Returns all questions and responses for the year.
What is an average conversion rate for a geo-targeted e-mail campaign consisting of both text and html?
The Guru does not assist with SPAM.
I'm the owner of a site called netmemories.com,which is a
nationwide obituary service on the internet. What approach should I use
in seeking businesses in the death industry to advertise their goods
and services on netmemories.com ?
You need to find the media these businesses consume.
Is there any resource/company to find the number of pages of advertising per issue for a specific publication? I'm looking for business-to-business publications focusing on government, such as Governing or Roll Call. Thanks!
CMR's (Competitive Media Reports) Business 1200 might address this question. The individual magazines can ususally give you this info for thier own pages.
Can you tell me of any research comparing loose inserts
[FSI's in US?] with advertising placed in the body of a newspaper or magazine? — Nick Holdsworth
Is there an association of Independent Advertising Sales Representatives and if not how would I go about locating some?
You will find many small reps listed in the front sections of the various Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) resources.
We use CMR for print and broadcast Ad Expenditures for pharmaceutical products. Is there a source for pharmaceutical spend levels to doctors?
You may find medical journal spending in CMR's Business 1200
Is there a source for ad rates for Internet-only radio stations? I'm trying to determine what typical CPMs are for local and national ads. Even a range would help.
I'm searching for sites simular to WSJ.com that targets Business Exectutives, decision makers and oweners in general OR business execs, decision makers and owners who read a lot of articles regarding Economic Development and are looking for an online resource to get information on expansion and relocation. Are there websites that compete with WSJ.com?
wehre can i find a list of meda buyers?
Are there ROI models available for digital signage ? By digital signage I mean a set of large video displays (LED walls), in a network, where the ad content can be uploaded, scheduled and managed from a distant location ?
Thank you very much
The Guru has never seen a specific model of ROI in any medium without being specific to a single advertiser's experience.
how does reach and frequency build?
This differs from medium to medium and among specific combinations vehicles.
Generally, the audience of each added advertisement has increasing duplication with those already reached. The curve below is typical.
Dear Guru. Can you give me some exemples of contracts between a media planning bureau and an agency.
Or perhaps an enumeration of the different subjects a contract should contain. Thank you.
Any contract for services needs to specify the services to be performed, the price and time period of the contract. Beyond that, it's specific to the case. American Association of Advertising Agencies would have samples.
Greetings Guru. I am not in the advertising industry but doing some research on advertising effectiveness. Can you help me find (preferably free) regional Newspaper, Radio and TV advertising costs and audience sizes for the state of PA. For example, is there some sort of directory or rate cards that list the different newspapers in PA, what it costs to place an ad., and how many subscribers they have. Thanks a million!
I was curious if there is a website you could recommend for marketing or advertising news that's a bit strange or out of the ordinary?
"News" and "strange" is a tough combination. AdCritic may be temporarily inactive.
What is the Cost Per TV Rating Point for New York?
what is an executive summary
In a business document, particularly a recommendation, a scection ath the beginning which briefly states the recommended course of action or key findings, with brief reference to the supporting details.
I'm interested in new measuring techniques for interactive television. When and if this becomes mainstream, it seems like a whole host of new opportunities concerning demographics, target markets, etc. will become available. How are companies such as Nielsen and Telmar handling this, and are there any resources you could point me towards as far as research? Also, do you think that Nielsen's current system for measuring markets would become obsolete if interactive tv did take off?
Telmar can work with whatever data Nielsen or other research companies provide.
The Guru doesn't see that interactive TV will obsolete any research. The current Nielsen People Meter is an interactive system. Intereactive TV, per se, will not tell us anything about persons in the audeince who are not interacting.
Greetings, Guru. Can you point me to research studies that deal with effectiveness of advertising in
free publications vs. paid ones?
We have a client that insists on running :30 LOCAL radio spots instead of :60 spots. We have done a significant amount of network radio, where the "standard" unit is, in fact, :30. Standard units for local buys on the other hand are :60s. The client still challenges our recommendation for :60s in LOCAL markets. Do you have an opinion on this subject, or can you tell me where to find some independent research that addresses the topic?
Today, not only is the local standard :60's, but most stations sell "units" meaning their charge is the same for :60 or :30. In this situation, there seems to be no reason to use a :30 unless specific copy research proves that the 30 is more effective.
In other cases, where :30's cost 80% of :60's, the added reach and frequency achievable trhough :30's may be worthwhile.
For research, try The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB)
Hi, Media Guru.I am looking for a place were I can be specialized in media field, an university an institute something like that. The location must be in Canada or in Italy. Can you help me with this? I working already in this field, in Romania, with Mindshare (in the last two years), but I feel is necessary to do much more than a training inside the agency.
Most universities which teach "Communications" teach advertising, with more or less emphasis on media. Your question is one for the educational guides for the relevant countries, comparable to US News more than it is for a media specialist. In the US, it is rare for a media professional to have specialized in media in college.
Mr. Guru sir: I am currently developing market research software that uses regression analysis in order to make certain predictions. I would like to develop and sell this software, and at some point I'm going to need to have my methodology backed up by a reputable association. Can you give me the names of any companies that might be able to help analyze, improve, or even beta-test the software? Which of these companies might carry the most weight in the media world?
The Guru does not expect that any company would perform this task for you unless they were going to market the software themselves. This means you would need to make a proposal to them about the valuse and purpose of the software. You might begin with our sister company, Telmar, one of the oldest and largest media software companies.
Do you know who keeps internet ads? I'm looking for an ad that was on priceline.com in 1998...jpg
Start with The Internet Advertising Bureau.
Greetings. You previously answered a question for me regarding calculating R/F for a trade print plan (question #4900). Based on your answer (which included calculating ratings and using industry standard duplication figures), I am calculating overall Reach for each publication and for the entire schedule. Once I have that information (Reach%, Rating%), can you confirm what formula I would use to get the Frequency (both for each publication and for the entire schedule). I have searched many years of your archives and can't find an answer that addresses that specific question. Thanks!
Frequency = GRP ÷ Reach
GRP is the sum of all the Ratings which go into the Reach.
For example, if publication "A" has a 12% rating, three insertions = 36 GRP.
A schedule of 3 times in publication "A," plus 4 times in publication "B," which has a 16% rating = 110 GRP.
What are the best resources to find out what the leading advertising agencies for radio are, as well as who their key clients are? Also, are you aware of a resource that lists category rankings for the various major media? Thank You!!
The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook') for major radio advertising agencies and their client lists.
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) for spending details.
Is there any research on the effectiveness of running a newspaper schedule(for a retail client) for 52 weeks? I am looking to scale back my newspaper schedule and need some rationale to support reducing the number of insertions on the buy. thanx
I am the webmaster of Undergrounds.com. I am interested
in finding a website agent to take charge of all the
banner advertising and promotion that will take place
on Undergrounds.com. My questions are:
1. Are there such agents out there? If so, how can I
2. What sort of percentage breakdowns should I expect
in sharing profit with such an agent?
MediaPost.com's Media magazine carries listings of these services in every issue.
Is there an industry standard for the ratio between the Media Budget and the Advertising Production Budget (Creative & Production). I'm specifically interested in this ratio for a B2B client who is proposing a $1 million budget spilt 50/50 between media placement and ad creation.
No standard, there are too many variants. A $10 million national budget might be sepnt in radio with $20,000 production, or network TV with $1 million procution or local print with a middle amount. Small buget magazines have a relatively high ratio in porduction. Clients rarley seem willing to balance ad qualitiy ( size ) against the capacity to communicate the ad to targets.
Can u tell me which research companies do Single Source researches (including media) and what url's are they available at?
Guru, how do I calculate a full page ad price if the directory only gives a column inch price?
The direcory should also give number of column inches or inches and columns per page. Then you can mulitply, but pages are usually priced at some discount vs their column-inch multiple.
It sounds as if you are looking at classified rates, when you want to buy display advertising.
Number of commercials per hour of prime time
Generally, there are 6 to 7 commerical minutes per half hour in broadcast network prime time.
What are five ways media planners can use this site in their work?
Apparently one is isking this question over and over, obviously trying to ge the Guru to do their homework. Last time, the Guru said:
Dear Guru - I'm working on a small trade magazine plan. When I evaluate the magazines, I set up a spread sheet and plug in: Gross P4C 1x rate, cirulation, CPM. Then i go through the BPA and pick out the target circ and calulate that CPM. After that, I put in % qual. 1 year, percent personal request and last, paid vs. non paid. Each number gets indexed( lowest CPM gets 100 etc).Then the publications get ranked. Editorially, they all look alike. Is there a better way of evaluating trade pubs in a category. This fabulous category is "water supply & sewage disposal". Thanks.
You might try to figure out which one is most authoritative. That is if they all have the saem content and audience, which one do the readers look to for best / mot reliable information.
What does 'Reach' mean?
Reach as a noun is defined in Query #4921, below. As a verb, it means to deliver a message to a target consumer.
If I want to reach medium to large size (Fortune 500) advertisers interested in new growth areas, what publications are best to advertise in? Thank you very much.
This is too nebulous a description of a target. What might "new growth areas" mean? The general business publications like Forbes, Fortune and Business Week probably reach the right people in the right companies, but a better definition might allow narrowing the scope of audeince morre efficiently.
Could you please tell me what is the difference between Full Page CPM and CPM in print media? Ther reason I ask is that some agencies quote FP CPM and some - just CPM. Thank you.
A CPM must refer to a specific ad unit. In print, full page is assumed if there is no specific mentioned.
Reach is the number of Different people (net) exposed to a campaign or schedule. It may be expressed in numbers of unduplicated impressions or as a percentage of the relevant target audience.
Reach is sometimes carlessly (and inaccurately) used in reference to the potential audience of a cable network, i.e. subscribers, when it should only be used to refern to an audience exposed to advertising.
Can you please site a source (or be the source) to answer a question about print wear-out? If running a print ad in a weekly community newspaper, using a 16 time, every other week schedule, how many creative units would you recommend?...Steve
Click here to see past Guru responses about wear out
I am researching some advertising opportunities for a medical device manufacturer. I have been told there is advertising avialable in hospitals via televisions in the waiting rooms. I think it is called Accent Health Network. Do you know of anything like this?
Visit Accent Health.com
My client is a medical device manufacturer. They currently do some trade show advertising in the on-site programs/exhibit guides, etc. We are trying to convince them to enhance this on-site advertising with advertising in the official trade show journals affliated with the trade shows. However, they question the effectiveness of trade journal advertising. Do you have an data on the value or effectiveness of trade journal advertising for health related clients - or b2b clients in general? I've tried a couple of research sources, but am seeking a FREE source of this research, if available. Any insight you could provide would be appreciated. Thanks.
Is it AOR stand for AGENCY OF RECORD or AGENCY ON RECORD. Kindly explain to me.
Agency Of Record
1)Where can I find CPM comparison data for local community newspapers versus dailies?
2) What is considered to be a competitive CPM for local community newspapers?
3) What do ad placement agencies charge for their work?
Thank you very much
Until recently, there were a handful of sites that offered print rate data, such as Media Passage, Media SpaceBank, Newspaper SpaceBank, etc., but they all seem to have fallen by the wayside.
The Guru does not think that the daily vs community newspaper decision is primarily going to be base don CPM. Usually dailies cover a wider area while community papers are just that, focused on smaller geographies. Out-of-pocket cost is then the key difference.
Could you please clarify this for me: 1) is the ad production cost included in the 15% agency commision or it it charged on top of that?
2) the usual 5% for media buying, is it paid out of the 15%agency commission or in addition to that?
3) Is there any approximate scale to calculate how agency commission increases or decreases depending on the overall media cost volume? Thank you very much
The traditional 15% is the agency's commission on any outlay made on the clients' behalf, whether media purchase or production cost.
One difference is that media costs are usually quoted by the media at "gross" which includes 15% commission, while the agency needs to "gross up" production, by adding 17.65%, creating a number that is then 85% cost and 15% commission.
That is, when media has a gross cost of $1000, the agency gets $150 commission and the media vendor nets $850.
When there is a production expense of $850, the agency grosses it up by 17.65%, or $150, for a total of $1000.
While 5% is a common talking number for media services, it is not a standard. It is part of the 15%.
Fees other than the traditional 15% are a matter of negotiation. They may be more than 15 on low-billing accounts and considerably less on large accounts. They may be something completely different than percentage-based. The American Association of Advertising Agencies is likely to have a reoprt on averages and ratios.
Guru, I need to find information about ethnically focussed advertising campaigns for beverages and what makes these campaigns successful/unsuccessful? Thanks in advance.
What are the advertising rates for magazines?
For a good guide see AMIC's Ad Data area
What is the Radio CPP's for Charleston, WV and Parkersburg-Marietta, WV-OH? Can you provide by quarter for 2001?? Thanks!
One agency, which is a "gold" client of our TAM Company, asked us for developing procedure of evaluating "zapping factor". From their words the definition of zapping factor is "percentage of average break rating to average rating of 2 last minutes of preceding program". That's not the problem for us and we actually already developed that procedure, but there are some questions we have no answer yet.
1. Is there any other definition of "zapping factor"? Or there is not exact definition at all.
2. What are the reasons of using values of "zapping factor" in media planning?
In situation, when only QH ratings are available, this factor could be used to make estimates of break/spot ratings. But we have minute-by-minute audience data (and that's why we can evaluate "zapping factor") so estimation for break/spot ratings could be based on real history. What are another reasons?
Thanks in advance for your thoughts!
"Zapping" has been a term of loose definition for 20 or more years, becoming popular with the growth of cable and remote controls. Generally it refers to channel switching during breaks leading to lower audience for commercials than for the adjacent program.
We agree that the availability of minute-by-minute data obviates the utility of such a factor on a post analysis basis. And, if your planning rates are based on ratings reflecting these data, we are stumped.
Are there any industry averages for a) click throughs from banners, etc; b) click throughs from ads in opt in e-mail news letters, etc.; and c) conversion rates for users who have clicked through on one of the above proceeding to buy/request/etc (ie to take the action proposed by the original advertisement that was clicked). I realise that there are very many variables, but I'm hoping there are some metrics to help guide a media planning exercise. Thanks.
Consult The Internet Advertising Bureau
Dear Guru, We are working for a big car brand. For the moment we are working out the whole media plan for the year 2002. Can you advise me with some subjects that we surely should treat? For example with the launching of a new model, advertising for the whole scale, promo-advertising... Thanks already!
This appears to be a school project, not a real work assignment. In the real world, a media planner would receive marketing input with budgets and strategies delineating which of these areas must be addressed.
Media Guru: Is there any information available that demonstrates the relationship of awareness (unaided and aided) to market share? I realize this is probably specific to product categories, markets, etc. -- but I am looking for any general "rule of thumb" guidelines. I work in business-to-business marketing, and would data from this area rather than general consumer goods. Also...can you suggest some "further reading" sources on this subject?
What is the best place to get a comprehensive idea about US media scene and its evolution? Can I also get an intensive revire of media [particularly TV] buying selling pactices and culture in the US? I have heard terms like sopt TV and Network TV; but I diont understand it all.
What you are asking probably requires a month or more of work in a U.S. media department.
Spot TV means advertsing placed on individual local stations covcering one defined geographic market, while network refers to national placement, carried on affiliates in all of the 200+ U.S. local markets.
What is the typical number of advertising exposures the average person receives during the course of a day?
A Guru oldie, from 1997:
The Guru has seen estimates from a few hundred to many thousands.
The Guru tends to go along with one of the best accepted estimates, that there are about 245 ad exposures daily, 108 from TV, 34 radio and 112 print.
Others estimate 3000, 5000 or more. Even the 245 is “potential” and perhaps only half are real exposures.
The higher estimates probably include all marketing exposure including being in the vicinity of product labels or actual products with trademarks visible, such as your car, computer, fax, phone, shirt, pencil, paper towel in the bathroom, etc.
Just think, if we were really exposed to 3000 advertising messages per day, at an average of just 10 seconds apiece (accounting for radio :60’s and brief exposure to billboards), these exposures would consume 8.33 hours out of our 16 waking hours per day.
The Guru is skeptical.
We are trying to figure out a gross cpm for a client who we have given a net cpm to. She is looking to compare the two. (I am not speaking in terms of gross/net rate -agency 15%) Here is a scenario that I am trying to figure out:
By publication –
439,000 target audience $51,000 FP rate = $116 net cpm. How would we go about getting the gross cpm to compare to this?
From a total plan standpoint, we also presented net cpms and the client is looking for a gross cpm for comparison. How exactly would I go about figuring this out?
The Guru does not understand your question. The common definition of the terms gross rate / net rate referes to the difference between a rate including agency commission (traditionally 15%) and a rate not including this commission. This definition would yield a $135.29 gross cpm for $116 net. The only reason the gross would be different would be if there was some other understanding about agency commission / compensation.
The formula to calculate gross cpm, when commission is 15% is:
net cpm ÷ (1 – 0.15).
I am considering selling a simple, novel, kitchen handtool using national newspaper advertising to reach an audience of several million potential purchasors. The advert will have a black and white photo of the handtool with a simple, clear selling message and call to action (telephone orderline to place credit card payment).
Assuming my product is correctly priced and has reasonable appeal and my advert is reasonably well constructed and effective, what range of order response rate can I reasonably expect to see (i.e. what percentage of the newspaper readership could reasonably be expected to order based on experience of similar advertising campaigns?).
A percentage range (low to high) would be a useful answer rather.
Many thanks for your help.
I am trying to estimate past Reach & Frequency for a
transportation trade industry print campaign -- and based on that set R&F goals for 2002. I have gathered the following information: Target universe in US, Asia and Europe; each publication's circulation to that target (where available); duplication (very limited availability of this from these pubs). Given this information, what formula could I use to (gu)estimate Reach & Frequency for this Trade plan? Alternatively, what other measures could I offer to my client to measure a recommended media plans effectiveness (i.e. Competitive SOV)?
The simple formula begins by calculating audience-divided-by-universe to estimate ratings (probability of exposure). Multiplying together all the negative probabilities gives you the reach, disregarding specific duplication. In other words, if you get a rating of 14% of target, the negative probability is 86%. Then, two issues of that publication have a combined negative probability of 0.86 X 0.86 or 0.7396. Thus the probable "reach" is 1 - 0.7386 or 26%. This reflects a rando likelihood of dulication of roughly 14%. In reality, there is more than just this random duplication between two issues of the same trade title, probably 50%+, so a better estimate of the reach would be 14% + 50% of 14%, or 21% reach.
For a good guestimate, combine all your insertions this way, using 60% duplication between repeats in the same title and 30% between different titles. Use judgement about titles from different countries which may have virtually no mutual duplication.
SOV is another comparitive tool. Going beyond relative communication and relative spending gets quite speculative.
I'm currently using 2,000 toal GRP's for the year, as
the test for campaign wearout. Are there any new figures for wearout due to the constant increase in messaging?
The factors of wearout depend on a lot more than the environmental clutter. Though one common rule of thumb has been 2000 GRP, the Guru has never seen this or any other specific justified through published research.
Click here to see past Guru responses
I'm writing a point-of-view paper on suggestive sexuality in advertising. For this paper we have to use advertising journals. Could you reccommend a website for this?
i want to make my career in advertising because of my creative and good business aptitude,but have no formal degree in it.how can i do it.
