Returns all questions and responses for the year.
average CTRs for rich media
Looking for published research on effective messaging,
effective frequency--general, and medium specific.
To set up a rough budget for a prospective client, I need to get adv. rates from 9 cable networks. This is my first pass at this, so I am only interested in 3 day parts-"run of show" (6A to 12A, Mon-Fri), 9A to 6P Sat.& Sun., 6P to 12A Mon. thru Sun. Are these day parts descriptions too vague to get a usefule response? Where do I find the phone #'s for the major cable networks to ask for this information?
The cable networks are likely not to have pricing set up according to your time parameters. However, they will certainly have hours or program unit prices as building blocks with which to construct the averages you want.
For some reason, "advertising info" is typically a link in tiny type at the bottom of a media vendor's home page.
In print advertising, when "cover 3" is referred to, is that the inside back cover or Page 3?
Inside back cover.
Where can i find articles on Recency Planning???
Do you have any articles on these medias planning theories:
*treating on-line media in the same way (applying the same standards) as traditional media,
*incorporating minority segments, and
*optimization across media types.
For incorporating multicultural segments, trade media such as Black Enterprise and Hispanic Magazine have covered this extensively. For more media-specific data see our own publishers' Hispanic Market Weekly Media and Research articles.
For multimedia optimization, look at our sister company's eTelmar / IMC.
An easy one for the Guru-- What is the approximate prime time CPM differential between traditional network TV and network cable TV? Thanks.
See SQAD. Because uses of cable are different, indices for dayparts, demos and content index variably over great ranges.
What is the current cost per point for network radio-- for adults and adults 25-54? Thanks!
Too volatile to generalize; call the networks
To broaden the customer base by inducing new customers what should be the media strategy? Should one look at having more reach or the frequency should also be considered?
One way to look at it is: think about whether the customers you don't yet have are unaware of your product/service or aware but unpersuaded. Then you can decide whether to speak to new prospects (reach) or try for more persuasion (frequency).
Dear Guru, What's the difference between GRP & TRP? Thanks, JR
Click here to see past Guru responses
Is there any industry research that looks at readership of newspapers during holiday weeks...specifically the week of Christmas and the Week of New Years?
I am from Sri Lanka. How does a local media agency fight the growing influence of large MNC media buying agencies if one can't on the basis of price?
All advertisers are (or should be) interested in the right media for the right price. As local experts make your stand on this principal, and be prepared to demonstrate superiority on this score.
advertising rates for each media
Click here to see past Guru responses about rates
When developing a cable schedule, how is it possible that the cable companies are providing reach number of 70 - 80%. With so much fragmentation and with cable still in only about 70% of households, how can they deliever that kind of reach?
First, cable companies' figures are typically based on a cable-homes universe, so they are talking about reaching 70-80% of the 70-80% that are in cable homes. The fragmentation does make one question that any one cable net can reach that level, but there will be Nielsen data to suport or disprove the claim.
I would like to learn more on daypart online campaigns offered by Yahoo!
Is it sold on CPM basis or flat-fee ?
Does it give exclusivity to the advertiser ?
Ask Yahoo at (617) 305-6032.
When estimating GRPs for a media plan, what is considered an acceptable error level (10%, 15% or more)? Thanks, R.
The Guru presumes you actually mean the ratio of post buy delivery to plan, since plan specifications are prescriptions, rather than estimates. In any case, it is a judgement, but 10% is a common tolerance.
What is the correlation between ad awareness and brand awareness? Thanks, R.
That there is a correlation seems obvious, but there are many intervening variables for which to control.
We can calculate (or estimate or guestimate) how much reach we can get for every dollar we spend on TV. Question: Can we calculate how much brand awareness we can get for every dollar we spend on TV? If positive, how do we do that? Thanks, R.
It would be an after the fact estimate, as is reach, really. You would need top have measured awareness across a variety of schedules and built a curve.
But, Reach is simply a head-count measure of media delivery, while awarenss is influenced by creative and other circumstance, so a predictive model would be much more complex.
I know the data collected by TV Diaries is different from the data colected by Peoplemeters. Is there any direct correlation between them (e.g. TV diaries show 1.42 times more viewers than peoplemeters)? Thanks, R.
The ratio could be calculated from comparisons made in change-over periods, but it is not predictive nor uniform across locations and demographics.
What is an ERN reel? How does it work?
Perhaps it's ENR, "electronic news release." A form of PR; if there was a release about a new campaign and it included the commercial, it could be broadcast as news. Can't imagine why anyone would run it as a commercial for no charge unless it was a PSA or funny.
Gear Guru, Does any kind of publication exist that shows magazine audience penetration by city? Someone described it to me as "circles around the DMA showing magazine audience penetration". Thanks.
One source is SRDS' Circulation 2003
Most read magazines by finance analysts and investors in USA and UK.
Start at PubList
Dear Mr. Guru:
What are the most recent mediaplanning theories that have had any significant effect (e.g., effective frequency vs. recency)? Thanks, R.
Where can I find information regarding advertising research
The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
dear guru, i'm planning on print a first flight in january and after a hyatus of 6 months another flight in august: is it correct to sum the grp of the 2 flight or i should evaluate them separately? thank you
Why you would sum the GRP? A cume R&F would be misleading.
Have you ever heard of the term "ridealong" for a media vehicle?
The Guru has not heard the specific term bu it would seem to mean something like the case where subscribers to Forbes found the quarterly special issue called Forbes' ASAP ( technology) package in the same wrapper as their monthly Forbes.
Thus, it is media not specifically ordered by the subscriber, that rides along with an issue of the purchased medium. Advertsing Age is another familiar publication that does these ridealongs.
I am planning for an entertainment account. We have sold our clients a plan that emphasizes quality buys versus tonnage. I have a buyer who is insisting on buying Prime Orbits or Rotations vs fixed position prime in order to save costs. However for the plan, we value quality and delivery over saving versus year ago cpps. Can you help me explain why fixed position prime is better in this case than prime rotations and orbits?
First, it is the buyer's job to deliver the media according to plan and not according to the buyer's own personal goals. The Guru has often encountered buyers who bought something more expesive/less efficient to deliver better reach when the plan was focused on tonnage or GRP goals. A buyer's first goal is delivering planned
That being said, the Guru does not think there is anything better about fixed posiotns versus rotations inherently. If your prime schedule for a week on the NBC affiliate is 1 spot in "Friends", one spot in "ER" and 1 spot in Third Watch, why do you care if they were bought individually or delivered in a rotator of "3 prime spots."
It's a very good buyer who can deliver the programming you need at Orbit prices.
Fixed positions are NOT "quality" because they cost more, but because your specification have mafde these programs more desirable
The issue may be that your targeting or program evironment needs make ER or Third Watch desirable and Friends less so.
Please explain the term: rfp or rfq.
"Request for Proposal"
"Request for Quote"
Typically, the request for proposal is a detailed description of a project or set of services which are to be contracted from a supplier or service company. The rfp may have a specific set of questions to be answered regarding the proposer's qualification, experience and approaches, along with pricing and terms.
The request for quote is similar, but may have fewer questions outside of pricing.
I work for a company-owned regional coffee shop. I need to devise a media plan for 2 markets. How do I determine R/F and Continuity goals?
Click here to see past Guru responses about these two topics
Click here to see past Guru responses about reading reports from MRI
RE: Earlier question:
What is the real total circulation of Sunday newspapers? What portion is audited?
Go to all the auditors previously listed and add their circulations for Sundays. It is hard to decide what portion this quantity is of a larger number if the difference is unaudited (uncounted).
What is media planning and how do I plan for an even like a graduation
To get a picture of media planning, scroll through all the posted Current Guru Queries and Answers.
The Guru isn't clear on how a graduation calls for a media plan.
I am from India. Today the Conditional Access Bill was passed in India for pay channel. My questions are 1) How does a set top box to allow access to pay channels works, 2) Cost, 3) How measured ( sampling etc), and 4)Issues that might arise during the change over period. Your inputs will be very valuable.
These things work differently in different countries. Set top boxes are individually addressable and have circuitry that can be activated from the transmitting companies' "head end" to allow a pay channel to be viewed.
Measurement on a household basis is simple, since the computers have a record of exactly who ordered. It's a census, not a sample
Since these are not advertising-supported broadcasts, measurement details are not usually in great demand.
Consumers' cost is market-based/ IN the US, packages or "tiers" of paid and free channels may cost form US$5.00 to US$50.00
The relevant key issue is drain on advertising supported programs audience. In the US, some programs on subscription-based, non-advertising-supported networks have outperformed any free program, for example the recent season-ending episode of HBO's The Sopranos.
Hi. I'm working for a company that needs a basic explanation of how the syndicated television market works (specifically as it relates to clearance). Do you have any recommendations of free resources for information on syndication?
Thank you, media guru!
Contact a syndicator for the basics.
I'm looking to gain access to business contacts relating to fashion industry and popular magazine's. Essentially, customer lists that have contacts, phone numbers, addresses and emails if possible for the above areas. What do you recommend?
I am doing a media plan for a global biotech company and they advertise in the major trade and science journals. They gave me geography goals of 65% US, 30% Europe and 5% Japan. Meaning the % of impressions in each region they want to reach. How do I calculate the percent that they are reaching with the current plan? For example, do I just take the Europe circulation of the publication and multiply it by the total number of insertions scheduled for that pub to get the total number of impressions in europe? Media Guru, I need your help, I don't know how I am going to reach 30% in Europe. Thanks so much.
If you assume circulation = readers, then your formula works. In most cases, trade media like these won't have any survey-based audience research available. so circulaiton is a good basis.
Obvioulsy, you need to be considering titles published in some of the regions you wish to cover. See PubList
What is MTV's past and present media strategy? What advertising have they done since they were launched in 1981?
relationship between nedia planning and internet
The internet has become a common medium among the choices available to the media planner. It must be evaluated for its contribution to the plan's goals, like any other medium.
What are the five trends that have recently affected Media Planning and Buying?
In November the Audit Bureau of Circulation (ABC) announce that Sunday circulation had dropped by another 0.4% over the past 6-months. Their measured total circulation for 630 newspapers was around 53 Million.
The NAA website shows total circ in 2001 for 913 papers to be about 59 million.
Are the 283 newspapers not covered in the ABC not audited?
Are they truly "paid" weekend papers?
How are these circs verified if not ABC?
What is the real, audited circulation of Sunday newspapers?
how much does direct mail cost?
There are three chief costs for direct mail:
The list cost, usually expressed as CPM, can range greatly, depending on how targeted it is. "Occupants" in a piece of geography are cheap, it's just existing addresses. Lists can get quite expensive, for example "buyers of diamonds over 2 carats living within a 3 mile radius of Chain X locations" might cost hundreds of dollars per thousand. Typically, lists are rented for one-time use. If you are sending to a list of your own customers, then there is no cost at this stage.
Production includes the creative work, buying the paper and printing. The size and quality are key variables, A simple post card in large quantities might average out to a few cents per thousand. Other, complex pieces could be $5 each.
Mailing covers applying the address, postage and physical delivery to the post office, also known collectively as "lettershop services". Weight is the big variable here. Companies like Infinite Media broker lists and provide lettershop services.
I am a client of both Adv. Agencies and a Media Central due to the alignment that our company has established.( a multinational home based in the USA ) I believe we are being either cheated or the service we receive locally are way below standard. Due to the international alignment I cann't change Agency or the Media Central. What would you suggest I do.
This is not a media issue, it's office politics. If you have reason to believe the service is bad or dishonest, make the case to your management.
What is the difference between GRP (Gross rating point) and TVR (Television Viewing rate)?
The Guru is not familiar with "television viewing rate." If you mean the measurement which shows that people watch X% of available hours, that is quite unlike the GRP measure which is a sum of the percents of people exposed to each commercial in a schedule, totalled.
Is there a rule of thumb for changing billboard copy on permanent bulletins?
A 2-3 month cycle is common.
What is mystery shopping
A mystery shopper is an anonymous person sent to a store or restaurant to test service, merchandise or observation od regulations, policies, or laws.
A 17 year old might be sent to a bar to try to get served or a convenience store try to buy cigarettes.
A hard to fit woman might explore the inventory or sales clerks helpfulness.
An impatient seeming man might see how far a waiter can be pushed without visible negative reaction. Or perfectly innocuous seeming people might just observe procedures and room conditions in a hotel.
Specialized research companies develop and analyze survey forms the mystrery shoppers use for their observations.
When not dealing with legal issues, the services are probably most used internally be companies checking on staff performance, or similarly to check competitors.
Where can I find information on Frequency and Reach of major Network stations
There seems to be some confusion about terms or metrics here. First, let's assume you are asking about network affiliate stations in major markets, such as New York's WNBC.
Then we could learn from Nielsen how many persons the staion reaches in a given period of time and the average frequency of exposure of these persons to the station.
But since frequency is a more useful measure of an advertsing schedule, the Guru expects that your question may have been something else.
My client has a high-ticket product item we are promoting. It is also a product for which people do not consider unless theirs breaks. Are there any sources that suggest which type of medium is best to advertise products of this nature?
Not enough information. Obviously, there are upscale vehicles to consider, but from your description. it might be a house, truck or refrigerator.
Why would I want to pursue a career in media planning?
Presumably because you find media interesting. If you don't know what media is all about, read all the questions and answers here. If you do know, then you have your answer.
What is the thinking behind the "retail strategy" airing TV only Wed-Saturday, other than shopping peaks on the weekend. Is there any media rationale to support it and can it apply to cable as well? Appreciate your thoughts..
This is the frequency theory as opposed to the recency theory. Some feel that there is added effectiveness in wall-to-wall presence, and for products moslty sold in the weekend shopping periods, it makes sense to concentrate on these days, if any. It's about consumer patterns not media, so it applies (or doesn't) equally to TV newspaper, radio or cable.
An interesting corollary phenomenon is that some media will offer discounts for Sunday-Tuesday schedules.
Where can I find A-Z information on co operative advertising programs?
Click here to see Guru comment on Co-op
How does our agency evaluate signage inside and outside an NFL stadium?
We have a client that advertises in a NFL stadium and would like us to provide an analysis of their sponsorship. - How many people are they reaching, what would be the costs to other sponsors versus what they paid, benefits of having all of the signage in and outside the stadium.
We are not getting much cooperation from the NFL stadium and we are have a hard time conducting this analysis.
As a rule, the Guru refuses to do business with any media vendor who will not provide audience estimates, so start by making the stadium understand that the decision for future business is in the agency's hands.
The Guru wouldn't expect them to reveal costs paid by other sponsors and your client shouldn't expect that information.
The value of owning all the signage is probably analogous to 'fully sponsored' magazine issues. It's an effort to appear more important on top of the judgement that sponsoring the stadium has a positive marketing effect, beyond name recognition. It goes beyond media issues.
I'm trying to get a good comparison of competitive advertising spending programs- specifically CMR, Nielsen, Voicetrak, and Competitrak. Do you know of any comparison that can help me make a decision for one or the other? Thank you-
Click here to see past Guru responses about competitive tracking.. Overall, you can get enough information to compare from the four resources' web sites.
Nielsen and CMR are the most similar, tracking across all media. Voicetrak specializes in local media and Competitrack, which began with financial advertising, still specializes in limited categories.
How can I optimize a media plan based on advertising
If your advertising response curve is assumed to be "S" shaped (as in many published studies), this means there are diminshing returns as frequency (repeated exposure) is added after an optimal point.
One approach to optimization on this basis might be to begin building reach in the most effective medium, and add the next most effective medium at the point of diminishing returns of the first. Then, the added exposures would be more likely to hit a previously unexposed group of prospects.
This assumes you will base your judgement of "most effective medium" on the one which generates the most results (sales / awareness / perception change, etc.) per dollar. . . and track incremental results on the same basis.
Does it make a difference for Recency Planning if the
research method used in the schedule evaluation
software is based on Diary or People Meter?
Guru says 'No.' Click here to see Guru discussion of Recency
I am in the travel industry and am trying to find out where I would target my services, cruises, to affluent seniors?
any idea, my goal would be to contact the sites, not work through an ad network
Start with AARP
I have a client who buys only newspaper price & item inserts 26 weeks per year. In an effort to grow his business, he wishes to invest in inserts 52 weeks per year. Beyond reach and frequency, how can I demonstrate to him that his money would be better spent in another medium?
Reach and frequency is the central argument. Other than that, propose short-term tests of alternate media.
Is thany research that shows the impact, audience recall and effectiveness of a series of 3 consecutive 1/3 pg ads versus the standard full page/spread? I've heard that Starch had done a study, but is there any info available that is free to the public?
One such study was conducted by Vitt Media International many years ago. If Starch doesn't have it, The Magazine Publishers' Association, Newsweek
Media Research Index and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. are other possibilities.
What are the key elements of a "situation analysis" and is there an online resource for this part of a media plan?
See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan
what is the "RAB Starch Slide Rule?" (I'm reviewing some newspaper research supplied by the RAB and can't get an anwer from RAB on this. Can you help
Try The Newspaper Advertising Association for newspaper data.
What source do you recommend for relative Strengths/Weaknesses per medium? (TV, Radio, Newsprint, Outdoor)
Q.1 In our country, T.V advertising prices have gone up and our CPRP too. What are the different alternatives I should look into to compensate the high price on T.V?
Q.2 Please tell me some media workshops where I can get training on Advance Media Planning & Research? (preferrably in Asia Pacific)
This TV pricing pattern is not unique to "your country." Without knowing which country is or what the pricing and availability of other media are, the Guru cannot do much with your question.
As a matter of policy, the Guru does not ever recommend specific media seminars.
for the recency planning we need to set a certain
Reach level per week. Are we going to use the same
week programs selected over the whole year or are we
going to have alternative programs each week with the
same Reach result??? The target Reach that we set for
the Recency planning is it by TV station or a mix of
TV stations??? are we going to use different TV
station each week??? Thank you...
Recency theorists would use 30 as a minimum base weekly reach. There is nothing specific about which schedule to use. It's about total schedule. It seems logical to extend cume reach by varying programming week-to-week. In this way your 30 weekly reach will grow to 90+ over time. Repeating the exact schedule every week will yeild a very low cume. The essential idea behind recency is that purchasers are in the market all the time, even though only a portion of the target is purchasers. With a w18-49 target, for example, you don't know what portion of your 30 reach overlaps the purchase prospect in any given week.
What are the pros & the cons of Recency Planning???
Click here to see past Guru discussion of recency.
I need to provide my management with a brief
discussion on how good quality information on
advertising response curve together with frequency
distribution data can be used to improve television
planning / optimization.Can you help me, please...
Journal of Advertising Research will have considerable material on the topic.
What's the definition of point of diminishing return and how it's applied?
This is not a purely media term. In general "point of diminishing returns" refers to the situation where additonal effort or spending begins to cause notable less results. A media example is the point where a reach curve "flattens." The first 10 GRP may generate 10% reach, the next 10 GRP adds 8 reach points. At 200 GRP, the next 10 adds less than 1 reach point. The curve below is illustrative, with the point of diminshing returns somewhere around 250 - 300 GRP
What services should I expect from a contract media buyer?
Basic services should be placing buys according to instructions, documenting buys, post analyzing buys and checking billing. Additonal services could include providing planning costs, full stewardship, and trafficking copy.
What source would you recommend for information regarding the decline of newspaper readership in the US over the the last 5 years?
Data on the The Newspaper Advertising Association site covers this.
I understand that % reach diminishes as the number of GRP increases, but over what time period is this based on? In other words, would there be a difference if a flight ran for a week with 500 GRP opposed to a month with 500 GRP.
This is better stated as "% reach increment decreases as GRPs increase."
The standard R&F calculation period is 4 weeks. In general, the same GRPs produce more reach in a shorter time, because of people's media use habits.
I am in search for software to creat an advertising database. Where you are able to add all information on the paticular magazine in which you are advertising (meaning, circulation, trim, bleed closing date, cost per issue how may times running, etc.) do you have any suggestions for me
What you describe can easily be done as a flat file database in a spreadsheet program, such as MS Excel.
Hi, I'm trying to find out advertising costs for both network and syndicated television shows. Is there any site where I can at least get an idea of these? I tried looking on AdAge but couldn't find any such information. Thanks!
I'm not sure if you deal with the adult industry, but I have a quick question. I'm trying to help promote a fetish site, but I don't know where to advertise. I'm not sure where people are going for this type of information. So far I have sites like search engines and avn.com, but are there any other that you recommend?
Advertise on other sex sites.
How do you determine the reach on TV and Radio schedules.
Click here to see past Guru responses about reach calculation.
Where can I find the number of ad pages ( annual) in
I am looking into what kind of internet ads (interactive media) would be most effective in tageting 22-29 year olds.
22-29 is not a reported demographic in most cases. Nor has the Guru seem tracking by ad type. Or do you mean what kind of web sites?
Can you please explain what the term "rotary bulletin" means?
"Bulletin" is the larger, 14'x48' billboard. "Rotary" refers to a way of buying these so that a set of locations is shared and your billboard rotates among them, changing every three months or so.
Please provide some suggestions regarding ways to advertise to radio planners and buyers aside from Ad Age and Mediaweek. Looking for some online suggestions. Thanks.
what is the most used media for the demographic 21-29?
21-29 is not a standard demographic.
There's a lot more to selecting media than the age of the target. Radio, TV, magazines and websites all have opportunities for a young target.
How can I get my foot in the door with an advertising firm when I have less than two years previous experience and no connections to the industry. I do have a a recent college degree and experience in advertising, marketing, and management, but none of the companies want entry level employee's. The future of the company is the youth with fresh and innovative concepts, but it seems we are overlooked at times??
With some experience you're not entry level, just keep trying. Fish where the fish are: New York, Chicago, Los Angeles, etc.
Can you give me the name of research software that provides reach and frequency for tv broadcast, cable tv, and for a mix of media (tv schedule plus newspaper or magainzes)?
AMICs' sister company, Telmar is the leader in such software.
I am a Media Planner in India and currently trying to assess the potential of the news channel business in India since there are 3 seperate news channel launching in the space of 3 months even though we already have 7 new channels in the country - inclusive of CNBC,CNN,Star News. The current percentage of advertising spend from news channels to total tv advertising spend is around 5% of 1.7 bn USD. What I would like to know is
1)What is the relevant ratio for the US/Europe/Asia
2)By any parameters known to you is the current ratio too high or too low - pls comment
The Guru doesn't quite see
In the US, where three major cable news channels compete with news on broadcast networks as well as hundreds of local broadcast stations there is one situation which might have no bearing on what makes sense in Europe or India. The share of audience of the all-news cable networks rises when we go through "interesting times" such as wars, elections, etc and ad share will shift a bit.
There is likley to be some trade media reportage of this share in publications such as Ad Age.
I have to get estimated TV CPP's for the top 5 markets in Texas. We don't have a buying company that provides us with costs. How do I go about finding the stations and obtaining costs? thanks for your help.
Do you have any information on assistant media planning training programs?
The Guru never recommends media seminars or "schools." The best training is on-the-job.
How do you plan or determine the CPP for A35+ when SQAD does not include this demo in their book for TV or radio?
Simple algebra will do. For example, assume you do have CPP for A18+ as $100 and for A18-34 as $125.
Recognize that in the real world, different spots might be purchased for these two demos, but we must assume we are dealing with overall averages.
So, the average spot in the mix that produced the two given CPP has a specific cost, let's say it's $500 (you can make up any number here). The CPP for A18+ is $100, so this average spot's rating was 5.0
($500 ÷ $100 CPP = 5.0 Rating.)
The A18-34 rating must be 4.0
($500 ÷ $125CPP = 4.0 rating).
You would also have the market's populations for all three demographics. Let's assume A18+ is 1,000,0000, A18-34 is 700,000 and A35+ is the difference, or 300,000
The spot's A18+ rating of 5.0 means there were 50,000 A18+ viewers (5 rating X 1,000,000 persons 18+). The spot's A18-34 rating of 4.0 means there were 28,000 A18-34 viewers (4 rating x 700,000 universe = 28,000). Therefore, there are 22,000 A35+ viewers (50,000 A18+ viewers minus 28,000 A18-34 viewers leaves 22,000 A35+ viewers).
So A35+ rating = 22,000 viewers ÷ 300,000 universe or 7.3. Therefore A35+ cpp is $500 ÷ 7.3 or $68.49.
If you're doing several dayparts or markets, plugging the basic facts and formulas into a spreadsheet will make it all easy.
What are the demographics of TV HH? (i.e.education, homeownership, number of cars driven, income, etc.) Do you also know the demos for Cable TV HH?
TV HH are 99% of everyone, so their demographics are virtually identical to the US as a whole. Cable, including satellite and other "alternate delivery systems" are about 81% so, they are not too different, but they are upscale.
Consult the Census Bureau for U.S. demographics.
Nielsen will have cable home demographics.
How can I use this site in my media planning?
Look around the site for useful data. Use the Guru for real questions. Tell the Guru the name of whatever teacher seems to assign this question each year.
Hi Media Guru, Thank you for the last response to my question about BDI/CDI and SOV. I understand that obtaining BDI for a paticular Brand is difficult.But is there another way to find a CDI for the Brand (e.g. retail, technology,etc.) online? Also...If these numbers cannot be obtain what is the next logical step to gather up information equivlent to these numbers. Thank you again for your help.
Brands don't have CDIs, categories do. Of the two numbers in the calculation, one, the population is always available from the Census Bureau and others. The other, category sales by market, may be in the Consumer Expenditure Survey of the Bureau of Labor Statistics. Some products, particularly those sold through food and drug outlets or other scanner based stores are tracked by companies like Nielsen, but are slod for a price, and possibly only to manufacturers in the business.
Media Guru, How do I find the BDI/CDI and SOV for the retail industry. Specifically NIKE.
"Retail" usually means stores, so Footlocker is retail, Nike isn't.
BDI is calculated by comparing sales to population, e.g. if 15% of Nike revenues are generated in the NY DMA and NY DMA has 10% of the population, BDI is 150.
CDI is similar, but based on category, rather than individual brand.
The Guru doubts that these sales data are public.
SOV is Share of Voice, meaning the portion of category advertising dollars spent by the particular advertiser.
