery of our Network Radio schedule in key markets. Of course we have recommended a :60 spot be created for the spot fill. Our account team does not want to produce a :60 spot and prefers to use two of the existing :30 spots back to back to fill the time. This would not be bookends within a pod, but two very similar commercials running together. Are there any exisiting white papers or support that demonstrates this is not the best use of the purchased time?
Is there a general CPM for FSIs?
Where would I find general CPM's for the various mediums.
Start at AMIC's Ad Data area.
Dear Media Guru,
This is a followup to my previous question regarding direct response ads on satellite television.
1). Please elaborate on your statement "Top Tier may as well not be a consideration, since you are persuing minusucle audiences, at best."
Are you saying I may not want to buy the most expensive (top tier) networks because satellite subscribers are more fragmented than cable subscribers (disregarding the the obvious difference in subscriber quantities).
2). Would it be safe to assume that one spot airing between 12 midnight and 6am on any given network would be seen by 1/10th of 1 percent of the total subscriber base? Would it be the same for either national satellite or national cable?
3). Is it a safe to assume a 60-second DRTV spot placed in first week of Feb 2004 on national cable on one of the larger networks in overnight (12AM - 6AM) will be twice the rate of a :30 and cost $500 each? Or, is $600 each more realistic? Other rate?
4). WIth a $30,000 budget I can buy 60 national cable spots @ $500 each or 200 spots @ $150 on satellite. Based on a .02% response rate, my media cost per order for cable is $3.31 compared to a $6.25 cost per order for satellite.
Will 60 spots be enough for testing DRTV? My thinking is that satellite would be better since more spots will allow me to test more networks and daytime vs. overnight. (Also, I could test one offer on Direct TV Comedy Ch --11,850,000 subscribers -- and a second offer on Dish Comedy Ch -- 9,085,000 subscribers.) Then, I plan to apply response rates from satellite to national cable to determine if rollout is feasible. Does this sound right? How would you do it?
5). VERY IMPORTANT!!! How do I contact DirectTV and Dish to request rates? I can't find one bit of advertising sales info for either company on the internet.
We need to call a salesperson to find out about advertising on school (K-12) book covers. Can you pls. help?
You could start with School Book Cover Advertising
Dear Guru, 1. where does outdoor stand in terms of cost-efficiency compared to network TV, cable TV, radio and print? 2. Do you think it is true that outdoor advertising is benefiting from the fact that daily newspaper audiences are shrinking (are they really shrinking?)?
Outdoor is, by far, the most efficent of these.
Are outdoor audiences benefitting from newspapers' audience loss? Not likely and hard to prove. Are outdoor revenues benefitting? Also not likely in the Guru's opinion. Newspaper ads are heavily retial and promotional, outdoor's more about branding and long term concepts. Where they meet and trade revenues is most likely entertainment, e.g. movies and events.
Dear Media Guru,
Is there a site that would list the rankings of the various US "Media Markets". I have heard reference to Philadelphia being the "sixth largest US Media market" and have heard others say that "NY or LA are the largest media Markets" and would like to see a ranking of all of them if one exists. Thanks.
I want to advertise a product via direct response TV featuring an 800 number. I plan to spend $30,000 for testing over a 10 day period in the U.S. market.
I called this company I found online to inquire about the cheap TV spots offered on their site. They suggested I allocate the entire budget to air on cable networks via national satellite, which has a subscriber base of 8.6 million. They quoted the cost of a 30-second spot on a top tier network airing in overnight at $80 and in daytime between $175 and $225.
Having never heard of national satellite advertising, I tried to investigate further on the web. The only info I found came from a discussion group upset about a TV show on Sci-fi being canceled back in February 2000. They were discussing how to place an ad during the show's last episode on satellite and had uncovered basically the same rates I was previously quoted.
I also found your answer to a like question asked around the same time (Monday, April 24, 2000, #3415) in which you replied, "you may be looking for something that doesn't exist".
You further explained that "national ads on cable networks are sold by the networks as national and run as the network is carried, whether the viewer receives the program through cable or a SATELLITE receiver. Local, cable-originated advertising runs in time slots reserved for local use. These "local" slots, about 2 minutes per hour, could theoretically be sold nationally by the SATELLITE carriers".
You then, however, gave numerous reasons why even that wouldn't work.
My question is this: Three+ years later, has anything changed? Is the media buy I described now a viable option? If it is, would this be the way to go or would I be better off putting it on national cable? I would appreciate any other information you care to share on this subject, be it advise or referrals.
Today, there are spots available on DirecTV and Dish Network. The prices you cite are about right (as one-time rates) for DirecTV, the larger one of the two, with about two-thirds of the satellite market.
From your question, you seem to be looking for the cheapest "national" spots you can buy, so Dish Network may be the better choice.
"Top Tier" may as well not be a consideration, since you are persuing minusucle audiences, at best.
Guru, which advertising directory do you like better...Redbooks or AdWeeks?
Both are useful, but neither is a media research tool.