Generally speaking, media jobs have no specific demands in terms of educational background. Seek out entry-level jobs and sell yourself.
I need to break down a media plan for a client by percentage of work. Are there any industry standards for this? What percent of 100% (all the time spent on a media plan) would you estimate is spent in planning/research; negotiating/placement and follow up (traffic, value added cordination, reconciliation, invoice approval)?
The balance can change due to many factors. If a brand has established strategies and tradtional media outlets, planning will take less time and negotiation, especially if there are new potential suppliers or a changing marketplace will take more.
Buying and stewardship with a limited set of national magazines is very simple, in local broadcast media across numerous markets very labor intensive.
A plan for a new brand or new target are very different advertisng strategy will call for more extensive research.
Averages are likely to be meaningless here unless referenced to a specific experiential framework.
I'm trying to gauge the "typical" response rate to a BRC in a magazine. I know that there are many factors that will effect the response rate (creative, offer, etc.)but I have a client with a driving need to have a benchmark for response. Individual publications haven't been much help. Is there a benchmark or do you have any suggestions on where to look for this type of info? Thanks.
As you recognize, there are so many variables. Direct Marketing Association
(DMA) might be a source of average data.
Will you please explain the math and rationale for equivalizing :15s in broadcast tv? I keep hearing the term, but my buyer couldn't clearly explain it. She also said she didn't believe in doing it. Do you? Thanks as always!
Buyers and planners look at this process differently. In actual fact, a :15 and a :30 in the same program have the same audience, but different costs.
To planners the audience is more important, in its relationship to reach, etc.
Buyers, however are more cost and efficiency focused at the program level. They will simplify avails by assignninig everything the :30 price and using a factored audience to reflect the :15 efficiency.
any literature on how 2002 it looking for all media?
There will be various articles in all the trade media, such as Ad Age.
the advantages and disadvantages of using the internet for marketing
What sources can I use to find how much it would cost place a thirty-second ad on a network television station during prime time (during a particual show)?
For general Prime Time costs, see SQAD. Buying specific programs requires specific inquiries to the vendors. There are too many variables for there to be published cost guides.
I am interested in finding out which ad agencies are the i.e. top ten buyers of _billboard advertising space_ in Toronto. Also interested in any resource available for those who intend to erect a billboard in Toronto and sell the space - information about buyers of advertising, city regulations concerning billboards, etc. Thank you! Nikku
Try the directories of AdWeek
Where can I find free information about the effectiveness of newspaper pre-prints, for example Sunday retail sales circulars?
Try The Newspaper Advertising Association or the vendors.
what type of television stations and programs does the affluent market watch?
People watch programs, not stations. The affluent are thought to watch educational, cultural and financial programs. It is not so much that they watch these as that the less affluent are less likely to, so that the affluent portion of the audeinces is greater. Get audience profile specifics from Nielsen. Get a broader picture from The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study
We are deciding between 2 DRTV ad companies. One suggests buying nationwide spots on a cable network. Another company states that's a waste of money. They suggest buying spots on nationwide cable networks in only the top 10-15 markets. What are the benefits of the 2 and how much cheaper do you think buying in single markets would be than buying nationwide? I didn't know how in depth this process could be.
Thanks in advance for throwing me a life vest in the vast sea of DRTV
Assuming your cost of selling and delivery is equal across the country, buying networks will be much more cost efficient on the media expenditure side of the equation. The out-of pocket dollars will be more, but the audience reached will be much more. If the one company that favors buying top markets can show you that these markets produce a better return from these markets, that may be worth listening to. Network buying is much less labor intensive.
We're attempting a TV DR campaign. Our DR company is a little nervous about giving any hard facts and I was hoping you could help.
(1)What is the life cycle of a typical direct response campaign for unsuccesful, moderately successful and highly successful products?
2) what type of results are considered successful to unsuccessful?
(3) Typically, how much as a percentage of revenues are spent on the media buys? This is the best way for us to estimate promotional expenses. It is easiest to benchmark it according to sales revenue. (best case, worst case etc??)
Thanks for any help in advance!
media planners make or brake an event that i propose, if they see its not feasible, i dont get the project, so how can make an effective media plan (TV, RADIO, PRINT so that i wont see media planners as a threat to seeing my proposal being approved?
Media planners are not likley to be support an outside media "plan." They may however evaluate a media "package" you include, as part of the added value of your event. Planners devote efforts to matching media selection with advertsing goals, while your media is probably in support of your event. Recognize the distinction and allow planners to evaluate the deal as a whole, and its contribution to achieving goals. If you can't make them see it as more than just media, it must not be much of an "event."
hi, i've been dealing with an ad agency and fighting for a concept event with a big cost, part of the event is a promotion to require a proof of purchase in order to join. They say they need to know the media implications of this, they need to measure if it will increase sales, and if the media planning is effective. I'm just curious, how do i make an effective media plan to justify that the cost of the event is just minimal also plus the media mileages they get from posters, streamers, and merchandizing.
The simplest to calculate and for them to understand is to determine the number of exposures of all the elements and then put a value on these exposures using a cpm the agency experiences in some cmparable medium, such as out-of-home.
Looking for an overall outlook for 2002 per medium. Is there a helpful site to visit? Thanks
Try Ad Age
hi,i'm a media planner in a pump producer,we are making a new ad plan to target some clients from water treatment,architect procuring sector,so we think the specific websites can lock our target custumes, but i dont know how to evaluate and compare these website, can you tell me how to get the real traffic and something alike? many many thx
What is media planning?
Click here to see past Guru responses discussing media planning.
I am developing a local cable buy for adults 18+, and working with two cable systems for coverage in one county. Can you provide me with some insight to accurately project cable tv reach and frequency, when the cable systems may not be able to provide ratings data for the county targeted. If I do receive estimated ratings from these systems, can I figure this the same as network buys are estimated, R X F = grps? I was also wondering if cable systems will typically "post" buys, as network stations do? Any insight you can provide in relation to estimating cable effectiveness would be appreciated. Thanks.
If you are limited to only those cable channels with local availability, reach will be limited. If your target is narrow and matches the profile of some of these channels, which you will buy, enough frequency can produce an effective schedule. Remeber, it may take 500 spots to accumulate 50 GRP, and reach will only be equal to some small portion of GRP.
is there any research or study about advertising on big outdoor led or plasma display? is it a good medium in your opinion? thank you
Many times the impact of the traffic is more overstated than other out-of-home, because of ther clutter of the location, as in New York's Times Square. But, granting that, the vendor should be able to offer some relevant research.
I need pricing on internet advertising, where do I find it?
Ad Resource has some year-old rates, The largest, most general sites' have probably dropped by at least half.
What is the best way to go about getting rates and demo information for radio in Mexico City? Thank you as always!
Start searching from the Mexico links of ZonaLatina
If we provide a basic demographic profile of our customer (age, gender, geography etc.), are there any services that can match that profile to a database of magazine demographics and present us with a list of magazines that best reach that audience?
You should be able to do this analysis uding the crtoss-tab and ranker sytems of companies like Telmar
How much does a 30 second radio or TV spot cost?
Anywhere from $1.00 to $2,000,000.00 depending on where and when it airs.
Where can I find information regarding free lance media planners and buyers?
Without knowing the type of information you need, the Guru suggests you start at our Ad Jobs area.
ADBUZZ IS THE WEBSITE THAT I NORMALLY USE TO STUDY FOR MY INTO TO ADVERTISING CLASS. CURRENTLY IT IS UNDER CONSTRUCTION, CAN YOU GIVE ME AN ALTERNATE WEB SITE TO USE?
The Guru finds AdBuzz to be operating normally. For alternates, try MarketingNorthAmerica.com
In television channel parlance, what is 'O&O'?
"Owned and operated," a reference to network affiliates actually owned by the network.
Guru, what's the methodology for reach & frequency. I have two schedules, one gets an 77 reach/3.1 freq, the other 85 reach/4.2 freq. and a cume of 87 reach/5.6 freq. A client just asked why such a small increase from year to year.
The Guru's answer is based on the assumption that you mean:
"In year 1, I ran a schedule which cumed 77 reach, with 3.1 average frequency (and presumably about 240 GRP), and
In year 2, I ran a schedule with a cume reach of 85, and an average frequency of 4.2 (about 360 total GRP), and
the cume across the two years reported as 87 reach / 5.6 average frequency (487 GRP). So why is this cume only 87 when I had 85 in year 2 alone, on top of the 77 in year 1?
Reach methodology differs between media types.
Have you seen any studies regarding television spot wearout? I've heard of various "rules of thumb", yet haven't seen any sort of research to back up the claims. No doubt that 'wearout' is a highly subjective topic.....just wondering whether anyone's taken a stab at identifying thresholds or a framework in which 'wearout' discussions should be held. Many thanks.
Click here to see extensive Guru comment on wearout.
Our agency sell advertising and sponsorship for the Mille Miglia (www.millemiglia.com), one of the main international event for classic car amateurs: how can we effectively reach our focus target (affluent classic car amateur) in Usa? Thank you
What was advertising spending in the year 2000 by media
My client is requesting a media cost idex in order to compare costs of advertising in one market vs. markets where our competition is. I was puling CPPs for each market. How do I create and index for them. For example: If New Orleans's CPP is $76 and Denvers is $282, and Baltimore is $214, the client wants me to use N.O. as 100 on the index and index the rest against it. How do I do this?
The sensible way to do this is by comparing cpm, not cpp. To create an index divide each market's cpm by the cpm in New Orleans. Move the decimal 2 places to the right.
Is there a logical way to evaluate the media value of sponsor logos that appear in advertising (i.e. an event sponsored by 4-6 brands, each with logo recognition - often squeezed in very small)? It's obviously not as effective as a stand alone ad, but is there any evidence of brand value?
"Logically," the approach is to start with an estimate of the proportion versus the paid media. Does your logo occupy one 10% of a page? 5%? The value relationship is probably less than the percentage of the rteal estate, because there is no accompanying message.
I just learned that buymedia.com will no longer allow buyers to use their services. I understand that now it will have to be accessed through our software supplier. This was such a great tool. Do you know of any other on-line site similar to buymedia.com? This is terrible. You finally find something that truly saves time and then they jerk it away. Help!
Try our MediaQuote page.
how would i calculate US media spill into canada beyond paid circulation
Dear Guru, I have an super affluent target and want to recommend the use of selective national TV vs. print and other media given my budget of $2MM. I know print will deliver a higher reach, but can a case be made for TV given the impactfulness of the medium?
There is no argument that TV is the most impactful of the media. But where is the trade off? For your target tv may so much less efficient that it can't deliver its impactful messages to enough people. The Guru would far prefer to reach 2 million target people with good impact than reach 100,000 with great impact and that may be the degree of difference you face. Try to quantify impact vs audience to really evaluate.
Dear Guru, Could you tell me what would be the advantages and disadvantages of having the mediaspace bought centralised by one media group through out f.e.
Europe. On the other hand, what would be the advantage / disadvantages of buying by a local center.
Knowing that one media center could be good in one country but bad in an other. Kind regards
Those that do each have their justifications. Typically,
The Guru believes either one can work if done properly. Local buying is more likley to be window-dressing than centralized buying. Clients of a centralized company may benefit from cost efficiencies of the buying process.
What is the formula or methodology for calculating reach and frequency in print media?
I am Manager of Product Marketing in a company that cares more about national ad volume trends than CPP. Particularly trends around number of Unique ISCIs being produced and trafficed. Do you have a recommendation for finding data around this? We usually look at ad spending forecasts. But, it is difficult to determine where increases or decreases are a result of volume changes as opposed to where they are a factor of changes in CPP. For example, in the current environment I've been predicting ad volume to hold flat or slightly increase (pre 9/11) due to the price decreases at the networks. Interpreting the decline in add dollars to be more a factor of price deflation than volume. Can you recommend some information resources to help?
What are five ways that media planners might use this site in thier work???
And what would you say is the definition of share?
Can you tell me where I might find info on the profile research of an average DVD buyer/consumer or CD buyer/consumer?
My email: firstname.lastname@example.org
I am doing a comparison study of two local weekly print vehicles in Cleveland and am looking for some assistance in reading The Media Audit reports that both have provided me - mainly cume rating vs. index.
Let's take for example a comparison on the following target audience: Attended Past 12 Months - Rock/Pop Music Concert. The percent of the target audience as a factor of the whole audience is 23.7% or 376,300 people. Paper A reaches 154,900 (41.2% rating) while Paper B reaches 140,100 (37.2% rating). Therefore, Paper A has the larger rating or "total eyeballs" per say. However, when we switch gears and look at the Index, we see that Paper B has an index of 208 (49.4% composition) while Paper A only has an index of 168 (39.5% composition). We've been trying to talk this situation out all day to determine which number is more important in deciding who to go with -- since we can only choose one for next year's plans. can you help me to understand in plain english the difference between the 2?
Composition is the portion of the readers of a publication who fit within your target.
Reach / rating is the portion of your target who are within the audience of the publication.
Compostition, therefore is an indicator of the degree of focus on your target while rating is popularity among your target.
Playboy or Maximum PC will have a very high audience composition who are Men 18-34, but People Weekly has more readers in that demographic group.
If two publications have more or less comparable content, as daily newspapers would prefer rating to composition, but cost efficient should also be considered. If overall reach is a goal, including both has merit.
is there any documented information on media buying in third world countries, specifically Africa where penetration of traditional above the line media is low among the masses? Are there any norms or research done on this?
Try A C Nielsen
Just out of curiosity, what makes you the Media Guru?
30+ years in all areas of media, leading to an ability to answer all these questions.
I'm the author of a new book on investing called "If It's Raining in Brazil, Buy Starbucks" Please suggest an advertising strategy to reach active traders and investors on the net
i'm an italian junior media buyer: what is exactly the "net net price"?
Colloquially, "net net" means bottom line after all discounts. In media, this generally means a fully negotiated price, less commissions and cash discount.
Can I place a small ad free in your news groups section? How or where do I go to do this?
We don't have a news groups section.
We charge for advertising. See the advertisng information page
What wins ad size or frequency? Are there any case studies or research available that proves either theory? Your assistance is greatly appreciated to help settle this debate.
What wins what?
The Guru finds that frequency will do better at generating awareness, recall or reach. Size may convey a different impression of "importance." Frequency is probably better for sales, but ad size may be better for image or to convey certain highly graphic ideas.
Can you give me a neat, layman's, "Advertising For Dummies" explanation of Media Quintles and how they can help determine media usage in a market like Washington, DC?
Click here to see the Guru's take on quintiles.
We are working with a client to launch a financial
services product and our initial assignment was to
develop a three month launch test plan. They have
now asked us to develop the five year plan to better
understand the longer term impact of marketing on their
business. Is there a magic number to apply to the
annualized launch plan to project out media spend over
five years? Thanks in advance.
No magic numbers here. The Guru would be conservative. Ask vendors in each media category type what they forsee. Why would you use a "launch" level plan to project 5 years?
I work on a heavy retail account where we are continually being asked to plot DMA maps with individual store locations- currently, we are xeroxing the maps, and manually putting on dots- there has to be a better and faster way- however, it would have to be a service that does not charge. Thank you Media Guru
Not everything is available for free.If this is a "heavy account," it should be well worth investing a few hundred dollars in a mapping system like MapInfo if not a more full featured sytem like Geoscape. Otherwise, if your heavy account is investing heavy media dollars, you will find several media vendors willing to do such maps for you as a service.
Do you know who to contact for advertising on street-vendor umbrellas? Are there any national rep firms handling this type of outdoor media?
The Guru believes that these umbrellas are POP (point-of-purchase) materials provided by the vendors' suppliers. Visit P.O.P.A.I.
We work with several healthcare & medical product related clients. In planning for next year and allocating advertising/marketing budgets, we are seeking a documented source that details "general guidelines" on advertising/marketing budgets for healthcare facilities? We have first-hand knowledge indicating the 3-5% range from our particular health clients, but would prefer some documented info. Any insight you could provide would be appreciated. Thank you.
The trade media for the industry is likley to have discussed this. Or the industry associations may have data. Try Healthcare Industry and Management Systems Society
what are the different sizes avaialbe for banner advertising
Refer to IAB's banner sizes page.
can u tell me a difference between reach & impression?
Every time a person is exposed to an advertisement, an impression is created. One person exposed twice = 2 impressions. Two people each exposed once = 2 impressions. Reach is the number of different persons exposed to advertising. Reach is often expressed as a percentage of the target population.
I have a few questions regarding advertising to children between the ages of 9 and 12. I am a Xavier University student working on a project for my Media Planning class and would really appreciate it if you could answer any of the following questions or if not, please direct me to someone who can.
1) What options are available for advertising to children between the ages of 9 and 12? I'm looking for creative ideas as well as anything that may be considered standard.
2) How do these options work and who do they reach? Are there any internet sites that may be helpful in locating this information?
3) What are the strengths and weaknesses of these options? Are any better than others at reaching this specific target? What would you recommend as far as frequency is concerned?
4) Hold are these options sold? Monthly, weekly, daily, etc.? On a spot by spot basis? Where could I get quotes for these to include in my presentation?
5) How much do they cost?
6) How are these mediums measured? Who provides measurement? For example, Arbitron measures radio in average quarter hour ratings. Do you know where I can go to find statistics on these? How many people are reached over what time span etc.?
7) Lastly, who should use these mediums? Is it better for one industry/company than another? Why?
If it is easier to respond to me directly to my e-mail account please do. I would really appreciate this. email@example.com
Thank you VERY much.
The Guru thanks you for the opportunity to do your class project.
I know there's a study out there on the effect of frequency on click-throughs. I even found reference to a study in an answer you, the great Guru, provided in January 2000. However, the textlink to Doubleclick you provided on that answer no longer works, and after hours of searching online (doubleclick, iab, clickz, etc.) I have been unable to locate any official studies. Can you point me in the right direction of a current study?
If the sources you've tried don't have anything, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Has cable penetration stayed steady or even decreased
since consumers have the option of satellite? Or does
this truly vary widely by market?
There may have been a small decrease in penetration as a percent though not in numbers. Satellite is growing but still relatively small. Cable's growth recently lagged population growth.
When analysts predict +5% in increased ad spending for
spot tv for 2002, can you equate this to +5% increase
in CPP as a rule of thumb? Conversely, if it is
predicted a 5% decrease in spending, can you plan for
a 5% cpp deflation? Have you seen any updated ad
spending forecasts after the Sep 11 tragedy?
Thank you for your help!!
Volume and cpp change do not correlate directly. For example, anticipated drops in cpp might be the driver in a prediction for increased volume. The trades have been full of lowered forecasts.
We are a new online business devoted to selling information about hockey. We would like to request information on how to
affectively advertise our information and create an affective website. How can we make our information easily accesible to the public as well as appealing? We want as many people as possible to learn about us and what we have to offer so we want to learn what the most effective and inexpensive way of online advertisement is. We trust that we will receive answers to our inquiries soon and we thank you for your time.
Click here to see past Guru responses about advertising a website.
What are the "guerilla" type of media vehicles available in the Hispanic market or General market?
"Guerilla" is an adjective usually applied to marketing techniques which use approaches other than mass media. Painting logos on big rocks or train trestles, are examples equally applicable to the Hispanic or General Markets. "Wildposting," those small posters seen on construction sites, advertising night club appearances or a carnival, are perhaps more familiar examples. One thing all these have in common is being slightly or very illegal.