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) is the data source you need for this.
I need to find out the estimated ad rates for specific television shows (such as Everybody Loves Raymond, CSI, and others)for my class. Where can I find this information?
Rates for these programs vary a lot depending on how they are purchase. A giant advertiser buying $200 million worth of a network's time for 50 brands for the entire season might pay less than half as much as a small company buying for one brand for one quarter. The trade media, like Ad Age genrally report some averages.
Hi guru, could you please tell me how to calculate "media inflation" and what factors will affect "media inflation"?
Media inflation is not a standard term. Generally it should mean the rate of increase in media costs, probably best expressed as the year-on-year change in efficiency, i.e. CPP or CPM.
Based on this, the factors are change in media unit cost and change in media unit average audience.
How do you explain national public radio. I have never planned or purchased radio before. Please explain. thanks
NPR is public service radio, comparable to PBS in TV. Content is arts, news and public affairs. Like PBS, it does not carry ordinary advertising.
According to NPR's website :
"NPR sponsors receive on-air acknowledgement for their financial support via ten second announcements that are broadcast during NPR programs."
I'm planning now (November) for a Q2 '03 radio multi-market buy. Can you give me an idea of what Arbitron books I should be looking at? Most recent? (in some cases, the most recent is Summer) Or is it better to go with the Spring '02 book, since I will be buying for Spring? Thanks for your help!
Radio usage has very little seasonality, despite common belief to the contrary (click here to see past Guru comment about radio's non-seasonality.).
Radio share trends do respond to programming and personality changes. Generally, the Guru uses the latest available book or two books.
Dear Guru, is there any ENGLISH website where I can get information about Japanese NP & MG readership/rates/contact details. Thanks
Your answers are usually very brief but "right on the money". This time my request is for a longer and detailed answer if it is possible.
I've been requested to evaluate two media buying & planning agencies, and help decide witch is the better one.
Please sudgest the proper way to this. What are the paramaters to check (price, tools, experience etc.)? what weight to give the different parameters? and any other input you might have.
It is important for me to do this properly and succeed in doing so.
Selecting a planning agency is different from selecting a buying service.
First, you must decide what are the most important factors for you. The Guru can't tell you what they are but here is list of suggested concerns.
In either case expect that they have some basic questions they ask to begin a plan or a buy, and a review process - find out how they do it.
You need to decide what is most important. If you have a small staff to oversee their work, you will probably emphasize chemistry and how smoothly it seems you will work together. If you need lowest cost or plans keyed to efficiency, then you will weight that more.
One approach is to find a consultant to control the review for you and later on to oversee the work of these firms on your behalf.
I wanted to find out if there is a resource that I can look up and find past advertising patterns for Oral-B. I want to be able to find out where they have advertised in the past and see copies of their creative.
Thanks in advance for your help.
I need a definition of the word media which can be used in a legal contract. Can you help?
The Guru does not give legal advice, but he would define media as any sign, publication or electronic communication which carries, displays or includes an advertising message.
Can you please tell me approximately what the Adult 18-49 CPP for the market of Bellingham, Washington is?
Are there any established or compiled norms for ad recall, especially proven ad recall?
Click here to see past Guru responses about rating points.
1.how do you measure the effectiveness of sponsorship?
2.is sponsorship more effective than other types of media
You must begin by deciding what kind of effectiveness you want: sales, public opinion, image, awareness?
For some of these, e.g. public opinion, image, sponsorship may be more effective. Sponsorship is about depth of communication and its impact, media is about breadth of communication. Media gets reach and freqeuncy, sponsorship engages the hearts of those who care about what you sponsor, and will cost you in reach and frequency terms.
online ad rates
I seem to recall that there's a way of asking for spot TV avails over the Internet, instead of having to call multiple stations or reps. Does it still exist?
There was a page within AMIC called "MediaQuote" with links to several online avails systems. They seem to have died off.
They were essentiall dealers in remnant time, and didn't cover the full scope of what mught be bought.
Is there an online directory where you can select the mediatype (for example: magazines, newspapers and websites) and subject (for example: financial media) and get an overview of all media? I don't mind paying for such a service.
The Guru thinks not. In any such listing, merely naming the relevant ones is a big undertaking, giving an overview includinge audience data, pricing, editorial mission, etc as well is daunting. Try MRI+'s magazine data for a taste of how voluminous even just doing this partially for consumer magazines can be.
Major work means not for free, usually.
What do you think? Which is better to ad in a paid for newspaper or a Metro (free one ) and why? Are those how bay their paper better readers than those free one's?
Paid is generally considered better. The reader has made some small commitment at least to the vehicle. Free papers are throw-away papers.
Our company works with separate media agencies for planning and buying. The method of evaluating TV plans is different by both - one follows 50% prog reach while the other follows spot reach within a commercial break, resulting in huge variance in GRPS for the same plan. Can you tell me what is the best method to do this?
Perhaps your ratings service measure differently than in the U.S. Spot reach seems perfectly reasonable, and directly applicable to the schedule. The Guru isn't sure what you mean by '50%' of program reach. In U.S. ratings, program ratings are an average of audience through the program and not far different than the rating of any spot aired within.
I'm taking a Marketing class in University of Nevada, Reno and working on a marketing project.
I came up with the idea that I would sell the products, which include all the ingredient, seasoning and the recipe to cook. I want to follow the menu of Food netowrk TV program such as From Martha's Kitchen. If I make a contract with them and advertise my products in the end of program or on the web, how much does it cost? Or what percentage of sales goes to the program?
I need information.
I'm waiting for your reply. Sincerely
Contact them directly. They may or may not offer such arrangements.
I'm looking for a list of the top 10-20 companies/agencies/organizations that focus on retention and where they are located.
It isn't clear whether you mean customer retention or awareness retention, two quite different concepts. The Guru does not know of any such listings, but this isn't really a media question.
Please tell me the methodology for TV planning cost setup.The information please includes:
- what are some of elements considered when working out planning cost?
- how are the above elements factored into the calculation?
- The methodology you developed to arrive at a realistic planning cost (eg. mathematical formula, wighting factors,etc)
-anything else that can help and I missed
Planning costs are essentially most recent costs factored for anticipated increases (or decreases). It's a matter of looking at the economy and the media marketplace, more art than science.
I'm working on a class project inolving Nielson Ratings. www.zap2it.com has general ratings information for TV shows, but I need to find a site with specific information on the viewing habits of the 18-34 age bracket and others. Can you help me out? Thanks!
Nielsen makes their money by selliung this information. Don't expect to find much of it for free on anyone else's web site. Nielsen contracts forbid republishing these detailed daya.
How much does it cost to run an ad on Nickelodeon during the daytime and during primetime?
Call them and ask.
How can you calculate GRPs for magazines and billboards?
It depends on what information you are starting with. If you have impressions, then impressions ÷ universe is the answer. In magazines, impressions are an accumulation of average issue audience. In billboards, it's the accumulation of daily effective circulation (D.E.C.).
can you tell me the advantages of a full service agency ,a client is thinking of leaving us for a seperate agency??
Click here to see past Guru responses about "full service" agencies.
Where can I find case studies and/or info on successful "Grand Opening" promotions?
Media Director with a mid-sized agency that frequently
competes with "the big dogs" wants opinion on pitching
new business on "lower rates" ("We can negotiate 20%
off rate card," "We have buying power," etc). Is this
a losing argument given our smaller size and today's
marketplace (media consolidation, etc.)? What would be
a strong alternative pitch?
Buying simply by dollar clout is trumped by smarter buying: i.e. the right media for the right price.
I know there are two research sources for generating information on business technology influencers and purchasers - Intelliquest and Simmons Compro. What are the similarities and differences between these studies? Is one considered a better source than another? While I do need general information I specifically want magazine readership information - is one tailored to this vs. the other?
What is the role of advertising on media?
This question is in the "how high is up?" category. You need to ask a more specific question or you get an oversimplified answer like "Communication."
When communicating a branding message, what are the major benefits of using exterior bus advertising (mobile media) rather than bulletins and posters (stationary media)if both cover the geography relatively the same?
The Guru does not see any inherent advantage to one or the other if coverage is the same. But you may have issues other than coverage. Does the target ride buses or walk where the busses run? Or do they drive where the posters are.
Dear Guru, I am interested in the perfect values of the following media parameters for one TV campaign of beer product (May be there is some standards):
1. Number of flights per year
2. TRP’ s per week
3. TRP’ s per campaign
4. OTS per campaign
5. Reach 1+, 3+, 5+ per campaign
I am interested which are the effective frequency and the effective reach.
Thank you very much for your answers.
There are no perfect answers. Within whatever budget you have, you must consider what is possible. If you can afford 5,200 GRP per year, is it better to have 100 GRP per week every week or 146 GRP for 9 four week flights?
Part of the answer depends on how you set the effective frequency goal. Perhaps seasonality tells you you need the 150 in the summer but only the 100 the rest of the year. What level do the competitors run? What is your brand awareness? What are your awareness goals, sales goals, share goals?
In short, budget, and many circumstances need to be considered rather than any quest for abstractly 'perfect' answers
im a student at BCCC, and we reciently made up a media team where i am the media planner. our product is an exam given to employees to test their efficiency at work. as a staffing-tool, im finding it difficult to come up with a solid media medium? what do you suggest to help me out of this jam?
You should have begin by figuring out your target, who is likely to be human resources managers or top level company managers.
Try the magazines Human Resources, Human Resource Executive, Training, eLearning and their web sites. Also the leading business magazines, such as Forbes, Fortune, Business Week, and Wall Street Journal
What is the best website to find information on the target of 18-24 yrs old?
The Guru does not know of any particular website dedicated to the 18-24 demographic. For population demographics, go to U.S. Census. Otherwise, the Guru would answer according to the data you need.
I am looking into print media buying. When placing an ad What is the percentage of people who look at the ad? Of those what is the percentage that will be interested? Of that what percent will take an action? And how many actually buy? I know there is not an exact percentage but I would like to know the average or "working number" of these questions.
How is it that I would get a lower net reach in TV when targeting a specific CPP than if I target against affinity? I am trying to determine the best benchmark for buying against A18-49 in a country with a TV monopoly - no real channel selection, some programm choices for younger audiences. I am insisting on affinity, my agency maintains that when targeting CPP, the net reach is higher for this target. I understand that affinity targeting may increase my CPP but how is it that they feel by buying on CPP I will optimise net reach AND get the cheapest CPP (?) - with the warning that, yeah, you will get the Grandmas too, but hey, they watch everything, can't help that. Are they kidding me, or what?
The Guru is not sure what you mean by "affinity: in this case, but let us assume that you mean product users, such as ice cream eaters.
A given program has a given audience, no matter how you identify your buying target.
Suppose a program reaches 10,000 people among whom are 5,000 A18-49 and 4,000 ice cream eaters. And let us suppose that the universe od persons 18-49 is 100,000 persons, while the universe of ice cream eaters is also 100,000 persons.
A spot in this program costs $100.
The program has a rating of 5 against A 18-49 and a rating of 4 against ice cream eaters, right. So the same program has a cpp of $20 ($100 ÷ 5 rating) for A 18-49 and a cpp of $25 for ice cream eaters. So there is an apparent efficiency advantage when you look at it that way, even though you get the same people for the $100. And an apparently better net reach A18-49.
The Guru believes in the long run if the affinity group is the target, you are better off buying the group and not a statistical abstraction of the group.
I am wondering what "Average Pages Exposed" means and how it is measured. I recently heard that it is one of the terms measured by MRI. Please let me know. Thank you.
A reader of a magazine may not open (be exposed to) every page of a magazine, so the average number of pages exposed can be an important factor in judging communication.
I need to know the terminologies used by the media planner in an adertising company?
See Media Terms.
I have household ratings from tvb.org for primetime broadcast and cable. I also have cost per point for each of my markets for tv (and radio) from current SRDS books. What other information am I missing to calculate how much a spot will cost?
A spot's cost is its cost per point (cpp) multipied by its rating. If the average spot has a rating of 10 and the average cost per point is $50, the the average spot costs $500.
What is the reach and frequency of Cosmopolitan Magazine?
According to MRI, an average issue of Cosmopolitan reaches 17,110,000 adult women. Frequency is an aspect of a schedule, not of a specific magazine.
Does the guru have any experience with the effective use of :10 IDs in syndicated programming? In general would it make sense for a limited budgeted advertiser to place 100% of his budget into this media form in order to maximize efficiencies?
:10s should cost about half of thirties, so the gain in reach and frequency is big. But the key question is whether you can tell the story in a :10. 100 bad commercials aren't worth as much as 50 good ones.
Creative has produced beautiful spots, beautiful footabe, music and no audio i.d. of client. How does this affect retention? If you are not watching closely when client logo comes on screen, you don't know who the sponsor is. Help!
The Guru thinks you have identified a real problem. Copy testing is cheaper than wasting media budget.
I am currently in the process of planning for a hotel who's sub target is meeting planners. I'm coming across many sites that send e-mails to these professionals, which is what I'm looking for; however, I'm having a hard time determining who's reputable and who's not. Have you received any feedback on any meeting planners sites from other members? Any insight will help.
No feedback on this, but the Guru frowns on SPAM and doesn't believe so called opt-in lists are to be trusted.
dear guru, i thank you for your help.
what that word "BARTER " means on the radio bussines
Literally the exchange of goods for air time. It's a bit more complicated than that. Click here to see past Guru responses about barter.
A brand leaves the market for 2 or 3 years. In its absence the market is flown over by me-too's (similar product but unbranded, lower in quality and cheaper). Now the brand wants back in. I am afraid the brand's media activity will benefit the me-too's more thaò the brand itself. What would you recommendation be?
The issue is creative, not media. The right message will distinguish the branded product without helping the me-too's, as long as there is a real difference.
Dear Guru, may be in many countries the CPP deals are the norm, but in my country we do not have enough experience in the negotiation process of CPP deals with the TV channels. For first time in 2002 we have the real opportunity to negotiate CPP deals with some of the TV channels. So, I would appreciate very much if you can give us more detailed information about the steps of doing CPP deal. How we can negotiate a good deal with the channels? What kind of criterion should be followed?
CPP = advertising cost ÷ rating
Set a goal cpp you want to achieve based on evaluation of pmarket ratings and your budget.
You control the deal if you are prepared to walk away from an offer that doesn't fit your needs.
Is there any advantage in GRP backloading within a Tv flight?
There may be some measurable effects, but not that the Guru would broadly characterize as advantages. One theory says that holding back the weight until most of the target has had three exposures, is beneficial. The Guru is not convinced that this is truly advantageous, over time.
I am trying to put together an Outdoor plan for Miami and having trouble finding Wall Scapes & alternative OOH media. Already looked in the SRDS, do you know of any other sources or companies? Or do restrictions prohibit OOH Walls in Miami. Thank you!
Can you recommend any sites to reach Females 18-49 that suffer from allergies? Or a resource that could help direct me? Thanks
Sources that measure large numbers of websites don't include information about maladies. If the Guru were trying to approximate, he would cross tab MRI or Simmons findings on Female 18-49 users of allergy medications with website audiences. However, the mentioned sources do not go very deeply into the site-specific web arena.
At any rate, you are probably more likely to find better prospects by placing ads on the allergy-related areas of Web MD and similar sites or buying key words at search engines.
Is there an industry average/standard for % gross duplication between consumer magazines? thanks so much.
No. If an average were calculated, the variation among possible pairs would make an average meaningless.
The duplication between two unrelated, small books could be 2% and between two large books in the same arena, 50%.
If I have two new executions due to go on air, each with same message just different in creative, is it preferable to launch both executions in the same day/week or to commence with one execution and then introduce the next. The campaign period is 5 weeks.
It depends on what effects matter to you. The Guru does not expect that the consumer effects at the end of the 5 weeks will be measurably different.
Dear Guru, what kind of media analysis should be done in order to be developed a good media strategy?
See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan, strategy section for the points that should be covered in the media analysis.
Dear Guru, do you have a case studies about the mechanism of doing cpp deals with TV channels?
CPP deals are the norm, what would a case study show?
How do I find average radio spot rates in the top 10 markets without having to call on individual station reps?
I am launching a new polish language 24 hrs ethnic channel in USA, Which pricing method for the airtime ratecard would be the most appriopriate (assuming that such a channel of 50-100.000 subscribers would not be "visible" in any audience measurement panel?). What level of CPM is used when pricing ethnic communities??
Generally, ethnic broadcast cpms are a bit lower than general market cpms for the same media type, using Hispanic as model. This holds true even in cases where Spanish language stations are tops in their time periods, which sometimes occurs in LA, NY and Miami.
You will need to begin prices based on covering your costs.
If, as you say, you will not have any audience measurements, discussion of cpm is irrelevant, anyway. With 100,000 subscribers, it will not be uncommon to have only 1000 viewing most of the time. If $20 cpm is what others get, that means $20 is a high price for you spots on a cpm basis. Your best pricing model might be the International Channel.
I am an advertising major at Penn State University. I would like to know what my options will be once I have received a degree? (What possible jobs I could get within the field)
Seems late in the game to think about this question. Advertising agency jobs generally fall into three areas: Media, Account services, and creative. Media is the one adressed by the Guru. Entry level buying and planning positions exist, though the economy is not creating a lot of these currently.
Dear Guru, is there a website where I can select or view all international media and websites. For example, I am looking for all media regarding to daytrading and investments. I need a overview and e-mailadresses. Please help me out.
The Guru doesn't think such a single source exisits. Judicious use of a good search engine, like Google, is the best approach.
What are the best optimizer in the international market?
Naturally, the Guru first considers Telmar's own IMC Suite.
Can you provide a concise definition for “non-metro”?
The U.S. Census Bureau defines 200+ metro areas, in terms of specific counties. These are, loosely speaking, major cities and surrounding areas. Those counties not included in these metros are “non-metro.” A DMA may have more than one metro within it, and some non-metro counties as well.
The Census Bureau’s detailed definition says, in part
Standard definitions of metropolitan areas were first issued in 1949 by the then Bureau of the Budget (predecessor of OMB), under the designation “standard metropolitan area” (SMA). The term was changed to “standard metropolitan statistical area” (SMSA) in 1959, and to “metropolitan statistical area” (MSA) in 1983. The collective term “metropolitan area” (MA) became effective in 1990. MAs include metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs), consolidated metropolitan statistical areas (CMSAs), and primary metropolitan statistical areas (PMSAs).
OMB has been responsible for the official metropolitan areas since they were first defined, except for the period 1977 to 1981, when they were the responsibility of the Office of Federal Statistical Policy and Standards, Department of Commerce. The standards for defining metropolitan areas were modified in 1958, 1971, 1975, 1980, and 1990. OMB announced the adoption of new Standards for Defining Metropolitan and Micropolitan Statistical Areas in the December 27, 2000 Federal Register. OMB will apply the new standards with Census 2000 data and will announce definitions based on these standards in 2003.
Defining MSAs, CMSAs, and PMSAs
The 1990 standards provide that each newly qualifying MSA must include at least:
one city with 50,000 or more inhabitants, or
a Census Bureau-defined urbanized area (of at least 50,000 inhabitants) and a total metropolitan population of at least 100,000 (75,000 in New England).
Under the standards, the county (or counties) that contains the largest city becomes the “central county” (counties), along with any adjacent counties that have at least 50 percent of their population in the urbanized area surrounding the largest city. Additional “outlying counties” are included in the MSA if they meet specified requirements of commuting to the central counties and other selected requirements of metropolitan character (such as population density and percent urban). In New England, the MSAs are defined in terms of cities and towns rather than counties.
Has anyone come across any research on
reach R(1+,2+,...n+) and Brand Awareness.
Idea is to understand whether there are some
coefficients, that would allow to forecast
Brand Awareness given a R(1+)
I have a client that is trying to determine the value of some editorial coverage they received on some of the national networks. I see that CPM's are available on the website. As our agency does not purchase any national TV, we have no access to audience figures. Is there a place that I can go to find this information. Thank you.
Companies that produce audience measurement are in the business of selling their results. Only very limited data is available for publicity purposes, i.e. publication by the trade media.
One such source is Radio Online
Considering the amount of versions found on the interpretation that Rating. I want that please you help to clarify me having the concept of rating considering that the form of I calculate is expressed taking the total of minutes seen by target versus the probability of the total of minutes during a time period.
Of this form the rating would be a % of time dedicated by a group I specify in the time certain period?
As used by the Guru, rating is the audience of a single event (program or commerical) compared to the population universe for the defined demographic. Thus, if 1000 people 18-49 see a one-minute commercial and the defined market has 100,000 population of persons 18-49, the rating is 1.0.
In your example, if persons watch 30 minutes of a 30 minute program, the rating is apparently 100, though your use of the word "probability" is puzzling.
In the Guru's example, the "probability" of a target person seeing a minute of the program is 1%. In your example, you appear to be addressing a totlaly different concept.
We are a company that specializes in large scale video
displays, with our focus on the indoor/outdoor
LED screen market. We currently provide our services
for events and trade shows. We are developing
advertising solutions for companies utilizing this
LED Screen Technology. What kind of formula should we
use to sell airtime? i.e 30-second spot an hour for
seven days between the event hours....say 9am-8pm. There are ten sponsors of this event. The event will
draw approximately 50,000 people over the seven days.
Any help would be greatly appreciated.
Start with outdoor as a model. An average cpm might be $5.00. Perhaps that could double if you have full sound with animation. Perhaps it could double again if the event audience is highly desirable to the advertiser. That would make the price $1000 over the course of the event. Can you also charge for frequency, i.e. once per hour? Remember we just based the audience on the whole event. The audience of a show open 36 hours over three days will average perhaps 2-3000 at a time. Can they all see every commercial? Think about how long each visitor stays and how often they would pay attention to the commercial. An average frequency of two seems generous.
Dear MG, Somebody recently told me that a large buying company can buy national Network TV space and split it up among their clients according to their regional needs. Is this true? I thought that national network was efficient because it was one feed without copy changes. Thanks
Obviously, there need to be separate feeds to deal with time zones. There would be some integration charge for the regional insertion.
Hello Media Guru,
In conjunction with research I'm doing for my Strategic Marketing MBA class, I have a question regarding major mass media (TV, print, and outdoor media). Each have different value aspects of communication...where would you suggest I search to identify these special characteristics for each of these mass media options? I did see your Media Strengths page and that also helps...any advise is appreciated.
Take a look at the material in AMIC's Ad Data area
Can you suggest any sources of beer advertising case studies?
try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
What are the most comprehensive and trustworthy compiled email name sources? I'm looking for a few good consumer and BTB files.
By 'trustworthy' the Guru presumes you mean valid, opt-in addresses so that you wouldn't be sending spam.
The Guru does not support spam.
When anyone collects email adresses to be re-used for unsolicited marketing in a way that defaults the user to accepting such mails rather than requiring a positive click-action, this is not opt-in; SPAM is the result.
The Guru does not believe that there are any legitimate, trustworthy opt-in lists other than those compiled for internal use among companies' own customers. These are not likely to be available to competitors. All else is spam.
Who are the top list owners, or owners of Opt-In email addresses that can publish my companies creatives, i've been burned by third parties to much? Can you help me?
The Guru does not support SPAM. The Guru does not trust any "Opt-in" lists to be genuine opt-in.
How can I calculate reach & frecuency?
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.
The calculation is extremely complex. In print, for example, as input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
is there a formula for figuring out what the % of advertising dollars should be compared to projected sales?
There are too many factors: category markup, competition, product life cyle, etc, etc.
I have a question regarding county designations. What determines if a county is considered an A,B,C, or D county? Also, is there a source where I can retreive a list of counties, with their designation? Thanks in advance for your help.
As defined by Nielsen, "A" counties are the counties of the 21 largest metro areas. "B" counties are all those belonging to metro areas that contain at least 85,000 households and are not within "A". "C" counties are all those over 20,000 households or belonging to Metros with over 20,000 households which are not included in A or B. "D" is all remaining counties.
Based on these definitions, it is easy to assemble a listing from the U.S. Census' site
Or, of course, get it from Nielsen
What is the highest viewing TV night (network and spot)
It used to be Thursday, but that seemd to be because it was the first day of a ratings diary cycle. It seems like useless trivia anyway. How could the answer be different for network and spot, as the question is phrased?
Any sources you would recommend for opt-in type e-mail address lists targeting insurance marketing and related folks? Waht about the same for inventors? (I know, that's TWO questions.) Thanks! -Don.
The Guru does not believe that there are any legitimate opt-in lists other than those compiled for internal use among companies' own customers. These are not likely to be available to competitors. All else is spam. The Guru does not support spam.
I have been given a client's previous cable buy to critique. Given that cable is a frequency medium, I feel the client has spread himself over too many networks with too few spots. I want to prove this to him beyond saying 'because I said so'. We are going to pull a R&F report but I also wondered, is there any research to indicate a minimum frequency for cable networks? I was wondering about the turnover rate for radio. Does something similar exist for cable?
Turnover is simply the ratio of weekly cume to average quarter hour audience. This could be computed for cable, but it's simply a short cut indicator for buying towards reach.
Why is cable a frequency medium? Because you said so? Granted cable, because of its smaller ratings, develops more frequency than reach in relation to prime time network. But another, perhaps more important use of cable is to reach niche audiences that are drawn to the specific programming of certain channles.
First be sure you understand the planning goals. Is cable there to add frequncy or to reach the target is a specific environment? If you think purely as a buyer, you may miss the point of a plan. Perhaps the previous buyer was given goals other than frequency; you need to critique in terms of goals. The R&F report you get may be too high or too low. What are the goals?
Can you tell me where I can find research/articles on the pros and cons of advertorials (if they work or don't work for advertisers)?
Start with The Magazine Publishers' Association
do you know of any special interest publications focusing on ecotourism-or do you think online is the best way to promote this
A title search at PubList returns two publications with 'Ecotourism' in their title. Advanced search might find other onm the topic.
what it the definition for grp
Click here to see past Guru responses defining GRP
Dear Media Guru,
1) We represent a home services marketer that has a budget of $700,000 per year ($55K/month) and the goal is to raise BRAND AWARENESS in the US and Canada. What media would you recommend to obtain the greatest impact on a national level with this budget? The target is upscale working women 35-64, Household income $100,000+.
2) How do we go about securing partners for co-branding ... is there an agency that specializes in this, or a directory you know of?
3) Where can I find someone to help get this service placed in a tv show or movie?
4) What do you know about advertising in hotels, in their electronic on-screen check-out process?
5) Any other non-traditional avenues I might look in to? Thank you very much.
I've been asked to find out budget estimates for launching a nationwide print, television, and radio campaign for a hypothetical campaign for a new Toyota car. Do you have any budget estimates for a nationwide car campaign? Or do you know where else I should check?
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) for budgets of past launches.
wich media generates awareness?
All media generate awareness. The copy and schedule play enormous roles in resulting awareness.
mr. guru i am taking a class on advertising and i have to do research on a media planner...i have a coulple of
questions i would love for you to answer for my research.
a. what are some of the resposibilities and duties of a media planner.
b. requirement you must meet to be employed in the chosen job (education, portfolio, etc.?)
c. what is the salary range for this job?
d. are jobs available? employment opportunites.
e. level of difficulty in performing you job duties.
if you could answer all or some of these questions would help me in my paper..you could e-mail me at email@example.com with the answers or i will check the website for answers
Click here to see past Guru responses about the planner's role .
Click here to see past Guru responses about qualifications for a planner.
Jobs are available. Difficulty is in relation to your ability.
Incremental Revenue - a SVP at DDB used this term with me stating "Right now we do not have any incremental
funds available to participate". What does it mean?
The Guru presumes this was said in a context of you trying to sell the SVP something, perhaps on top of something you had already sold. It means "there's no more in the budget."
Do you have any case studies on the impact to sales for a first time television user?
Our client uses TV, newspapers, direct mail and the yellow pages and measures each response (via an 800 number)separately for each medium. We have told them that all media is integrated and he can't look at individual responses and measure cost per response for each medium - that an integrated multi-media plan actually delivers better results and that you cann't look at individual medium cost-per-responses. Can you help substantiate this?
Obviously, previously established awareness of a brand makes it much more liklet that its Yellow Pages ad will be the one that gets a response. Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
We need interesting theme for seminar for advertising agensies and radio staitions. Help please
Without knowing what you are presenting about the question is meaningless. Generally, value and effectiveness are good themes.
I work for a radio station. I was wondering what would be a good website to see statistics why radio is better than T.V.
What do you think the broad media implications would be for a brand that has a modest budget (say $5 million to $10 million) that decides to use a very large media buying service after having been at a typical agency (planning would stay with ad agency)? Will this smaller brand get lost in the crowd? Will the $$ savings really be that significant that it's worth the change? What about all the close attention a smaller brand like this gets at a small agency?
The differences will depend on several factors. Is the media service so much larger than the agency? Are the media service's accounts individually larger, on average than the agency's?
The Guru believes that media services generally buy better than agency buyers, with more attention to price or whatever other specific issues are identified. It's all that the media services are judged by, and gets relatively little attention in agencies. NOte that the Guru's comments about media services refer to the stand-alone media services and not necessarily to the a la carte departments formed by the multinational agency conglomerates.
Several of my AEs INSIST that there is a way to combine different media R/F over different time periods. Can you help me with what to tell them... why it won't work, how it would skew the numbers, etc... so I don't have to fight this fight every few weeks?
There is a way, mathematically at least. Conceptually, one medium reaches a certain group of people and the other reaches the audience which it reaches. There will be some duplication between these two groups of people reached. Broadly, the difference in time won't cause a major difference in the mathematical results.
The problem is that when planning combined media, we look for cumulative effect on consumer perception. Obviously, it's different when the consumer sees TV alone in February and magazines alone in April, rather than beinbg exposed to both over the same period. The difference is not in reach so much as impact. Perhaps it is important to keep the standard labels on your numbers, i.e. "Average 3 week reach," and "average 4 week frequency." When they don't occur together, the labels need to reflect that fact.
Where can I find a supplier that does FSI drops in Ohio, Indiana, &/or Illinois?
Which cities in the U.S. have highest internet shopping?
This Scarborough release is probably the best source.The 2000 data is probably the latest publicly available across all 64 measured markets, but more recent data will be available in some.
what are the advantages/disadvantages of using radio vs tv by quarter. I know 1st quarter is a good time to be on tv because of lower unit
rates and high ratings and 4th q has the highest rates and highest
ratings-what about the other quarters? radio in 1st quarter-low rates,
ratings? the other quarters?
Rates, i.e. cost per unit, relate to demand, which is typically lower in first quarter, especially early in Q1. Some speculate that this is because calendar year planning runs late. In any case, rating fluctaute independently of demand, with Q1 typically highest. Radio is not really seasonal in audience, overall, while individual station shares are can vary due to various factors. See Arbitron's 'Radio Today' 2001
Dear Media Guru:
I have read in some of your previous responses that the rule-of-thumb wear-out level for a typical 30" TV copy is about 2000 GRPs. What would the wearout level be for a 15" copy, about 1500 GRPs (75% of the 30")? And what about a 5" copy? Thank you. R.
The 2000 GRP level related to quintiles of frequency of exposure, therefore the copy length chage does not inherently call for a change. Is there a reason to think the :15 wears out faster than the :30? 75% is an impact or recall ratio. If rcall were less, wear out might be, too.
Concerning the Australian Advertising Industry, could you please tell me about it's History, Economics and Legislation?????? Please. I am a student and can;t fine this information anywhere. Thanks..
I am seeking a source that can provide projected CPM's for various media for 2003. Thank you for your help.
I know that there are many factors to consider (copy, the offer etc), but is there any way to figure out a repsonse rate for direct response in radio. I remember that you had answered someones question regarding % of GIMP for DR TV. I think it was .02% of GIMP for TV. Could radio be half as much? About the same? Just looking for a shot in the dark. Thanks again.
The Guru's prior response was generic to DR.
Dear Media Guru:
I am launching a brand. I have a 30" TV copy and a 15" version of it. I am planning 2 flights with a break of a couple of weeks between them. What mixig options are used in such cases: a) use only 30" copy in the first flight and 15" in the second, or b) do both flights similarly - 30" in the first half of the flight and 15" in the second, or c) mix both from the very beginning, say at 70/30 (because this is a launch).
There's no hard and fast rule. One may introduce at 100% :30 and then mix in a portion of :15s or any other approach. The similarity and relative strenght of the two pieces of copy are important.
Dear Medai Guru:
Thanks a lot for sharing your knowledge and experience!
Question: Are there any estimated (or guestimated) GRP equivalents between different media. Example: Say, I am planning 400 GRPs on TV to reach about 50% at 4+. If I decide to use only outdoor, what R&F should I be planning for?
Different media have different strengths and uses; see the Guru's media strengths page
It is not appropriate to say that instead of "X" TV R&F one may substitute "Y" outdoor R&F.
400 GRP of TV would be a solid 4 week schedule. A light showing of outdoor develops 125-150 GRP per week, and 600-700 isn't uncommon. Such a schedule would deliver 90-95 reach with 30+ average frequency; perhaps 90 at 4+. Other issues of communication, such as message complexity and impact would outweigh the R&F comparison.
What is an average National rate for late night syndicated programming? For example....Entertainment Tonight, Access Hollywood.
Averages are probably meaningless here. Contact the syndicators, e.g. Paramount.
My Media Wizard says that Sunday newspapers now have below 50% coverage of HHs in the US. (She says some homes get multiple papers.) Has it really dropped that far?
According to data at The Newspaper Advertising Association in their audience data area Sunday gross circulation would be about 58 million or about 55% gross houshold coverage. Some homes certainly do get multiple papers (the Guru gets 3 on Sunday), so it is readily imaginable that net HH coverage has fallen below 50%.
Other data on the site indicate that about 64% of Adults, net, read a Sunday paper and 54% read a paper on the average weekday.
I Need to present to one of our clients a presentation about the reality TV trend. Do you know of a website or any other source that I can find information or a presentation about this subject?
Am starting a small media buying service and working with mid-sized local businesses. Account reps. are attempting to talk my clients out of using a media buyer. This isn't a personal issue--my reputation is excellent. They just don't want a buyer in the loop. The CBS affiliate GM is even meeting personally with my clients. Any suggestions/comments would be helpful.
It seems obvious, and should be easy to present to the clients, that when a seller doesn't want an expert buyer in the loop, the seller is not acting in the interest of the buyer's client. You need to say this openly.
Ask the client, if he were being sued, would he trust the plaintiff's telling him he shouldn't use a lawyer?
mr media guru, i am new on this bussines. i just get a fax from an agency asking for avail request. what are they are asking "avail request" what this meaning.
An avail request means that the agency wants to know what advertising inventory you have available to sell them, at what price, and how these ad units you offer match their specifications. The avail request is appropriate to the media like broadcast and on-line. The agency's request should specify timing and target, at least. There may be other specifications desired as well. It calls for something like a proposal, and opens your negotiations.
How efficient is it to use a different URL for each traditional ad placed and redirect each one to your home page in order to track each media's effectiveness (similar to using multiple 800 #'s to track different ads to your call center)? Is this counter productive to one's brand and main Web site URL or favorable in the name of tracking and producing more measurable results?
The technique has the pros and cons you mention. If the variation is
you may get the best of both worlds.
Is there any research available that evaluates the effectiveness for print ads (in publications) to drive users to the advertisers URL when used as the call-to-action message in the ad?
Click here to see past Guru responses about traditonal media and web traffic.
How do I make a media plan for a public service ad campaign? What are the points i need to keep in mind? What should be my budget?
Like any other campiagn, goals will begiven to the planner in regard to geography, target and communications. Budget is information provided, not determnined within a plan. Sometime goals determine budgets, but not planners.
First of all, thank you for your guidance in the past Your opinions have always been very helpful.
One of the newspapers that I purchase (not usually a cutting edge paper) is trying to convince me to stop having them send tearsheets and to use itearsheets. I can go on their web site and see what my ad looked like. They say this is the wave of the future and all pubs are heading in this direction. I have always wanted a tearsheet so I can see exactly what the consumer sees. If they are just taking my digitally provided artwork and transferring it to their web site, the color and registration will always be perfect and we know this is not the case. What do you think about this? Am I being stubborn and fighting advancement? That has been known to happen before.
You are absolutely right. Their positon seems ludicrous.
What does "in-tab" in Arbitron mean. Is it the actual number of surveys collected? Thanks.
It is the number of usable surveys collected. Some of those collected will be discarded because they are not properly completed.
What is the current pop up controversy? What is a pop ups industry average click-through rate? Why are sites looking into getting rid of this unit? Can you give me some reserach regarding pop us and effectiveness?
Pop-ups are annoying to internet users, because they are more intrusive. They show up over the desired content or if they are so-called pop-unders, remain on screen after the browser closes. They have higher click rates than banner ads, but this may be deceiving, because of the unexpacted, unwanted nature of the unit. Try The Internet Advertising Bureau for research.
What are vignettes & billboarding (on television)?
A vignette is a slice-of-life commercial, often done in a "donut" style, i.e. story - hard sell - conclusion of story. Billboard is a 5 or 10 second sponsor identification, also referred to as "IDs" at the beginning or end of a program (or program segment) usually just consiting of "Brought to you by (product)" over a slide of the package or logo.
I'd like to propose a movie sponsorship/tie-up for my client can you give me some strategy points so i can convince them. (E.g. Sponsoring Matrix II)
The strategy would have to be based on the goals of the client. You have given the Guru nothing to go on. If there is a surfing movie and your client sells surfboards, bathing suits or hotel rooms in Hawaii, there is an obvious link. Find yours.
Hi! i'de really appreciate if you could give me ideas for creative media/media innovations, as this is has become one of the main criterias to judge a good plan. further would appreciate if you could give names of sites that have media innovations listed.
The idea that the Guru could just name some innovations without any knowledge of your plan's goals is ludicrous. A great innovation for a safe sex campaign would have no relevance for breakfast cereal. The Point of innocvation is matching a different approach to specific goals.
Click here to see past Guru responses about creativity.
Is there a source, preferrably on the web, that gives estimates of total ad spending by year? Thanks.
See "Coen Report".
Since the very beginning, the central dynamic in the evolution of advertising media is this: as new media forms are created, they almost never totally replace or render obsolete those that existed before them. The proof? In its broadest sense we all know that newspapers did not replace signs, magazines did not replace newspapers, radio did not replace magazines, TV did not replace radio, etc., etc., etc. Rather, much like in nature, as new media come into existence, those before them tended to evolve into a "better" more useable form by any number of measures. This has had the effect broadening the media choice spectrum for the advertiser and forcing each alternative into a more useful and cost efficient state in order to stay in existence. That said, do you know of any research piece, article, or book wherein this evolutionary process is discussed? While all this might be quite obvious to us, I have a client who'd be better convinced by way of third party confirmation.
The Guru hopes that as a third party, his general agreeemnet with your premise counts with your client. Another way to look at the situation is that when a new medium comes along, it adds something to communication, as in newspapers added personal portability and editorial environment to signs, magazines added color and reproduction quality, radio added sound, TV added moving pictures, the interent added two-way interactivity and the opportunity for endless hype and bankruptcy.
Naturally, as each new medium added something, the older medium found other things it could still do better.
The Guru suggests you look at the archives of the trade media at the time each new medium began to have momentum. I.e, not late 1994 when the interent was first noticed by the press, but mid to late 1995 when advertising was really taking notice. Looking backward, the cycle of "catching on" would be longer, the earlier one looks. Perhaps 4-5 years for TV versus radio in the late '40's to early 50's.
1. How to determine the minimum GRPs that we should use per month
2. How do we know which level of frequency that we should set as effective frequency. Mostly we are using 3+ when do the planning but still wondering. Thank you
Click here to see a compilation of past Guru responses about setting effective levels.
can i get an advertising related job over here ..ineed job desperately...ican work online
Over where? Try your local newspaper classifieds.
Are you aware of a free resource that will allow me to determine which TV and Radio DMA a particular town/city has been asigned?
Do you know where we can find a market profile on the internet or from an association for Air Filters (competitive info, sales, consumer info)?
Try to find trade media at PubList
what is the latest readership figure for chinese daily
newspaper of nanyang siang pau
The Guru can find no indication of the continued existence of this paer, but try Lycos Asia
In calculating media commissions, what is the professional terminology that can be used to explain to the client on why the 1.1765 for 15% is used and who developed this formula?
It is merely simple arithmetic. Let us suppose there is a radio spot which costs $100 gross. The net cost of this spot would be $85, after the 15% commission. If you knew only the net and wanted to calculate the gross, 85 x 1.1765 = 100. The basis for why the traditional commission came to be 15% may be lost to the ages.
Where can I find out what the most popular industry publications are in a specific city or region? Not necessarily publications published in that area - but pubs actaully read/subscribed to in that area?
Generally, the Guru would expect that industry publications are focused on their editorial niche more than geography. The major publication should be able to break down their circulation geographically, however. The Guru would not expect there to be a general source of such infor except in a handful of categories which have established syndicated research, such as medical or technology publications.
When you have a client that pays you gross and for some reason spots or ads don't run,(Station or publication related problem) is it acceptable to rebate only the net cost back to the client? You have still provided your service and probably more since you have now had to deal with the problem. In many cases, you can negotiate no charge spots or ads with the stations or publications so the ad runs anyway and you have done additional work. I have never done this but have been very tempted. What is acceptable.
Your position is entirley reasonable, but the way commission works in regard to what runs or doesn't is typically spelled out in your client contract.
I have a client that is airing a direct response tv campaign that offers a 1-800# as well as their website address for people to receive information on their products. My client considers a call for the 800# a lead but on the internet, a lead is only counted when a participant registers on their website and requests information. That said, I feel that the internet lead is more qualified than the 800# lead and should be counted as such. How do I rationalize the need for the internet leads to be weighted, considering that the participant has to actually go online and complete the registration process rather than simply picking up the phone?
Signed, New to DR & Internet
At what point does a call count? If only after speaking to the operator and giving the same info as online, then the comparison is a wash. If not, then you need to figure out the ratio of conversions from calls versus internet to devise an appropriate weighting.
I've tried the Magazine Publishers Assoc.
Would you know any research to support the effectiveness of inserts delivered in a poly bag with a magazine - not inserts in the actual magazine?
The Guru is surprised if MPA can't help. Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I need to know, What is the data that I can use to calculate newspaper reach?
As in your adjacent query, you need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.
The calculation is extremely complex. As input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables.
Try The Newspaper Advertising Association for some general estimates.
Is there any specific form to estimate print media reach?
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.
The calculation is extremely complex. As input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
Do you know of any place based media opportunities in pharmacies? We are specifically looking to advertise on prescription bags. Any help would be greatly appreciated...thanks in advance!
Your best bet is probably to contact the giant chains, such as CVS, Eckerd, Walgreens, which dominate the market and most likely control their own bags. Mass marketers who include pharmacy departments, like KMart and food/drug chains, like Pathmark are likely to account for most of the rest.
The Guru's best guess is that there is no major central pharmacy bag advertising resource.
Thanks in advance for your assistance. I'm wondering if you could furnish me or point me in the right direction to come up with projections on advertising-related revenues attributable to streaming over the next 5 years. Thank you.
I would like to know if there is a general rule of thumb for R/F goals on political/issue advertising for local markets. Also, the politcal strategist running the campaign for which we are buying media has stipulated that we must place 1000 TRPs against each television spot. What are your thoughts on that?
No general rules. Levels should depend on competition, and other specific factors. Budget not least of all. Without knowing the rationale for the 1000 TRP, it is difficult to comment. 1000 does not seem at all excessive.
Dear Media Guru:
Let's say there are 2 competing chewing gum brands in the market that generate over 800 GRPs weekly each. Clearly they are fighting for a higher SOV.
The awareness level of each is close to 100%.
I would think that when you have such a high awareness level you just need to maintain it with about 100 or max 200 GRPs weekly which will give you 80-85% reach.
Maybe there are merits in such huge GRP weights that I am not aware of?
In communications levels questions, it is always important to understand that different target groups and especially differetn cultures have different expectations and needs.
You appear to be writing from Uzbekistan, so the Guru's experience may not apply directly.
Sometimes schedules seem high because ratings are enormous, perhaps 25%, so any kind of frequency runs to heavy GRP weights. If ratings are 2-5% than this probably isn't a factor.
There are more effects derived from GRP weights than just reach. At the levels of which you speak, frequency becomes the key variable. If chewing gum is a major staple in your market with users making purhcase decisions daily, extreme frequency levels might be justified. If gum brands have more significant social overtones - i.e. are culturally significant, unlike the U.S. perhaps the weight is justified.
In a U.S. context, these levels do seem mystifying.
what is ambient media?
Ambient refers to non-traditional, out-of-home media. E.g. signs on private vehicles, store displays, floors, sidewalks, bar coasters, gas pumps, bathroom stalls, fresh fruit, etc.
Could you please tell me the names of established firms that do
advertising tracking, either by dollars spent or actual ads/commercials or
both? I believe CMR and Nielson VNU tell clients how much was spent.
Yes, CMR an NIelsen do this dollar tracking. To capture actual ads in various media, try VMS (Video Monitoring Services).
Dear Media Guru, is there any clear relation (formula or something) between Effective reach and GRP? For example: if I have to achieve 3+ Reach 60%, how much GRP do I need?
Different media and media element mixes yield different results. That is, 100 GRP of radio is different than 100 GRP of TV or newspaper. 100 GRP of daytime TV is different than 100 GRP of Prime and News.
Reach and frequency models can deal with these differences, but there is no one-size-fits-all GRP number for a given effective reach.
I am the marketing director for an 80 unit restaurant chain with locations in 9 DMA's (2 being top 20.) For us to advertise promotions at point levels that increase sales and are within our budget, we have been forced to use a tiering strategy in our media purchases. By this I mean that we determine what type, weight and number of weeks of media each market will receive based on dividing the cost by market by the number of locations. Are there any other formulas or tools we should use to help us with this proces??
Your current method assumes that every restaurant is equal in generating sales or profits. You could allocate according to market sales. Or you could account for efficiency: If market A has half the population of market B and each has 10 restaurants, but the cpp is double in B, do you adjust for this, i.e. spend where the dollars give more action?
I am looking for any study or article that has forecast what people's travel habits will be this Labor Day weekend vs the past few years. Could you point me in the right direction?
Do you know of any research that would show which is more effective in gaining audience attention: a medium length schedule with larger ads (6x with spread ads for example), or a longer schedule with smaller ads (12x with full page ads).
Any insight is appreciated.
There will be many studies of this nature. The key is your definition of "audience attention." Reach will be greater with the greater number of ads. Recall or noting is likely to be greater with the spreads. Ad or brand awareness might be the more decisive difference.
Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter,
I am considering launching an ethnic (Tamil) weekly in Toronto. I understand there are agencies that, for a fee, would negotiate and collect ads from mainstream companies. Is there a term for such companies or do all ad companies undertake such operations?
These are media representatives, or "reps."
Can you direct me towards any studies that show what an effective frequency should in both Newspapers and Magazine?
I'm trying to arm myself with some ammunition to prove what we think is too low a frequency in several major market papers.
You help is appreciated.
what are the duties of a media planner. (This is for an entry level position.)
The duties vary in different agencies and circumstances. Click here to see past Guru discussion of the planners' role .
I am trying to establish a 5 yr trend of ad expenditures and jobs at ad agencies. Coen suggests we will see $231B spent in 2002. Can you please provide his figures from 1997-2001? In tandem with that, I am looking for some measure of jobs i the agency business either a 4As number or some other published figure for the same time frame. Would you be able to provide that as well? Many thanks SF
Hi Guru, how can we evaluate outdoor as a medium. Thank you.
Like any other medium, you compare it to your goals and to the contribution of other possible media.
Some of these issues are efficiency, reach, impact, communication and geographic flexibility.
what is the best medium used to reach latino's home buyers?
Spanish radio has high reach and immediacy. Outdoor has the highest reach in absolute termes, albeit with a limited message. Depending on what you are selling to homebuyers, your may like the geographic flexibility of these media or the impact of Spanish TV. Or the ability to associate with relevant real estate or decorating editorial in print, despite its much lower reach.
What are the top 5 markets for hispanic home buyers?
In your opinion, which advertising department should develop ad sizes? Do you think it is the responsibility of the media department to develop these? Especially if we do not have a marketing plan or a media budget? Please advise!
No, determining ad sizes or other copy issues is not a media responsibility. There are many elements of creative not within the media purview. The media department can however evaluate some of the pros and cons of various units. Account services and creative should make the decision based on communications needs and budget, etc.
As a new publication what is the best way to combat MRI. Currently our website has skyrocketed on alexa versus our competeting books! What is the best approach. In my eyes MRI is old news and alexa is the wave! Would love your opinion.
Alexa neither measures nor purports to measure print media. Alexa is a web page usage report based on 7 million users who have downloaded Alexa software. These are neither a random sample nor representative of web users.
MRI is a measurement of magazine audience, based on a large scale sample of U.S. adults and statistically projectable to the population and various demographic cells.
Web traffic to the web sites of magazines is probably not indicative of the magazine's audience among its target, anyway, and if it were there are better measures of web audience, such as comScore / MediaMetrix.
Alexa is not the wave, in the Guru's opinion.
One does not "combat" MRI. When a magazine has not yet been measured, it may talk of circulaiton, subscribers or single copy sales.
Guru, thank you in advance for helping out.
In our market, the TVC time is monopolized by a single government owned body and it doesn't sell spots on a GRPs(or TARPs) basis. I was wondering in markets where they DO, the CPP, once fixed for a certain T/A, is something guaranteed right? or is this also up for negos. Could please explain.
In the US, whether cpp is guaranteed varies by media type and buying circumstances, among other things.
For instance, small spot or scatter network TV buys are not typically subject to guarantee. Network upfront or syndication typically is guaranteed.
Do you have anything I can quote from that will say that SSI's in magazines are more effective for DR advertisers than regular pages? I dont have access to any studies anymore - I am no longer at an agency. Anything you can give me to use will be helpful! Thanks.
By SSI, do you mean "single sheet insert," a two sided ad on stiffer stock than the odinary magazine page? If so, the Guru imagines this page is more likely to be noticed than a standard page, and thus more likely to generate response. But the key question is how does cost compare versus incremetal response?
If you are designing a pullout poster for a business magazine with a circulation of 35,000 and you want to add advertisments to it, what is the going rate for a 2 x 2 advertisement with the staying power of a poster?
The Guru is not aware of a "going rate" for such an ad. It does not seem to be worth more than a similar sized ad in the magazine's regular pages, unless the poster is of the sort to earn regular reference. In that case, perhaps 50% premium can be justified. Even then, the ad only adds frequency, not reach
What kind of tools or models do you have to define effective reach and effective frequency in TV ? How can I access to that tools or models ?
Dear Guru, please solve our argument. We (media agency) are always arguing with creative agencies what size of the creative material should be. We prefer smaller ads or shorter spots, because they are cheaper and we can achieve better media results (Reach and Frequency), and the creative people like a bigger ones. How could we estimate the optimal size?
By the theory you express, all ads would be the smallest possible, just to get big reach and frequency numbers. Of course, this is ludicrous.
Creatives like bigger ads because they have more impact, and this thinking simplistically disregards the impact of a total schedule.
You need to begin by establishing what will be the standard ad, one that communicates effectively and with adequate impact, however that is defined. Typically :30 TV of page, 4c magazines are such standards. From there, you can make sensible arguments about whether R&F gains with smaller ads are worthwhile or whether the losses through larger ads are.
Roughly how many companies and brands advertise in major meassured media. I have heard a figure of 7,000 companies and 20,000 brands in CMR. Is that close?
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)'s site claims:
"CMR tracks $100+ billion in advertising and more than 100 million advertising occurrences a year . . . covering more than 900,000 brands across 15 media"
how do you write a proposal that sell your television programs to advertisers?
From the buyer's side, the proposal needs to show a valuable audience and supportive content at a good price, for the advertiser.
More practically, show why selecting the program will make the buyer look good to his/her boss.