I know you have addressed this question many times, but I could not find an answer to help me in your archives. How can I determine reach & frequency for my television buy without buying software? I do not know reach or frequency, only total TRP's. Please help.
Reach and frequency is a complex calculation. Without software, only tables of results based on averaging actula caluculation will be helpful. Complexities of dayparts, demographics, and timing can mean a 2:1 range in results for the same GRP. If the media vendors can't help you, eTelmar is a low-cost, pay-per-use alternative.
Have you ever heard the term "social capital" used in relation to advertising or marketing objectives? I have a client that uses this term often, and although he uses it in a branding context, I want to make sure I'm not missing out on a new, or not so new, concept or theory. Thanks!
According to Civic Practices Network:
"Social capital refers to those stocks of social trust,in norms and networks that people can draw upon to solve common problems. Networks of civic engagement, such as neighborhood associations, sports clubs, and cooperatives, are an essential form of social capital, and the denser these networks, the more likely that members of a community will cooperate for mutual benefit."
This sociological concept may apply well to public relations or corporate imaging, particularly if it is important to the advertiser to appear public spirited. Oil companies, hospitals and political parties / candidates may find this reference appropriate. Or it may merely be a pretentious way of phrasing image goals in the case of consumer products.
How would one determine, by Cable Network, the benefits of using "National" vs. "Local" spot cost when buying DRTV?
This question isn't clear. If you literally mean local vs national cost for the same thing, choose the lower one. If you mean local vs national advertsing coverage in DR, test and see.
Where can I find standard advertising forms for a small ad agency to use? For example...contracts, estimates, terms etc. I'm looking for free stuff!
American Association of Advertising Agencies or other ad agency associations can supply these. Membership is generally required.
I just started free-lance media buying, Is their a software program I can buy to compute reach and frequency, CPP etc, without purchasing Arbitron or Nielsen? I would submit my own numbers for each program. Thank you.
Are there any research companies willing to pretest effective frequency by acctually showing my specific TV commercial to a test audience?
If you mean at no charge, probably not. The Guru is not clear on what test scenario for multiple exposure you are envisioning. To be a realistic test, the multiple exposure would have to take place over time and sales or A&U studies conducted over this period of time. There are many firms which might do this for you, and it will probably be quite expensive. A "panel" type company such as A C Nielsen or IRI Behaviorscan might be good starting points.
starch inra hooper results for gentlemen's quarterly june 2000
I am writing to you to express my interest in finding information on how to run my business in the most effective manner. What is my business ? you might ask, well myself and the rest of the group have created a corporation that distributes medical information all across Canada. Let me break it down for you, lets say someone needs to find a doctor or a dentist in their specific living area, they can go on our website, type in their home address (street name, postal code etc) and the ciy or town that they live in. Our people process this information and provide a list that suggests multiple practicioners in that area.
Now what we need to know is what are the flaws in this idea ?, where are the holes in our company ? are we missing a valuable bit of information that is going to hold us back ?
Baiscally we are just trying to provide free information for people in a fast and effective manner.
Any tips or suggestions would be greatly appreciated
Thank you very much
Where does media come into this? What media-related element do you want the Guru to evaluate?
I am an entreprenuer, and I have begun a business that basically provides online information about cellular phones, theirervices, and any other aspect of cell phones.
My company, provides customers with memberships to information, and a mailing list updating clients on new info.
Please respond and tell me if you think this company will work, and where you think it can be improved.
thank you for your time,
The Guru doesn't see where you plan to make money on this nor how this idea relates to media.
We are searching for expected direct mail response
rates, along with a validated research source of this information. Realizing that there are many variables with a particular direct mailing, do you have any recent "general guideline" statistics that reference 1)an expected standard response rate for a mailing to current long-term customers, and 2)a "mass" (slightly larger quantity) mailing to potential customers? We have checked with the DMA, which only provides this research to non-members at a relatively high expense. We have also checked the guru archives, and not found the exact answers to this question. Thank you.
Is there any resource that tracks newspaper circulations for two years or more?
Visit Audit Bureau of Circulations.
Hi Guru could you please tell me the correct method of calculating CPM for consumer magazines - how would one account for the pass along readers ?
If you have audience measured by one of the standard syndicated services, such as MRI, Simmons or The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study, that audience number includes pass-along. Most leading consumer magazines can provide this number. Others should have some sort of research on their pass-along. See AMIC's Ad Data area.
Can you tell me where I can find information on radio networks in general (not a specific network)?
why do consumer magazines go through a cyclical trend and what are your thoughts about consumer amgazines roles in the changing media landscape
Everything has cylical trends, variations may depend on the economy, the state of the world, trends in consumer interests, like computers, health, world affairs, etc.
If the strength of magazines in general seems to be declining, there are always hotter categories and new categories.
I wanted to know the return on investment for print advertising - specifically consumer magazines
There is no simple, sensible answer. It will vary according to magazine category, ad unit, product category, marketing goals (e.g. image vs direct response) etc.
But if you were absolutely specific, and asked "what is the R.O.I. of page, 4 color direct response ads for do-it-yourself books in news weeklies" only an advertiser with that specific experience would have an answer for you, and would probably consider it proprietary info.
Who sells LNA data
I need to prepare a "Media 101" on the media landscape in several Latin America countries. Who can I contact for information on this subject?
Zona Latina is a good starting point.
what is the law regarding political advertising rates for local spot cable tv. i've heard: 1. lowest published rate on the rate card 2.lowest prevailing rate ie rate offered to other advertisers during that period of time.
In broadcast, it's the lowest rate sold in the past year. Cable may have different regulations than broadcast. Contact a single rep or vendor whom you might deal with and request a citation of the relvant law.
I am looking for information regarding the average CPM for direct e-mail compared to direct mail. Thanks.
The Guru does not in any way support commercial bulk email. SPAM is repugnant and despite any claims to the contrary, so-called "permission-based email" appears to be bogus. The costs of direct email are either the physical transmission, which is negligible or the cost of the list. The Guru believes purchased lists mean SPAM. Direct email should be limited to your own customer or request lists, hence no cost will be involved.
Could you please give me all examples of TV flights pattern: GRP min/max levels, guerilla tactics, else ?
Flight patterens can be any imaginable combination of active and inactive weeks from 1 on / 12 of to 12 on / 1 off. Anything more extreme shouldn't be considered flighting. The on/off patterens do not have to be equal or consistent.
Some think GRPs should be at least suffieceint to reach 30% of target weekly in a continuity plan. There is no real upper end except the "point of diminishing returns" where adding reach is prohibitively expensive or no longer possible. Even then, some would add weight just for frequency in promotions.
Guerilla tactics are marketing, not media issues.
Is there any information on audience conversion rates from televison to Internet through advertising or programming methods
I have been trying to find a clear, easy-to-understand way of explaining to account services why Nielsen isn't an absolute, exact science, but see it for the base measurement tool that it is. Any way you could sum it up for me? I have pointed out many of the flaws and error measurements to the methodology but they can't seem to grasp why it isn't black and white.
One would devoutly hope that an account professional would have some experience with survey research, like attitude and usage studies, but then again, many of them believe you can project porduct usage from a couple of focus groups of ten people.
Nielsen is like any other research based on sampling, it is subject to sampling error. Projecting behavior of an entire population based on a large sample is a well established scientific procedure, and Nilesen has a good overview on their site. The short answer is, when well conducted research is based on a random sample, results are at best within a certain +/- range. When you hear that a national political poll regarding two candidates is '+/- 3 points' that really means that a 50% projection is between 47 and 53% at a certain confidence level like 95%. Or, that id the poll was redone the same way 100 times, 95 times the results for that question would be from 47 to 50%. But 50% has the largest possible sample portion behind it ( if the answer was 75%, it also means that 25% said the opposite and both must be equally reliable.
TV ratings are more often numbers like 2% or 7% because there are so many viewing choices and non-viewer as well. With the same sample as the political poll above, the 2% answer (or rating) is subject to much less absolute error than the 50% answer, perhaps 0.4 points rather than 3 points, But as a relative error that is very big, 20% of the audeince reported. Over time, if a show' real rating is 2.0 and rthe aduience doesn't change, there will be some weeks that get a 2.4 rating and others with a 1.6. They'll average out to the 2.0, but depending on how you read Nielsen, you need to account for that. If you by a weekly program expecting the 2.0, and happen to be in a 1.6 week, you hope (realistically) that some other program you bought has an 'up' week. Over a whole quarterly schedule, with a lot of announcements, if the GRPs are far from expectation, look elsewhere than Nielsen for blame.
Is there one clear, absolute way to go about projecting CPP (television) for an upcoming year? What methods do you find to be most accurate?
No one clear method. If there were, certain people wouldn'rt be 'pulling down the big bucks.'
There are two unrelated processes here: predicting ratings and predicting costs per announcement. Both can dcepend on changes in the national state of mind as well as external economic factors and highly unpredictable viewing preference changes.
The core of ratings prediction is an assumption that overall viewing levels are stable, and allowing for seasonal changes. Predictign share is more of a crap-shoot, starting from the latest results and making increasingly complex judgnemts about the appeal of future programming.
How do you convert household ratings into demo ratings?
here are two approaches to this process, one based on having all the data needed (which the Guru expects you do not) and the other based on having only some past data.
Certainly with overnights, you will only have HH as current data.
When there is full data, the process involves comparing the program viewers per viewing household (vpvh) in the demographic category to the demographic population per household (pph). This yields a conversion factor whioch mya be multipied against the HH rating to get demo rating. Using hypothetical data, if:
If you have past history of HH and 18-49 ratings for the program, then you may create an index of demo rating to HH rating and use that to convert. If you are looking at market overnights and have nantional HH and demo numbers, again create an index.
If you have absolutely nothing but HH overnight numbers, there is no simple rule of thumb. Each kind of program converts differently.
Does it pay to advertise on the Internet?
It does for some. Simple click though to simple purchases can work. Less direct, less measurable awareness build might not be proven to pay.
I was reading through MediaWeek.com and saw a note saying "due to no barter in the mix, there are no current national ratings for X syndicated show". What does this mean?
Without seeing the specific article, the Guru offers the following:
There are two principal syndication scenarios.
Because there has been national advertising sales in this process, the syndicator will arrange that there is national ratings measurement by Nielsen.
Whats the best answer to give a prospective client when they ask you "Why should we use an ad agency for our media, when we can do it ourselves in-house" I know the basic answer, what else can I convey
The difference should be in skill and knowledge.
What is the difference between 100 GRPs in Canada and 100 TRPs in US? I've heard that it is harder to reach Canadains than it is Americans through television, is that true? If so, why?
100 GRPs means a quantity of impressions equal to the size of the population. So in Canada, 100 GRPs represents about 11% as many impressions as in the US, since Canada has 11% as big a population.
'Harder to reach' might mean many different things. Perhaps the major programs in Canada have lower ratings than in the US, or there are more different program choices. Or cume patterns are lower for whatever reason. Or cost per point is greater due to less economy of scale.
I used the archives to look up a question concerning the use of celebrity endorsements. Both of the responses in the archives referred to the Advertising Research Foundation. I called the number, and was told that information is only available to paid members. You should note this when you refer people to that organization.
The Guru does not purport to provide, primarily, links to free data. Most of the sources cited, Nielsen, Arbitron, MRI, Direct Marketing Association
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) etc., have membership fees, subscription fees, or data charges.
The user must decide whether the need justifies the cost.
It doesn't cost any more than a phone call or email to learn there is a charge.
Personally, the Guru feels that ARF membership is justified by access to the library alone.
can you show me some of the formulas developed to measure cost per thousand, and other media planning formulas?
Click here to see Guru discussion of media formulas.
In testing DM/OTM only versus the impact of
mass media with a call-to-action on the response to DM/OTM,
have you ever seen an instance in which the introduction
of mass media actually depressed the response to the DM/OTM
due to the introduction of other response options?
Thanks in advance for your help.
I am gathering information on direct mail, more specifically, its current status and forecasts for its future as an advertising technique. Any information you have or could direct me to would be appreciated. Thanks!
I need to find information about costs in Spot-tv advertising. I foun all kind of rates and expenditures, but I would like to know how much would it cost me, to place an ad on spot tv. Need information for different geographic areas.
We offer sample spot costs per point for all 200+ market areas in AMIC's Ad Data area.
Dear Media Guru, You have been so incredibly helpful in the past, I hope to have the same luck this time. Can you give me some background information about the Direct-to-Consumer (DTC) marketplace in the U.S.? For example, the size and growth of the market over the last three years, media used, and effectiveness of the advertising. Also, do you know of a source to find case studies for DTC advertising -- this would be helpful as well. Thanks in advance for any help you could give -- I know this is quite a broad question!
The Guru presumes you mean the prescription pharmaceutical 'DTC.'
When the category was born about 15 years ago an association was formed, but the Guru doesn't find it reeadinly now.
Find Articles.com has some archives in this area.
Said to be on the way out. Wait and see for this week's "Survivor."
I'm a graduate student in integrated marketing communication. One of my professors asked me to write a white paper on business publications -- their history of development, pros and cons in using business publications in advertising, and what's the strategy in buying business publications. Can you tell me how to find materials in this field? Thanks so much in advance for your help. Suzie
Guru, do you know approximately what percent of all
measured media ad $ are being handled by Buying Services? Also how has this amount been trending over the past couple of years?
Some analysis of
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) data should answer this.
I am going to the planning process for a new b2b client
at our agency. The client has a very specific audience
it is looking to reach, thus buying by the numbers is
becoming less of an option than cherry picking programs
and flight dates based on the small and very high brow
target. Any suggestions on how to request rates without
buying on GRP's or CPP? I don't want to get taken on
the rates as a result of our obvious interest in very
specific programming only.
Additionally how do I then prove the buy later since it
was bought on a qualitative basis?
How can I pursue clients in need of a print advertising company? How do I find companies/clients in need of print advertising?
The Guru is not clear about your question. By "print advertising company" do you mean a media buying firm specializing in print or a creative shop that does print ads or a publisher of some sort?
In any of these cases, the best approach would be to observe what companies are currently using print advertising.
what are the key roles of a media buyer?
Click here to see past Guru responses about media buyers.
Dear Guru, where can I find some general information about catalogs as a medium? I need information about current trends, price, strengths and weaknesses, etc. all that in relation to catalogs. Thanks.
Catalogs are "collateral material" or perhaps direct mail pieces and do not fit into "advertising media."
Price would be production costs.
I am looking for informations about effectiveness
of adverting on trolleys in supermarkets. Do you know of a research regarding that? Thank you
Ask the vendor and check The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Are there any studies on the effectiveness or radio as well as radio ad recall vs. television. All studies seem to favor television. Is this a correct statement.. Can you please share you thoughts?
The trouble with such studies, when done from a certain angle is they compare and ad to an ad. It should be apparent that an ad with 'sight sound and motion' would outperform an ad with only sound. However, in the real worls, a radio campaing for X dollars includes more units than a TV campaign for the same budget, all else being equal. The comparison needs to be equal dollars in each medium, and radio can win in such as scenario.
Can you provide a guide for calculating the optimal number of advertisements to place per annum using radio, TV, an Newspaper Printing?
There is no basis for such a rule of thumb. Pay more attention to impressions, reach / frequency, etc
As per your knowledge, is there any proved correlation between the share of voice and the share of market for a FMCG or/or durable goods ?
Directionality seems well accepted.
See The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Dear Guru, what is "egg advertising" and what is "guerilla marketing"
Egg advertsing is ads on eggs. Guerilla marketing is use of various non-traditional means of communication, and not truly a media issue.
What's your opinion on Recency planning (Low weekly GRP levels) in a market with no People Meter data only diary data (1 week survey twice a year). Having in mind that Diary data usually overestimates TV ratings. Are 80 to 100 Weekly TV GRP to low in Diary data market?
Recency is about maintaining minimal continuous reach levels, not 'low GRP levels'. 30 is about right for weekly reach. If you have a reach model keyed to diary measurement, that's your guide.
Hey there, Guru. I've heard about magazines that have been wrapped with an ad and are mailed directly to people not on the subscriber list. I'm not sure if the advertiser provides the mag with the direct mail list or if the pub provides a list. I'm not even sure who provides this service. Red Herring is supposed to have done something like this or at least been one of the pubs mailed with an ad wrapped around it. Do you know anything about this service or can you suggest anyone that I could contact? I've already tried the folks at Red Herring and haven't received a call back yet.
This would be arranged through the specific magazine.
I am doing a white paper on unconventional/untraditional media. Do you have a good definition of what unconventional/untraditional media is? I have done a lot of research, unfortunately there is not a lot on this subject.
It is difficult to give a concise definition of something which is best described by what it is not.
Untraditional media is not TV, radio, magazine, newspaper, or outdoor. Anything else which conveys an ad message to a mass audience might qualify. Interactive is just about crossing over into "traditional" territory these days. The untraditonal group includes placemats, postcards, toilet stalls, etc.
Where can I find information about product placement? I especially need to know how to measure the effectiveness of product placement.
Click here to see past Guru responses regarding product placement.
Dear Guru: I've been asked to develop a POV on including Spanish-Language TV stations in future DRTV efforts for a particular client. Unfortunately, I'm unsure where to locate information or research that would allow me to make an educated recommendation. I've tried speaking with reps from Spanish TV networks, but they are trying to sell me things instead of answering my basic questions. Can you point me toward any resource that might include information on this topic? Thanks!
DR information is limited everywhere. Sellers don't necessarily know what thr response genrated by their DR advertisers has been. But they can tell you their rules for DR and what lenghts and schedules are commonly purchased. Both Univison and Telemundo networks can help. It is the Guru's impression that reponse is particulary good in Spanish TV. You may find that your local Spanish stations have DR specialists very willing to help. Contact AMIC's multicultural specialist at Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resources directly for some specific advice.
Hi Guru - Can you give me some information on RADAR and tell me what Radio Ad Effectiveness Lab (RAEL) is about. Thank you
Click here to see past Guru responses about RADAR.
RAEL sounds like one of those forced exposure tests, where respondents in an artificial listening situation ar asked later about radio commericals "heard" while waiting.
I am looking for a few pros' and con's of trading services for air time, both tv and radio,where can I find this info?
It's a simple financial analysis. First you must know what the airtime would cost you in cash. Then if you can get airtime in exchange goods that cost you less than this cash value you're ahead.
Barter deals usually do not stand up to this analysis.
my client (a bicycle manufacturer) wants to change their regular campaign of brochures and :25 radio commercials to brochures and :5 radio commercials, involving just the jingle. their goal is to increase awareness. their current awareness level is 40%. we would like to advise them to stick with the longer commercials, as we believe you need to inform the consumer to build brand awareness, image, purchase intent etc. the jingle alone, we think, will only produce short term effects.
do you know of any research that supports this? thank you!
The Guru agrees with you overall and presumes you are now running :25s with a :05 dealer tag. Also that you mean to swaitch to putting a :05 tag on a dealer commercial you are buying on behalf of the dealers. Surely no one will sell you stand alone :05s. It seems wasteful and lacking in brand sell to do this :05 thing.
Try The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB) for research.
industry wide -- what percentage of a media budget is going towards online? do you know the percentage in the travel industry?