I have a client who is trying their first shot at DTC advertising. Their market is women 40-60 with an income of $60k+. The product is actually a procedure that is competitive to Lasik. I'm put at a task to advertise to this audience within very niche markets: kansas city, north los angeles, tyler texas, new jersey, new orleans. I'm not sure what's the best medium. Whether it should be print, online, radio or tv or a combo of each. What do you think? Also, since I've never done tv buys, how can I contact these networks to do a regional buy? Also, are there shows such as finance and home and garden that have regional buys? Where can I learn more about broadcast advertising?
Thanks so much!
Your targeting might call for print, but the highly local aspect suggests radio and selected cable.
Yes, networks have regional buys. However, you are talking of markets far smaller than "regions." For something like "North Los Angeles" you would buy local advertising through a cable system (not broadcast) on their financial or home and garden networks. Start by talking to SpotCable
I would like to prepare a project to start a Information Center ( IC) which any departments could be consulting. It will be a "consultation bank", organized and speedy with information produced by conventional and specialized ( advertising) media. How could i start this project?
Thanks a lot
The Guru is not sure he understands your question. If you mean that you will compile a library of research which has been produced ny the media, that seems a simple enough defintion of a project. Begin by examining the workings of an existing example. The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter is probably the outstanding model.
Do you think PR will kill advertising? What role will PR play in the coming years??
No, why would that even be a question? PR and advertising have co-existed for over 100 years. The uses of the two evolve and the wise marketer combines them.
Many years ago I used a formula to measure brand recall
on TV. It was called the Zielski Study, and basically
you applied a formula to the TV weekly TARP weightings
when on air and another formula to current recall %
achieved to measure the recall "drop off" factor when
off air. You were then able to manage flighting of a
TV schedule to either maintain a target recall %, or
analyse exactly how many weeks you could be off air
before dropping below a nominated recall % and then
calculate how many TARPs were required to lift recall
to the desired target. You wouldn't happen to have that
algebraic formula would you?
You seem to be talking of awareness, an aspect of a brand or of advertising, rather than recall, a phenomenon usually attributed to an individual advertisement.
The kink in these formulae is that they seem to be keyed to 100 GRP per week for a brand with established awareness. Click here to see Guru discussion of awareness decline formulae.
Dear MG: We have a client who has asked us to request that one of their ads (featuring a golf course view) be placed on the front cover of a free distribution consumer magazine. This magazine does feature its advertisers in its cover shots, but in the past this has meant using a landscape/property shot with a location credit and certainly without ad copy. Aside from the magazine's editorial integrity, what is your opinion on the value of placing an ad on the cover of a publication? My gut feeling is that while this has high impact visibility, it ultimately diminishes the value of the client's product (we KNOW it diminishes the magazine) by being too in-your-face - like a pop-up that has nothing to do with the site you are trying to access. Or, am I just being too conservative? After-all, there are ads throughout the rest of the magazine, including the back cover.
From: Concerned Planner
The key point seems to be "like a pop-up that has nothing to do with the site." If your client's product is unrelated to the magazine's content, it may be taken as intrusive by readers. Yet, unlike pop-ups, there is always a cover on a magazine that may be quickly passed over. On the whole, the Guru thinks the visibility benefits outweigh the negatives.
Could you please tell me what "WIM" means in the statement "review buying performance of WIM"?
The Guru does not recognize "WIM" as a standard media term. Without knowing the context, it is impossible to determine the meaning. For example, if this phrase was used in the RFP for an agency search, it might refer to a responsibility to audit the media buying vendor if it had a full name something like "Western International Media."
What is an adequate number of points per weeek on television for a campaign that goes over a ten week period. It targets A25-54 and is not a "sale" retail account. This is a regional hospital and the television is split between two networks: NBC and CBS. Also how do you determine the percetages per daypart in your planning.
Start with communication goals: what reach and frequency or effective reach do you need?
These points will guide you to weight and daypart mix.
It strikes the Guru as odd that you speak in terms of "two networks" before any of the other decisions are made. The Guru would expect you are buying local, not network tv for a regional hospital.
How do you calculate cost of incremental reach?
Base plan has reach of "X"
Spending "Y" additional dollars will produce a plan with reach of "Z"
Incremental reach = Z - X
"Y" is the cost of incremental reach.
Is there any research information available that explores a break-even analysis for local vs. national media (i.e. television). Evaluating how many local markets you could purchase before reaching a national CPP. Please explain why this type of analysis would be completed.
This is not so much "research" as a market place analysis. The answer changes over time, depending on economy, demographic, daypart and market rankings. It's a matter of comparing the specific costs you face. See
past Guru responses.
Why do the analysis? If you are planning to buy advertising in a ranked list of markets for a national brand, and the do not need to vary levels by market, or need a given base level across markets, cost per rating point will eventually mount to a point where a network rating point is less expensive than the rating point purchased through the local media. At that point, you get the rest of the country "free" if you switch to network,
I am from the Philippines. We are bidding to get a bank as a client. They are relaunching their housing loan product. Their given budget is equivalent to twenty thousand dollars ($20,000.00) only. Size of the ad is 7 columns by 40 cms with long copy. A full color (launch) ad costs about $2,600 per newspaper. The sustaining black & white ad costs about $1,400 per newspaper. We plan to use the full color ad only for the first week, while the black and white ad would run from the second week up to the fifth week. This would be at the rate of 2 ads per week within three maor dailies. Is this right or should I use recency and just stretch the budget to 8 weeks at the rate of one ad per week? This is a relaunch and we want the ad to have impact in spite of the limited budget and the long copy of the print material.
Your answer depends on the reach of the newspapers used and the advertising climate for the industry. The Guru generally favors recency, but circumstances must be considered. You have not stated the relevant facts.
Is it acceptable for an agency to charge a kill fee for media? If so, does it make sense that it is the standard 15% or a set fee?
A kill fee is acceptable. It must be in the service agreement. Buying media is work and deserves compensation. However it is not by any means the total work covered by the traditional 15% commission, so a kill fee reasonably would be much lower.
At my agency, we set media goals for many clients in terms of EF/ER & CPP. The correlation between EF/ER for a specific category/demo we get from past similar campaigns for which we are able to extract the necessary data. But eventually most of our clients judge our performance only on CPP. Yes, cost efficiency is important but so is EF/ER. The fundamental problem arises when our analyzed tv schedule and our actual own do not match in the execution pattern (e.g. portion of primetime vs fring.). My point is as a media planner, the EF/ER be taken into account as well (even if we were off mark on the CPP), right? The problem how to do this quantitatively. Please help.
The Guru observes:
If EF/ER are the communication goals for the plan, then achieving them at the planned budget becomes the primary standard. If this achievement is based on the media mix bought (as it should be) then the buyers must be made to understand that delivering that is what they must do.
Overall, the mistake is allowing CPP to become a goal instead of a tool.
I work for Europes largest market research and analysis company. We are looking at selling sponsorships, advertising on our web site and in our 21 weekly newsletters as a new revenue stream.
Who are the major players in interactive advertising sales? We are after sponsorship andbespoke solutions rather than CPC.
If you could offer any help...
Media Post's Media magazine regularly lists the players in the arena.
Which is the world's most expensive (in terms of cover price) and exclusive/elite business or general interest newspaper? Have any existed ever to close down?
The Guru has not seen such information compiled and doesn't see the value of it for media planning purposes.
Granting there's a value to knowing someone has paid for a subscription, comparing prices around the world would be meaningless. How would a planner buying b2b newspapers in the US use the fact that a b2b newspaper in the Belgium has a cover price of €50?
How does one compare AdMap's $35 cover price to Ad Age's $3.50?
In your opinion, what are the key differences between direct marketing and media advertising?
You don't seem to be contrasting actual dichotomies. Unless you mean to compare "direct mail" versus media?
Then there are the distinctions of simply measuring sales against the possibilites of brand building, awareness, imagery, etc
what is an a/b split?
A/B split means running different ad copy in every other copy of a publication, so that half of the circulation sees each ad, with even distribution among readers.
Do you know where I can find some samples of Agency of Record Letters?
Our client, an italian luxury firm, is planning the fall -winter campaign. They need to get results very quickly (sell of products) but also to "rebuild" the brand, which in the past years didn't advertise at all. They would prefer to put most of budget on newspaper to get frequency but in our opinion the magazines should have at least 1/3 of the total budget to help "building" the brand. What do you think?
What are the reasons you think magazines do a better job of building the brand? Articulate them. Is it environment? Reproduction quality? Authority?
Why does newspaper frequency = quick sales? Is there a strong retail trade relationship. Deconstruct the theories and evaluate how the media can be mixed?
Does research exist, which addresses the probability of any individual article being read within a magazine having broad national reach?
I wanted to know how is Radio Advertising monitored? While a TV monitoring service uses TV, VCR and a data entry module, press monitoring services use either scanners or physical scales, etc. Does Radio monitoring involve listening to 24x7 radio programs or are there other techniques?
Generally a sampling of major stations is tracked fully and others by request. Visit VMS as an example.
Guru ~ I am doing national newspaper recruitment advertising for a local company? As this is my first foray into recruitment advertising, what information should I be looking for to select newspapers in the best markets? Our client wants only three newspapers and has no regional restrictions to narrow the options. Thanks for any help on employee recruitment advertising!
Hopefully, there are some characteristics of the desired employees which can be matched to populations of markets. Otherwise, you'll hyave to look for leading employment advertising lineage carriers.
hi, our client is an italian firm which wants to enter the italo-american market in the Usa. Is there any effective media for this particular target besides from America Oggi?
International Channel's RAI (Italy) network is an option.
Guru: What are some differences in competitive spending data provided by CMR and Nielsen Adviews? Are there major caveats with one versus the other? Thank you.
Where can I get a comprehensive list of local TV
stations by DMA? Thank you.
Are there any restrictions about advertising escort services on cable television? If so what where could I go to learn more about them. Also are there other sensitive industries that have barriers to mass communication?
There are no general restrictions. Non-explicit advertising of prostitution appears in many venues where the prostitution itself is illegal. Many cable systems have rules against such advertising, and some do not, sometimes by mistake.
I would appreciate any feedback you can provide on the following....the client is looking for us to make a recommendation on how many print titles should be on their plan. What criteria should be looked at when determining this? I am sure a lot has to do with budget. They will be running in trade pubs in the biotechnology area and their budget is about $300,000. Also, how many times do you recommend running in a weekly publication? thanks for your help.
The number of print titles isa a result, not a goal. Goals should be reach, or frequency or coverage of specifc arenas, If there are twenty possible titles, there will be reasons to prefer some over others. The budget needs to be viewed in a context of the average ad cost.
There are some rules-of-thumb -- guidelines, not carved in stone -- which suggest once per month minimum in a weekly, every other month in a monthly, but these are about consumer perceptions of frequency. How many arenas do you need to cover?
I need to know about the broad areas of the latest media research techniques used by syndicated researh companies. The problem we have in the Midle East is the lack of it. Apart from mass media research, if the agency was to take the initiative to conduct a media research to understand why (not how many) people use X media, which type of media research would you recommend using, bearing in mind that the agency's clients are heavily skewed towards magazines and outdoor and less TV given the vast amount of female based products, luxury and lifestyle brands the agency holds. What would be the technical name of the research and how is it conducted?
First off, the Guru is not named Erwin.
When the Guru thinks of media research, it ususally is audience survey research, concerned with counting media users.
The "why" of people's media use would be qualitative research, perhaps in the form of focus groups. For some useful comment on focus groups, see the Guru's Think Piece on the topic. There will, no doubt, be cultural adjustments required.
hi ! this is bhaskar writing in from mumbai , india. i'd like to know if the concept of a third -party media planning audit is prevalant anywhere in the world.If so , what has the general experience been like ? hope to hear from you...thanks and regards - bhaskar
Even the Guru can't know about everywhere in the world. He does not know of any country where third party audit is "prevalent."
I work for an agency that is rapidly growing. We
have used TVScan and SmartPlus buying software for
the last several years and are unhappy with several
aspects of both systems. One system will allow you to view one week of a schedule on one station, while the other doesn't, but the other will allow you to plot spots by day rather than by week. I know there is no "perfect" software out there that will do everything every buyer wants, but can you recommend one that has mostly positive reports, or at least direct me to a website that has a comparison chart showing pros and cons of various systems? Thank you.
The Guru is not aware of any site that comapres the systems. In the PC era, there are too many, with new ones appearing constantly.
However, if you want the broadest set of features, you may need the old standard, Donovan Data Systems.
Guru - you're always so helpful and it is much appreciated. Can you please advise as to whether the national cable scatter markets guarantees rating points?
Today, the Guru would expect to get a guarantee.
We are in the middle of planning a small trade plan in the science field. First question - do you know of any syndicated research that measures these types of publications? The client believes that somewhere one must exist. Also, we need to determine the communication goals. How would we go about calculating reach and frequency for our plan when these publications are not measured? And duplication studies are not available? Any help would be great! Thanks.
There are syndicated medical and technology daya bases, but the Guru does not know of one for basic sciences.
Click here to see past Guru responses regarding procedures to estimate print reach
Quick question, I have an AE who keeps bringing up "impact factor" with planning. And that the impact factor needs to be addressed when planning and GRP's and total R/F need to be adjusted. I have no clue what he means or an idea how to do this. Any help is greatly appreciated. Thanks again.
It sounds like your AE just arrived from working on an account which used such factors. Perhaps he never worken on any other acount and doesn'r realize this is ideosyncratic. Or perhaps he came from an agency with their own factors.
In any case, "impact" factors might be based on an index of recall or attentiveness or some other measurement of results specific to media types, from synidcated or proprietary research.
Typically, the "best medium" which is probably going to be prime time television has a 100 index and the others are set in relation to that. Also typically, the GRP are adjsuted and reach is then calculated based on the adjusted GRP.
None of this "impact factor" process is absolute or standard, but it can be done.
I am a media professional who has dabbled with electronic media (web/email). I want to become more proficient in this area, do you know of any seminars or other sources that I might tap into? Thanks.
The Guru never recommends seminars. The Internet Advertising Bureau may have some useful resources.
what is a typical effective frequency level for retail stores?
"Typical" is typically not right for any given category. Click here to see past Guru responses about setting effective frequency levels.
Are there any studies that quantify the ability of TV to persuade better/faster than radio?
Is retail advertising spending more or less volatile than general advertising during times of economic difficulty.
Retail follows different patterns and can be volatile without problems in the economy. Specific retail categories may follow divergent trends, e.g. low-end like groceries stay more stable than big-ticket cars, jewelry, etc.
Dear Guru, Can you please tell me where I can locate a listing of the Business to Business trade publications that exist? Specifically, I am looking for trade pubs that pertain to the running industry. Thanks
how could I create a reach curve if I don´t have any information of "frecuency and reach" available. What kind of assumption should I suppose?
"Creating a curve" is about graphing some data so that other data can be interpolated. In other words, when you know the reach or frequency from a few different schedules of GRPs, you then can predict the results of others.
Lacking any data, what assumptions might you make?
Reach curves are usually created from the frequencies observed in the known schedules, because the graph of frequencies is a straight line, so its 'slope,' to use another mathematical term is easier to deal with.
Reach with no observations is a complex calculation. You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar. In one example, as input you need average announcement audience, duplication between announcements of the same vehicle and duplication between each possible pair of different vehicles. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
Hi: I Need to get "the reach and frecuency" of one cable TV`plan and for my understanding exists a curve generated by GRP and some assumptions which could tells me what I want. Do you know a web site where I could find this kind of information??
Dear Guru :
Have you information about how many hours average does the people watch TV per day in different countries.
How do I find a list of US broadcast tv stations with ethnic viewerships?
The Guru interprets your question to mean "how do I find the ethnic viewership of U.S. broadcast TV stations?"
Generally speaking, the only "ethnic" audience regularly reported by station-by-station is the Hispanic audience reported by Nielsen Media Research's NHTI, or
The Media Audit . For details about latest market data, see the article in our own Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resources area in the Hispanic Market Weekly Media and Research articles section, particularly the articles 'Independent Spanish TV' and 'Nielsen New Season Universe Estimates'. If you are more interested just in lists of stations with ethnic audiences, they will generally be the Spanish language stations. In addition to the independents listed in the article above, the overwhelming majority of U.S. Spanish language stations are affiliates of Univision, Telemundo or Telefutura.
The Guru does not believe there are any broadcast TV stations aimed at other ethnic groups, except a handful of Asian stations, listed at The Asian Media Guide.
There are numerous cable outlets for various ethnic groups.
What happens when the NBC, CBS and ABC affiliates in my small market decide to not subscribe to Nielsen? Will we be buying blind?!
If no station buys it, and the local agencies do not agree to pay a high enough fee to keep it going, probably so.
If not too "small," your market may be measured by
The Media Audit, which has 86 markets.
media planning software
The Guru endorses our own Telmar.
What have been the effects of 9/11 and the recession on Hispanic advertising and Hispanic media spending?
Although the Hispanic arena slowed somewhat, there has still been spending growth while the rest of the advertising industry has been in decline.
Thanks so much for all of your advice over the past few years. I'm a little confused on rep territories. Years ago, I remember that you had national reps and retail reps and if your account didn't have anactual location in a market, then you used a national rep. Can you give me an idea of how radio and TV space is sold now? Thanks.
If the Guru follows your question, things are the same as you remember. If you are the buyer and the station is in the market where you are located, you use deal with a salesperson at the station. If the staion is in a different market than your location you deal with a national rep. The typical rep contract is written so that if a buyer in New York, for example, chooses to call a station in Miami directly, the rep in New York is still credited with the buy. In some major market / major market pairs there may be an auxilliary National Sales Manager working with reps. I.e. an L.A. staion may base a National Sales Manager in New York to better service NY buyers. This NSM will work with and through the NY rep office.
Note that this is all based on location of the station and the buyer, not the advertiser. If a NY buyer buys a Boston station for a Boston advertiser, the rep is used rather than the Boston local salesperson.
All this is based on "norms" and rules are often broken.
what are the male and female typecast groups on the basis of values and lifestyle??
Apparently, you are referring to SRI's VALS typologies, which are described here.
Do you know if there is a list of advertising media representatives that would represent publishers and medical societies for the sale of advertising space in their journals. Thanks
In the front of each Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) media source book, there is a list of representatives for the media type covered by that book.
I'm working in Japan this summer and trying to get as infomration on the effectiveness of advertising and using a mix of media vs. buying only Tv. Are there any statistics on reach and frequency measurements or can you suggest a simple way I can translate the information to my client without getting too technical? - Difficult to cross the language barrier.
Keep in mind that in different countries and cultures media behave differently, media mix differently and reach/frequency cumes differently. The U.S. Hispanic market's media are very different than U.S. general market media, for example. Therefore, it would be a mistake to think about simply translating U.S. concepts. Basic definitions such as rating or impressions should be safe, but mathematical relationships or impact measures can bne quite different.
Try Japan Marketing Association for some help.
I want to buy media planning software. In our market we have TVR basis on Dairy method data collection. From where i can buy this software and how much it will cost?
Start with our own Telmar
I am working on a recruitment media plan, targeting ER physicians. Would you agree that the general media strategy should be to have increased frequency, in lieu of increased reach. For example, run FP4C ad in every issue of a trade pub instead of running every third month in three pubs. Thanks.
There is nothing in your question's set up which would lead the Guru to make a recommendation one way or another.
However, the Guru would imagine that there are times when a prospect will be interested in your ad and other times when the physician would not. Under theses circumsatances, reach would seem more productive than frequency.
We have a client considering using 5 sec TVC's - probably multiple executions - multi-spotting commercial breaks.
Putting aside the cost premiums for this TVC length, do you know of any research demonstrating the effectiveness (or otherwise) of this short length/multi-spot approach ?
We have plenty of 15 sec research, but nothing I can find on 5secs.
In this moment I have the project of review the educational plan of an Advertisng University in Mexico City. I mean a Media Area, but I don't find any information to review this educational plans. Do you recomend any information?
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media managment questions.
Guru – Need some retail advertising research info. My partner and I operate a small ad agency and we’ve recently picked up a new client, an upscale women’s clothing store. The store’s owner, a former district manager for a large clothing store chain, insist that single-store retailers who are located in high-traffic malls don’t realize any measurable cost-benefits from advertising. She claims that small mall-based retailers generate far more sales due to their high-traffic mall locations than they do from newspaper, direct mail, TV or radio advertising.
My question is this: Do you know of any credible research study that offers any facts to either prove or disprove our client’s claims? She says that she read a trade journal article back during the early 90s that cited a Harvard Business School study that concluded that somewhere around 60% of all retail advertising is wasted, whatever “wasted” may mean. I’ve looked for the Harvard study and for other studies that may deal with this issue, but haven’t found any, at least none that offer any meaningful insights about the overall cost effectiveness of retail advertising. Any research study source/reference info you could provide, Guru, would be much appreciated. Thanks!
There is a classic advertising quote, attributed to George Washington Hill of American Tobacco, who said something like, "I know that half of all my advertising is wasted, but I don't know which half."
Dear Guru, In one of the papers written by Erwin Ephron, I came across the concept of Adstock. Could you let me know more about it and what is the concept of half-life in this context. I ma from India and although I have been in media for almost a year, I have not heard the usage of this concept and would be keen to know more about it to see if the same can be applied in our media scenario. Thanx.
You can read extensiively about Adstock here in our Ephron archive.
Have you heard of anyone selling advertising on CD/DVD labels or the liners of CD's/DVD's? I have an opportunity to buy such and would like to know rate basis and rates, if there are any.
The Guru hasn't heard of it. Sounds comparable to outdoor, unless the product is closely linked by topic to the cd/dvd contents. Start with outdoor cpms, in the under $5 range.
Dear Guru, I want to thank you for your concise answer to my question regarding advertising abroad. However, you noted that I should contact an International media buyer like "Carat". I am not in the position to contract out work to other media buying facilities, nor do I feel my client's dollars should go to. . . other large agencies. We're the little guy, similar to the David & Goliath excerpt from the Bible. I'd love to literally throw a stone at someone from the larger agencies, but would probably be arrested. Anyway, is there a book similar to the SRDS which lists International Networks for buying/planning purposes in Television? Thank you very much, Guru. - The little engine that could.
While the Guru agrees with you in principal, there is value to expertise in unfamiliar waters. But try International Media Guide
Where can I find articles on the effectiveness of 30 second versus 15 second TV commericals? Also, is there an ideal mix for creative rotation?
Such articles were common in the trade media at the dawn of :15's. Roughly the late 70's.
There is no ideal mix. Generally the acceptable balance changes as the campaign matures when the message has been established by :30's and the :15's can be an effective reminder. But it's always a judgement call.
Do you have any updated information on the number of ad messages the typical consumer is exposed to DAILY?
This statistic is only used for "hype" purposes, usually to portray advertsing as some kind of social evil. The Guru has recently heard numbers cited between 3,000 and 20,000. These numbers are ludicrous. When challenged, those citing them will hedge and say they meant "informational messages" or some such and include product lables passed in a grocery store. The only way to get a total this high is to do exposure counting by a methood that would include, for example the idea that when a person turns the pages in a newspaper's classified section he is exposed to all 500 ads that might be on each spread of those pages.
When considering these silly numbers, it is best to stop and think: a person is usually only awake for about 1000 minutes per day. If they did nothing else but look at or listen to adverstising, it would take every minute of the day to generate 3000 exposures. A number aound 500 might be a reasonable extreme, again counting as exposure all the out-of-home media passed, and small space ads in newspapers and magazines,even thought there may be no notice taken at all.
I would like to know if there is a company that sell "last minute" adv spaces with a big discount...for example, adv on a news the day before with -80% of the price...and if the company have an url.
Remnant sales are more common in print. Click here to see past Guru responses about remenant sales
Sales such as you describe, 80% off in tv news are unlikely. Before giving it away at such prices, broadcasters are more likely to use unsold time as bonus or makegood for regular advertisers. There is the possibility of advising broadcaseter that you will take any unsold time at last minute rates, but this system only works if you obligate yourself to take whatever is offered.
I am interested in recall norms for TV and radio commercials by length of commercial (60-30-20-15-10), and magazine & newspaper ads by size and coloration. Can you help? Thanks.
I am a recent graduate and looking for a job in advertising. Do you have any suggestions as to how I should approach the task of job finding? I have tried calling people and faxing resumes, but nothing seems to be doing the trick.
Start with your newspaper classified. If you know any media salesman -- they often get asked if they know people for jobs -- ask them.
In either case, a search is more productive if you know where the need is.
Hello Guru. Do you think it is worth while to run ad's in the newspapers TMC. How effective is the TMC, would it be comparable to ad's in small weekly papers? Could you replace ad's in weeklies to run in the TMC of the daily?
Any help is appreciated, thanks.
For the purpose of this question, the Guru assumes you mean a newspaper's Total Market Coverage package, that delivers ads in some specialized form to all housholds, regardless of whether they subscribe or not.
The key is in the "total" part. That the ad gets to every household. Weekly papers generally have spottier coverage. But the Guru believes that an ad will be mor effective in ROP sections of a real, purchased weekly newspaper than in a "throwaway" ad package. You trade coverage for readership.
Other than SQAD, are there any other ways to understand CPP or cable spot rates without a buying history in the market? I've heard two people tell me that SQAD is higher than market averages, but I don't klnow what they are comparing it to. Thanks
It has often been cited that SQAD runs "x%" higher than actual. It is important to understand that these statements are usually made in regard to regular, ongoing market buys, by experienced buyers with regular budgets. The SQAD database is an average including various oddities, such as last minute buys against low inventory, buys with no previous experience in the market by a given buyer, small budgets, etc.
SQAD is a very good indicator of cost patterns, i.e. ups and downs, so it is most useful when compared to your experience in a market.
If you believe what you hear, simply approach your buy with a goal 15 or 20 or 25% below SQAD and demand that of the vendors. Some will play ball and some won't.
We have a P12-34 marketing target. We are debating
switching to an A18-34 (spot) radio buying target. The rankers
appear to yield nearly the same station list, the CPP is
lower, and buys on 18-34 appear to overdeliver teens.
Does this make sense to you? Can you suggest any other
factors we should evaluate?
If the CPP is lower for 18-34 than 12-34 for the same set of stations (with given costs per spot), then the 18-34 rating must be higher than the 12-34 rating. No mystery, just arithmetic.
The 12-34 rating is an average of the teen rating and the 18-34 rating, again just artithmetic. It's a weighted average, based on the sizes of the teen and 18-34 populations. Nevertheless, the 12-34 rating must fall between the teen and 18-34 numbers.
If the 18-34 rating is higher than the 12-34 rating, then the teen rating must be lower. If the teen rating is lower than the 18-34 rating then teens will not be overdelivered in relation to the 18-34 delivery, nor in relation to buying on the original target. If your standard is something else, then perhaps . . .
I am not familiar with the English terms to describe commercial spaces in T.V. I´d only heard the term "avails". I am shure that there are other type of commercial spaces.Could you list and explain the most relevant ones? ...thanks....
US TV commercial time is ususally described in terms of the length, 30 second (the most common and the standard of comparison) plus 60 second, 15 second, and 10 second, which are also called "IDs."
The general description is commercial unit.
Is there any data or research that supports the theory
that daytime (Midday) radio has passive listeners? Are the mid day listeners less likely to act upon a message? Are they too distracted by work that they
might not even hear the message? Thanks
The Guru has not encountered this specific theory. He has heard of radio listeners being passive generally -- isn't driving distracting, too?
For research start with The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB)
have you heard of anything called the "New Network" I have been told it is similiar to MNI, in that it is able to group magazines together on a market basis. Do you know of any other compnay that groups together national magazines on a market basis?? Thank you for your service.
The Guru hasn't heard of "New Network." Since the early days of MNI (the '70's, as the Guru recalls) the magazine landscape has changed considerably. Today, the Guru would approach the large, multi-title publishers like AOL Time-Warner's Time, Inc. to structure such market-oriented placements.
Thanks to you, our media plans have become even the more focused and precise. For one particular client, we have utilized Syndicated Television and remnant print within the United States. Our planning has brought a 600% increase in sales over an 8 month period. Being an international client, they now want us to take over the International Advertising. How do we buy in International markets? We've been mixing the TV with :10 Syndicated programming to increase frequency. Does this "wealth" of an inexpensive advertising method exist outside of the US? How are rating points calculated in Europe, Mexico, Canada? Who do I contact in Europe, Mexico, Canada to air my spots? Do they air "Everybody Loves Raymond", "Friends" and "Drew Carey"? How would I monitor delivery? Any unique advertising advice for the creative spots?
Thank you Guru.
What are advertising rates for local cable stations in New york
I was curious.... is there any correlation between recall of an ad and the context of the program? (I saw one recently... on Scrubs, for a J&J spot celebrating nurses)... but wondered if there is any higher recall.
There is a theory that a connection of ad to environment enhances communication, not necessarily recall versus other "impact" benefits. For research try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I was wondering, as the upfronts are winding down, what is the process of allocation of spots to products for the larger companies media spend? (i.e. P&G, Clorox) How do they decide who gets what and what tools are used in the process??
are one tool that can take a batch of spots and make the most advantageous allocation according to demographic and other specifications.
How can I obtain information on the top 5 or 6 radio stations in Detroit, MI, Kalamazoo,MI, Grand Rapids, Lansing, MI? (Find out which ones they are, what demographic groups listen to them, phone numbers and addresses of the stations etc.?
Start with Radio & Records' Ratings area for topline station audeinces. Get contact info from stations' own web sites. And asl stations to provide demographic profiles.
Is it relevant to calculate an overall reach / effective reach of a 3 flights campaign with 4 weeks OFF AIR period between?
What might "relevant" mean here?
Can the calculation be done? Yes.
Is it meaningful? That depends on your needs. Have you set a goal pertaining to the total numbers of persons exposed? Then it is relevant to that goal?
Is your only standard based on people being reached at a point in time? Then it is less relevant.
Can you tell me the number of media choices there were in 1960 vs. 2000 (or years for which there is data) broken into as much detail as possible, by medium, etc.? Thanks!
If you mean the number of TV stations, magazines, cable channels, there might be trade articles on the topic. The Guru does not think any one source has that sort of historical perspective, exept perhaps Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS)
Have a recruitment client. They want to go on TV with full year support with limited funds. We suggested compression. Would you know anything about this? ie, advertising 3 days a week vs. 7, reducing dayparts, etc.
At its most simple, this sort of compression reduces reach and increase frequency. For those who follow the effective frequency style of thinking, this technique might add impact. For those oriented to recency, compression is counter-productive.
When funds are limited, the Guru would start with limited grography or timing and add funds if results warrant.
radio advertising cost
I'm not in an ad position, but I have to do a report for our Board about placing ads about our company targeted at Company CEOs, Owners, and top management. How do I find out what these top level executives reading habits are and the best publications to target them? The Board has a very limited budget so I'm trying to sway them towards PR instead of ad placements, but need some back up on my decision. Thanks!
Most of my clients ask the simple question " Why aren't my sales increasing through advertising?"....Please help me in the models used in planning to combat this question.....
There are innumerable reasons why advertising might not generate increased sales which might have nothing to do with media --the Guru's area -- and some that do.
Within the media arena, the reasons include
Some non-media reasons which might apply include
I have a very small ad agency that places local TV buys, is their a computer program I could purchase to help in computing say reach and frequency on these buys. I can't afford to pay Neilsen a monthly fee for TvScan. Any suggestions?
The Guru's organization includes Telmar which provides the software you need.
How can obtain information on baby boomer's internet habits, e.g. which sites they visit?
I'm going to buy some outdoor billboards in varies areas in the US and I don't have time or money to physically check on them. Is there a service that checks to make sure that the boards are up and in good shape? Thanks again.
Once upon a time, commission for outdoor was 16.67% to allow for the agency "riding the boards." If there is an available service such as you are seeking, Outdoor Advertising Association of America would know about it.
how much does radiostations charge for 60 spots for
It depends on audience, which varies considerably. It might be $10 in a small market and $2000 or more in a major market.
how much do radio station pay for sports broadcasting rights
It varies depending on market size and audience potential.
Do you know of any sources where I can read research articles (on copy testing, consumer behavior, etc) for free?
Guru: I always appreciate your help. I'm curious as to what you think are the top 10 media trends for 2002-2003. Such as cross platform opportunities, product placement, etc. Could you list in order of what you think are important 1-10. Thanks for the input.
The importance of trends is very much a matter of opinion, of course. Should these be the importance in inflence on the lives of media planners or the potential to generate revenue or something else. In any case, and without any rela certainty about order, some of what the Guru sees as key trends for the year:
I wanted some resources on Direct response television and radio buying...any resources you could recommend?
Hello Media Guru
I am a principal of an Online Radio (Internet based Radio broadcasting)and have a question about licensing of News Content. What If I go to a web site like CNN.com and read that news over the online radio so that listeners dont have to go to 100 websites and read that content and give the courtesy to that website/company on a web page. Is there a copyright breach here? Thanks in advance for responding.
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media managment questions, which this is not
The Guru does not give legal advice.
As a layman however, the Guru does not see how this would not be a copyright violation. Why else do you suppose CNN puts a copyright notice at the bottom of each page?
where can I find radio rates for markets across the country?
What are the best publications for Media Planners to read? Also, what books/educational tools would you recommend?
The Guru reads Ad Age and Media Post's Media. He doesn't invariably find either knowledgeable or accurate, but they do indicate what the issues to think about are. The NY Times advertising column is a must-read.
See AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com) media books. Sissors and Bumba's Advertising Media Planning is the standard, albeit a bit "ivory tower."
What are the pros and cons of placing b2b media in-house vs using a media planning and buying agency?
An agency is likley to operate more broadly in this arena than a single advertiser, to have better contacts and systems. The Guru thinks it unlikely that an in-house operation on a small scale will be able to save money and maintain quality.
Here's the problem...I asked the previous "design influential" question. I have already tried MRI, Simmons and Scarbourough and haven't been able to input the right occupations to get the correct results. They just aren't specific enough. Any other ideas?
Try the trade publications originally recommended. If they don't have their own research, they will have research directors who are knowledgable about what measurements exist in this area.
I'm looking for a resource that compares different mediums of advertising and their effectiveness in the market (cost vs.numbers reached/caipaign success rates), where could I find the name of such a publication the publication.
The problem is in defining "campaign success rates." One definition might work in direct response and quite another in a package goods awareness campaign or a political or corporate image campaign.
It is a mistake to compare without considering the standards of succes for the category or without considering the importance of factors beyon the medium itself, like creative, for example.
It is reasonable easy to find media efficiency comparisons, using sources like AMIC's Ad Data area.
Where can I find info about "design influentials"(architects, artists, interior designers, fashion designers) and where they live, what they do or like, etc. I need to know ASAP...help!!!
Guru . . . Is there a source from which I can determine total advertising dollars investmed in all media by DMA market?
Totals come from
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) and include local spending for top markets. If you want to attribute a portion of national spending to each market, there are two methods. In proportion to population See Nielsen DMAs or according to how the audience falls, based on ratings and circulation reports.
Is there absolutely no difference between TVR and TRP (and how about GRP...)? I have looked your though recent responses, but haven't found exactly what i need. thanks an advance!
Regarding question #5315: is Arbitron's rating information on cable (although limited) reliable?
Why would it not be? Reliability is a matter of sample size and methodology, mostly. People meter is considered among the most valid measurement techniques, which is more a validity issue than reliability one. Arbitron is quite experienced in measuring electronic media.
Is there any data that supports the belief that it is
best to advertise when sales are most likely to occur?
For example, a restaurant advertising near the dinner
hour, Wed-Sat, during peak months.
This is a commonly held belief among smaller retailers, and includes not advertising when the store is closed. The key to advertising timing is advertising when the decision is being made. If one thinks that persons are deciding what to have for dinner an hour before dinner and are likely to be using TV or radio then, there is some argument. But advertising works by creating an awareness and overall impression through campaigns, not by consumers reacting to one specific commercial that makes them turn the car around and head for a different restaurant.
For research, see The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Hello. I don't have access to pricing, so I am hoping you can help me. In order of most expensive CPM to cheapest CPM, how would you rank the following media (assume national activity, including local placements)? Event Sponsorship, TV Sponsorship, OOH, Radio (combo national and local campaign), Newspaper, Magazine & Online. Thanks.
Within each category you list, there is enormous variation in cpm, more than 10:1, so that specific selections could change the rankings. Also "national activity including local placements" is confusing and again changes the range. Different demographics change the realtionships, too. And different units also are important. But in general, the Guru would rank these from highest to lowest cpm as follows:
OOH will be lowest by a wide margin.
I need free photos to use in my brochure, where do I get them?
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/Media managment questions.
Due to the successful broadcast upfronts, many are now prediciting that cable will follow suit. My question is this - while there remains only 5 or 6 broadcast networks, there are now hundreds of cable channels, and this number is constantly increasing. How can we expect advertising supported cable to remain if there continues to be more and more channels for advertisers to spend their money? Certainly, the money will not come out of thin air, but rather will have to come from somewhere.
The Guru does not see the logical connection between sucessful upfronts (if you believe the networks' Wall Street-oriented hype) and a growth in the number of ad-supported cable networks / or problem in ad dollars.
Assume there exist a finite number of national Television GRPS out there to be sold. Several years ago, the existing 3 broadcast networks owned 90+% of them Today, it is perhaps 50%. This, in part, explains inflation in cost-per-GRP. Networks need to be able to price their GRPs attractively for advertisers and adequately to provide sufficient operating revenue. One solution is apparently more commercial time per hour.
If they can't operate efficiently, they will not survive.
What is Data planning
This is not a term the Guru has encountered in a media context.
After selling internet advertising, what would be a likely next career step, with a goal to work on the strategic part of the business, and who would I want to talk with?
Selling traditional advertising seems the logical step.
I would like to know...
How important, and how popular has internet advertising/internet listings become?
Are companies, mainly small business, interested in being listed on the internet -- such as a local directory which would link consumers to their web sites? If I were to sell the listings, is a fee of 1500/yr. a reasonable fee to be a predominant listed company in a category?
It will depend on category and traffic.
If the Guru were buying such a listing, he would expect at least 300,000 exposures for his listing at that price
Is there a company like CMR that tracks newspaper insert spending by account? Or is this just tracked internally by each newspaper? Thanks.
The Guru does not think there is such a service. Much of the spending on inserts is printing, which is done by the advertiser, unless they are just placing space within in an FSI.
As always a hearty thanks for your work on this fantastic site.
I had a question on research options.
Where can you find research on a companies competitors and their marketing strategies? Research on where they are advertising, what mediums and how much they are spending?
I know there must be some research group that tracks this info so any direction from you on who it may be would be much appreciated!
Dear Guru: Have you ever read a book entitled "The Ultimate Secrets of Advertising"? If so, any thoughts?
The Guru has not read it, but he considers the author, John Philip Jones, one of the most knowledgable and clear writers on advertising research.
Guru: Is there research available that discusses if you are targeting too many segments (mulitple targets within the same brand). What is the correct or acceptable balance. And how will your communication goals change based on so many messages.
The Guru imagines that this is a rare case. Research might be available from The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
where can i find media rates for new york
SQAD for radio and tv, visit the individual media for the rest.
what eductional qualification is necessary to have a career in media planning? I am an MBA (Finance), can I be eligible for a career in media planning?
In the US, almost any bachelor's degree is sufficient qualification.
I am working with a new client and need to do a presentation on media planning and buying. No problem. However, he also wants me to tell him "Why Advertising Works." I am planning on looking at some sales reports and doing some case studies, as well as looking at competitive sales in his marketplace. Can you offer any other suggestions on where to start?
Remeber to focus on why. You seem to be thinking of "whether." Look into theory, perhaps through The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Thank you for your response to question #5312 regarding local cable. I was wondering if other risks that might apply to buying local cable vs. national might include: 1) Where the ad appears within the program 2)Are enough ratings information available to do post-analysis on local cable buys? Thanks again for your help!
There is the risk of being shown among a group of "cheaper looking" strictly local commercials.
The Guru is not aware of cable-system-specific ratings being generally available. Local market ratings of specific cable programs are available when their audiences rise to reportable levels according to the ratings service's standards. Many local cable channels do not meet this standard most of the time.
what is the international channel of asianet called
There are numerous companies operating undert the name "Asianet." The Guru supsects that you are inquiring about Asianet Global.
Our agency has suggested moving away from a national cable buy and buying local cable instead. Our brand has franchises throughout the country, although there are certainly heavier pockets in some areas of the country - we are nationwide. The thought behind the switch is that we would be able to afford higher GRP levels if advertising is concentrated in top markets by franchisee. The agency believes that buying spot still engages a lot of waste, which is why they are recommending a time consuming, potentially more costly buy. They believe that matching cable systems to specific franchisees will produce better results. What, in your opinion, are the disadvantages to buying local cable? I know that we would lose rating guarantees, and sponsorships, but are there other issues as well?
Thank you for assistance.
The chief disadvantage which the Guru sees, in addition to those you have mentioned, is inefficiency. Local cable bought system by system is probably the least efficient form of TV.
It's a matter of ratios, though, and probably should be considered market by market. For example:
These are theoretical numbers and you have to look at the actual numbers for your market areas, including the comparison of a national buy to local cable. The Guru expects that local cable will be neither the most efficient nor lowest-cost choice.
How many cable stations are available in each of two counties in Michigan: Oakland County, MI and Macomb County MI
You need to track down local cable providers in these areas. Use the yellow pages, such as Yahoo.
Our company has recently appointed a new media planning agency. Are there any standard parameters on which the performance of planning agency can be evaluated? Since the planning agency is different from buying agency, the performance can not be measured on CPRPs or cost/spot etc. Secondly, is there merit in having separate agencies for media planning and buying? Your views. Thanks.
Assuming your communications and advertising goals are coming from yet another resource, you might set up some objective standards for how well your media plan answers these goals, translating into reach, frequency, impact, image building, etc.
The Guru believes that separating planning and buying somewhat limits the planning agency in the support it will get from the media sellers regarding packaging media deals.
There is some benefit in letting a good planner buy, but no inherent benefit in separating the processes.
Are there "out of the box" resource planning tools available for the media industry? If yes, which one's and which one do you prefer?
We are working on Statewide political campaign in Texas and would like to know the average cost per point for the third qtr of 2002 for the following markets: San Antonio, El Paso, Laredo & Midland Odessa.
In my heavy spending media test, the control markets will not receive advertising. Therefore what should I look for in the control market results when we ultimately compare pre and post scores?
This does not seem to make sense. A "Heavy Spending Test" is a comparison to a normal spending plan. If there is NO advertising in the control market, you lose your comparison base.
In any case, pre and post would compare increases in the heavy market to the control. Are you trying to drive awareness? Is the percent lift comparable to the spending increase? Have you projected sales in relation to awareness? Recall?
Is an online e-mail address directory available for all
of the various media companies? My publicist will be
contacting the various media very shortly and we're
trying to find as many media e-mail addresses as we
Thanks for your time.
If you mean a free one, the Guru thinks not. Try PR Newswire
The Church I attended is looking into placing a commercial on a Cable Network Station. Please provide me with any low cost media service companies in the Los Angeles area. My Pastor has received rates from AT&T Media Services, however, I'm sure there are other low cost providers.
See the yellow pages for cable companies and 'interconnects' serving your churchs' service area. Remember that cost ought to reflect numbers of subscribers and reach of announcements.
Is there any research available that shows that a commercial running in a Network break receives more attention that a commercial running in a local break?
Any thoughts would be appreciated.
To the extent that local breaks can be longer, some attention may be lost by later commercials. To the extent that local breaks may include more cheaply made, and lower quality local commercials, scores in those braks may be lower, but no because they are local breaks, Thre is no reason for the average consumer to be aware that a break is local.
For research, see The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I'm doing research for a client regarding national cable ad buys. is there a single source or sources where i can pull data such as ad rates and demograhic profiles?
You seem to be looking for cable companies which sell local ad time on their sytems. Try the yellow pages for Los Angeles. You need to find those local to your church's service area. A local "interconnect" which sells time across sevral cable systems might be too broad. Cost ought to be inreation to numbers of subscribers.
In one of your responses to advantages of media mix and multimeedia strategies u have mentioned "Better distribution of frequency of exposure" as the advantage of using a media mix
Can u pls elaborate on this
Thanks for the help
Each medium has heavier and lighter users. The heavier and lighter viewers of each medium duplicate at random, so that heavier print readers may be the lighter TV viewers. Consider the graph below, comparing a TV + print plan (1) to an all-TV plan (2). At the same budget, Plan 1 had a reach / frequency of 89.5 / 6.7 while plan 2 achieved 78.6 / 5.7.
Not only does plan 1 have better total reach and average frequency, but the portion of the target exposed to each number of ads (in the bar graph) is greater for plan 1. The proportional margin increases as number of exposures grows.
what are the best metrics for measuring:
1. When available, the best metric for effectiveness is sales or some direct measure of the ultimate goal. Sometimes the ultimate goal is a change in image or increse in awareness. These goals are almost never purely a result of media, except in controlled test scenarios.
2. Media efficiency is simply a matter of definition:
Audience achieved per dollar spent.
"Audience" may be expressed as thousands of impressions or rating points or sometimes, net reach
I'm a webmaster with exclusive Hollywood content and a nice audience in the tens of thousands. The daily, weekly, and monthly numbers are good, and most importantly, they're real. The main site is part of a large network, but I don't make good money from this network, and a HUGE portion of my advertising is going unsold. (All of the new sites I'm creating are pay sites and have no ads....)
What is the best way to move and sell the unsold ads. I think the best way is just to get on the phone myself and start making the calls. Where can a I get free lists of people to call and sell to? Where is a good resource or list of people or companies that buy internet advertising? What is the best way to reach these ad buyers and let them know I've got some places they might like to advertise?
First ask yourself, what is the value of "free" lists? "Tens of thousands" is not impressive to major advertisers looking for mass audiences, you need to find those whose message resonates with your content. If you want it "free" you need to do some legwork and identify advertisers who will most benefit by association with your content. Check other related sites and see who is advertising there.
I am writing a POV for a client on radio frequency levels. Are there any guidelines or general principles on weekly and 4-wk frequency goals for national radio? I haven't been able to find anything through the RAB.
There are many theories. Other than buying 12 spots per station per week, in local radio, there are few standard points of agreement, and even the 12 spot theory is not absolute.
For example, in some situations, such as Black or Hispanic radio, where ratings levels can be 8 or better; GRPS for 12 spotrs can be 100 or more and you are really buying reach more than frequency, attitudes about frequency will change.
Then, are you talking about spots-per-week frequency or average frequency of exposure? The answer will again change depending on what other media are in the plan.
The Guru feels that all this and more need to be taken into consideration, rather than look for general rules.
hi,Mr.Guru,I'm a newcomer as a media planner in an ad agency, i wanna log into an ad BBS to learn some info about media plan, would you like to offer me a list a famous ad or media BBS?Thx Tara
The Guru presumes you mean a web site; BBSs are passé. AMIC is the site you need.
Avoiding media jargon: provided client have 2 spot (each 30") and he would
like to hear recommendation of rotation. Particularly he asked of any
proven examples of tactics when one spot is placed 1st in commercial block
and the second spot is placed last in block- he called it "top-&-tail"
(any research saying it is more effective than random placing in block).
The other side of the story is - I suggested to rotate as follows: 1 spot
- any other commercial- 2nd spot- other commercials (I heard it is called
"consecutive spots". Both spots are in form of reportage- this connects
them and therefore I recommended such rotation. I read in couple of books
that qualitatively placing 1st /last in break is more effective, as peaple
switch to other stations after 1st spot and than come back likely at the
end of the block, but it was not proved by any examples, case studies,
which is requested by my client.
There is research showing first and last in break are more likely to be viewed. The alternate 'consecutive' might be more effective in awareness / recall building. among those who view the entire set.
So the first issue is to set a standard of "success."
Is it most viewers or most recall? Or is it really sales in resonse to audience size versus audience impact?
Best research resources are ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Dear Guru, I'm working in China - very complicated market and here rating is only available in limited markets. Could you help on how to project rating in non-rating available cities. Do you think that spot buy is better than mannual rating projection in these areas? Thanks in advance!
If markets have similar media available, you might assume same rating. The Guru does not understand the comparison of "spot buy" versus "manual rating projection."
I'm trying to convert a local media test campaign (TV, Cable and Radio) to national weight levels. Is there a conversion formula to follow for each medium?
The apparently logical formula, based on population percents simply doesn't work because of efficiencies of scale. The relative efficiencies vary from one medium to another. If you don't have some actual costs in each national medium to index against to your local costs, you will have to get them.
We've just landed a new client who is interested in running DR TV. The client is a novice in DR advertising, and I'm a novice in the start-up of a DR campaign. My question is, how do I determine how much of the buget to use/put in each market?
Lacking all other information, begin with market population and efficiency within your target group, and adjust according to observed response.
I'm doing a research project for school and would like to compare the costs of running an ad on TV vs. in a magazine vs. on the radio. Do you have general costs for these 3 types of ads?
You need to narrow down your specifications. Any of these media can have a cost from a few dollars to thousands. . . to over $1 million in a few TV positions. Important variables include ad length/size, geography and audience.
What is attention in media and how is it different from retention?
The Guru uses the term "attentiveness" for the measure he presumes you mean by "attention." Attentiveness pertains to the audience's relation to the medium or programs, dayparts, etc. It refers to how well the audience is focusing on the content. For example, to qualify attentiveness, research may ask, in reference to television viewing, is the respondent
Retention, on the other hand, pertains to the audeince's reaction to the message, determined by measuring how much of a commercial's content can be recalled at some point after exposure.
Which demo is largest on radio formatted classic rock
and oldies stations.
In both cases, it's 35-44. Of course, this can depend on how you slice the demos. For details see Arbitrons' latest issue of 'Radio Today': 2001.
Hi, do You know of any publishing companies/print
media which are using variable advertising pricing
according to the reach of the media so that fixed CPT
is offered instead of fixed rates? Are there any print
media where You can buy GRP-s?
If Yes; how is it done?
The physical form of print media don't really allow this. You may buy geographic pieces of circulation, demographic editions or A/B (every other copy) splits of the circulation. You seem to want a random placement akin to online.
You can evaluate print media by GRPs but not buy audience chunks this way.
Would you please tell me if PBS and NPR take sponsorships from citizen groups and/or political campaigns? I have been told by a local PBS station that they do not accept sponsorships of a political nature. Thank you, Susan McKay
If someone you want to buy something from says they don't sell that, there's a pretty strong case to believe they don't sell it.
It is likley that PBS / NPR would avoid political sponsorship, but they may be under the same obligation as any licensed broadcaster to accept politicaladvertising. It is also possible that different Public stations have different policies.
Hi, Guru. I work for a small agency that serves several regional clients. We have an opportunity for some national business which would require that we know how to plan and purchase network television. I've been buying spot for about 8 years, but have no clue how to even start a network campaign. How does one "learn" how to buy network? Are there workshops or seminars?
The Guru never recommends workshops. The best way to learn network buying is by doing it on the job somewhere that is engaged in the process. First evaluate whether the added network business will make it worthwhile to add an experienced network buyer to your staff. If not, plan to spend a day or so meeting with one or more of the network sales people you would do business with, for extensive discussions of specific details. Meet more than one, because networks promote different angles which work in their own favor. Keep in mind also that national cable and syndication have important differences from network.
I am looking for some help on determing ROI for a print media campaign I've had running for about 8 months. Unfortunately, I cannot include sales as we are a B2B company and our product is pricey (read millions of dollars). So advertising is not going to make the phone ring with sales but I would like to put something together to determine how effective the print campaign is at awareness/perception. Or at least reach/frequency. Is there any rules of thumb I can go by or incorporate besides just circulation and cost per pub? Thank you.
Click here to see numerous past Guru responses, posted for your reference, regarding estimating reach and frequency.
Awareness / perception may be a useful metric in evaluating a plan, but unfortuately you really need to have a benchmark base level from before the campaign began.
what is the importance of advertising and public relations to a business?
Two key elements in business success are that the potential customer be aware of your service or product and that the potential customer believes your service or product answers a need or conveys a benefit.
At the pushcart-on-the-street level, these processes may be completed by a sign on an umbrella, and the look or smell of the merchandise. Most businesses have larger aspirations.
what is advertising media?