Probably less than 1%. Check
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
Is there an "equivalancy" formula comparing the effectiveness of one newspaper and and a television commercial that appears "x" times for equal recall?
No standard formula. Once you set your units, you mught compare awareness or other measures. The right comparison should allow common budgets, not compare unit to unit.
What source books (like SRDS) are there for estimating media costs in Auustralia?
How do we become Media Guru?
Work and learn for 30+ years or read this page every week.
Hi Guru, Can you detail for the process of converting NTI's to project local ratings?
There is no real "conversion" process. If you assume that a program's local rating will parallel its national rating, the adjustment to local will depend on having seen local ratings. If you have local ratings, why do you need to convert ratings?
where can I go to look up how to put together a sponsorship package for a large event? Budget target is $2.5 million. Thank you.
Look at packages for other comparable events.
what does this position mean: TOC 1 and TOC 2? Also, what does A size mean and all the other sizes? Can you give me a resource or if you can tell me how to find more information on print positions and placements and sizes and such.
The Guru takes these positions to be “Table of Contents 1”
and “Table of Contents 2.” This means ads placed opposite the first or second page of the magazines table of contents. “A” size is not a familiar term in US magazines. In Europe, there is “A” size writing paper.
Guru – I am trying to do some research on direct response TV for a new client. We are a small agency with limited resources. Do you know of any good articles or books that would explain the best way to plan for and/or purchase DRTV. Also I am looking for information on how determine cost per response on a first time advertiser and why might it be more likely to receive more response in a late fringe program vs. prime programming? Your advice is much appreciated.
I am a student in Media and was asked to cost out radio stations. I have come across one that does not specify it's day rotations (how many days of the week the classification accounts for). I cannot call the sales rep so I am wondering if I would just assume that the classification was based on a 7 day rotation?
Without knowing the context in which you found the rate, the Guru has no opinion. Some stations more often quote M-F and others M-Su. Call the rep. That's the real world solution.
My boss and I are at odds regarding strategy and print selection. ( I am an AMD, she is a group director) It is making work very difficult. We come from very very different backgrounds and schools of thought. I firmly believe in my strategy (and have research to support it) and think it is the best thing for the brand. I believe in using optimizers and advanced technology to support the recommendation. She likes to go by gut. However, this isn’t limited to just an isolated incident regarding print strategy. She is constantly undermining me to the junior level people in the group, and at this point they do not want to do the work I give them unless she agrees first. Can you give me some guidance? Thanks.
A seasoned media executive is distinguished by the ability to make decisions based on ‘gut feeling’ when there is no useful research or factual basis for the decision.
However, going against existing valid research when one has no factual basis is simply unprofessional. The Guru has encountered this attitude from people who don’t understand research, or have grown up in specilaized arenas with no research availble and are covering their weaknesses. If this person is undercutting you with your staff because of this shortcoming, you have an untenable position.
Are circulatlion numbers broken out by points of delivery,meaning households, businesses...etc?
Circulation is reported as subscription vs newsstand, or by type of subscriber. The Guru has not seen other analyses of pacle of receipt.
I am interesting in IMS Modal reach and frequency model.
As far as I can understand they use beta-binomial
model for plans with one vehicle, but what model
is used for plans with more than 1 vehicle (so called
between vehicle duplication problem). Could you
give me any references or ideas?
Sincerely, Lena M
We are a startup company that is launching a network of websites for sports radio stations. We're looking for exclusive sponsorships for this network which should produce between 200-300 individual sites an upwards of 10k unique visitors per week. Where can we go to find potential sponsors or groups of sponsors to present our package to?
See our 'Ad Placement on the Web' links for reps who might sell your space.
But the Guru fears they will not find 10K visits a week very interesting, especially when it consists of 300 sites each with the extremely low traffic of 30 vists per week.
wear out analysis
Click here to see Guru responses about wear out.
Hi, i want to know about CPM (Cost Per Impression)
For examples, see AMIC's Ad Data area.
Is there a resource to help plan an on line campaign to reach healthcare professionals, particularly MDs.
Click here to see past Guru responses on the topic.
Are there any rules about how long a creative spot should run on radio before there are adverse effects on the targeted audience? We have a client who has run 2 spots on 3 stations with an average of 100 TRP's per week for 16 consecutive weeks. What are some of the advantages/disadvantages to running the same spot over such a period of time? Thank you for your insight.
Repetition has value in awarenss building. At some point, the commerial wears out. The best rule the Guru has encountered for this is "when sales begin to fall off, the commerical is worn out."
All about CUME reach. What about the recency & net duplication planning?
Cume is about longer term, recency is about a week at a time.
Click here to see past Guru responses about cume and recency .
What is the law or ethic or general rule about an agency placing a client in a publication or on a website where the agency stand to gain inancially from the publication or site?
In the Guru's humble opinion, if the client knows the situation, it's probably OK. If the client doesn't know, it's probably not. If the 'gain' is a direct payment or kickback without the client's knowledge, it's definitely unethical and probably illegal. If the gain is because the agency has some minor investment in the medium, it's probably not illegal, but is ethically questionable.
I am interested inknowing what impact the positioning of ads in comsumer magazines has in the effectiveness of the ads. If there are meaningful differences what positions are considered better.
What is PIB
"Publishers' Information Bureau," a service which tracked consumer magazine advertising. See
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
hi, i wanna ask where i can get some useful media analysis s/w?? can you help me?
If I am planning radio in Los Angeles for the Lottery for a project, should I use radio in all markets?
The Guru isn't clear what you mean by 'all the markets' when you are talking about LA. But if you mean that everyone in the Los Angeles DMA is equally important to you, so should you buy Riverside-San Bernardino, the answer is yes. Even more important will be including Spanish stations.
Is there an easier way to determine radio spillage in CA than by using the Arbitron County Coverage book?
No, that's the way.
Do you know of a source or sources that reports total
marketing spend and total direct marketing spend by
No, the Guru has never found such a source. Various 'vertical' trade magazines might report this for top companies in their categories.
I am looking for a resource that provides the amount of
marketing and advertising dollars spent on various
demographic segments. Any ideas?
No, the Guru has never a source toalling spending by dempographic. How would an outside source know the demographic target of an ad in broad reach vehicles like People Magazine or on Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? Such vehicles account for a lot of the spending. If an advertiser spent only in similar niche media, a conclusion might be drawn, but the lion's share of dollars would go unaccounted for.
I couldn't find an advertising sales representation agreement form between an ad placement agency and a newspaper. Where can I possibly find such a form? There's lots of agency - advertiser forms, but not the agency - newspaper ones.
Hi ! I am a media planner with EuroRSCG in India. We in India are going through a lengthy and fruitless debate on the size and spread of the people meter sample in the country. Not to mention that the sample has been recently compromised. I'd like to know where i could get more information about the people meter samples in the US and the UK. Some technical details like the number of markets being measured, the size of the samples there, the demographic parameters being measured and any future trends. Would you be able to guide me on this regard?
Different countries and cultures have very different stories. The UK consists of about 14 'markets,' the US over 200.
Your best bet would be to see the archives of advertsing trade media from the times of People Meter's introduction, the mid 80's in the US, a few years earlier in the UK.
Approximately how many messages does an individual consume per day (including print/tv/radio/internet)? Please respond to firstname.lastname@example.org
The Guru has seen estimates of from 600 to over 2000 ad messages per day.
When you consider that the typical person is only awake for about 1000 minutes per day, and probably spends more time not consuming ad messages than consuming them, the high end of that estimate seems extremely hyped.
Hi. I have to create a media plan using Tv spot as my main media. I do not even understand what it is. What is the trend in this media? Is it "popular"? How do you best incorporate it in your media plan? what are the benefits? Could you give me an example of how can I use Tv Spot as the part of the media plan?Where can i find more information about it?
Spot TV means local tv. That is, commericials aired within local markets, the coverage areas of individula stations rather than networks. Spot is used when the geographic marketing needs of the advertiser call for a local focus.
Visit TV Bureau of Advertising
I suddenly find myself in a position to free-lance in media planning and buying. I've been asked to provide a rate structure i.e., MY hourly rates for planning, buying, stewardship and attending client meetings (different rate levels are assumed for each of these tasks). Can you give me any guidance?
This depends on what the traffic will bear and how much you contribute to the process or how well you present yourself. A person with 5 years of planner/buyer experience will command a different rate than a media director of 25+ years experience. Depending on the project and experience as well as all the above, rates from $25 to $200 per hour are conceivable.
I'm looking for a good overview of how ads are delivered over Broadcast and Cable networks. Specifically, I am interested in the value chain and the technical specs on how the advertising campaigns are managed and transmitted through this system.
The Guru isn't entirely clear about your terminology, such as 'value chain.'
A simple overview, when an agency is involved, would be
Various sales people or outside sales organizations will earn various commissions in the chain between agency and broadcaster.
It's been a while since we've asked a question but this is a good one. Is there any way to investigate consumer purchase behavior? Specifically, days of the week and times of day (morning, evening)that people shop for household products. If there is a website or published list that would be useful -- we would greatly appreciate it. Thanks in advance for any info. you could provide.
You will probably find some useful information through Scarborough. This may not be your intention, but generally, the Guru thinks it unwise to try to link advertsing times to purchase times. Except for extremely narrow promotions, advertisng is usually meant to build awarenss and message penetration over a few messages so that the information is there at the time of the purchase decision. It isn't realistic to visualize the consumer hearing a commercial on the car radio, slamming on the brakes, turning around and heading to the mall.
Dear Guru :
I need to make a research in my clients about our services.
Do you´ve a questionaire about this topic ?
This question does not seem to be about media. In any case, you will do best with a questionnaire specific to your own business.
First thanks for a great service - I am an experienced
broadcast and interactive services executive and I
continued to learn new things from this site.
Question - I am helping roll-out a new service based on kiosks with high speed Internet connection
which combines Point of Sale display, on screen advertising (both full screen and interactive) and consumer data collection, analysis and report generation.
How best to develop wholesale costs for the media space?
I'm assuming it is most like alternative out of home and should be looked at as a cross between outdoor,
interactive and tradtional spot.
Any ideas where to start or other media that might be
comparable for analysis?
Thanks and keep up the great work.
Thank you for the kind words.
The Guru isn't sure he understands your term "wholesale" in this context. However, based on outdoor and current generic internet pricing, a cpm well under $5 is reasonable.
You will find some media cost data in AMIC's Ad Data area.
I went to adage.com and found total ad dollars spent in calendar year 2000. I can not find total ad dollars spent in Seattle DMA for calendar year 2000 or 1999. Can you help me? Would also want to see what media got what percentage of the total amount...TV, Radio, Newspaper, Out of Home and Internet for a calendar year in Seattle is what I am looking for.
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
are trying to gain information on the advantage of annual issues, i.e.
the shelf life advantages and time spent reading over standard monthly
Surely it depends greatly on the nature of the annual issue. A consumer buying guide might be acquired when a purchase is under consideration and discarded soon after. A B2B guide-to-suppliers might be treated as having more lasting value. In either case, these are not the sort of content which is "read," but rather is "referred to", so the exposure opportunity for a given ad is reduced, albeit the impact -- by virtue of exposure at a time of purchase decision -- is enhanced. Other annuals will vary according to their nature.
Research on this might be available from Cahners Business Information, The Magazine Publishers' Association or The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Where do most people listen to the radio? Could you give me a percent breakdown for car, office,train/bus and home? If you have information specific to the NY area, it would be appreciated.
Arbitron's 'Radio Today' offers such data (see chart below from Radio Today 2000.
Arbitron will have data by market, as well.
How would you define 'Media Planning'? What si the best way of defining what Media Planners do?
A media planner evaluates advertising goals to determine media objectives and strategies. These may include market specifics, media environments and communication levels. Then the planner recommends specific vehicles and schedules to best execute these strategies.
texas market hispanic research
I am looking for a resource that provides market profiles for all markets in the U.S.
Depending in what you mean by "market profile," you may probably find what you want in Standard Rate and Data Service Lifestyle Market Profiles (SRDS)
What factors should I take into consideration for pricing in-store advertising eg. ads with price-stickers,displays etc? I would of course need to compare it with other media to show the cost-effectiveness but how do I adjust the pricing downwards for the lack of visual impact (as compared to TV) or adjust it upwards for the better recency effect?
POP signage is a different area than traditional media. Use your own judgement.
Which universties in the US have the best graduate programs in advertising? Preferably with special emphasis on media planning.
Thank you in advance
Try the US News Grad School Rankings. The Guru would be surprised to find a graduate program with 'emphasis on media planning.'
Do you know who has a mailing list for a) business publications, and for b) business association?
Find vendors at Direct Mail Quotes
How to effectevely by out of home media
How to arrive with reach and frequency
I am looking for info on awareness decline to defend continuity scheduling. I have found in the archives your reference to 5-10% decline per week of no advertising and would like a bit more meat than the
rule of thumb. Can you tell me more about it? And
how does the 5-10% decline come off of the awareness:
60% *.95 or .9 = 54-57% or 60% -5 or 10% = 50-55%?
I'm also referencing recency. These questions are to
help me build a model of some sort. Thanks.
The meaning is 60*.95 or *.9. This way it's asymtotic, like reach. The other way, no awareness would remain from any starting level after 10 to 20 weeks.
IS THERE RESEARCH THAT PROVES INTERNET RESPONSES BEING ON THE RISE AND PUBLICATIONS RESPONSES ON THE DOWN FALL?
The Guru doubts there is research which finds this. Every source the Guru sees reports declining internet response. If there is any research supporting the finding you wish, it would be available through The Internet Advertising Bureau.
How can I measure the effects of media PLANNING and isolate them from total advertising effects, so as to minimise the effect of the creative?
For example how can you tell the consumer has a high recognition level of a brand thanks to good time-, medium-, frequency- (etc.) decisions and not just because the ad was a creative success?
The only reasonable method is to comapre the same copy in different media vehicles. You need isolated markets or a laboratory environment to do such testing.
Roslow Research has a persuasion test that has been used in similar situations.
Do you have any information comparing the effectiveness of banner advertising vs. content/text link advertising?
Is there any marketplace for adds in different media? A digital place to buy and sell advertising space?
Visit AMIC's MediaQuote
What value would you give to a :10 live radio liner versus that of a :30 spot? Would you consider the value of the liner the same --- an impression is an impression regardless of the spot length?
Thank you for your help.
There is certainly less value in a liner. Typically liners are ojly mentions of the advertiser in conjuntion with a program or event, e.g. "Come down and meet our DJs at the mall, courtesy of (advertiser)."
In this case, the value is hard to compare to a brand :30 message, because it isn't aiming at the same goals, but valuing it at a simple proportionate one-third is reasonable. If the liner is a miniaturized barnd message, it may be worth half based on simple awareness building. If you're couunting impressions for bragging purposes, as in charging up the sales force or trade, you might play the 'an impression is and impresssion' game.
I am doing a research paper for my graduation and need a comparison between different media advertising rates. I need to know cost of advertising per prospect/viewer for Radio/TV/Newspapers/Internet if possible.
Click here to see past Guru responses regarding rates.
What are parts of a Media plan?
I have a fairly new client who needs to be educated on television post analysis. Recently, one of the markets we buy for this client posted at 85% due primarily to a drop in PUT levels. We requested make-up weight from all the station and got it. I would also like to note that my client's sales are up in this market. My client is upset because their last agency "always posted." It sounds like some numbers massaging to me. Are there any white papers on television post analysis? I would like to use this as a teaching moment for my client as they keep bringing it up. Thanks.
There are so-called "push button" posts where every spot is rated according to the tiome period bought in the books closest to air date. There are posts with adjustments reflecting specific programming and situations. Agencies are quick to challenge buying services for adjusting posts, treating "push button" as somehow more honest. But just as an example, if you bought time in the World Series (October) should it be rated according to the July book, the November book, or some intelligent estimate of true audience? Some buying services or the TV Bureau of Advertising might have a white paper published.
My partners and I have started an ad placement network specializing in local community newspapers in USA and Canada.
We aggregate local ad space across the nation and deliver it to advertisers.
Which software would be most appropriate for managing this type of placements: from closing a sale to billing, distributing artwork and tracking?
Thank you very much
What are the top 10 kids age 4-10 shows
You need Nielsen data for this, but 4-10 is not a standard demo, 5-12 is probably closest.
What different media are most effective for specific messages and actions?
I have a client who will only advertise to the vertical
audience about specific products. We believe that they
should be advertising the breadth of products to CEOs
and Wall Street because they are limiting their potential. Are there any resources/articles out there
that demonstrate the advantage of marketing to a broader audience on a company level vs. targeted marketing to vertical (technical) people on specific products?
Where can I find information on television market sizes in the U.S.?
I am responsible for advertising strategy planning for an online advertiser. We are in a very competitive market and it would be useful to be able to keep an eye on competitors' ads. Is there are any way to find out what *new* ads have been published on the web each day/week/other period (either by industry segment or just all ads)? Thanks
There are too many web sites to truly track thoroughly. But try AdZone Interactive
Guru, I have this client in the Wealth Mgmt/Financial industry who has been using natl. print solely over the past 3 yrs. There budget is only $3 million. According to Monroe Mendleson, our campaign reach is around 70% against the super affluent. The client would now like to switch gears to Natl. TV and sponsor/own one program with a high concentration of their target. I don't believe they could achieve the same reach as with print, but am not certain how to present the differences. Can you help?
Any program with a high composition of your target is likely to have a very tiny rating and little reach development. Monroe Mendelsohn should provide the data to analyze this.
Hi Guru - are there any competitors to Scarborough that provide local market media/product research?
One comparable resource is The Media Audit.
We are working on our ratings projections for fall 2001 spot tv buys and want to know where we may find any expert projections to compare ours against. Also, for Winter Olympics it seems the affiliates are over projecting ratings dramatically with the excuse it will be domestic this year. Any expert predictions by daypart that we can refer to?
Generally, the expert opinions are closely held trade secrets. What's public is the vendor hype.
What is the marketshare of PC versus MAC users in the industry?
Total universe is about 90/10. According to the Guru's colleague, who is publisher of a Mac magazine, in advertising creative the balance goes the other way, perhaps 40/60. On media professional's desks it is could be 80/20, because agencies may standardize on Macs, even when they would not be chosen except for the creative needs. However, AMIC can determine the operating systems used by our visitors, who should be representative of media professionals:
At what point is buying national television more efficient than buying spot?
This is very variable. Click here to see past Guru responses about national vs local efficiency
Hello. I am developing a media consumption q'aire. While I do not have a copy of MRI's q'aire, I would like to include industry standard daypart breaks. Can you please advise if the following daypart breakouts would be "industry standard" or not. If not, please let me know where I have gone off track!
Day-10a-4:30p (10-3:30 CST/Mountain)
EF-4:30-7p (3:30-6 CST/Mountain)
Prime Access/Fringe- 7p-8p (6-7 CST/Mountain)
Prime-8p-11p (7-10 CST/Mountain)
Late Fringe- 11p-1a (10-12 CST/Mountain)
Late Night- 1a-6a (12-6a CST/Mountain)
And Weekend (Saturday and Sunday):
Day-9a-4:30p (10-3:30 CST/Mountain)
EF-4:30-7p (3:30-6 CST/Mountain)
Prime Access/Fringe- 7p-8p (6-7 CST/Mountain)
Prime-8p-11p (7-10 CST/Mountain)
Late Fringe- 11p-1a (10-12 CST/Mountain)
Late Night- 1a-6a (12-6a CST/Mountain)
I think I am pretty off on Weekend breaks.