The definition would be any means of exposing an advertising message to an audience. The scope runs from TV to matchbook covers to paper cups and skywriting.
DEAR Guru, advertising a car model can you explain the connections between the target market, the product and the communictaions campiagn?
also what are the ad/disadvantages of each method of media when preparing a media campiagn?
Most simply: Various brands of products have appeal to specific demographics. For existing brands, these ddemographics can be discerned by analyzing survey research, often syndicated studies such as MRI, Simmons and The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study. Proprietary, "custom" research is also used.
The working theory is that the best advertising target is people similar to current purchasers. New models or programs aimed at changing the purchaser appeal may have variants based on the profile of competitive models, speculation or other research, including qualtitative types.
Communications is then planned to reach the same target, and to place advertising in a supportive environment, that relates to the product, target lifestyle, image goals of the brand, etc.
For some comparisons of media, see the Guru's media strengths page.
The agency I work does not subscribe to CMR, so maybe you can help. Is there a site online that will give me current information on the current state of travel, particularily domestic. Also, maybe how the economy has affected that.
Would like to know your comments on a proposal received from a client regarding media agency compensation structure. The assumption is that media planning commission is at 1.5% and media buying at 1% of media costs
The client feels that since media Planning is done based on projected CPRP for the coming month. We should fix a band within which the CPRP can move. The variable portion of media planning commission can be linked to improvement in actual CPRP over projected CPRP.
Variable portion of media Buying Commission should be linked to buying efficiency. 50% of the saving in media buying cost or the variable portion whichever is lower should be shared with the agency
It seems to the Guru that all variable commission should be tied to buying, not planning. Planning does not impact the difference between projection and actual CPRP unless the agency is making the projections and deliberately projecting badly. If third-party projections are used, the idea makes even less sense.
What is the difference between program reach and program rating?
What is the difference between spot rating and spot reach?
Program rating is the average audience at a point in time during a program, expressed as a percentage of a target group.
Program reach is the total of different audience members accumulated over the duration of the program, which may be more than at one point in time. In another context, "program reach" may refer to accumulation of different audience members over multiple episodes of the program.
Spot rating distinguishes the audience of the commercial ("the spot") from the audience of the program. Channel switching may decrease commerical audience from in-program audience.
Spot reach is the accumulation of reach of the commercial over its schedule.
The above uses spot in its sense of referring to a commercial unit. A different meaning of "spot" distinguishes local airings from network / national airings.
If we are planning to introduce a new product to the mass market and want to achieve 30% awareness in the first year, What would be a good assumption in the planning budget for cost of advertising?
There are too many variables to answer this simply. Assuming the right creative and media mix and target and product, $10 million might be enough. Or $50 million might not be. It's much more than a media question.
We specialize in planning and buying b-2-b trade pub media. I would think a great client prospect would be companies who place media in-house. Do you know of a list anywhere that has contact info for companies that place their media in-house? Thanks for any help.
Where can I find market data on consumer spending? I am looking specifically for Retail Sales information by market on the East Coast. Thanks.
One source is Bureau of Labor Statistics
Hello, Can you tell me the exact meaning of "Media Segmentation"? How des this differ from Market Segmentation/Consumer segments? Thanks!
It's not a standard term, but the Guru takes it to mean the same as market sementation, applied to media users. I.e. demographics, psychographics and volumetrics of media audience and usage.
how much does it cost to advertise in a magazine, eg. Cosmopolitan?
The range is enormous, from well under $1000 to many hundreds of thousands, depending on circulation and ad unit. Cosmopolitan is in the range of $142,000 for a four color page.
MRI Plus is a useful tool.
What are the most scientific ways of measuring media inflation. How do we isolate impact of fragmentation and cost inflation in an exercise of this nature. Can u illustrate this with an example for a developing country with low levels of tv penetration
The Guru suspects that you mean something other than "scientific."
Media inflation is simply the increase in cost per unit audience (cpm or cpp) over time. There are just the two, hard-number elements, audience (e.g. rating) and cost.
One may track the two elements separately, graphing change in average rating (largely due to fragmentation), and change in cost per unit. The difference in slope of these two lines isolates the factors. The Guru does not have readily at hand a multi year track of these two factors for any developing country. In a developing country, the growth in media usage might offset fragmentation for several early years.
What are the most often used metrics to measure effectiveness of media investment.
Sales, awareness, purchase intent.
In reading over your recent answers, I noticed that I like many other readers might have information to suppliment your response.
For example, Q.#5249 asked about media mix impact for constructing a media plan. While I, and, I am sure, many other of your readers (and I might say fans) have built media mix models whereby this issue is explored, its not easy, fast or cheap. But it can be done. And we could tell the questioner how to approach the issue.
The point is that perhaps you would consider a communications vehicle within your scope whereby the rest of us might be able to contribute knowledge, experience, etc. Maybe an adjacent chat room?
This is not a bad thought. We have tried chat before, and unless a chat event is heavily promoted, we can't assemble enough people to address a given topic at a specific time.
The Guru does have an area where moderated reader / fan contributions are posted and credited. We would be delighted to have enough contribution here to build topical areas.
Please visit the Guru's 'Think Pieces'.
Contributions may be addressed to AMIC's publisher; Abby@Amic.com
A four part question-
It appears that except for premium & movie channels, that an "average" cable HH receives between 30 and 40 "normal" cable networks (A&E, FX, MSNBC, TNT, etc.) that are "ad insertable." Is that a fair assumption?
Second part of the question... If the first part is true, then an "average cable HH" still has many additional "ad insertable" channels to watch. Of all these "ad insertable" alternatives, what % of them (Share?) do think you feel these 30 to 40 get? (Yes, I know that the strength of each network varies by day part. So the "load" carried by one of the 30 to 40 varies.)
Third part, is this topic too esoteric when trying to understand the power of the normal cable network?
And how it affects advertising rates, programming aside?
Fourth, what other aspects of the power of "normal" cable networks should I consider when evaluating the ins and outs of investing advertising money on cable?
Taking your figure of 30-40 ad-insertable cable networks as correct, that only leaves a small handful of other ad supported channels available to the cable HH:
Depending on daypart, without consulting the latest Nielsen, Guru belives that the 30 or 40 get about 50% of the ad-insertable audience.
THe power of the individual cable network is still small, except within a specific sphere. ESPN is a power in sports, CNN is a power in news.
This relevance to the advertiser and consumer is a key consideration.
Where can I find a list of DMA's with the cable companies that service each DMA?
Where can I get reported spending infp for the major media.
Where can I find, or do you publish, an "industry standard" for click through rates. I need a bench mark and I see in various articles that the ctr is rising. What was it, what is it now and where do I find this information?
In the earliest days of the web, about 2% was considered the standard. Then research showed that this rate only held for new banners and that by the third exposure, rates declined below 1%. A year or two later, 0.3-0.5% seemd to be the norm. More recently, new and larger ad forms, such as 250x250 squares and 600 pixel tall "skyscrapers" have captured rates more like 2-3%. (See both formats on AMIC's top page).
NUA Internet Surveys will have articles reporting recent data.
Can you recommend an upcoming seminar to learn about
evaluating and buying online advertising? I have 15
years experience buying 'traditional' media; but need
to expand my knowledge to better serve my clients.
The Guru does not recommend media schools or seminars. You should find several advertised in the trade media from time to time.
Where can I find out about advertising regulations for television, print, the internet, outdoor, and cinema?
"Regulations" is a vague term. In the US, there are few laws regarding advertising specifically, outside of fraud concerns, and the Guru does not give legal advice. The various media outlets make their own rules regarding business dealing for media sales and ad content.
For a class project,I am doing a marketing research and advertisment project for a local community college. I have a 650,000 budget for advertising. I am in search for accurate costs and figures.
Start with SQAD
How much is it to show a commerical on T.V?
Guru, thanks for your prompt answer about the "ad manifest". I checked carefully the link for the Newspaper Association of America and the Montana Standard that you provided but there was no explanation of what the "ad manifest" is and no samples provided.
Could you help to find out what exactly "ad manifest" is and where I can get some samples?
Thank you very much
Ad manifest appears to be a listing of the ads scheduled to run in a day's issue. You might ask a newspaper for a sample.
what is the total cost of space or times for a 30 second radio spot in ny, and for an internet web site?
For radio, consult SQAD. Local internet costs generally range around $10 to $20 cost per thousand impressions.
what are the cost per insertions for a 30 sec. radio commercial in ny, on AURN-STRZ Ent. Net. from 3-7pm, and from 7pm-mid? does each network cost differently/
When you want specific costs for specific media, contact them directly, do not look for third party guidance. Keep in mind these are national media and will not have "New York" costs.
What is an "ad manifest" in newspaper advertising? Where can I find a sample of ad manifest?
According to Newspaper Advertising Association:
"The Montana Standard of Butte is experimenting with a similar approach. Developed by Novus Print Media, its adPOP software uses a daily ad manifest to automatically generate PDFs of page images and e-mail them to advertisers."
i'm working on a motor manufacturer's dealer campaign and need to know if you have any research regarding the ideal retail media mix? also, any case studies on dealer media strategies?
There are no useful ideals for generalization. Budget may dictate the best blend between tv / radio / print / outdoor, etc. Geographic needs may change the picture. The socio-economics of the target may change it as well. The manufacturer may have case studies from various dealers.
Where can I find current internet penetration per DMA data?
effective internet advertising pro's and con's
Start with the Guru's media strengths page.
how to go about planning effective enternet advertising
Internet planning is not a well established art. Everyone doing it has a theory. You might find a useful book in AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)
I´m trying to find information on non-traditional media. i haven´t found yet a web site nor a book which specializes on it. Do you where could i find information on non-traditional media (in spanish we call it "medios alternativos" which stands for alternative media)
By definition, alternative media are those which are unusual and non standard. There is not likely to be any one palce which organizes information. The range of matchbook covers, taxi-tops, toilet stall posters, logo-covered leased autos, skywriting, etc. is too broad and unreltateds. YOu will probably need to do internet searches on each potential form. There are likely to be articels with some good leads in trade media, like Adweek or Ad Age.
Where can I find the TV c/grp and c/000 for France?
Thanks a lot,
what is a "Bleed ad"? and what is a "Checkboard ad"?
Bleed means the copy goes all the way to (and off) the edge of the page, without any white border.
A Checkerboard ad is an arrangement of squares alternating ad material with editorial material, like the dark and light squares of a checkerboard. Typically, there are two quarter-page ads diagonally placed on the magazine page. There may also be facing horizontal half-pages, one placed at the top of the left hand page and the other at the bottom of the right hand page.
I just received an interesting question from a media planner. They were curious about SAP (secondary audio programming) that allows a suitably equipped TV to take advantage of foreign language translated programming (usually Spanish) for regular broadcast programming. Is this somehow bought separately? I assume that the commercials would be the same, so are they translated as well or just broadcast in English? Is this handled the same way as closed captioning? I've already done a topline websearch, but do you have any ideas on where we might find out more specific info about this in regard to media planning?
ABC experimented with this in the evening news for a while in fall 2000 (see Abbott Wool's Hispanic Market Weekly article, "SAP", and currently does Spanish SAP on the new George Lopez show. There has also been some local programming and network football. For the news, Hispanic audience was disappointing. Hispanics get more targeted news on the Spanish language networks.
The option to add Spanish sound tracks to the commercials at extra cost is offered to advertisers. Thus far, it's an experiment, not a full-scale media vehicle. Contact ABC for details
Hi Media Guru,
Our product is a toy box and our primary target is mothers of young children between 1-2 years of age. Our secondary target is grandparents and children.
1. What's the best way to reach our primary target?
2. Should we allocate media budget to target kids through cartoon shows on TV although the purchase takes place when they're too young to influence the decision?
3. We do not have access to either Simmons Choices II nor MediaMark, what would be an alternative to support our choice of titles/channels and to get reach and frequency data?
4. Is there a standard way to split the budget between priamry and secondary targets?
The Guru's recommedations:
Dear Media Guru,
Are there companies in the US (or worldwide) that specialize in evaluating TV programing? That is, try to analyze before a TV season which stations schedual has best chances to get the better ratings? which shows will do good and for what demographics? What would be a fare price? etc.
If so, How do I find these companies?
Ad agency and independent media buying services network departments all engage in this process.
I'm trying to find out if there are any studies about
ad placement in print and magazines.
Is placement on the right better then the left?
Is the begining of the magazine better then the end?
How much, in general, does internet advertising cost? Specifically, banners and intersitials. Also, how much is it, approximately, to create a web-site.
Currently the range is from a few cents per click to $200 per thousand impressions. $10-15 cpm might be an average for traditional advertisers on major sites.
The range to create web sites is even greater, depending on features. A one page display of good can be homemade for next to nothing using just your own time. A complex, ecommerce site, with audieo and video samples could cost upwards of $1 million to build and maintain.
how to buy cable locally
If you mean how to buy cable for individual markets, try SpotCable.
If you mean how to buy cable in your own market, contact your cable company.
Thank you so much for this GREAT website, really it was very helpful for us.
I have a question, I think it was previously asked but I couldn’t find the answer I want. How outdoor mediums are evaluated? Such as Mupi “Road Dividers signs”, Billboards, and 4X3 signs. We are from Jordan located in the Middle East and we have a software which we use to evaluate other mediums such as TV, Radio, and print but not outdoor.
I would really appreciate if you can work on this example:
From the software:
Total population is 2131000 (all the figures are from the software - research)
The TG audience is Married Females SEC ABC&D: sec = monthly income 200JD +
Total # of TG is 398,200 è 19% of the total population.
We are selecting 100 faces of the 4mx3m signs across the Capital City.
The total number of cars in the capital city “Amman” is 1,131,860 è 53%
The period of the campaign is 1 week.
I wonder if the above information might help you giving me the answer in evaluating this campaign and getting the figures for GRP’s , Reach , AOTS.
In anticipation of your kind reply & thanks in advance.
Generally, outdoor media are based on "DEC" or daily effective circulation, which is an estimate of the traffic passing the average posting and is oriented so that it can see signs. In the US, when Total DEC of a schedule equals the population, that is called a #100 showing or 100 GRP.
Techniques for estimating DEC vary from place to place and according to type of sign. A month of 100 GRP ought to have a reach of 95% or so. The Guru could not possibly have specific data on all the signage and demographic variants of all the countries in the world.
Dear Media Guru, Do you have any research or date that studied ideal budget allocation between main media and sub media? Or, How much of budget is good for sub media in order to maximize advertising impact?
One common rule of thumb is "use the primary medium up to the point where it becomes inefficient to add incremental reach." This rule works in reach oriented plans. Another might be ". . .until the submedium adds reach __% faster than more money in the main medium." A frequency or tonnage plan would have a different approach.
In any case, the rule will be based on media delivery measures, not some abstraction of budget percentage. The budget percentage split which results will vary greatly depending on the main and submedia involved, and the communication goals that define "impact".
I know there's a company that places newspaper ads for remnant/standby rates - I lost their name/etc. Can you help?
Try US Newspapers
Is there a posibility of having duopolies in INDIAN media market. For example having local cable companies buying local TV stations or newspapers buying TV stations in their market.Will this be a future media trend?
The Guru does not comment on legal issues. Try Indian TV trade media, like India's Satellite and Cable TV Magazine.
hi!i m from India.i need to know 3-4 trends that have emerged in the TV(as a medium)industry in the past 5 yrs.can u refer me sites from where i can get more info of this nature.thanx a ton
Try Indian TV trade media, like India's Satellite and Cable TV Magazine.
What are the total advertising expenditures in
Charlotte County, Floride
The source to check, if such data is available is
CMR (Competitive Media Reports). Advertising appearing in Charlotte county is probably bought for Sarasota or Ft. Meyers. The Guru doubts such specific tracking is available. Ocal outdoor or cable providers and perhaps smaller radio stations might have such records.
Any comparative CPM data on alternative media like, Taxi tops, park benches, shop carts, subway boards, in-store, etc.
Generally, the Guru believes these media are available locally and may not be similarly priced for the same type, from one place to the next. Start with a major vendor like TDI and begin to compile your own data.
My client is a Real Estate company with development in
Virginia. One such community lends to the homosexual buyer. We didn't want to use the Washington Blade as it isn't qualified real estate traffic. From what I understand Simmons corrdinated a study in 1996 toward the gay & lesbian lifestyle. My question is, what local or national publications, perferably with established real estate section, do homesexual adults patronize.? Please keep in mind if the pub is national, we would like to keep the CPM at a low as the client only has two communities that lend itself to this lifestyle.
How do you then get the agency to push your product...I get "your product looks great..if they ask I will show them" I send kits to prospects and they say they never heard of it...meantime teir agency was going ga-ga for it 4 months earlier. Agencies have no motavation.
(Apparently in follow up to query # 5215, below)
If the agency liked it, why wouldn't they send it to the client? There's no harm in sending a copy to the client attached to a cc on a follow-up not to the agency. Obviously, you are dealing with a client who considers their agency the gatekeeper in these matters. Antagonizing an agency in these circumstances will be your death warrant with this client.
what are grp's
Click here to see past Guru discussion of GRPs
Is it the same advertising in two totally different places? Where everything is different (culture, media, number of people etc.). Does the consumer react the same whoever he is?
Definitiely not. Take a simple example, such as US Hispanic advertising.
It is well established that advertising can not simply be translated and used otherwise unchanged. The cultural cues, and context, including everything from the look of sets and actors through how products are used, past consumer experience with the products, and flavor/scent prefernces make too many differences.
On the media side, reach levels of the various media are different, for instance Spanish TV has a four week potential below 70% of Hispanics for any reasonable schedule, radio has a higher potential, and magazines are not a strong medium at all, generally (with one or two exeptions) having circulation coverage only 10-25% as deep as the US general. market.
Newspapers compare similarly, with 10% HH coverage of a market being almost unheard-of.
Taking advertising from country to country raises even more problems.
Hello Mr. Guru....when trying to get a new outdoor media product in front of prospective clients...whats the best way to go? How do you get around the "call my agency" line?
What would be the point of "getting around the 'call my agency line'?"
If the client places outdoor through an agency then that's who you need to have behind your product.
Either thas client has no interest or really relies on the agency to recommend media choices. In either case, you waste your time and the client's by "getting around."
please tell me all about OTS (opportunity to see)
Click here to see past Guru responses about OTS
Guru . . . Is there a source for general, top-line numbers on day-after-recall scores on advertising for the various media?
The Guru doesn't think so, and it would be fairly useless. Day-after recall is really a measure of a piece of copy's ability to stand out from the surrounding media content.
Even then each research vendor maintained and offered the norms only for their own technique, where comparison would have some validity. Some major advertisers which conducted many such tests might have had proprietary comparisons.
There might be some broad-strokes comparisons available through
The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
what influence has John Philip Jones had on the subject of studies(advertising)? What is the value of his theories for the adveritisement business?
There are two ways to look at this.
One that Jones' influence is enormous, because he has pioneered in many standard-setting techniques, widely accepted by the more technically oriented advertising practicioners. or
Unfortunately limited because the vast majority of advertising decisions are made by those uninterested in or unaware of such tools, albeit more dollars may be spent with use of the tools.
Dear Media Guru,
Do you know of any studies or models that are standard for creating adjustment factors based on the attentiveness of one daypart over another? Any help you could give would be great!! Thanks in advance.
Generally this is a simple process. One typically sets a specific daypart as the standard (often Primetime) and make Primetime attentiveness = 100. The the relationship of attentiveness in other dayparts is indexed to Prime's.
Hi. Where do you see the internet heading? do you see it becoming an everydoy tool like the thelephone and people getting charged by the minute?
For many, if not most, users the interent is an everyday tool. Charging by the minute was where it started, and the movement has been towards flat-rate pricing.
If, perchance, you mean per-minute usage charges by sites, this is unlikely. There has been great resistance to subscription basd web sites. Free competition will likley continue to challenge fee-based sites successfully.
Delivering an actual service, like eTelmar, as opposed to simple information, may become a valid busienss model.
Who does the advertising for nascar.
Is there any data to suggest the affect of subtitles in viewerships of foreign films in a local territory?
This has probably been researched. Try ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization or The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter.
What television shows do 18-22 year olds watch?
Standard demos are 18-21 and 18-24, but ask Nielsen.
Are there any advertising research studies on the effectiveness and recall of :60 spots vs. :30 spot lengths.
Yes. Try the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Can I find national cable network rate cards on the internet (say at rep firms' web sites) or do I need to call each cable network time rep firm to get a national rate card?
Some cable networks might have rate information on their sites, but in electronic media, rate carts are often meaningless. Often, so is the first information provided by the salesperson, but this is the place to start.
is there a standard ratio between media spend and media tools? said another way, does spending on media research tools typcially represent x percentage of media budget? i am a media planner at kenneth cole. we are a small in house agency with no research tools and i am trying to figure out if it is cost effective for me subscribe to telmar and mri.
The Guru doesn't believe there is a standard. The pricing of research reaches a cap well below the totola billings of some of the giants, so averages would not be meaningful.
You need to look at the media decisions you will make, and the cost of potential errors or misjudgments that could happen without the tools. Particularly with a concentration in print, the tools you mention should easily pay for themselves.
To keep costs down at first, begin with the pay-per-use option of our parent company's eTelmar.
What happened to the section on the site that included information from Media Dynamics publications -- like TV Dimensions. In that book there is a summary of Pros/Cons of major media thatI am looking for. Do you know of any other place where such a summary exists.
how do cable company time reps interface with cable network time reps? Do they overlap, cooperate, ignore each other?
Different commericial positions in the hour are allocated to national or to local sales. "Ignore" is probably the best description to chose from your list.
Re: cable network time reps., does each network have its own rep or are there rep firms that sell time for a stable of cable nets?
Generally, each national network has its own sales force.
How many commercial minutes are in one hour of cable time?
It varies by source and time. There may be up to 20 non-program minutes in an hour.
in the calculation of Share...rating%/usage%...where is usage found? ..or how do you calculate usage??
Usage is generally labelled "homes using television (HUT)," or "persons using radio (PUR)" or something similar and is found in the same audience resources as are the ratings.
what is a trp?
Click here to see the Guru's description and definition of TRP
Why is research important to media planners
Why are weights and measures important to a chef? Why is arithmetic important to a CPA?
A media plan is decribed in quantitative terms generated through research, particularly as regards the amount and nature of communication or audience impact.
Have you ever heard of the company audio track? Could be spelled audio trac or trak. We are stuck...we think it is an audio advertising tracker.
You may be thinking of Voicetrak
hi.Mr Guru, i'm a greenhand of ad sector, would you like tell me some ad institutes with some resource?
many many thanks
Try ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I am a student and I am working in a Marketing Project. This refers to develop an advertising plan for beer sell so, could you e-mail me information about what I have to consider and the cost of each publicity option that I could use?
How much of a marketing budget should be spent on media. I know that it will differ with each individual client and industry, but is there a "rule of thumb" for budgeting purposes?
I am looking for adjustment factors so that I can adjust the impression delivery of a program - reflecting the various ad sizes and positioning and so forth for the various sponsorship levels involved
Such factors range from the simple arithmetic ratios for length of commercial to highly subjective judgments, for the value of billboards, signage, product placement, etc. Judgment is just that: judgment.
Hey, Media Guru! You're the best. My question is this: what is a typical media rep commission for an advertising rep who sells ad space for a magazine (in other words the magazine doesn't employ its own ad sales people, but employs an outside media representation firm to sell their ads). What is a typical financial arrangement for this kind of thing?
It is probably 15-20%, on average, with infinite variation in deals and compensation rates.
What is the average cable network CPM?
You need to specify a demographic, at least. You may find cost guides at AdWeek
I am trying to find research companies doing modeling on what factors affect sales : considering everything from advertising, marketing, promotions, merchandising, the economy, etc..... for a particular client. What research companies can I contact?
Try A:S Link and BASES.
Dear Media Guru,
I am a brand new Research Director for the sales department of a tv station (new to the whole industry as well!). The MediaCenter Online has been an invaluable resource to me and I'm wondering if there are any other similar sites for general research purposes. Any suggestions are greatly appreciated. Thanks so much for taking my question.
There are many web sites with various research offerings, but none of which the Guru is aware that parallels AMIC, just for research.
You might go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use "research" as your search term, to find other useful sites.
What does the term "half life" mean and how is it calculated?
The actual term "half life" refers to the time it takes half of the radioactivity in a radioactive object to decay. The Guru is not aware of this term as a standard media usage, though it might be applied to something like awareness decline after advertising stops.
What research is there available that discusses the link between media plans and brand awareness?
I'm doing research who sells space on today's electronic media, how its sold and how much these salespersons get paid. Can you point me in some meaningful directions? The whole subject has become very overwhelming to me, especially in today's media conglomeration market. Thanks.
Start with The Internet Advertising Bureau
I need to have a better understanding of STARCH testing for newspapers. Where can I get pertinent information on this subject?
A frined of mine is looking to get into this crazy business and has been looking for some "white paper" as she puts it, on the organization of an
advertising agency with some basic definitions of buying and planning.
If you can recommend a resource, it would be greatly appreciated.
Try the American Association of Advertising Agencies, as well as the Guru archive here.
Can you help me with finding some researches of impact of different POS materials, which of them I should advise to my client?
Consult the trade association, POPAI Point of Purchase Advertising International.
My company is ready to sell advertising on its online vehicle. What's the best way to find the appropriate contacts for advertisers? How should I go about finding the folks who make buying decisions? And what are the immediate hurdles I'll be facing?
AdWeek Directories is a resource listing agencies of advertsers.
Your key hurdles should be proving you have an audience and how that audience or your content is right for a specific advertiser.
Where might I find a template or "standard" contract for advertising sales for online media? Specifically, I need a contract that would cover both HTML Email banners and banners on web sites.
I am trying to find radio CPM/CPP rates by radio station in the Los Angeles area. I have looked at the SQAD data, and it only aggregates the rates for all of LA, and not by station.
Market guides, like SQAD, are useful are practical because they follow predictable, broad trends and reflect surveys of recent, actual activity. However, individual stations experience much more variation in audience from quarter to quarter and are much more subject to marketplace forces, varying budgets and inventory pressures. In a market like LA, it is far more difficult than it's worth to track realistic, individual "cost per ___" prices for the many possible demographics.
The only practical solution is to contact and negotiate with the smaller group of stations with which you might actually do business and talk about the one or two demographics in question.
Do you know of a primer for understanding radio advertising and how it is purchased? I am trying to learn about terminology and the dynamics of the industry such as the different pricing methods (CPM/CPP, Direct Response, etc).
Can you tell me the total national spot radio revenues for the U.S. for year 2001? Thanks.
See "Coen Report"
I'm familiar with Spot TV and Spot Radio, but is there such a thing as Spot Interactive?
Spot TV and Spot radio refer to these media at a local versus national level. Some web sites can segment local geographies and some target only local areas, but the comparison to spot broadcast media is tenuous.
A recent Forbes.com survey measured internet use among
"C-level executives". Where does this term come from,
and how is it defined? Thanks. SSmith
This refers to executives with one of those three letter titles beginning with "C:" CEO, COO, CFO, CTO, etc.
Unfortunately, this kind of title has becomne so prevalent, the "C Level" qualification doesn't mean much more than Senior VP once did.
In developed media markets, media buying moves from FCT at flat rates (Free Commercial Time- secondages available for airing commercials) to cost per rating points to ?
- cost per million?
The Guru doesn't quite follow your premises
Let us assume that the US is the epitome of "developed media markets."
There is no process moving from free to CPP to cost per million (or cost per thousand). And how would the term "flat rate" even relate to "free?"
Or did the Guru not understand your question?
How many ads does it take to make an impression? to generate a response or action?
The media term "impression" means one exposure of one ad to one member of the universe.
Tradition says it takes three exposure to genrate recognition and action.
It really varies depending on category, medium, message, copy quality, and other factors.
What are some new forms of interactive media
The latest buzz centers on ads delivered to cell phones, PDAs and pagers. The Guru feels that these will be categorized as SPAM and fall into disrepute if widely used.
What is a GRP
Click here to see past Guru responses defining GRP
Guru: What are the limitations of outdoor, transit, consumer magazines and newspapers?
how do you find the reach?
Click here to see past Guru responses about media calculations
what are the costs of advertising in media's such as television, radio, newspapers, banners in United Kingdom?
where do i find publications across the five
how do i best explain reach and frequency to a new media student
The Guru doesn't see the difficulty. Reach is the number of Different persons exposed to advertising, expressed in simple numbers or as a percentage of a target audience. Frequency is the number of exposures experienced by those who are reached.
Click here to see past Guru responses on the topic.
Erwin Ephron said (1997), “The trend to media buying consolidation has fed the independent media auditing business. Multi-agency competition no longer provides points of comparison. A media audit is professional and definitive: Count the dollars, check the schedules, add the ratings, compare results to industry averages and grade the agency of record pass or fail - except audits miss the mark. ” Could you please tell me the current situation about the independent media auditing business in the USA (and UK) and list some of the representative brands in this field (with their websites)?
The Guru does not see that this has become a major business area; possibly because it is seen as a one-shot fix, and is most relevant to very large advertisers.
The Guru believes the service you are thinking of is generally performed by the large independent media services, like SFM Media/MPG or Carat. By "independent" the Guru means those not operating as an offshoot or division of one of the major agencies.
What's specific and exeptional about media planning in the US if at all?
This question depends on what is being compared. Planning depends a great deal on which media are available and commercial and how they are sold, which varies widely from one country to the next.
One big difference US planners face is dealing with a country made up of over 200 distinct geographic media markets, versus the handful found any other country.
I am talking with my friend and we are trying to figure out a definite definition of composition vs coverage (usually in magazine planning)....we always get so confused...help!
OK, I am interviewing for a position that requires me to remember everything from my days as a media planner. Problem is, it has been a year and a half since I have planned radio, TV, and print...any ideas on where i could find materials that would serve as a good refresher course. I know the knowledge is still in there, it just needs to be woken up. Thanks a million!
Try a media planning text from AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)
I am doing research on the correlation of Ad Response by DMA (as derived from marketing mix models) to traditional sales measures (BDI/CDI/Growth Trends) and have some interesting findings. My question relates to spot buying tactics and if the list below is exhaustive:
1) Opportunistic--Strong CDI Weak BDI
2) Share Defense--Basically opposite of above
3) Spend to Business--more of an allocation strategy as opposed to a market selection
4) Impression weighting--Like number 3 but takes into account viewership
Am I leaving anything off (especially sales based metrics) or not characterizing it correctly.
All of your tactics are presumably based on total market delivery, that is accounting for national media weight and bringing the market in line with a goal based on one of your ways of setting market levels.
Other possibilities include looking at spot on its own and at the other extreme, taking into account a complete media mix. One tactic more in line with your probable intent of allocation or level setting strategies might be Share of voice or other tactics based on competitive activity.
are there average click through rates for
internet banners, specifically in business to business sites?
The bigger ad serving firms, like DoubleClick probably have this sort of data.
What are the biggest media groups and print media groups in the US?
AOL-Time Warner, Viacom, Disney, News Corporation
How exactly do advertisng agencies go about targeting thier audiences for the ads that they create?
As a broad generalization, information is compiled from various sources describing the prospective purchaser of the product or service.
When this information is understood, media planners match the natures of the audiences and environments of the various media to determine where the best fit exists for the advertising.
what are the:
(1)planning and strategy
(4)kinds of print advertising
of advertising media???
The Guru interprets your question to be about the campaigns used by the ad media for self promotion. Your best path is to search for this information in the trade media, such as Ad Age.
where can i find information about the influence of lifestyle data in media planning and strategy
Thank you Media Guru for your response to my last question. Now I have a another one for you: A hypothetical advertising situation I'm working on
involves a client who wants to invest in some
specialty advertising, specifically pencils, coffee
mugs, toy tractors and other things of that nature. Is
it possible to determine the reach and frequency of
such a medium?...or are reach and frequency better
left to descriptions of broadcast, print, and other media
The first step in measuring reach and frequency is defining the target so that you can eventually say that "X" number or "Z" percent of this target has been reached. In your hypothetical, the number might be the quantity distributed, but it will depend on how well the distribution is controlled to go to the target and to prevent duplication.
Direct mail is not a good analogy, because that depends on percent who open/read to filter the reach.
I'm seeking some guidance on planning and buying local cable tv advertising and how it relates to local network tv placement. For example, many of the smaller markets we are researching do not have cable ratings available. Is it safe to use the nearest DMA available cable ratings as a guideline? Also, does Nielsen offer cable ratings, and if so, is it standard practice to post cable networks against these projections? Also, does a national guide of cable providers exist, that enable you to look up a specific geographic region and identify cable providers in the area? Is there any type of reference guide of sorts that could assist me in cable tv planning in general? Thanks.
What is the difference between TRP's and GRP's? Thanks.
The Guru has addressed this question often. Click here to see past Guru responses
What do the taxes look like for media buyers across the US-Canadian border: 1) if a US buyer buys Canadian media 2) A Canadian buyer buys US media. Thank you
The Guru does not believe there are any special taxes in either situation, but does not give legal advice.
How can I find a website that is visited by a high volume of men aged 40-50 who make over $75,000 annually?
One resource for this sort of data is MediaMetrix.
Media Guru - if you are already using SOV and SOD models, is there a way to determine share of EFFECTIVE voice? And How does inflation/deflation effect SOV?
When you use possibly idiosyncratic terms, the Guru is less certain that his response addresses your actual query.
The Guru will assume for the sake of this answer that by "SOV", you mean share of messages/ GRP/impresions being delivered in the category and by "SOD" you mean share of advertising dollars being spent in the category.
Therefore to compare effective SOV you must begin by assigning relative weights to messages depending on the media type and ad unit, so that if a TV :30 has an index of 100, perhaps a TV :10 has a value of 70, a Radio :60 has a value of 80, A newspaper full page has value of 90, a magazine 4 color spread has a value of 120, etc. (these are NOT recommended values, just for the sake of example).
Then by applying these indices to impressions measured in each medium and unit, you can calculate a Share of Effective Voice.
Since SOV is calculated for a specific, measured period of time, inflation/delation shouldn't be a factor.
The target market is men aged 40-60 living in the metro Detroit area in Michigan, USA, who make over $75,000 per year. Is it cost effective to advertise on the internet?
First you will probably need to use a more standard age cell, like 45-54 or 35-64. Then, your answer depends very specifically on whether you can
It is possible that a site meant to be rather general in fact is somewhat selective for your target, for example, The Detroit Free Press.
What would you call the advertising technique whereby a manufacturer creates a character to sell a product, i.e. Madge for Palmolive, Mr. Wipple for Charmin, or the teenage boy recently used in Dell commercials?
Can you think of any more examples of such characters?
Not a media question, but the Guru says "what the heck:"
Product spokeperson / mascot perhaps. Distinct from celebrity spokeperson. Including
I am a student trying to target the affluent for radio advertising. Is it possible to obtain reach and frequency when I don't know exactly how may individuals are in this market. Thank you. Looking forward to hearing from you soon.
If you think of reach and gross impressions in thousands, then there is no problem; if you want Percent reach, then obviously you need to have an estimate of the size of your target universe.
Scarborough is a resource which can provide universes and percent reach estimates for an affluent audience, if you can define affluent in concrete terms, e.g. HH income over $100K.
What is the effectiveness of Billboards?h
Effectiveness varies according to how well your selling point can be expressed within the limited copy a billboard allows, how well an impactful graphic supports your message and how well placed your billboards are.
The Guru believes billboards can be very effective and recommends them often, as appropriate.
I need the GRP (gross rating points) for a national ad. Im talking
about advertising a commercial nation wide. I need the national rate
at which the cost would be
A national ad must be defined further for a specific answer.
The Guru will assume you are talking about television. But the specific demographic is important. Whether your ad runs on cable or network and in what daypart is also crucial.
A national ad could have a rating of less than 0.1 or over 20.0. The cost could range from a few hundred dollars to a few hundred thousand dollars.
where can I get an education in online advertising in the
Guru . . . Is there a published source where one might determine the demographic selectivity of the various media types?
Guru . . . Is there a no-cost source of very basic (age, sex, income, household size, etc.) demographic information by market? Thanks.l
If an advertiser cuts their typical TV schedule in half for three months, can we guage any residual effect in the following three months even if they return to normal levels.
One old rule of thumb was that about 10% of the previous week's awareness is lost each week without advertising. A collateral rule was that about 10% of the GRPs were added back to reach if some advertisng ran.
So, if awareness was 80% and you had been running 100 GRP per week, after one week without advertisng, awareness would fall to 72%. But if you ran 50 GRP instead of nothing, you could gain back 5 points.
Obviously, this scenario will always show an awareness loss in any week with less than 100 GRP, no mattere the ratio to prior weeks GRPs. It is overly simplistic, but may be directionally useful.
In building reach for a retail chain we have put the emphasis on daily targeted campaigns featuring high TRP levels. For example 350 trps over two days.
Would we be better off to spread this over one week.
Would the reach be any higher.
Can you show me the difference in reach of 350 trps over two days, one week and four weeks.
The answer will depend upon target, daypart mix and other variables.
Broadly, some expanison of schedule days increases reach, by virtue of the opportunity to catch people whose media use habits vary over different days. Differences in shopping habits will aslo impact effectivness. Spreading too far may diminish reach if you concentrate in fewer dayparts.
Reach differences should be small if nothing else varies. Effectiveness is also sustained by the frequency change which will balances any reach change. You need to play with schedule variations in some felxible media software, such as eTelmar's.
Dear Guru! Sorry for unclear question about media mix. I would like to know is it a possibility to estimate the whole advertising campaign in different media by using common indexes (GRPs, frequency, reach etc) if there are no data from the same source - people-meters (TV), diary (press and radio)?
Yes. It is a standard procedure to combine media and has been for decades. There are some basic assumptions of statistical overlap, making a crude combination through probability arithmetic fairly indicative, and making modern media software, such as that offered by Telmar, reasonably specific.
Which media is most often used by the Affluent market?
Probably TV, like any other segment. You probably meant to ask a more specific question, but a good resource is The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study
Guru - I have a client who wants to move the needle with product sales via a newspaper only campaign? Is there a suggested frequency/times per week/campaign length for this single medium campaign to generate sales? Thanks.
The answers will vary by ad size, product category and many other elements. Consult The Newspaper Advertising Association
Dear Media Guru,
It's been a while since we have asked a question and we're not exactly sure if you can help. We are trying to research cold sores and any geographic skews in their occurences. Specifically, we would like to see if particular markets/regions have more incidents of cold sores than others. Do you know where we may find such information? Any and all suggestions would be very helpful....Thanks in advance!!!
television versus radio
Dear Guru, what survey do you think would be able to provide information on A21+/Owners of Businesses with 100 or less employees/with a dedicated website/who are members of a wholesale club. I'm not sure who to contact, my boss mentioned MRI but I don't know if that can answer the question of small companies with dedicated websites. Any help is really appreciated. Thanks.
The Guru doubts there is useful syndicated survey research on this demographic. MRI identifies business owner as an occupation. This could be crossed with the number of employees at the company where the respondent works and whether the person shops at a wholesale club. There is no data on whether the company where the person works has a website. If all this data existed, the sample of responsdnets who fit would probably be far too small to examine media or purchase behavior.
Intelliquest might cover the website question but not the wholesale club, and again drill down to a too-small sample.
You might find that the wholesale clubs can isolate the people you want on a direct mail list they would sell you.
What is the most effective advertising to reach a Senior Target - Adults 55 and over with Income under $17,000/yr. The product is apartments, the market is Greenville County, South Carolina. The budget is only $10,000. What do you recommend other than Sunday Real Estate Newspaper Ads that will be efficient and effective?
Even assuming that your prospects are all local, the budget doesn't seem serious. You might afford 200 GRP of radio or a similalry indeaquate local cable scehdule. If your prospects might be northerners looking for retirement homes, which seems unlikely at that income level, small space national magazine ads in smaller, senior-oriented magazines might be effective.
Bottom line, you need a real budget, or you're stuck in the real estate section and maybe pennysavers.
I am doing a paper for school on Nintendo Gamecube and I need to report the amounts spent on each advertising medium, ie. television, magazines... Where would I find this type of data? Brianna
Is there a software program for print media buying equivalent to TapScan? We are a small advertising agency that currently buys media in sevarl local markets around the country. We are looking for software that would provide us:
1. a listing of all available print media in each market.
2. the data so that we can compare what is best suited for our clients
3. an actual print buying placement component.
Is there such an animal?
and if so, owuld appreciate the name(s) and contact info.
You want a listing of all media, audience data for the media and issuance / maintenance of buying records.
One obstacle you will face is that, just like Tapscan, these systems depend on media being listed in syndicated data which you must buy the rights to use, otherwise the systems only process media information which you input yourself. Local print media audience data do not genrally include "all" options. Particulary for weekly, pennysaver and alternative print, data collections can be quite spotty, but developments are constant, so contact these suppliers.
I need to find a company who will try to sell my idea and product and also take a commision from the profit. How can I find these companies?
There are media which sell advertising on a "per-inquiry" basis. This means that they will carry your ad for a fee based on how many calls are generated. Most often this is strictly based on the calls, not the sales or profit. The rest of your question goes well outside the bounds of media.
What is media effeciency rate in terms of buying time for infomercials? I've been told the goal is to achieve a rate of 1.
The Guru wonders, "1 what?"
Infomercials are relatively expensive, because they are longer in format than ordinary commercials, even if traditionally priced at "half the rate" of non-direct advertising. Because the lengths vary and demand pricing plus preemtability are factors, the Guru does not recall having found pricing standards for this form.
When translating a national theoretical plan into local markets, can you explain the difference between
"little usa" v. "as it falls"
Click here to see past Guru responses about Little US and "as it falls."
I am the media director in an agency that is 90% print. The presedent of the agency, (who knows little about media) has mentioned in meetings in front of me, my staff and the rest of the agency that media is like dinasour and is becoming exstinct. I am very offended by this. This morning she asked me to present in a dinasour costume. I have a broadcast background where bying TV and radio is a true skill, I realize that print is less technical and "anyone can do it". How do I respond to this? What trends should I be aware of to keep my department on top of their game and useful. I have a hard time addressing this with her because when she says it, I cannot remain composed.
1. Get into the spirit of things and tell your boss you'll present in a dinasaur costume if she'll wear her jackass costume.
2. In the Guru's opinion, print is more "technical" than broadcast. Extensive analysis of each environment (title) is typical and appropriate in ways that individual broadcast programs or stations are never analyzed in media plans. Reading and interpreting ABC or BPA statements should be more of a contribution than presenting R&Fs.
You should probably look more deeply into what the boss means about your department, is she just trying to get your goat? What kind of boss even keeps a department she truly finds useless?
Dear Guru, how can I appriciate the effectiveness of media mix (TV, press and Radio)?
The Guru is unclear on what you mean by "appreciate."
Among the benefits of media mix are
I am doing a paper for school, and need an A to S ratio for Clairol Herbal Essenses. Also, I need to find out how much of their sales is due to advertising.
Where would I be able to get this info, or would you be able to provide it for me?
Trade media occasionally report A:S ratios. Otherwise there are often trade media reports regarding sales and ad spend, from which you can make your own calculation.
The Guru doubts that any marketer can specifically and validly attribute a portion of sales to advertising (except in the case of Direct Response). As George Washington Hill of American Tobacco is reputed to have quipped:
"I know half of my advertising is wasted, I just don't know which half"
I am working on finding TV programs that high-net-worth audiences watch. My client is an Investment bank and we need to find certain programs that target our audience. Do you have any suggestions?
I plan & buy all forms of media for a small agency with mostly local clients. We buy TV & Radio only in our state at this point. Do you think it is worth getting media buying software or is relying on reps at this level sufficient. If you think software is the way to go, which would you recommend for a very small agency?
You can always get audience data from reps. You need to consider whether they will manipulate the data the way you want it, and what to do when they aren't fast enough for an urgent need, if you have such.
Dear Guru: In the money flow from advertiser to medium, how does the buyer get paid ? Does the buyer first build his own stock of media spots, which he then sells to the advertisers at a premium ? Or does he get a transaction fee for putting the former and the latter in touch ? Thanks
To oversimplify, the norm is that the buyer acts as the agent of the advertser, purchasing media to specification. Traditionally, the media have a "gross" price which includes 15% commission for the agent.
These days, there are numerous variations.
For Spot Market Radio only (not TV), when utilizing a
"produced" fifteen second (:15) piece of creative (that clearly delivers the client's desired message), do you adjust the time period AQH rating down because the spot lenght is less than the standard :60 unit or do you give it the full AQH rating? These produced spots are not billboards or sposorships. I realize in TV that the rating is not affected by spot length. Thank you.
Why would the rating be affected by length in radio but not TV? Rating, in any medium, is purely about the number in the audience. Any adjustments the planner applies to the rating, based on effectiveness or attentiveness, according to audience reaction or response, etc. do not change the size of the audience.
What is the latest television ad spend for the US and how does this compare with the UK and other countries?
See "Coen Report"
Dear Guru, why are the ad sizes for newspapers so different and confusing? What are the most popular ad size standards for weekly newspapers? Thank you
Most daily newspapers have standardized on a few sizes, described at the Newspaper Advertising Association site. The Guru finds that many weeklies follow these standards.
I buy spot television in a DMA in which there is a local WB affiliate that is a local cable origination station Nielsen has ratings for the programming on this station and lists it with the other affiliate stations. So this WB station argues that it's "just a regular station" and a 2.5 rating on their station is the same as a 2.5 on the NBC affiliate. How can this be? Cable and spot are not of the same universe and this station is only carried on 1 system (there are over 20+ DMA wide). I have posed this question to my Nielsen rep as well as the planners at my agency, and no one can come up with a good explanation.
If this station is being reported in your local DMA NSI report, next to to other stations, then its 2.5 IS the same as 2.5 on the NBC affiliate. Its rating might be much higher against its limited subscriber universe, but the NSI report reports against the DMA.
Hi, Guru. I am Media Director at a very small agency but came from a mid-size media buying service that had all of the bells and whistles you need to plan, buy, etc. I don't have any of those things anymore. So, mostly I rely on the internet and data that I can gleam from reps. Other than reading your forum and reading various trades, what do you suggest is the best way for me to continue my education in the media world? I've been in the biz for 8 years, but I feel like our agency's lack of large budget clients is reducing my ability to plan and buy media effectively (particularly broadcast). I've become the Queen of local marketing, but feel that I've lost the edge when it comes to the "big stuff".
There are texts, of course, but to stay current, read the trades and meet regularly with reps of various media to discuss what's happening.
How to obtain U.S. radio station affluent listeners for
Do you know of any sources, books, etc that outline how to analyze a BPA statement? I know the basis premise of what the numbers say...but I am interested if there is a way to really "dig-in" to the numbers acutally meaning or effect on whether or not they should be utlized. Thanks.
You will find considerable guidance on the BPA site.
I have a National Cable TV plan that we estimate will deliver a reach/frequency of 33/5.5 if run for four consecutive weeks. I have 7 networks planned. My question is this: What would happen to reach and frequency if I scheduled the same 180 GRP's as two weeks on, two weeks off, two weeks on. My estimate is that the reach may increase slightly.
On the theory that there are always a very few people who do not watch in any finite period, but may be caught across a longer period, you are probably correct. The opportunity to capitalize on this aspect of reach is probably better by spreading the weight over the same weeks than by flighting, but the differences are likely infinitesimal.
As a student I have really enjoyed the media planning aspects of advertising. I will graduate soon but have never had an internship. As is, do I stand a chance of finding a job in media planning without intern experience?
The Guru is confident that most planners never had an internship. Many didn't even study media planning in college.
I am currently work as a Media Planner in the US and looking to relocate to London to get some media experience abroad. I would like to research the advertising market conditions in London before I decide to move there, can you please tell me the names of some UK or London Advertising & Media Trade Publications & Websites. Can you also tell me the best way to go about finding a Media Planner job in London. Thank you, firstname.lastname@example.org
See Campaign Magazine (there are links to several UK trades here). The best way to get a London job may be to contact the US office of an agency with a London office; still better if the agency where you now work has such an affiliation.
Dear Guru: i am media planner in Colombia and I´m trying to convince a client (femenine protection) to use RECENCY planning, but i have some doubts, i wonder if my brand have many products (8) that use the same brand name i can plan Recency for the whole brand? i mean, the trp´s i use for each product can i cummulate them assumming is for the general brand? I have a very good budget, i have 19.000 trp´s for the whole brand, and is enough to be the entire year.
2. Do you know some case study about a brand in femenine protection that has used recency?
With 19,000 GRP ( 365 per week), the Guru doesn't think recency will be a brand issue.
There is a judgment to make outside of media issues regarding whether the relationships between the various products form haloes around one another or if their messages are so different that they need separate communication goals.
If the products were entirely complementary, for instance, napkins, belts, panty liners, douche and deodorant, then they could be considered complementary. If they are more competitive, e.g. tampons vs pads, or have very different targets, e.g. teens versus women 50+, then the rub-off is less valid.
I am planning a magazine campaign which is over a period of 6 months with a reach emphasis. Can you please explain how the frequency builds along with reach.
Each magazine has a rating. The rating is equal to target readers ÷ target universe. GRP = sum of the ratings of all the insertions.
The first insertion will have reach equal to its rating points and a frequency of 1.0.
When GRPs accumulate, Reach increases at a decreasing rate, as in the curve below.
A print reach "curve" builds more quickly at first; especially when there are more different titles and less so when there is repetition in fewer titles.
GRP ÷ Reach = Frequency. Frequency, if graphed, would be a straight line.
Click here to see past Guru responses about recency.
When did NAPTE start and why has it fallen out of favor? Thanks.
The Guru assumes you mean NATPE (National Association of Television Programming Executives) and refer to declining convention attendance. It would seem that all conventions have declined wiht the economy.
Blade worldwide is one of the top monitoring agencies for outdoor advertising based in UK. I could not find any URL on the internet for this company. Does it operate under a different name. Or else could you tell me the names & urls of outdoor monitoring services in UK
Try contacting Outdoor Advertising Association of the UK
I am an advertising student and I have to do a media plan for Crayola, which media would you suggest I use?
What's your target? What's your budget? What are your goals? You won't learn much if the Guru does everything.
Where can I find a complete list of Media Companies and their clients?
The Red Book doesn't show all media companies.
If you mean companies which own media, you would have to combine data from various Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) resources or
The Gale Directory of Publications and Broadcast Media.
Overall, which service do you think is more reputable- @Plan/Diameter or Jupiter Media Metrix?
Both are reputable, but have different purposes.
How do I figure reach and frequency?
If I know that I want to buy 2000 TRPs over the course of a year, 20 weeks of 100 TRPs flighted.
I need to tell how many people I am reaching 10 times. I do know the population and TV HH numbers.
Where can I go to get information on salaries of publishers in the print media business? Thank you!
Hi - My client wants a general guideline for scheduling strategies for a maintenance versus a launch campaign. The obvious answer is continuity versus burst, but could you advise on the number of weeks on and off air for both approaches? Including ideal GRP levels?
Thanks a lot!
The primary factor here is budget. With adequate budget, continuity is always better even if levels vary at specific times. You need to determine what is an "adequate level" which you might define in terms of reach, or frequency or media mix, etc. For additional guidance, Click here to see Guru comment on recency.
With resptct to DRTV commercials. Is there a minimum time frame and repetition number I can give clients that they can expect to start getting decent sales results in? Everyone at my agency says there really isn't a minimum basis but all of them when asked to guess say you should run a spot at least for 2 months with 100 repetitions in a market minimum to see acceptable results. I really want to be able to advise my clients well in this area so I was curious to your input.
The idea of DRTV is that each airing will generate response, this is, in part why DR commericials often have a longer format. The repetitions are more likely important to get adequate return on production investment: with no sales outlet other than the DRTV, several airings will be needed to amortize costs before a profit is shown.
Dear Guru. I'm looking for some information about the impact of an "encart" (=leaflet) in a magazine versus an A4 insertion in a magazine. Can you help me on this one? Kind regards.