Thank you so much for your help, as always, it is truly appreciated!!!
MRI does not reflect an "industry standard" for daypart breaks, that is Nielsen's domain.
In a handy Nielsen book, the Guru finds 4pm rather than 4:30 as trhe afternoon dividing line and the weekend broken into Saturday 7am -noon, Saturday noon to 5pm, and Sunday 1 to 6pm. Otherwise, the full week dayparts apply.
Network and spot (national vs local) definitions are also different.
Dear Guru! Is there, to your knowledge, a "role of
thumbe" when it comes to number of exposures necessary
for one ad-observation in different media; for example
4+ in TV, 2+ for newspapers etc.
The Guru deosn't think there is a valid "rule of thumb" in this case. One could evaluate the schedule in each medium according to the 'Ostrow Model'
hi guru, can u tell me difference between SoV and SoM and whats the significance of it?
Both are ways to consider the competitive situation.
media costs by market
I have been asked by a client how they would establish advertising rates to charge companies foradvertising on their website. Can you give me any info? Where should I go to get this information? Thanks
Marketplace rates have sharply decline in the past year or so. Start with something less than half of the rates listed at Ad Resource
I have a client that wants to build awareness and they are already have a 30% awareness so is there a way we can translet building awareness to a reach %?
No, too many variables. Some rules of thumb, when you consider awareness directly correlated with reach, are:
Is there a publication called Family Reunion Magazine and do you have any contact information?
Is there a magazine called Cleveland Life?
My question relates to the new ABC Newspaper Ruling passed in March '01 which redefines the definition of "paid" subscriptions.
Under the new rule, ABC will allow ABC U.S. newspaper members to report all U.S. newspaper copies sold at prices 25% or greater of basic price, including third party sales, as part of paid circulation. Attendant to this new rule, sales must be reported under 2 separate categories:
1) Paid for by Individual Recipients
2) Other Paid Circulation a) Copies sold @ 50% or more of basic price; b) Copies sold at or above 25% but less than 50% of basic price.
According to ABC, qualification and reporting changes will take effect April 1, 2001. The first reporting activity will occur with September 30, 2001 Publisher's and Audit Statements.
In our particular market, an ABC Audit for the period of 3/19 - 7/1/01 (15 weeks) has just been distributed. Under what ruling would paid circulation be defined? Old ABC rules OR new rules which allows copies sold at or about 25% but less than 50% of basic price?
It seems as if the new audit is based upon the new ruling; but the audit statement does not break out circulation according to new ruling stipulations.
If you would please provide me w/ your POV.
Check the ABC site for published rules and commentary. The site says, among other information:
ABC's FAS-FAX will continue to report all “traditional” information, including average circulation sold at prices equal to or greater than 50 percent of basic prices; average circulation sold at or above 25 percent but less than 50 percent of basic; plus Other Paid Circulation, Total Paid Distribution, Total Market Coverage (TMC) Distribution, Reader Profile information and audited Web site activity data.
Now that they have been approved for final passage, these qualification and reporting changes will take effect April 1, 2001. The first reporting of activity will occur with September 30, 2001 Publisher's Statements and Audit Reports.
The Guru doesn't know, off hand, why there would be a 15 week rather than 6 month report. Read the fine print critically.
In any case, the Guru's POV won't affect ABC decisions.
Where can I find an instructional manual on the fundamentals of buying cable? This is my first foray into media buying. Thank you.
The Guru doubts there is anything published regarding this narrow topic. There may be some agency white papers.
Browse the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com).
Am trying to work out some recommendations for a client (an auction dotcom)which involves exploiting existing TV programing to direct traffic to the site - either through in-programme innovations which would link up to the brand, or by creating properties. One of the ways we are doing this is by auctioning memorabilia from popular soaps on the site. Could you direct me to any source which will have illustrations or examples of this kind of stuff.
S. Nagesh, Mumbai, India.
This is not quite a media question, but try The Internet Advertising Bureau
Love, love, love this site! I think you are providing a wonderful service. I read a recent question which as about an OTS formula (OTC?) I have never heard of this term. Would you tell me what the letters stand for? (I looked in your media terms section, and it is not there.) Thanks,
Thank you for your kind words.
"OTS" or "opportunities to see" is used differently by various practitioners. One meaning is equivalent to impressions, or the number of exposures of a campaign to individual members of the target demographic; a summing of the audiences of all the advertsing occasions of a campaign. In this sense, "average" is not an appropriate modifier. Others may use the phrase "average OTS" as we in the US use "average frequency."
The term OTS is not commonly used in the US, but is standard in the rest of the English speaking world.
What do you know about co-op advertising on television?
Click here to see past Guru responses about co-op.
I hope that you are able to help me with the following, I am looking for definitions of common media terms such as clutter, SOV, etc. Are you aware of a good source that will have an overview of media definitions. Thanks beforehand
Try our own Media Terms or a very good but simplified simplified resource at The University of Texas (Austin) School of Advertising.
Does gifts influence the mediaplanning and buying?
It should not and usually does not.
Our client has asked about Verdiem MPi, a "marketing performance management system."
What exactly does that mean?
What does this service provide, and what are your thoughs?
Visit Verdiem's website. It strikes the Guru as a rather non-specific compilation of marketing buzzwords, possibly or possibly not a media tool.
Could use some help framing questions for my agency relating to the effectiveness of a media campaign. We recently ran a test cell for a new campaign (our first)in which the agency provided information on total TRPs, total reach and total frequency over the life of the test. I need to determine how the frequency builds over time. Are there any formulas/rules of thumb for calculating build over time? If not, what specifically should I ask them for?
Reach relates to GRP in a curvilinear function. Frequency relates to GRP in a straight line. This doesn't mean that each week adds the same amount of frequency, merely that it's fairly easy to work with.
The easiest thing however, is probably to ask the agency to calculate cumulative reach and frequency, week by week, over the course of the campaign.
Are there any agencies that deal with ethnic newspapers in the US and Canada?
Need outdoor advertsing showing and rate information for the state of South Carolina.
We are about to launch a project entitled The Greatest Pyramid. It will be the nations first national cemetery, mausoleum, and it will contain a World of religion and Science. It will offer high tech memorials for the living and dead. Our intent is to transform the "death care" industry into a Life Care industry. Our market research/surveys predict billions of $ income. My questions: 1)What is appropriate advertising/sales ratio? 2) What kind of advertising is best (TV,Radio/Newspapers)3) What kind of advertising marketing firms should we interview? 4) Any other ideas?
As far as the media portions of your question:
If you only had 5M to spend for a national campaign for a comsumer product introduction, which media vehicles would recommend (it's a household product aimed at Women 25-54)
The Guru would probably not consider national media at that budget. In national network, you might only be able to afford 5 or 6 weeks. National print might be just as weak.
A lot more than target and budget go into selecting media, such as competition, message type, etc, but the Guru would begin with local media in a geography where your budget might buy effective levels of communication.
I am doing an analyis of a local tv station. I want to track, by showing a graph, of their viewership trends for prime time progaming only. Should I show rating or share on the graph and why? Thank you.
It depends on what point you want to make about the station. Rating will trend the station's popularity with the demographic group. Share will trend the comparison to other TV sources in the market.
Unless there are different sources available at different times in the graph, the Shape of the graph will be virtually identical in either case, except for seasonality effects. Share comparison would pretty much factor out seasonal differences.
I have looked all through my media books and cannot find the definition of "empty nesters". Can you help? I need to include it in a presentation. Thank you.
These are people whose children have grown up and "left the nest."
What Companies/software do exist for electronic auditing/monitoring of TV spots?. (I understand that it works by digitalizing the audio )
can you give me the formulae to calculate the OTS viv a vis competition in the print media.
The question isn't quite clear: If you mean the formula to determine what your own OTC goalshould be vis-a-vis competition, it is very simple:
If Y= your goal OTS and
C = competitor's OTS then
Y > C
If you mean a formula to calculate your competitors current OTS, you need to have quantities from reports before you can determine what formulae to apply. For example, do you know spending ($)and average cost per OTS (O)? Then the formula is
$ ÷ OTS
hello sir,myself prasad is a student of advertising & public relations management student i am at my initial stage..so plz tell me wht is exactly media planning is..?
wht is ad budget..?
Ad budget is the amount of marketing money allocated to create and place advertising within the advertsing objectives.
Media planning is deciding where to place it to best achieve the advertising objectives.
Guru, I'm trying to figure out a Reach & Frequency of magazines which aren't measured. For discussion purposes, lets say my target base was 100,000. I am recommending 5 magazines with a total circ. of 80,000. However, I will be running in each about 5X over the course of 1 year. To make matters worse, I have no idea of the duplication between these mags. Without measured media, how do I figure an approx. R&F?
The first step to a crude estimate is to determine the target readers-per-copy (RPC of your largest circ book. With an average of 16,000 ( your 80,000 total across all 5), perhaps one is double the average or 32,000. If it has 2 target rpc, or 64,000 then your reach minimum is 64%. If all the books average 2 rpc, your schedule of 5 insertions in each of the 5 books has 320,000 impressions or 320 GRP in a base of 100,000.
Assume each additional title adds at least one reach point. Now your reach will be somwhere between 68% and 95% (arbitrary upper limit). With 320 GRP, your Reach / Freq is now somewhere between 68 / 4.7 and 95 / 4.3. Refining your rpc may narrow the range.
Or, if you have circ and rpc estimates, Telmar has software which can produce better projections.
what's the advantage and effectiveness of using an email campaign vs. direct mail?
Dear Guru: I am trying to track the advertising revenues (through 2nd Qtr 01) for Los Angeles media, specifically spot radio. Do you know any companies that compile this info? Are any of them free? Thanks,
CMR (Competitive Media Reports); no freebies.
Where can I find out the top rated network programs
for people 55+?
Can you provide the names of the companies that provide proprietary, custom reports of competitive advertising spending. I've worked with companies in the past that specialize in high tech, finance, and healthcare, and provide the information on a market-by-market basis.
CMR (Competitive Media Reports).
How would you answer the following question from a client: "Is VH1 losing its edge against Black audiences?" I suspect it can be answered quantitatively by trending Black ratings data for specific programs or dayparts, but how would you suggest I answer qualitatively?
What might "it's edge" mean? You might consider compositon index. The Guru doesn't ordinarily think of VH1 as Black targeted.
Is there any research comparing the level of reader involvement of controlled (non-paid) circ magazines v. subscription/newstand? Are readers who pay for they magazines more involved than readers who receive the pub of free.
Keep in mind that "controlled" is not synonymous with "free." Controlled circulation goes to persons who somehow qualify to receive the publication and make a request to receive it. This indicates more interest and involvement than readers who simply pick up a free magazine from a free stack somewhere.
Given that, one would presume, that all else being equal, that is comnparing magazine with similar content and similar target, the paid title might have an edge.
A good resource is Cahners Business Information.
Guru - you answered my question about unwired networks. Can you please give me an example of an unwired network? thanks so much.
Hi Guru, Where could I find (via Internet) a list and information about the Media Centers/buying Centers in The Netherlands? Thank you for your help
Try the search term "Netherlands" at AW Info.
What is the media definition of "vignette"? Thank you!
In media terms, this typically refers to a small bit of programming created as a "doughnut" to surround a commerical and keep the audience tuned in. It might begin with a sports trivia question, and come back with the answer after the commericial. Often, it's a :30 commercial within a :60 total unit.
I am looking for some sort of a map / maping program where I can show market coverage (in graphical form) of regional media vehicles. Do you know of any stand alone programs that can do this?
I am trying to locate trade magazines for a client who is advertising a new hand cleaner product. The client wants to advertise in trade magazines for the following catagories: industrial, construction and automotive. Any suggestions on trade magazines in these catagories. We sell direct to commercial industries and do not want to advertise in a magazine for distributors. Thank you for any assitance you can give me!
Where can I find the definitions of "lead" and "emarketing vs. interactive"?
Hello Guru. What is "unwired spot tv"? I've heard the term in regards to radio, which from what I understand consititutes buying time as opposed to programming on stations. I'm confused as to what this means for TV - does this mean broadcast as opposed to cable? If you buy unwired spot tv on a national basis can you insert creative locally? Please advise - thank you!!
The modifier "un-wired" is meant to convey a difference versus ordinary networks. For wired networks, the key is that programming is distributed from a central point with commericials integrated. In unwired, the negotiation is made with a central point, but the commercial carriage is station by station. An optional service in an unwired buy may be trafficking from a single piece of copy. As a rule, providing different copy to each station is permitted in an un-wired buy.
reasons for using cable buy with a spot tv buy
Do you know if there is an interactive tool to find Dear Media Guru,
Do you know if there is an interactive tool where I can enter CITY & STATE and it will tell me DMA ? Thanks!
Since Nielsen doesn't offer this, it probably isn't available.
Have you seen a top 200 list by DMA and MSA by Adults -African American- Hispanic- Asian 18+ with Census 2000 data?
The Census doesn't issue any data on a DMA basis. Nielsen, which establishes the DMA definition, will not issue market populations for Hispanic for a month or so; Census data has not yet become available at the necessary level of geographic detail. Even then some data will be modeled, pending Census detail. Nielsen will also do African American DMA populations, but probably not Asian-American.
On a metro basis, all three segments' total populations have been posted on the Census site.
Do you know of any national publications targeted to pilots and owners of small aircraft? Or where I would go to find this information? Thanks!
You will find numerous publications of this type on the search page at PubList. Begin by searching for titles beginning with the words "Air", "Fly", and "Pilot."
What ratings do all of the spot tv stations garner for the different dayparts?
The range of data is enormous, over multiple stations in each of 200+ markets for dozens of demographics in numerous dayparts.
This amounts to
about 40,000 pages of printed data, in each Nielsen sweep.
Could I have information about print, tv and other media in the following countries
maldives,nepal,sri lanka, bangladesh
Information would be in terms of media exposure
number of vehicles and so on
Also would help if I have information on demographic and psychographic profiles of population for these countries
Where would I find such info ?
Hello Media Guru
Is there an average pass along rate for trade publications?
Click here to see past Guru comment on such averages.
The range is so broad that averages tell you very little.
I am looking for a TV planning package that can be updated with our own data. Most of media software companies sell system & data together, I am in an area where I can buy the raw audience data (15 minutes time segment) but we dont trust the system being used (the model behind), I am interested in software that use standard media models for TV planning and optimisation as well. Could you help me, thanks
Is there a resource that lists each cable system in each DMA and their channel line-up and cost? I'm looking for a quick way to find cable subscription costs without having to call each cable system.
The Guru thinks it unlikely. Organizing data by DMA is usually done for media planners' or marketers' use. COnsumer pricing of tiers of subscription would not ordinarily be of interest to these people. The giant MSO's might consider doing this within their own systems, but again for whom would they compile such a list? The spot cable sellers like SpotCable would have most of the data, but little use for subscribers' costs.
What is the shelf life of an FSI? I have a client that wants me to estimate how long they can expect consumers to bring in the coupons after a piece has been inserted.
This will vary according to the category. If you have a product that's purchased every week, it will clear more quickly than a coupon for something that might not be purchased for a month. Contact your FSI vendor or coupon clearing house for their experience.
Hello Media Guru
Is there software available that will have reach and frequency information for Trade publications. If not what is the best way to calculate this information?
Hoping that this isn't an impossible question....Is there a source (on-line maybe) that details cable schedules, particularly for the upcoming season?
Any help you could give is much appreciated.
You will have to go to the individual networks' sites. You will probably find
Is there a study on the effectivity of commercial break positioning in television? Is the first commercial of the gap always the most effective?
1.)How well developed is Ambient Media in the USA markets and how is it used?
2.)How does it tend to fit in with the overall media strategy?
3.)Is there any research to suggest whether it is effective or not?
Ambient media is called "out-of-home" media in the US. It is available everywhere in multiple forms, and particularly strong with restricted categories of advertising such as alcohol. There are hundreds of vendors.
Whats the percent of US Print spill into Puerto Rico?
Naturally, this varies by publication. Consult Audit Bureau of Circulations for details.
But logically, with Puerto Rico holding a population equal to a bit more than 1% of the U.S., and many of its residents non-English speaking, any ordinary magazine will have less than 1% spill into Puerto Rico.
Spanish language magazines will probably have over 10% spill into Puerto Rico.
How do I decide how much I should pay for pay per
click services? Is there an industry standard?
We have been offered $.35 per click.
The Guru doesn't believe in selling cost-per-click, since that makes the web site responsible for the quality of the advertiser's copy.
Nevertheless, if you assume there will be about three clicks per thousand impressions, then $0.35 per click equates to $1.05 cpm based on impressions. On the Guru's web site, he would not be interested in business at this price.
In the 1990's, what law firm used as its slogan:
"even Abraham Lincoln advertised"
I need to attribute it to the proper source and cannot find a way to research it.
I have a twenty seven word ad with a two inch logo placed
in the centre of page. The ad is 3 x 5 inches in size
and is blue color.The logo has the word Destiny's placed over top of the logo.
and is in bolded black lettering
I was wondering how much this ad would cost me to
run in a paper;and when the best time to run this ad
would be (ie. days of the week)? It is an ad for a jazz coffee house. I was also
wondering if it would be better to run this ad as
a one time shot or as a continuous ad?
Would it also be a good idea to run this ad more than once a week?
The ad price will depend on the publication's rates. This could vary from over $16,000 in the New York Times to about $200 in the Zanesville, OH Times Recorder.
The blue color alone will account for 50% to 65% of the price of an ad this size. The likelihood of this ad running in the center of a page is slim, in the Guru's opinion, and if it did, it would be a page full of other, similar small ads.
Whatever paper you choose will advise you of the day on which most advertisers of this type run. Thursday and Friday and probably the most common for restaurants and clubs. Repetition will be needed for effectiveness, but once a week on the key day may be best.
Visit MediaPassage for rate and contact details of various newspapers.
Please explain what exactly is a "customer magazine"!! Is it sold or it's distributed for free? And if it's distributed for free, where does the profit comes from?
The term is not standard, but the Guru imagines it's something like Costco Connection magazine, distributed free to Costco members. Costco might consider that profit is not an issue since the magazine supports customer realtions and promotes available products.
But, just like ordinary paid circulation magazines, paid advertising is the key revenue stream.
Dear MG, With a flighted radio buy (2 weeks on, 1 week off), is it better to use added value promotions during the off weeks or to build the cash weeks? Thank you!
Continuity always has advantages. But in this case, it depends on the nature of the promotions.
What is your opinion of Mobil Trak radio research and the methodology they employ to generate radio statistics.
1. Their method can be valuable in certain, specific, retail cases. If a store wants to know what station is on the radio of persons passing their location, MobilTrak can be useful.
2. The limitations are severe, however. MobilTrak's claim that the majority of all radio listening is in-car is strongly contradicted by Arbitron data, which shows only 30% of total listening is in car. Arbitron, unlike MobilTrak, has no vested interest in location-of-listening results.
In multi-store mall situations, a store can't even be sure that passing cars are their own customers.
For market-wide measures, the MobilTrak technique is not only limited by the car-only problem, but potentially by lack of randomness even among car listeners.
What is your opinion of using First in Break positioning in radio? Is it a pro or a con?
Might be a pro, couldn't be a con.
In Yellow Pages directories, under a category with a
lot of big display ads, are smaller display ads still
an effective use of the advertisers media dollars or
do directory users in general not look at more than
the first few ads? In other words, how important is
display ad positioning?
Effectiveness is relative. For specific research, try The Yellow Pages Publishers Association
1. how do you decide which cume (1wk or 13 wk or 52 wk etc) to choose.
2. where can I find the details of the ostrows grid actual one with the scales etc.
Thanks and regards
1. Four week R&F is standard. Otherwise, if you need to examine a specific time period related to your marketing, use the closest cume.
The Ostrow model aims at establishing the minimum level of frequency to be deemed effective so that the plan can maximize reach at that level of frequency. The model can be traced back to his speech, "Effective Frequency" at an Advertising Research Foundation Key Issues workshop, June 4, 1982.
Typically, the model involves evaluating a series of relevant factors on a scale of say, 2 to 6, and averaging the factors to determine the appropriate level of frequency to set as effective.
In the 1982 speech the factors discussed were of three kinds: marketing, message / creative and media.
Message / Creative
For the full speech, the transcript proceedings of the workshop are available from the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I am trying to find b2b publications in Mexico. I have looked at the international business SRDS book, and it hasn't been very helpful. I have also tried to look on the net with little luck. Do you know of any resources like SRDS specifically for Mexico or Central America?
Thanks for your help.
Can you please suggest a resource where I can find average CPM for each medium (ie average CPM across the board for all newspapers is $x, average for all internet is $x, etc)? I found this data on amic.com, but it was from 1996. Thank you!
is there a rule of thumb that would tell me how much more efficient a national radio buy would be vs. a local radio buy (i.e. x% cheaper)
What about outdoor or spot tv?
No broad rule of thumb. There are too many variables due to demographic, program type, and market list for the local part of the equation, etc. In radio, network might be 50% less in some comparisons.
In outdoor, there are no real netowrks or national media to compare. TV is subject to all the qualifications of the radio comparison, as well as daypart issues.
I was wondering if you have any ideas were I may be able to find some sort of template for RFPs that involve media buying like requesting C.P.P. or reach & frequency? We have been working on many media bids for a department of the state and they do not request specific media numbers so the media buyers are only submitting the information that makes their plan look the most favorable. We wanted to reccommend something to them so the comparison of the different agency plans would be more like comparing apples to apples.
Thank you for any help
First we need to distinguish between requesting plans and requesting buy proposals.
A media plan is a document that details what media should be used at what budgets, to accomplich sets of objectives and strategies which meet advertsing objectives set for the planners. If you are soliciting media paln proposals, you should be setting advertising objectives and asking for plans to meet them. Some judgement in addition to quantitative comparison will be appropriate. You could use the relevant portion of the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan as an outline of what is to be included in proposals reveived.
If, however, the media plan is completed and you are taking proposals on media buys, that is what stations, newspapers, magazines, etc fulfil the plan, that the analysis might be simply numerical, as long as all meet the plan's specs, which should be in your rfp.
Beware of comparing reach and frequency analyses that have been created by different software, and are not therefore comparable.
Where could I get more information on Print Reading and noting studies. This research attempts to arrive at factors that determine visibility of an edit or an ad. For example edit/ads that appear before the fold of a newspaper , or right hand vs. left hand.
Do you have some helpful texts/links to media research for the Latin American markets?
Start wih A C Nielsen.
I'm trying to find out the national inbound, outbound and in market spending to determine how much is being spent in each of the below markets:
Do you know what the best resource would be?
Your best resource is probably
CMR (Competitive Media Reports), but there are going to be issues around rules and definitions of terms:
Does "inbound" mean purchases of media which reach audiences within the market or media that are owned within the market? Think of superstations.
Does outbound mean placements by agencies based in the market or by buyers based in the market or advertisers based in the market? How do you account for Dallas activity of an advertiser corporation with headquarters in Boston using an AOR agency based in New York that places buying regionally from an Atlanta office?
I need to compare the W25-54 gross rating points of national consumer magazines to the W25-54 gross rating points of a network television schedule. I am concerned about keeping “apples to apples,” when making this comparison. In doing so, it seems that it would be necessary to calculate GRPs based on the same universe (for both magazines and television). The television universe that I am using is provided by Nielsen and is based on W25-54 who live in a household with a television, which I think is roughly 98% of the population. My question is: Is it appropriate for my print universe to be based on W25-54 living in a TV HH (98%), OR should my print universe be based on 100% of the W25-54 population?
Also, can I calculate the rating points of magazines individually and then add up my schedule to determine GRPs OR must I calculate magazine rating points based on a schedule in order to prevent duplication of W25-54? I am doing these calculations by hand and do not have access to MRI – outside of requesting information, such as a magazine’s W25-54 audience, from a magazine sales rep.
Any help would be greatly appreciated! Thank you.
It would be simpler to compare impressions and not worry about the slight universe differences. If you must use GRP, adjust TV grp downward according to the TV penetration factor.
GRPs disregard duplication, so simple addition is fine.
Is there any information available about Effectiveness of Television Advertising.
Where can I find a list of populations for all major markets?
I have a set of queries:
1. What is the difference between program reach and program TVR.
2.How can reach curves be used in planning media
3.What skills apart from negotiation does a media buyer need
4. The gross weight of a tv plan can be
a. sum of all spot tvrs
b. product of 1+ reach and average ots of the entire plan
These values for the same plan are not always equal- why?
5. Why dont u allow advertising on your site? How do you make money from your website currently
Please let me know
Your terminology is a bit different from US usage, but with given assumptions the Guru's answers are as follows:
Guru, is there a way one can measure fatigue levels of online advertising typically banners i.e.. in terms of number of impressions and no. of clicks , please help
There have been various studies. Visit The Internet Advertising Bureau
Where can I find a list of basic online media terms?
Try the Guru's Webglossary
I know there comes a point of diminishing return on advertising investment. What is the maximum reach you can obtain through media advertising considering that some people may be out of the country or unreachable do to unfortunate health issues?
The Guru has always made it a policy not to report reaches higher than 98%.
If you are given a total advertising budget what is the average industry "rule of thumb" for what percentage should be delagated to the media buy, creative, production and administration? In other words what is an average ratio?
It varies all over the place depending on geography, category and target.
For example, direct reponse commercials are obviously very cheaply made and have low production ratios.
A national luxuery brand will have a high quality proudction budget, but may buy so much media that the porduction percentage seems small comapre to a regional advertiser needing to project the same quality.
An advertiser needing to project quality in an ethnic market may spend the saem production budget as in the genreal market (think premium beers) even thought the smaller ethnic market doesn't demand nearly the same media budget.
Each must be decided according to needs, not rules of thumb. Averages might be calculable, but would be meaningless as planning tools.
I have been asked to pull together some differences between planning media for a Canadian B2B audience as opposed to a U.S. B2B audience. Are Canadian audiences significantly different than U.S. audiences? What makes them different (or different to plan for)? Is it a matter of geography? Any help, direction, or reference you could provide would be great.
A good starting point might be to go to Telmar and compare tools offered for the U.S. versus those for Canada.
The key differences between the two in B2B are most likely to be the media choices. Canada will have fewer business pubs, fewer trade pubs in any category. The role of broadcast media versus online and print will differ as well.
There may well be an effect of spreading just one-tenth as much population over an area as big as the U.S. but with most concentrated in just 10 metros.
Does pricing in spot markets generally follow what's happened in the up-front? I've been reading about how the up-front pricing was down, and am wondering if I can use that as a guide for budgeting in spot markets in the coming year.
The key difference between upfront and spot scatter is the economic outlook. The upfront happened in a very down May-June marketplace. Advertisers were reluctant to make large / long term commitments. This will mostly mean more money in the network scatter markets. As time goes on a new economic picture can change pricing in network and spot.
I am looking for some research information on print vs online. The common belief now amongst clients is that online has substituted print as a means of information access especially in the BtoB industry. This might be true to some extent but not entirely and we want to prove otherwise with some hard data. The kind of research I am looking for needs to talk about the strengths of each medium and how they can be used in tandem instead of one against the other. Do you know of any such research available?
Dear Media Guru, I am working on a presentation and need direction on justifying media expenditures beyond media effectiveness. Help!
Click here to see Guru discussion of setting levels.
What level of media spending is enough? Is there a threshold level?
Although Brand Managers may insist on seeing it that way, it's not about the spending, it's about the communication levels. It's about short term promotions versus continuous purchase patterns. It's about target geography - spending where your money will be effective versus spreading money all over at ineffective levels.
Click here to see Guru discussion of setting levels.
I have found research that indicates that the ad
impressions generated from arena signage are not as
effective as other kinds of media impressions. A
ratio is given (1/4 to 1/5) that says it takes
four "sponsorship impressions" to equal one radio
or TV spot.
Are you aware of any research that can substantiate
The ratio sounds right; after all it's typically just a brand logo, not a message. For research try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Where can I get information about newspaper readership? Demogaphics...time spent...etc.
I was hoping you could tell me what percentage of the U.S. population resides in Charleston, SC. Could you also provide a good on-line resource for future requests such as this?
Thanks -- you're always a big help!!!
The Charleston, SC metro holds 0.195% of the US population according to the 2000 U. S. Census, a site full of such goodies. The city of Charleston has about .03%.
strengths of interactive media
Capture audience in the act of shopping (Search engines)
Narrowly select target by site appeal
Instant interaction / order taking
Instant copy change
Customer relationship building
Target customer / deliver ad variant based on customer profile or past action
Powerful environment for computer-related advertising
Streaming allows TV-like audio video within above advantages
What are the top 3 Test Markets in the USA and why are they considered such?
The "top 3 test markets" ought not to even be considered useful information. Markets may be popular because they have suptermarket scanner / cable tv connected testing systems, of no use for non-supermarket products. Or they may be popular because they match certain population demographics that are or are not relevant to your product. For example, several of the most popular test markets, like Cedar Rapids, Eau Claire and Pittsfield, Mass have 10% or less African-American / Hispanic/ Asian American popluation while these groups represent about 30% of the U.S.
(See Ad Age , 7/9/01)
Click here to see past Guru discussion of test markets.
I have enjoyed your past insights a lot, and I wonder if there is an answer to my problem as weel. I am wondering if there are some measurement that indicates the propbablility of an ad being seen. For example, when a magazine quotes a CPM it is based on how many people that have the opportunity to see an ad. Is there a measurement or an industry standard ratio of CPM verus how many people that are likely to actually see/register the ad when they read the magazine (or some other media).
What proportion of UK press advertising space (including business, consumer, national press, regional press) is sold at discounted rates because of
short lead time to publication deadline ?
The Guru's UK sources report:
we don't have a handle on how much space is being sold at short
In my days as a buyer, it was clear that it varied enormously by
title and even section within that title, as well as the status of the
economic cycle. Right now there is masses of space being traded
at last minute rates!"
A client requested a cost for electronic signage on the sides of buses or trucks. I have never heard of this. Is this a viable form of media?
The Guru hasn't heard of it either. TDI is most likely to know about it.
Hello Media Guru,
I am preparing a presentation on Alternative forms of Advertising for my company. Is there any website(s) you can suggest where I could find this information? Thank you.
Click here to see past Guru responses about alternative media.
Thank you for all the help you've given so far. Just two questions this time: Do you know what the first television commercial was? Can you suggest a good on-line source for TV and Print historical info?
You'll probably like the The Museum of Broadcast Communications, whose "Encyclopedia of TV Online" tells us
"In 1941 . . . Bulova Watches spent $9 to buy time on the first advertising spot offered by NBC's fledgling New York station"
You may also find the The Magazine Publishers' Association site helpful.
How often do movie theaters advertise?
Specific theaters can be tracked in
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) retail resources.
Generally speaking, the Guru thinks theaters very rarely advertise, leaving it up to the studios to promote current releases and include theater listings in these ads.
Most likely, custom research will be needed.
Can you recommend any resources for gathering information on how media buyers use/don't use media kits.
I'm doing a search to determine the validaty of this basic marketing tool and would appreciate any suggestions of where to start. If there are any actual studies or polls that have been done, perhaps articles that you have published or if you could point me in the right direction of where to search, I'd greatly appreciate it.
I'm hoping you can help. I'm creating a media trivia game for a client and was wondering if you could answer a few questions. Do you know when the first television show aired? What was it? What commercials ran during that show? When was the first magazine published and what was it called? One more, would you happen to know what the first cable network was and when it aired?
According to The Complete Directory to Prime Time Network TV Shows by Tim Brooks, Earle Marsh,
According to Famous First Facts, by Joseph Nathan Kane, the first magazine in this country was "The American Magazine," begun in Febraury 1741, just 3 days earlier than Benjamin Franklin's "General Magazine."
The first mention of a cable network the Guru can find at
The National Cable Television Center and Museum is in 1965,
Telemation, Inc. delivers a 24 hour Associated Press news channel (alpha-numeric) as a service to cable viewers.
In 1972, HBO was launched.
I'm trying to buy network radio advertising. What is the current range of CPM and CPP averages for network radio at this time? Also, where can I find information on current rates for network radio and syndicated radio programs so I can effectively comparison shop?
What criteria should be evaluated when choosing magazines?
Click here to see Guru discussion of magazine plan criteria.
Thank you for an invaluable service. Help!! A client wants to know how many times they should advertise in a publication to get effective reach? He wanted to know if there is a good rule of thumb? Is there anything like that? I tend to think that this number is different depending on the size of the target audience. How would you detemine an effective reach level for a trade plan/publication? Thanks
An old planner's rule of thumb in consumer publications was 4 times per year in a monthly and once a month in a weekly.
The Guru doesn't see a reason why effective reach should depend on the target. Factors like competitive climate, clutter, product interest, complexity of message all seem more relevant. At any rate, "effective reach" is about how many times the target is exposed to a message. If you are working in a narrow trade arena, where the authoritativeness of the book is crucial to your effectiveness, you'll make a book-by-book decision, not work from a rule of thumb.
Hi Guru! I am looking for any statistics on the use of piggybacked :30s (to make one :60) in radio and :15s (to make one :30) in TV to increase awareness/
effectiveness. Does this technique help?
The Guru doesn't follow your reasoning. Are you expecting that repeating a :15 twice in thirty seconds will have more effectiveness ore build more awarness than stand-alone :15s at the same budget or more than whole :30s at that budget?
Pairs of piggy-backed :15s in TV will no doubt yield less awareness than stand-alone :15s, because the reach will be less. As to effectiveness, you need to define that in terms of awareness, intent to purchase, sales results etc. Pairs of piggy backed :15s versus whole :30's would yield the same reach. There might be more awareness because of the apparent error, but there will be reduced message content.
For research try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Increasing Budget and Web Response: Is there research showing that if I double (triple, whatever) an overall promotion budget to drive click-throughs on a Web site, I'll double--or more than double -- the rate? Is there a formula that can be presented to the client.
Like the reach curve, "response" functions are typically curvilinear, that is, once they reach a threshold level, each added dollar adds less return than the prior efforts.
As far as research that might yield a formula, try The Internet Advertising Bureau or The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Dear Guru, Our client has asked me to produce a "payout scenario" that they would be able to expect in sales based on a national plan that I have done for them. I don't know what the creative will look like because it is done in house. How can I calculate the sales potential of a media plan? Thanks again.
Except in direct reposnse scenarios with considerable past history, this can only be very approximate. Try the following steps:
Of course a lot depends on whether the advertising is aimed at new-user trial, increasing use among currentusers, using up, etc.
Once you have all these assumptions organized, then comparing the value of projected added sales to the cost of advertising leads to payout estimates.
i'm trying to build a media plan (include its strategy for a market leader product).
what do you think about put 'product purchasing cycle' is one consideration on making tv strategy? (the product has weekly-biweekly purchasing cycle).
currently, the brand is using the SOV strategy (for about the last three years), but there are no significant effect on the competitor's market share.
so i start to think about - i called - reach strategy.
the basic idea of reach strategy is reaching as much audience in a single week.
and then i arrive to R&F weekly : 3+(70%) for maintenance activity, and 4+(80%) for launching or relaunching activity.
but i have a little confidence on my strategy.
what do you think ?
Purchase cycle should be a consideration. Obvously a brand with weekly purchase calls for different support than one with quarterly purchase, or strong seasonality.
Hi, Media Guru..
i got a doubt, in media the mayors have some kind of privileges in their media purchase(tv , radio, print) like specials rates or discounts? there some kind of guidelines for that kind of purchase. I hope you can let me know. Thanks
Different countires have different traditions. In the US, there are no published rates that reflect volume discount for the amount of agency (rather than advertiser) volume, but smarter buyers can use the clout of the dollars they control to negotiate better. This is as much a matter of technique and intelligence as volume.
In Puerto Rico and other parts of Latin America, there has been an established practice of rebating agencies annually based on their volume. The media offered these payments to agencies rather than advertisers. Agencies might or might not return these rebates to the advertisers. Other countries, other practices.
In cable, what is the ratio of the ads that are placed nationally compared to locally?
According to projections by the
Cable TV Ad Bureau cable revenue for 2001 will be:
Do you know where I might find information on movie theater adverttising?
Thanks for your help.
Click here to see past Guru responses about theater advertising
What do you think the best way is to charge for media services? Commission vs fee based. On some accounts my agency uses commission others they charge for a media plan and set a retainer fee each month for maintenance. Are there articles available on this topic. Thank you
In some cases commission will work, in others fees are appropriate. Generally, on full service media planning and buying, commission is best at higher budgets. For small budgets or ones with many cancellations, fees are probably better. If there are a lot of changes and revisions, fees should account for that.
Our agency handles a lot of business to business accounts how would one go about calcualting reach and frequency for each particular business sector ex. one account makes catheters. How would you calculate in various value-added opportunities into reach and frequency like links on a site, direct mail lists etc. Thanks for the great service.
To calculate reach and frequency two data points are necessary:
Unduplicated audience within the target (sector, in your case) and total population for the target. The media type or unit size are not relevant; reach is pure arithmetic; relative impact and other creative judgements are separate.
It should be basic to estimate the numbers of audience for any media vehicle, site or mailing in your plan. You certainly must have an idea of the size of the sectors you are targeting. The tricky part would be estimating the duplication between advertisements. In the medical field, possibly PERQ has some useful estimates.
Once you add the gross audiecne of all your ads and eloiminate the estimated duplication, you divide by the population to determine reach.
Oh mighty guru...what is Audio watermarking applications for broadcast
monitoring? and how does it apply to the media planning process?
The Guru believes "audio watermarking" refers to placing inaudible digital code into music, commercials or broadcast material so that its origin or identity can be tracked by automated mechanical means. This could allow rights holders to track mpg downloads, and competitive tracking services to automate schedule monitoring. Below are some bibliographical references the Guru came accross at Digital Watermarking World
Is there a benchmark household coverage percentage used in evaluating national newspapers? What is the national average? Thanks for your assistance!
Unless you use a very broad definition, USA Today and Wall Street Journal are the "national newspaper" category. Both have just under 2% national coverage. The only other contender is The New York Times, which although available all over the country, is editied as a New York newspaper. The Times has just over 1% national coverage.
Are there any industry standards for an expected return rate on newspaper inserts? If direct mail has the magic "2-3% return" always stuck to its name, do inserts have a number to boast? Thanks -- this is a great resource!