Try The Newspaper Advertising Association or The Magazine Publishers' Association. There are also Eurpoean equivalents to these. Consult ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization
What does genre mean?
Generally speaking, it refers to type or category. "Mystery" and "science fiction" are book or movie genres. Game show and sit-com are TV programmiung genres.
What are the latest job titles which are being used for the persons in charge of doing the planning and media analysis besides Media Planners?
Media strategist might be one. "Latest" has little value when there are wqell understood alternatives, in the Guru's opinion.
what is GRP
"Gross rating points" is a comarison of the impressions delivery of a schedule to the target universe size. One million gross impressions equates to 100 GRP if the target population is one million.
What is 4 week buildup
This would seem to refer to a campaign statring four weeks before some event, or growing in levels over the four weeks.
Guru - I need to price the sale of advertising on Wireless phones? Are there any benchmarks for the service when X number of subscribers have agreed to recieve X number of messages per day? Thanks for any and all help!
Pricing sould be based on cost per thousand messages delivered. Other advertising is priced from under $1 to over $200 per thousand depending on the audience's desirability to the advertiser or the difficulty of reaching it.
In Theatre advertising
Click here to see Guru responses about theater advertising
Is there an industry standard, on the agency side, for ratings of a five, ten or fifteen second television spot? If the spot clearly gets your full message out in a :10 or :15, wouldn't it get a full rating? These are not sponsorships. Thank you.
Rating is not effected by commercial length. Rating is simply about the number of viewers. Other factors might be applied judgmentally to adjust ratings according to commercial length, based on research regarding recall or effectiveness.
Mr. Guru...I am curious about the level of knowledge companies like Predictive Networks will have about the interactive tv viewer. Can one assume that every single remote click is trackable? For instance, will these tracking companies know exactly when you "skipped" a commercial or changed from one show to the next?
The Guru supposes technology will vary and change, but channel changes are the minimum that will be tracked.
How does DRTV differ from regular TV?
DRTV asks the viewer to call "now" with their order or information request.
Selling conditions also vary, in terms of commitments on both sides.
I need to find out market forces affecting outdoor advertising at present. Any other relevent information.
Do you know of a resource that will give me website traffic statistics for branded product sites? Specifically, Pharmaceutical Product sites.
I realize this might be confidential information, but
maybe it is released and published somewhere
- even if for bragging purposes. Basically, we're
trying to compare our client's product website
traffic to that of others.
By the way, I LOVE your service!!! It helps us stay in the 'learning mode' at all times. THANKS!
Thank you. Try Jupiter Media Metrix.
Help! I need to setup a newspaper campaign in 35 markets and I need to do it yesterday?? What newspaper groups/rep firms are out there (the good ones only please!)
I'm looking for some research/formula that will help with determining communications budgets between mass media and direct efforts based on where products are within their lifecycle.
Creating a media campaign. Target group: Children from 3 to 7 years. Budget is not sufficient for the whole year advertising. What would be the best period of the year for advertising then?
The advertising season will depend on the selling season in your category. If you adrfe selling ice cream, it's summer, soup in winter. Short pants in summer, snow suits in winter.
Dear Guru (by the way, thanks for your earlier answers, they are really helpful !) :
If I reach 3 differents profiles of people with 1 outdoor campaign, is it correct to say that reachxfrequency for each target equals the TRP (target rate points), and that the GRP is reachxfrequency over the entire population. So the GRP would be composed out of several TRPs?
First, GRP and TRP are equivalent terms. Some people reserve use of TRP (Target Rating Points) for cases where a speciific demographic is targeted, such as Women 18-49, College educated men, or Employed teenagers, and then only use "GRP" (Gross Ratings Points) for a Household target. Others use GRP for any target. In either case, the term means gross percentage of the specified target universe.
Arithmetically, Reach x Frequency = GRP or TRP. GRP or TRP for different targets may not be added.
I've heard reach/frequency curves described as asymptotic curves. Can you please explain what that means? Thanks again.
Asymptotic, in this sense, means approaching 100% at an ever decreasing rate. In reach terms, if your first ad has a rating of 10%, it reaches 10% of the target. The next ad with a rating of 10 will have some duplication with the first and so possibly add only 9 reach points. The next will duplicate with both and perhaps add only 7 points to reach, etc. This is why reach curves (see below) "flatten" as they rise.
I have a client who is considering using a media barter service. Generally speaking, what are the pros and cons to using a media bartering company? Do they tend to provide good media value? Do they buy what they say they will buy? What’s your take on them? Thanks!
Value, generally not. Buying what’s promised varies. Click here to see the Guru’s discussion of barter.
Why are ethnic communities in the UK (which are set to overtake the whites in population size by 2060) not being catered for in marketing and media terms (unlike the US) and how could this be addressed (is it merely a case of money to thrown into the sector)?
There are various reasons for the marketing attention to US ethnic communities which may not apply in the UK.
I am looking to step into the Direct Response TV world with an Infomercial. I have a 100K budget. A few companies have said that they can pull off a good production for me along with a decent amount of airrings on that budget. My question is what type of sales results can I expect. None of these companies will give me any kind of projections. Is that normal? Should I be able to get projections and if so what levels of sales? Thanks in advance.
The variables of your product's appeal and pricing are just as important as the production. Nevertheless, the company you work with should be able to give you their history, in terms of the sales success of others by category and price, as a guideline.
Is Telmar's multi-basing system the same thing as Fusion? And, if I'm currently doing the random probability formula to get total reach percent, what is the difference between that and Telmars calculations? Thanks.
According to Telmar:
Multibasing preserves the integrity of a survey. It does not ascribe
answers, and as such, avoids what we call "regression to the mean",
washing away everything to averages. It preserves the leverage of a media
element against any target group, not just those that leverage on
Telmar's R&F formulas use the actual turnover and duplication
between media that are inherent in the survey. When there is real
data, we use it.
I am fitting curves on decay data. It was suggested to me to use a beta-binomial distribution as a fit. It's not available in SPSS: where can I get some [free] software? Also, can you give me a layman's description? Also, what does it look like?
The Guru doubts ther is such software available for free. You need software such as that offered by Telmar.
The calculation is extremely complex. Click here to see an example of the math of the Beta-binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
I want to learn more about buying national remnant ad space. Can you provide information and a resource?
The nature of remnant ad space is that it does not become "remnant" until a normal closing date has passed. Therefore, the only reliable method is to advise the medium directly that you stand ready to take remnant space off their hands.
I've heard about buying "billboards for the day" - but can't find the resource for doing this. Can you give me information on the service as well as the contact?
How do I start placing my web page banner on web sites?
I know nothing about web advertising. obviously.
Is there a source on the internet that allows you to search & find internet advertising opportunities that match company profiles? Is there a resource site that lists all (or most) banner advertising opportunities? I'm putting together a media plan - both e-mail marketing & banner advertising. Thanks!
There are several that offer such a service; one is eMedia Resources. The internet is too vast for any service to come near listing most. Some that purport to offer the service only list sites whose ad space they themeselves sell.
how much money did walt disney spend in 2000
Do you have any case studies on how to increase
attendance at an event?
I am creating a television show in Telemundo Int, one of the largest hispanic media organizations in the world. I have purchased a 30 minute space from them and I now need sponsors and would like to know if there is a site that I could go to that will tell me about media marketing/advertising companies? Furthermore, I would like to know if I should go with a media marketing company or an advertising agency? If so, where can I find companies that strictly sell a show to potential sponsors? What name are they under? I appreciate your help
You want "media sales representatives." The type you want (for Latin America) are mostly based in Miami.
how close are we to being able to buy items of apparel using interactive tv. thanks
The capability is here in digital cable and satellite. It's just a question of whether anyone thinks they can make a profit at it.
calculate reach and frequency
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.
The calculation is extremely complex. As input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
i would appreciate if you gave me as much information as possible regarding ''cluster analysis''. Thanks in advance
Cluster analysis is a way to build a new multi-variate definition of a target and then use that definition in further media comparisons. For details, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Is there any research I can access showing difference in response between stand-alone letterbox delivered catalogues, and those catalogues also promoted on another medium eg. Television ?
Where can I find a study on audience retention for television commercial breaks?
Nielsen does this kind of report from time to time.
I need to come up with a creative media campaign for the launch of a new mobile phone targetted towards students, party people. Just my luck, I'm out of ideas for the moment. Can you help me? Which where the great campaings you remember? (important to know;
one can create his or her own mobile phone cover).
Thanks already for your help. Kind regards.
The Guru has never "remembered" a great media campaign. One never becomes aware of a media campaign unless it is written up in the trade press as an award winner or notable sales success. Unless one such was for a simialar product or target, it isn't likley to be useful to you, but consult the archive of MediaWeek or Ad Age, etc.
The Guru is unlcear on how the "create your own cover" element effects media choices, except to suggest graphic design publications.
Is there any data out there that provides ROI information on Radio/Print/TV/Cable Schedules. Just some basic numbers. For example, we mostly know that direct mail averages about a 2% response. Is there a formula or somewhere I can go to get info for Radio or TV?
For example #2 My client is placing a certain number of grps on Radio and wants to know of the people reached, how many will attend the event advertised (like a one day seminar). What they want to know is on average how many people reached respond to an ad (Print/Radio/cable/TV). Any where I can find a rough estimate or some research- This is kind of like the "Ad Effectiveness Lab" that Arbitron is working on , but is not finished with.
There are too many variables to generalize. It depends much, much more on the message and product than on the medium. An event is different than a movie, which is different than an inexpensive household product which is purchased frequently, which is different than a big-ticket item bought every few years.
One good resource is an article, "Advertising Wearin and Wearout" in the September/October 1998 Journal of Advertisng Research.
For much more try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
How do you determine the wear-out of a magazine print ad? Is there a formula that can be applied to the number of times you should run a creative unit?
Wear out is not a matter of calculation, although some develop rules based on their brands' experience..
Click here to see further Guru comment on wear out.
Hi Mr Guru.
Just wondering : in the basic (reachxfrequency)xCPM/1000 formula, I have a question about reach. Are we talking about the number of people who see the ad, or who might see the ad ? E.g. the 500,000 people who drive by a billboard every week, but who don't necessarily see it.
Thanks a lot.
There is a term - "opportunity to see" - more commonly used in Europe and probably more descriptive than our own "impressions." Each research measurement has a standard for inclusion in the reported audience. For outdoor it may be something like: the number of cars passing a billboard each day time an average of 1.7 passengers per car. In magazine, the number of persons who say they looked into the most recent issue. There are arguements about why each overstates the numbers actually exposed to the ad. However, reach and frequency systems are usually built to deal with the reported audiences fed to them. Most sytems have allowances to adjust inputs or results based on attentiveness, noting or other refinements.
Guru, my partners and I want to create a media placement company that will be provide a one-stop shop for multi-pub ad placement. Apart from regular business incorporation and registrations, do we need any specific accreditation or other endorsements or licences to carry on this business?
Thank you very much.
The Guru does not give legal advice. The answers will no doubt vary depending on the legal jurisdiction within which you are doing busienss.
How do you calculate commercial wearout?
Wear out is not a matter of calculation, although some develop rules based on their brands' experience..
Click here to see further Guru comment on wear out.
Now that Outdoor can be mixed with other media, what is your thinking on how do the number of uses effect the frequency distribution? Should we be transferring GRP's, number of days or number of boards times days? How does this effect the frequency of the programs?
Outdoor could always be mixed with other media, so the Guru presumes you mean that the media software you use now has the ability to calculate reach and frequency for the combined media. Your question is probably answered in the software's manual.
What do I need to calculate reach for print and what is the formula?
You need a computer with software such as that offered by Telmar.
The calculation is extremely complex. As input, you need average issue audience, duplication between issues of the same publication and duplication between each possible pair of different publications. These must be combined using a complex formula such as the Beta-binomial function.
There are variants of this formula, which might be preferred, depending on media type and other variables
Hello Guru -- Do you have information on newspaper ad
wearout? I have a client who wants to increase their
newspaper advertising frequency without changing their creative ... what guidelines should be used for a
branding campaign? Thanks!
This is not really a media question. It's a matter of copy effectiveness. The answer will depend on category interest as well as the size and impact of the ad. For Branding, there may be an arguemnt to stay with a simple effective message. On the other hand, in newspaper, production is relatively inexpensive in comparison to media costs.
Click here to see past Guru comment on wear out.
What is your opinion on the following:
How long should a Teaser ad run and how far ahead should it run prior the Anouncement ad?
Can you advise on research sources...all I run into is reach and freq data, but none really on Teaser ad effectiveness, etc.
The Guru doesn't thinks this is really a media issue. It's copy and marketing. Different message types will call for different strategies. So, too, will other marketing issues. A store opening, with a definite start date, but infinite duration is different from a two-day sale, which is different than a movie opening, which is different froma new product in a low-interest category, which is different froma new product in a high interest category, which are all diiferent than the introduction of a new flavor / size / model / of an existing product.
I've been asked to do a media plan for radio buys in the DC market. I've never done a media plan for radio before and have never even purchased radio ads before. Can you tell me where I should go for more information on how to buy radio ads and how it all works. I guess I'm looking for a radio101 or something.
Please help! Thanks
Get in touch with an experienced sales person from one of the top stations with which you will be dealing. Stations have marketplace and general radio planning tools. A good salesman can give you more education quicker than any other source
If you are starting from an assumption that you are only using radio and only one market, you are not really "planning," just selecting a schedule.
Your big-picture elements are meeting reach / frequency goals, format choices, and added value.
Is there a general benchmark for cable wearout levels?
Wearout shouldn't be format-specific. It's about a piece of copy, whether it runs in broadcast network or local cable channels.
Click here to see past Guru comment on wear out.
sir, I am a mass communication student with the commerce background and is very much interested in Media planning, so can you pls. give me some insight on the subject and its area of scope?
Simply browse through the most recent Guru queries and response to see the scope of media issues.
Am looking for the starch study which outlines the differences in effectiveness of advertising on right hand side vs left hand side of a newspaper, top vs bottom, colour vs b&w. etc. It would be great if you could tell me where I could get hold of this study -
We are web marketers with several sites that average about 3000 to 6000 hits per day. We wish to sell advertising banners on these sites, and are not sure how to approach accomplishing this objective. Can you refer us to anyone or make any suggestions. Thank you Guru.
Click here to see past Guru responses about various aspects of selling banners
How to read MRI
Click here to see Guru guidelines on reading a crosstab. The example is based on MMR, but MRI reports are read the same way.
What type of media is good for a incredibly small business who cannot afford much?
Very local radio, outdoor, pennysavers, small space newspapers. It depends on what you need to accomplish.
I am a highschool teacher who teaches video production. I was wondering if there were any list servs or websites that have questions that I can give to the students on topics like news broadcasting, scriptwriting, or any other part of the media industry.
The Guru deals with Media planning/Media buying/Media research/ Media managment questions.
Click here to see past Guru discussion of optimizers
I am in high school, and i have to teach a class period on the topic of advertising. What are some good websites to go to just to find the basics of advertising? or statistics of advertising? (ex. what were the top 10 television commercials for 2001?) ...Thank you!
"Top 10 commericials" is not an 'advertising basic'. How would you define "top?" Most often seen? Most watched? Best remembered? Most award-winning? Most expensive to produce? Biggest media budget?
CAN YOU TELL ME WHAT SHOWS IN pRIMETIME DELIVER STRON RATING ACCROSS GENERAL MARKET, BLACKS AND HISPANICS? WE ARE TRYING TO FIND A TALENT THAT APPEALS TO ALL THREE SEGMENTS.
The top programs in general, NFL football and programs including diverse casts do well on all groups "top lists," but the order may differ. Isolating cast members for overall appeal might not work. See Nielsen for details.
WHAT IS RAINBOW MEDIA? AND WHAT IS RASCO MEDIA SALES?
Rainbow Media is the media ownership division of Long Island-based Cablevsion Systems. Properties include Bravo, AMC, News 12, MSG, etc.
According to Rainbow Media:
Established in 1984, Rainbow Advertising Sales Corporation (RASCO), the advertising subsidiary of Rainbow Media Holdings, Inc., is now the cable industry's largest and most diverse advertising representation firm.
what's the best service for competitive ad tracking -- primarily trade pubs, some online?
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
I have been asked to provide the impact of advertising by medium, for a multi-media retail plan. The advertising consists of TV, Radio and Outdoor. The percentages are: TV 80%, Radio 14% and Outdoor 6%. The communication is both branding and price/item. During the TV campaigns the creative split is 60% branding/40% price & item. The radio is almost exclusively price and item and the outdoor is 100% branding.
First you need to define the 'civilian' term 'impact'. Is it
Are the percentages Budget, impressiosn, reach contribution or . . .?
This is not a reasonable question.
Guru, thank you for answering my question about media placment agancy compensation. You said that the most common basis is a percentage of billings placed.
My question is: what is the standard percentage of the billings placed?
It can vary from less than one percent for relatively low-effort media likne network TV in large volumes, to 9% for detailed spot buying. 4-5% is probably a safe average for purposes of discussion.
Dear Mr. Guru:
I am trying to get an idea of what kind of radio format
a talk show about the Internet would make the most
sense in from the standpoint of audience demographics.
I know that the "normal" talk radio show appeals
to a progressively older, conservative audience while
the Internet appeals to a generally younger one. I
am also trying to find out more about what types of
Internet companies would be the most inclined to
advertise on a talk show about the Internet.
Arbitron's RADAR study of network radio will give you an idea of what audiences currently listen to various formats.
MRI or Simmons will describe the internet user audience. Start with trying to match these. You would also need to find outlests that want to run talk shows, which unfortunately, as you have noted, may not be the same as those which most target the internet user audience.
Potential advertisers will range from ISPs to computer businesses as well as others interested in the internet user demographics. Your best potential outlet might be web radio.
AC Nielsen Ratings for european States, and major regions
See A C Nielsen. This information is compiled as a money-making venture. Little of it is available free.
Cost per 1000 Projections for european states
I need to know the different types of media available in the uk and how they are relavent to the retail trade, consumer ingeneral and to a business. thanx
No medium is inherently "relevant" to retail, consumers or any other broad purpose. You need to evaluate media in the context of message and marketing goals.
For UK media availability, see International Media Guide
Dear Guru, where can I find information about multi media planning (when I buy all media for GRPs and plan them together to gain aggregate effictiveness: Reach, Frequency, etc.)
Planning per se is about multimedia combinations, or reasons to use only one. Start basic media planning texts, you will find in theAMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)
Broadcast planning; I work in the digital space and was trying to learn more about how
broadcast is planned, specifically television.
Planning is a process of matching media choices to advertisng goals.
The biggest differences for traditional media versus digital are
See media planning texts in the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)
Where can I find average responses/summary numbers for advertising
print readship tests (such as Starch) and television recall (such as Burke)?
All I need are average responses over the period tests have been given
with (1) recognize, (2) advertizer associated and (3) Read most, for print; and
Recall commercial and recall advertizer for television. Thank you for your
do you know of any theories relating to consumer liking and trust for different media, and how this results on their effectiveness?
There was a ratings service, TAA (?) built around this theory in the '80's, but it never caught on. For other thoughts, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
should there be more emphasis on either reach or frequency depending on the level of involvement associated with the advertised product? also, is reach or frequency more important for standing out within a saturated market? cheers
Frequency, in both cases.
When calculating the CPM for magazine advertising there
is a formua to compensate between a full page cost and
a partial page cost. It has to do with readership differences between the sizes of ads. the second part of my question is how do I compare cost efficiency in terms of CPM between magazine and television broadcast.
CPM = Ad Cost ÷ audience (in 000)
If you wish to adjust this calculation using Starch or other adjustments based on relative readership it's easy:
1. Use the appropriate cost for the unit.
2. Create the ratio of readership scores of the; two units, for example if a full page has a score of 60 and a half page has a score of 48, the ratio is 48 ÷ 60 or 0.80
3. Multiply the actual audience by this ratio.
4. Divide this adjusted audience into the correct cost for the page unit.
Can you point me to a source of national ad media spending by month or quarter for the last year or so?
Is it a standard practice, that radio is not to be purcchased against the summer book due to variances?. Is this statement correct?. Is so, why even measure it if no one uses it.
The Guru doesn't know why the "summer variance" myth will not go away. Except within the 12-24 demographic, there is almost no change in overall listening levels in summer. Even among 12-24, the variance is only about 5 - 6%.
Of course, if it wasn't measured, we wouldn't know this.
For details, see Arbitron's Radio Today.
Guru, what is the difference between a sales rep, an account manager and a traffic coordinator in a media placement agency? Thank you
From your context, the Guru will assume that by "Media placement agency" you mean what he usually refers to as a media representative ("rep") firm, i.e. one which solicits and negotiates business on behalf of media publishers/broadcasters.
In this case the sales rep is the person who deals with (actually solicits/negotiates with media buyers. Some rep firms refer to their reps as account executives or account managers, in otheres both titles are used and account manafgers may be the supervisors of reps ot account execs.
Traffic coordinators process the ad materials and paperwork regarding the insertion of the ad into the media space or time. For example, receive the commercial tape, hand it over to the person who will integrate it into programming and assure that advertiser directions are followed regarding which copy runs when,
I have some questions about duplication. If I want to find the duplication between 2 titles (i.e. what % of readers of either title read both) do I want to determine net or gross duplication. Should I be dividing duplication impressions by gross impressions of the two titles or net reach of the tow titles? When would you want to look at net duplication instead of gross duplication?
"Net" and "gross" usually refer to the unduplicated or total audiences, respectively, rather than variants of duplication.
There are just a few simple quantities involved. It is easier to consider them as impressions (numbers of persons) than percentages at first:
The first thing that you should realize is that X, Y and Z are all the same group of people!
You may then consider:
Any of these are facts you might use depending on the point you are trying to make.
As far as labeling goes,
Gross audience is A + B.
Net unduplicated audience is A + B - Z.
I work with a manufacturing company and have been assigned administration of our company website. What are best methods of measuring visitor trafic? Can you suggest a website that gives information (free)about measuring this? Thanks.
Click here to see past Guru responses about Joe Ostrow
If an ad agency is not a full-service agency and hires a media placement agency for multi-pub ad placement, how is this media placement agency usually compensated?
Probably the most common basis is a percentage of billings placed.
Where does Pittsburgh rank as a market? NYC is #1, etc....
Pittsburgh is the 16th largest DMA.
Have you heard of the Ethnic Council and does it still exist? Had related information for marketing research and various interviewing concerns/techniques for different ethnic groups.
The Guru believes you mean the Ethnic Reseach Steering Committee of the The Advertising Research Foundation.
This council appears to have become dormant, but you may contact ARF for further information.
I am trying to compare cpm between print and radio. The demo is Adults 18-54. I have the readership for the demo for the MSA for the print. I have the gross impressions for the radio and have calculated a cpm for all (both the print and radio). Is this correct? Can I compare readership against GI's?
Yes, readership is equivalent to impressions.
What is the total dollars spent, or budget, for advertising by the Information Technology sector? Broken down by media type?
How can I estimate response rates to ads for a new product in a given region in various media (print and radio primarily) based on known data such as population, reach, etc. I need to make forward projections for marketing budget decisions.
There are too many variable with this vaguely stated question. Industry average for comparable products are the only reasonable quide.
I am a student doing media planning and is new to this. Qs is, when do u think is the most likely time or apperture opening to advertise for an exterior paint company?
Industry information should reveal when people are most likely to do exterior painting. The Guru would imagine late Spring and early Summer, in the northern Hemisphere, are key times
Do you know the specifics of US Government Regulations/Restrictions concerning tobacco advertising on TV? What can and cannot be said or shown?
Thanks for any help you can give,
See the Federal Trade Commission search page and use tobacco as your search term.
Where can I find a list of advertising agencies in a particular state or region? (Looking for a job!)
how does reach and frequency build
Click here to see past Guru responses about reach build.
Is there any connection between internet literacy and other media consumption? Do those who use the internet regularly use the TV or the radio more?
Search at NUA Internet Surveys for these data.
Can you please explain the difference between TV network and spot buying. What is the equivalize and non-equivalize concept. Why is it used in network buying and not in spot(units are not equivalized). Also can you please explain the reweight concept. How do you come up with reweight cpm. Why can you just do a straight year cpm comparison.
Click here to see past Guru responses about equivalizing.
"Why use it?" is a good question regardless of the network versus spot element. The use of equivalence is an artifact of mass buying by corporation wherein large numbers of :15's and :30s are bought but need to be readily comparable. In spot, this type of buying is less common. Also, network :15s are almost alwasy priced at 50% of :30's making equivalence simple. In spot the ratio is usually higher, and inconsistent.
In network, the geography for CPP / CPM is consistent, so that CPP and CPM can be converted back and forth based on simple multiplication or divsion by the relevant demographic universe. In spot however, while CPP is based on the defined DMA (or occasionally metro) geography, CPM is based on impressions generated anywhere, so there is no simple mathematical relationship.
For other network buying concepts use the Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine.
Dear Guru - Was there ever a "chart" that enabled media buyers to calculate reach/freq, gross impressions etc for broadcast television planning. I have been explaining to someone that we use programs for this kind of thing, but this person seems to remember using a chart and thinks i should be able to do this manually if he could. I've never heard of it, have you? He would have been planning around 1975. Thanks.
Yes, before computers became common in the 80's, when there were just 3 networks, with 90%+ share, no cable, and few independent stations, R&F tables were the way it was done. Every few years, using Nielsen cume studies of actual scehdules, average reaches for various GRP levels were calculated. There might be variables for the number of programs or episodes used. In this way all possibilities for a daypart could be displayed on a single, typed page.
Today, with computers on every desk, 6 broadcast networks amassing only 50% share, dozens of cable options and hundreds of independent stations, accuracy requires computer systems. Such crude tables could be still constructed, but why bother when computers and software are so readily available?
The Guru who was using the charts in the 60's, is happy with his computer today.
Can a produced 30 second TV spot be priced as a
PSA, if the Client is a not-for-profit partially funded
by the City?
Decisions on running PSAs are up to stations. One rule seems to be that the same spot won't be aired as a paid spot AND a PSA within the same billing cycle (generally a broadcast month).