The vendors should have some figures. 2-3% seems to be feasible, but upper end, not an achievement to assume.
Guru, wanted to get information on the response rate for e-mail advertising. Do you have any sites or articles that can provided information on this? I have been quoting 5-10% as an average. I do understand that it can be higher or lower depending on some variables. Thanks for your help in advance.
The Guru does not believe the reponse rate is as much as 1%, if you mean orders as a percentage of mail sent. Try the Direct Marketing Association
Do you have any knowledge as to the long-term impact of radio. For example, we ran 8 weeks of traffic radio; how long can we expect this to have an impact on sales?
If the campaign was aimed at awareness building, rather than a promotion, and it was the only advertising for something new, whatver "impact" might last a few weeks. It depends more on the uniqueness of the product and the creative. Consult The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB).
How do advertising agencies traditionally make money from their clients? Is this business model changing? (eg. are the market leaders such as Omnicom finding new ways to bill clients?)
"Traditionally" 15% commisson on gross media and other expenditures is the way. In recent years, there are fees and performance based compensation methods.
I have recently been told that in order to determine reach and frequency accurately, it is required that the competitive set in a market be also known. For example, it costs more to get reach in a market with lots of competition than it does in a market with none. I thought that the answer would be the same regardless, i.e. that I could get a 75%/3 R&F for X$$, but that the effectiveness of the ad would be less in the market with more clutter? Can you confirm or refute?
The Guru endorses your position. Reach calculation is only about audience accumulation and does not factor competition at all. If a station sells a news announcement with a 10 rating for $1000, it gets a 10 reach, no matter what any competitive advertiser might do. Competition could be a factoer in the cost of reach only if the competitors are so demanding of the same media inventory that the cost of the spot rises in response to demand. But this relates to demand for the commercial, whether by your competitors or buyers in an unrelated category.
So, competition has no effect on reach of a given schedule. It may indirectly and incalculably affect the cost of that schedule. As you surmise, it probably affects the impact.
I have an advertising plan for a new product launch that has a substantial reach and frequency for the first quarter of the launch. I have been asked to look at taking the second quarter down to 50% of the spending at launch, and 3rd and 4th quarters to 25% of that spending. Is there any rule of thumb that I could use to translate the relative reach and frequency at the reduced levels? For example, if I have a 90% R&F at 100%, could I assume 90% and 5 at a 50% spending level?
If you have the reach curves of the media you are using, you could find the coordinates for 50% or 25% of the dollars or weight vs a new reach easily.
However, different media elements, mixes and schedules develop differently. In one plan, say radio, where a heavy budget is generating added frequency for the last 50% of weight, a 50% reduction might reduce reach only 5%. In a lighter plan, or in a higher turnover medium, 50% reduction might mean 40% loss of reach.
how do I calculate an index score for a marketing survey I've completed?
An index score compares measured behavior to a norm. The behavior and the norm are typically percentages of defined groups and the index is a relative percentage, expressed without decimals or percent signs.
For example, if your survey shows that 30% of persons 21-34 prefer Brand X beer, while 20% of everyone over age 21 prefers Brand X, then the 21-34 index of preference is
30 ÷ 20
an index of 150
Guru, would you be so kind as to given me you definition of "streaming". As usual, many thanks.
Many internet terms have different meanings, depending on who uses them, but streaming is pretty clear.
Streaming refers to audio and / or video internet content which is played by the user's computer while it is being received over the 'net. The process does not involve the content file being saved on the user's computer. These could be radio broadcasts, live video coverage of events, etc. Streaming is distinguished from other audio/video content which is downloaded in its entirety, saved, and then played by the user whenever desired, for example, song files from Napster.
Dear Guru :
There is any criteria, research or rate that could help us to say that a media has a better behavior in obtain more or less awarennes than other one.
I am looking for a video called "A Day in the Life" - it deals with the clutter in advertising. Any ideas of where I can find this video?
Guru, I am developing a business plan for a start-up Media buying firm. First, where can I find information (financial, size, etc) of small firms?
Second, where can I get a look at a similar plan.
Try the Small Business Administration
A client asked me for some textbook rule of thumb on the relationship between share of market and share of voice. He is asking in the context of determining whether to spend more in a market where our brand is weak and the category is average/weak (i'd estimate the BDI/CDI is probably 50/80. can you suggest a book or site that offers a good discussion on whether to invest more, or whether you're throwing good money after bad, or if you have specific thoughts on this, I'd appreciate hearing them. Thanks.
The Guru's general theory is that -- all else being equal -- growth comes from increased share of voice. Many operate on the theory that added spending should go where sales are well developed; BDI emphasis. Others feel that share gap, such as your 50/80 indicate room to grow.There are some useful texts in the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com).
I have two questions about calculating reach and frequency that I have been unable to find in the archives of past responses. Perhaps you can help?
1. I normally use the formula (a+b)-(.a*b) to determine combined reach of two mediums, such as radio and print. How do I calculate the combined reach of more than two? The plan I am working on includes spot TV, spot radio and local newspaper.
2. Is it possible to determine a combined reach for more than one market or should each market be reported separately? In the past, I have provided separate delivery for each market in the same plan with a total number of gross impressions for the whole plan. Is this correct?
Thanks in advance!
1. This common formula is based on an assumption that different media duplicate their audiences according to random probability. Therefore if you follow this assumption, media may be added to combinations of media in a "chain" of the same formula. So, once you have combined TV and Radio, you can use this combination as your "a" and then combine it with newspaper as "b."
2. You can combine reaches across markets by doing a weighted average. Multiply the reach in each market by the percent of U.S. in each market. Add all the products and divide by the sum of the % U.S.
I'm trying to figure out if it is better to give a TV network a very broad target like A18+ and leave it at that, or give out the actual planning target, like M35-54. I'm trying to find a simple explanation for how CPP works in buying television. Thanks
If your target is M35-54, you will need to do extra work to determine how good a proposal based on A18+ really is and you might not be offered the most desirable programs for your target. Presumably, the network would compile a proposal targeted to m35-54 if you told them that's what you wanted. Is your presumption that by concealing your target they might accidentally price attractive programs lower than otherwise? Network pricing is more likely to be based on A18-49 anyway, and if you're buying sports they will probably figure out what you're up to.
HOW TO JUDGE A GOOD MEDIA PLANNING
Please begin by reviewing the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan.
A good media plan
This means that any marketing/advertising objectives mentioned in the backgroun for the plan must be addressed by media objectives and/or strategies in the plan. Some plans go wrong by reviewing too much marketing background that isn't relative to the media decisions.
Every stated media objective must be answered by strategies aimed at meeting that objective. By the same token, every stated strategy must related to soem stated objective. For example if a strategy is to concentrate advertising in the southwest, there should be an objective to build sales in weak areas or support sales in strong areas or some such. This strategy should also be suported by sales data for regions, or whatever is relevant to the point.
Similarly, media selections should be supported by their relationship to strategies. For instance, media should not be included to "reach working women" unless some objective or strategy calls for this emphasis and shows why this is a segment meriting special support.
Reach or efficiency of media or combinations should be demonstrated, if asserted, but neither should be a decison factor unless a strategy calls for it.
How the media commissions are formed? How to deside what media commission to put for my client. What is the difference, for example, between the 5%, 10% and 15%. Please advise
When U.S. media publish "commissionable" rates they include 15% commission.
The advertising agency I work for has recently aquired a new local television station as a client. I am in charge of putting together a media plan. In the past, this client has used mostly radio and runs only during sweeps. We have considered recommending cable and billboards and some advertising prior to sweeps. Do you have any suggestions or media strategies that could help us? Is there a place (source) where I can see what has worked well for other tv stations? Thanks for your help
The Guru can't suggest strategies without knowing your goals. For examples, try TV Bureau of Advertising.
What are the best media to reach government and public school employees?
I am working in a local media agency from Romania so there is no network behind us. So is very hard to keep up with the competition, especially the international ones. Therefore I am interested in some training about media strategy and negotiations. Can you tell me where can I find something like this? I would prefer Europe as location.
Thank you in advance!
Have you ever heard of Pacifica Radio Network?
Are they still in existance? If yes, how can I contact
Visit Pacifica Radio.
Hi media guru! I'm just starting out! help!
I need to give impressions for a radio buy (per station, of course) based off Tapscan! Help????
Contact Tapscan for directions in operating their software.
the impact of advertising on the media
All media claim to totally separate the advertising sales from the content.
I have a Telmar Maestro run on M25-54 watching weekend sports. What is the difference between "Exposed (000)" and "Exposed at least (000)"? Thanks.
Note that the first column of the run is labeled "freq" or frequency. So that each number of (000) in the columns you are asking about is in a row with a frequency number from 1 to 15 or higher. The number "exposed" is the number of persons who see exactly the specified frequency of commericals (number of spots), while "Exposed at least" is the number of persons who see that many commericals or more. "Exposed at least" to 1 frequency therefore, is equivalent to your reach.
Please tell me what is the way for calculating the media commission for a client for media planning, media buying... How are calculated the 2,5%, the 5% etc.? Thank you
Usually the percentage is based on gross media cost. Gross media cost is the "commissionable" rate established by the media vendor to be charged to advertising agencies. This rate is structured so that 15% of it is the commission and 85% is the "net" to the medium. If the gross rate is $100, then 5% commission for media buying is $5 or 0.05 x $100.
What is a Media Buyer, and what does a Media buyer do?
What type of degree or level of education do you need to become one?
What is a SQAD report?
A media buyer is a negotiator, employed by an advertiser or its agency, acting on behalf of the advertiser to secure media space or time from media vendors, such as publishers and station owners.
There are no specific educational requirements, but most have a bacelor's degree if hired at entry level.
SQAD provides media cost-per-rating-point and cost-per-thousand audience estimates, as a guide for media planning and buying.
Guru, I going into a presentation where I'm recommending a corporate sponsorship for a branding campaign. The thing is, i'm not sure how to define it to make it simple for the client to understand and powerful enough to sell the idea. Can you help?
What are you trying to define: "corporate sponsorship" or "branding campaign?"
Corporate sponsorship definitions should come from the media vendor. If there is to be a "branding campaign" the Guru would expect that concept to be defined in Advertising Objectives, prior to media planning entering the picture. Something is wrong if the media department is dertermining that there is to be a branding campaign in the absence of marketing direction.
Have there ever been any major mistakes with Nielsen data reporting in the recent past. I seem to recall soemthing happening, but can't find anything on it. Thanks.
The Guru seems to recall that there was a problem with too much sample in Laredo in the early NHTI.
Nilesen has also been correcting under-representation of Spanish-dominant Hispanics in major market NSI samples.
Is there an on-line site which can tell me the visits/page views to commerical web sites (no charge)?
What are the average costs of a :30 national and spot television commercial?
What is the average cost of a :30 national and local radio spot?
I work for a upcoming magazine publication, how do we get advertisers?
Hello, please explain to me in details the levels of market support - BDIs and CDIs - what do they mean and how could be measured, weighted??
Click here to see Guru discussion of BDI / CDI .
i am looking out for media information of publications
dealing in chemicals, aviation, pharmaceuticals, gold & jewelry, electronics, information technology in the regions of USA & Europe ...... basically targetting the Upward mobile businessmen ( Senior Managers & CEOs)
Start with PubList.
I have found out that media plans made by planners was not based on what we have learn about the concept of Marketing, and that is planning based on specific target market/segment that their clients wanted to reach. For example, a client wants to reach woman 20-45, and children 5-10 middle to upper (Social Economic Status Classification A, B). What planners will do is running ACNielsen's software combining those demographic caracteristics all together : Woman/Children/AB/5-10/20-40 to find the best media/program that would reach the highest rating and reach instead of running it separately :
1. Woman 20-40, A
2. Woman 20-39, B
3. Children 5-10, A
4. Children 5-10, B
My proffesional opinion on the way planners plan, was wrong! They would end up with :
1. Combination of reach (Woman, AB 20-40, Children 5-10, AB)
2. Not knowing the exact result of how the product reach at Woman A, an B, also at Children ; not to mention the age yet!
3. A reach that is actually low for each segments, because of insufficient media selectivity.
I understant that planners will not like this fact, because they would have put more effort in the future. But tell me your opinion on this ? (theoretically & proffesionally)
First, as the Guru sees it, you are not thinking about a media plan, you are talking about determining the schedule of a media buy, resulting from a plan.
Once a target is determined, how to best reach that taget withing the media selected can be approached in various ways. Here you are talking about two compleletly separate targets, not levels of specificity; a group of children and a group of adult women.
One would not expect there to be programs with appeal to both groups. But if single televison homes were common in your country there could well be programs watched by mothers and children together.
Nevertheless, it should be far more effective to buy the best programs for the adult woman group and the best for the kid group than to try for programs getting both audiences. If the software to which you refer is an optimizer it would theoretically examine various programs to find the best schedule, not judge each program on its owm. The key to optimizers is especially to consider what each Added program contributes to buying goals, not each program in a vacuum. Recenf articles in the U.S. indicate that optimizers are used much more as conceptual new business-getting tools than in actual buying situations.
I need to find info about Alternative Media... do you know where I can find it?
Recent articles about advertising internet sites have been extremely negative on media advertising for these
business' Horror stories of wasteful purchases i.e The Superbowl etc. Where can I get a copy of such an article?
I am putting together a media plan for a new product. It is a new pill dispenser that is targeted to A45-64, who are active. I am trying to research consumber publications that would reach my target audience. I was thinking about Florida and Arizona as geographic target. But I am in need of finding publicatons to effectively advertise this new product. It is an Iowa based company, but we are trying to do a proof of perfomance and get the product sold. Then build a better image. What would be the nest way to go about planning this campaign?
If you target these states, presumably you are finding a concentration of the age target, because these states are retirement centers. But are "retired" people the active ones you want?
Also, you may be mostly limited to newspapers in this targeting.
Nevertheless, try MRI+
What percent of daily and Sunday newspaper readers read the first page?
If not available, what percent of daily and Sunday newspaper readers read their papers' main news section?
Visit the research area at The Newspaper Advertising Association.
What are the advantages and disadvantages of using an advertorial vs. a regular advertisement? Where can I find more specific research on this topic?
Advertorials are generally designed to look like the ordinary content of the publication. Often they are provided by the publication as an inducemnt to advertise.
On the plus side, if they fool the reader, then they appear to carry the endorsement of the (presumably trusted) publication.
On the negative side, they are typically less impactful in terms of graphics and headline. Further, there is the danger that the consumer will realize you have attempted to fool him and react negatively.
Dear guru, Is there any different to make a media plan at segmented television than general television?. (sport television vs entertainment television). should i make a media plan separately for each television?. this because i believe that there is different audience for each television. Thanks/ AM-Indonesia
A media plan is aimed at investing the advertising budget to best accomplish goals expressed in terms of the target consumer. What kind of televison to use is merely tactics.
The Guru does not believe these segments can be separated before the plan is assembled. Part of the plan might be devoted to determining how much to invest in each segment.
where can i find information on trade publications in
latin america? I already checked SRDS international.
Trade magazine listings at PubList include Latin America.
I am reading your SQAD Report on "Costs per TV Household Rating Point". I am a novice at this. What does this mean and how do I read this report? Thank you, Michael Jordan
A "rating point" is equivalent to one percent of the population in the specifed universe.
So, if a commerical has an audience of 1000 in a market with 100,000 housesehold, it has a rating of 1. If the audeince is five times as large it has a rating of 5. If you have a schedule consisting of five commericals like this, you would have 25 Gross Rating Points (GRPs).
If you divide the cost of the schedule by the GRPs, the resulkt is the Cost per TV Household rating point. SQAD collects the actual buying records of several agencies and other media buyers to calculate the marketplace averages.
I am attempting to project advertising revenues for a media company who will have approximately 600k to 700k subscribers on Digital Cable. Do you have an estimate of the advertising sales per spot ad per subscriber? I have heard a rate of 1 cent per sub per spot ad. Is this reasonable and realistic? What references are available to check this rate? Thanks Michael Jordan
One cent per sub, or $10 cost per thousand households is about right, based on spot TV cost estimates published bySQAD. This is actually based on Audience, not suscribers. Advertisers are interested in how many see their commercials, not how many are able to see them if they choose to. Viewing to any given ad-supported cable channel at a point in time averages less than 1% of subscribers. These are the ESPN, CNN, Fishing Channel, and Animal Planet sort, not the HBO type (pay cable) or broadcast networks.
If an ad can charge 1 cent per actual viewing household, then its price might be 1 cent per 100 subscribers, or less.
can you name any companies that handle shopping cart advertising?
Click here to see past Guru responses about shopping cart advertising
Which are the basic elements for media strategy and especially for media objectives?
Where can I find the report from Ron Lawrence,"Uniform Target Delivery:An Illusion,"Marketing and Media Decision,Desember 1987,in the internet?. The definition of target audience is still too vague for me because of some reason. An example : if i have a product with target audience ABC15+, and I want to find the best possible TV program to get higher Reach and optimal GRP for my campaign at this target audience. Should I go directly to ABC15+ program or I go to A program first, second to B program and third to C program?. If I go to A program first, should I divided it again to Male and Female program?. This is very 'crucial' because most media planner in my country usually go directly to target audience ABC15+. Is it right or wrong?, what is strong and weakness for each methods?, where is the best methods? (go directly to ABC15+ or go to each segment first).thank/ AM-Indonesia
Assuming no part of the target is more important than the rest, you will most likely buy more efficiently on the specific target. It should not be difficult to examine different scenarios. Marketing and Media Decisions has been out of business for years, but back issues might be on file at The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. or ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization, or universities.
Dear Guru, I am doing some research on the effectiveness of television advertorials. Can you point me in the right direction? Thanks.
Start with The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
which are the most important media planning specialists in the United States?
While the numbers show a TRP as a TRP, there is no doubt in my mind that a :60TV ad (for example) creates more "impact" than a 1/2 page black and white print ad (for example). Have you seen any data/studies that account for this difference in impact by medium (specifically print vs. TV vs. TV billboard)?
The problem is to find comparable aspects of the media to measure. Recall is one. Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Guru, my department has recently been tasked with the research and purchase of all direct mail lists; for which we have limited experience. We are preparing to "interview" prospective list providers and need to know what questions to ask. How can we ensure that the lists provided are up to date?
Find some vendor websites, at Direct Mail Quotes to see what the vendors believe are the key elements on which to base claims.
I am working on a new business pitch for manufacturer of spa products, (e.e. hot tubs). I am not sure of their target audience. It there a way to pull an audience profile similar to scarborough. I need the information to run an MRI ranker against consumer magazine. Thanks.
MRI offers similar audience profiling to Scarborough.
Hi Guru - I have a few cable TV questions. 1. Can reach/frequency estimates be done for cable schedules. My rep keeps giving me everything but. 2. Does Nielen measure all cable stations. 3. Why can't I get FX numbers on Telmar, just ESPN. 4. If I can get R/F for cable what are some of the major differences from Network numbers. Thanks.
Where can I go to find (national) CPPs and CPMs for Lifetime and Food cable networks? I'm looking for detailed info to estimate specific dayparts/programs/seasons.
You will have to contact each network for such specific information.
How is targeting done in online advertising? Is IP address based targeting more accurate than all other forms? What is cookie based targeting?Thanks for the help
A web server can detect the IP address of a visitor. The IP address reveals of the visitor's Internet Service Provider. This can provide very narrow geographic targeting if it's a small, local ISP or very little information if it's company like AOL, all of whose users appear to be in Virginia.
Cookies are small codes left on users own computers when they visit a site. If the user has registered at the site, and given personal information then the user can be recognized and associated with this information on return visits through the cookie. In either of these cases, the information can be used to decide what ad to serve to the visitor.
In other cases targeting is done by advertisng on sites with measured user profiles.
With reference to research and research methods what does MRI stand for? What type of program, etc. is it?
MRI is Mediamark Research, Inc. It is a large scale survey, partly conducted by personal interview, primarily aimed at magazine usage and partly by self-administered booklet, which mostly concerns product usage.
I´d like to know about media (TV and Radio) for the
hispanic market at the USA, information about ratings,
share, costs by State. thank you!
For links to US Hispanic media, the best resource is our own Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resources Hispanic page.
For general information about ratings and shares, without buying the full research from Nielsen or Arbitron, browse through Abby's Hispanic Market Weekly Media and Research articles.
For costs, you will generally need to contact the media, but SQAD offers a current Hispanic spot TV cost guide.
In the US, TV and Radio are not costed by state, but by metropolitan area (MSA) for radio or designated market area (DMA) for TV.
I have currently been trying to find a media research company that will provide competitive spending analysis for healthcare trade publications, and have been unsuccessful. CMR does not provide trade pub research; does anyone?
I would like to evaluate and/or add some new execution models to my cache for our local retail clients. Models for television such as "bookends" or "roadblocks" seem to be either tired or useless these days. I realize that the efficacy of any execution depends on the goals, strategies and tactics of my plan, but would like to learn of other methods employed in other markets. Any suggestions on where I might find some other multi-media ideas for different categories of clients?
When you cite "bookends or roadblocks" you are talking about the finest final fine points of buying your schedules. These are simply tricks to optimize reach or frequency, and which have catchy sounding labels.
When you talk of multi-media, ideas you return your thinking to the prliminary planning level.
Cross-media promotion is the sort of approach which best fits. Start by talking to salespeople at the media conglomerates. Companies like AOL-Time Warner and Viacom, for example, have sales specialists to help you develop these approaches.
how to approach a media plan for automotive lubricants, where emphasis given on truck drivers, fleetowners and mechanics
how does communication work?
A message is delivered to its target and influences the target's thinking and/or behavior.
what is a media planner?
A media planner evaluates advertising goals to determine media objectives and strategies. These may include market specifics, media environments and communication levels. Then the planner recommends specific vehicles and schedules to best execute these strategies.
Are there any sources for objective measurements on current numbers of consumers shopping online and the attendant demographic information?
I'm confused about the difference between buying Network vs. spot television. Is there a rule of thumb that says "past a certain number of markets, it's less expensive to run nationally vs. spot". Also, I've been told by a Network that certain programming is "controlled nationally" and that I can't buy some programming on a spot market basis. How can this be? Thanks for this service it's great. Any insight is greatly appreciated.
1. The rule of thumb can't be based on the number of markets. For different dayparts and demographic groups, the costs or cost per point of spot will mount up differently. Usually the break even comes between 35 and 50% of U.S., buying from the top down.
2. Like broadcast, cable networks' advertising is sold either at the national level or by local cable systems, often consolidated into market-wide "interconnects" by spot cable reps. Just as with broadcast networks, the national sellers have nothing to do with the local sales and may therefore not encourage you to think in that direction. The Guru does not know of any ad-supported cable networks that don't allow breaks for local sale.
Looking for a company that specializes in magazine research called New Age? Do they have a website?
This company is an information processor, competing with Telmar. The Guru does not have a website for them.
remuneration rates in the european countries
According to the Guru's UK colleague, the following applies to all of Europe:
"In GB the basic approach is that agencies get a discount from the
media owner. So if the rate card for an ad is $1000 then the
advertiser gets charged $1000 by the agency but the media owner
only gets charges, say, $900
This is the 'old method'. Increasingly all agencies/media buyers
now negotiate specific fees/percentages with each client."
Where can I find CPM information on for all media platforms?
Is CPM a valid measurement for efficiency of media across all platforms?
"Efficiency" is defined by cpm. Perhaps you have some other terms in mind.
We have twenty-three auto glass stores in twenty-three different markets. Our target audience is anyone owning a car 18+. Historically, this industry does very little advertising, relying on the insurance agents to refer their insureds to glass shops. Now they are using third-party billing systems and sending insureds to a rotation system. What mediums would be most effective to begin building awareness and telling the consumer why they should come to us?
With only these details to go on, Primetime TV.
Where would I find overall, all dayparts, CPP and CPM for network stations in a specific DMA?
For that level of specifics contact station reps.
I am looking for a complete liste of newspapers for advertising in the US. Online version prefered!
Unlike most European countries, the U.S. has thousands of newpspapers including several hundred dailies, so "complete lists" can cover sevral volumes of over 1000 pages each.
One good online resource is Media Passage, which lists 349 papers just in the New York Metro area, for example, and over 6000 in total.
Which media are recommended to test a hair growth product.
Media are selected primarily because they reach a desired target audience. You need to define your target of "users of hair growth products" in terms used for media measurement, such as Men 35+, for example. Then use media measurement resources like MRI to identify media which have these people in their audience in appropriate numbers or concentrations.
Additionally, such resources will directly report numbers of users of various products who use specific media.
My partner and I were asked by our clients to prepare
a "communication strategy" for a government-sponsored
responsible gambling strategy. We have already designed
a brochure, a logo and we're currently working on their
website. We've been looking for examples of a "communication strategy" but have come up empty handed.
Our clients are not trying to sell something tangible but instead are trying to promote an idea - gamble responsibly.
Any ideas where we can get a template or an actual communication strategy? We've looked through the archives and noted that you often refer to strategies only as a way to sell a product. Should we consider the idea of "gamble responsibly" as a product?
Thanks for your help.
The Guru uses the word "product" in such discussions as a generic term including prosucts, services, image campaigns, etc
"Communications strategy" is a term that can have various meanings in different contexts. In the context of a media plan, it is covers the definition of the target, media envoronments and levels of communication (reach, frequency, etc). See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan
"Communications strategy" can have broader meanings in the context of an overall advertsing plan or marketing plan.
I can't beleive what an incredible benefit this site is. You make media planning just a little more manageable. Thank you !!
My questions: I am planning a targeted media campaign for an upscale apartment hihgrise. Their current targets is men with upper incomes (100K+) that travel for business and Celebrities (movie and music) because it is very private and exclusive. How do I target these people???
Men - I have looked at the travel and luxury pubs, and the executives reads, WSJ. I need to target just LA & NewYork. Can you make any other reccs?? What do you think of Direct mail, internet??
Celebrities - that's a tough one, Variety, Hollywood Reporter, maybe target agents??? What do you think?
I am kind of stumped on this one.
The Guru's thoughts:
$100K isn't very discriminating for such a "luxury" building that might appeal to security conscious "celebrities."
There are super-exclusive, high income, city based magazines, like Avenue and media targeted to high-income heavy travelers like American Express Platinum or Centurion card holders and platinum-level frequent fliers club members. Direct mail and bill-inserts to these latter people would be good.
In tv makegoods, what is the difference between and ADU and a makegood, as far as what the compensation is. Do you ONLY get back equal air time or is there ever a case where you can get cash back? Thanks.
The Guru imagines by ADU, you mean "Audience Deficiency Unit," a spot provided when the rating for a purchased spot is below the negotiated guarantee, whereas a makegood is the more generic term and might be given because a spot failed to run due to preemption or error, or suffered a broadcast problem.
The type of compensation for missed or underperforming spots should be negotiated when purchased. A makegoods for a missed spot is the typical default when nothing else has been arranged.
Credit or cash back -- in the case of pre-paid schedules -- is possible by prior agreement.
Even after the fact, credit/cash may be secured if your future business is at stake.
I have 320 Commercial Units available for sale at a rate of $4.00 CPM. National Cable TV, Sports, 70% Male. Who can I contact that is a buyer of media "wholesale" or a media re-seller?
Try our MediaQuote section.
I need to locate several good archives of print advertising. I am doing a research study and need to have access to an archival resource of print ads. Do you have any suggestions?
Archives like this are kept by the publications or the creators. It's not exactly a Media planning/buying issue.
How do sales growth differ from companies who advertise compare to companies who do not advertise? Basically I am look for general percentages based on a fiscal year income. Are there any web site handy that display this type of information?
The Guru does not think any web sites offer this particular data broadly. Growth might well be comparable for companies that advertise at a flat rate year to year compared to those that do ont advertise. Changes in budeget and share of voice are likely more critical.
Hi, I was wondering if you hace any informationa about the effectiveness of running ads - on tv screens- in supermarkets and fast food restaurants. My client would like to explore this way, in regards to reaching people in a new way, but we suffer from the lack of information in this area.
These concepts have been around for 25 years or more without becoming established,
Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
One of the client's the I buy media for has a limited budget in a market with a very high cpp. They are considering running :10 second spots in addition to :30s to increase frequency. Do you think that's a good idea?
It's a way to increase frequency. Is there a frequency goal you're trying to meet?
I'm working on a plan that includes cable and network television. I have been asked to present a rational for different schedules on three levels of spending. If i know the programs rating point, the average CPP and the cost per spot, how can I use this information to put together the total reach/frequency of sample schedules. I'm trying to get general information at this point without contacting reps to run several schedules. I need to know how to do the math by hand without a program if it's possible. Thanks
It's no longer really reasonable to do the math by hand. The Guru has described calculating reach by "Random probability" in the past. But the unique duplication patterns within tv schedules need to be accounted for either with tables reflecting many schedules' reaches or computer models.
Our own eTelmar offers low cost, single use, online reach calcuation.
You might try the R&F generator at U. Texas .
Can you please tell me what is meant by cross-media
Generally, this refers to advertising media sold across the various properties of media mega conglomerates, like AOL Time-Warner, combining online, print and broadcast vehicles.
Is there a web site where I can input radio station
call letters and get back location, format, address, etc.?
I am preparing a media presentation to a Diamond Account. De Beers, Thompson. I am producing a celebrity golf tournament--sports/entertainment..no pros. It run in February, late the week after the Bob HOpe Classic..big celebrities..probably air on FOX or Turner...need cost of 1/2 sponsorship.....12 minutes? Thanks, it is for Breast Cancer Research and will be hel at Caesar's Palace in Las Vegas (lots of glitz..Jerry Harrison
There are not really any standards, contact the vendor.
How is a national theoretical plan translated to a test market?
There three ways, in general
The key difference between Little U.S. and "As-it-Falls" is in recognizing that the rating level of nationhal media varies from one market to the next. Translating network or cable TV as-it-falls is fairly simple, magazines can be trickier.,
i am looking for a researchqor any information that refering to the reach levels needed by advertising in newspapers to diffrent categories of brands like fmcg, convenience goods, and so on , i am intresting especialy at the real estate market.
Hi Guru! I am currently developing a media plan for a client that is interested in reaching the hispanic population of the New york - New Jersey area. I have not been able to get a list of the newpapers aimed at hispanic audiences and their circulation. Where would you suggest I might be able to get this information?
AMIC affiliates include Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resources. Abbott Wool is the research and media editor of Hispanic Market Weekly. Abby's weekly articles are posted within his the site. One recent article "The Mystery of Hispanic Newspapers" discusses resources which list Spanish newspapers by market.
Hi Guru. I've read through your responses to questions relating to "reach and frequency" and "awareness", but haven't found exactly what I'm looking for. In setting up goals for a new product launch media plan, we've determined that the overall goal is to generate awareness. What we don't know is the correlation between r/f and awareness. In other words, if we know that we're gong to have an effective (3+) reach of 82.85% and a frequency of 8.63, what % of unaided awareness could we expect to achieve? Will Ostrow's effective frequency model help in this case? Is there a model / matrix used to determine awareness levels? Thanks so much.
Awareness does not correlate absolutely with reach. There are too many other factors, like the quality and memorability of the creative and the advertising environment. Obviously only those reached by the advertising will be aware of the advertising. But there can be wide variance in how many of those reach a given number of times can report awarness in research. Even if awareness corresponded well with reach, there could be varying results due to differences in awareness research technique. Advertisers who do a lot of awarness tracking can build reliable models for thier own use, by tracking results of comparable research studies against known R&F. Similarly, research houses which frequently field awareness studies could get reach and frequencies, for the campaigns tested, and build a model.
I would like to find out if there is a different pricing/rates for an agency vs. a client going directly to a print publication. Would a client get the same pricing/rates that an agency would get? I always believed that the 15% commission was a way the publication rewards an agency for doing business with them. Is it more dependent on the individual publication?
As a general rule, the advertiser can get the net rate. One can't think of the commission as a reward, implying the medium is bribing the agency. It doesn't even make sense that way since all media use the same mark-up.
I have kiosk in retail stores and I want to sell ads. Can you tell me the best way to do this.
1. Should i hire a company? ( which one whould you recommend)
2. Should i go direct to a media buyer? ( which one would you recommend )
Use a rep.
Click here to see past Guru responses about kiosks
Is there a site that i could post my ad inventory and have media buyers bid for my ads?
Go to our MediaQuote area.
Can you tell me the market size for each of the advertising medium (ie internet, newspaper, indoor, outdoor, etc) for the year 2000.
Given the complexity involved with the IP addressse , how does on emeasurs the reach of the Net , especially in cases where Registartion are not required
This is in continuation of the measurement of online campaign ..yse click thru, time spent cd be a few parameters , however to take it a step further and say with confidence that the brand awareness, brand building has leaped by such and such %age, wd a pre and post be an appropriate method ?
Is there an precedence to this ?
Comparing awareness measures before and after a campaign is a very basic approach. You need to be sure that the measured campaign is the only marketing communications during the measured period, of course, or control for the presence of other influences.
This is in regard to automotive advertising.
A schedule is bought for each franchise/product. Let's use 3 products for this question. Each schedule is a modest R/F of 65% / 3.5. The creative is one spot for each product, a "donut", the open and close are identical or have the same theme but with a different product in each of the 3 spots. All three spots run within the same flight dates.
Is the reach and frequency actually greater on each product because of the "common" open and close or does the common open/close just build the "brand"?
Though there may be some synergy in brand awareness, "reach" is simple statistics. The middle of the donut reaches only those who see it.
What steps should I take to select test markets for DRTV?
DRTV should not be market sensitive, unless the product or it's prospects have geographic variance. You might as well test where budget will be lowest if the intended media vehicles are available.
Hi Guru, Is there any way we can measure the effectiveness of any online ad campaign?For instance a sponsorship of 3 months can be measured by doing a pre and post research among the netizens.
Please advise , thanks
Measuring effectiveness starts with setting goals. If your campaign is aimed at awareness or purchase intent then your idea is appropriate. Some campaigns can be measured by click-thru.
I'd like to know how to do a good media planning?
What exactly is meant by "Rich media"? I have heard it
used in so many ways.
"Rich media" generally means something with sight, sound and motion where it isn't usual. It's usual in TV, but special online.
Thank you for all your great information. Where can I find a breakout of radio advertisers by industry? (already tried RAB)
Does cable TV have market CPP the way that network does. Or, is there a percentage of SQAD's estimates that can be used for planning cable budgets? Have no clue, hope you can help. Thanks!
Spot cable is a spot TV medium. Depending on the reason it's being used SQAD spot TV cpp may be appropriate.
Are you using cable because of the general characterisitics of cable's audience? If son then use the index of value which led you to cable as an adjustment on SQAD rates.
For example, if cable viewers are 20% more likely to purchase your product, than cbale is worth a 20% greater cpp.There is usually an efficiency penalty in spot cable.
I am looking for : what is the minimum budget for an international (presence in the 5 continents) btob campaign : target High executives.
Could you help me?
Where can i find cases as the Big 5 Andersen Consulting, Enst&Young, Price WaterHouse, ... or international advertiser as Suez...
Thanks a lot.
It is impossible to set a minimum from these facts. A small space ad in an international edition of news or business publication, such as Time, Wall Street Journal, Financial Times of London, etc. might be right, but there are probably communications goals to consider.
Can you give me some guidance and resources about film/movie/cinema advertising market- the size, trends, the media planning for a product category like this and the key unique variables that need to be considered while planning media for them
You must first understand your target audience: who goes to movies?
And then the marketing scenario: In the U.S., the opening weeks' are considered crucial to a film's success and thus advertising efforts are scheduled around that.
Movies are reated to culture. Every country will have different trends. Try local resources such as Indiamovies
A lot of media production houses(television program producers)and smaller televsion channels are clueless about strategic issues involved in media selection, planning and buying.I feel there is a business need gap that can be filled by media experts and consultants.
Are there any instances 1.where you have been approached for such projects 2. what information/analysis areas are likely to be of great value to such production houses/television companies 3. Any specific companies/agencies doing similar work. Please do let me know
TV channels (as time sellers) might well benefit form a half day's seminar on how media buyers decide what to buy.
The Guru doesn't see the direct benefit for production houses.
In his role as a private consultant, the Guru has done projects for media sellers, and for producers only when they were also seling their product directly to advertisers. These projects were about how to use media numbers as selling tools and how to present the measured aspects of the media properties most attractively to potential buyers.
The U.S. system may be different than yours.
I am trying to understand the total annual advertising spending against consumers (2000 is fine). I have found some conflicting sources--one says $134.3B and one says $170B. Can you help? Thanks, Guru!
Both numbers seem low. Consult
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) and the archives of Ad Age. As of September 25, 2000, Ad Age had reported $215Billion McCann's Bob Coen Report, a primary Ad Age source, has estimated $233B for 2000. The Ad Age and Coen estimates both include almost equal amounts of "measured" and "unmeasured" media.
How can I best locate the affluent hispanic community leaders and the affluent hispanic community in Los Angeles?
If you mean how can you reach them through media, newspaper is the typical vehicle for such a target and the daily newspaper "La Opinion" is the L.A. leader.
Other options include carefully selected TV such as KMEX and KVEA or all news KBLA-AM.
Check Scarborough for Los Angeles.
What is DPS when referring to a premium position in a magazine?
Probably "double page spread," which is redundant.
Have you noticed a trend away from above-the-line expenditure towards below-the-line media worldwide, in recent years? Is there a difference between developed and developing countries?
The Guru has heard of this trend. The main difference between countries is how well, if at all, they track this data.
What is the percentage of Americans who jog or run?
How can I find demographics and psychographics for Affluent Hispanics in Los Angeles.
How can I find competitors advertising numbers and publications in Trade Magazines?
Also, There are a large number of competitors for what is being pitched, so if there is something (other than the Rhome Reports)
can it be easily saved as a spreadsheet?
The Guru doesn't know of anything other than Rome which meets your specifications.
What are the 3 most listend to Radio station in the NYC DMA during morning drive for adults 18+ with a HH income between 18K-60K?
Whatis Alpha Index?
Without a specific context, it seems like an abbreviated way of saying "alphabetical index."
I am just starting a job dealing with Direct Response Television Advertising. Seeing that traditional TV media rates are valued based on ratings points. How do stations develop their rates for Direct Response Television? Is Cost per Thousand a measure which can be used in Direct Response Television analysis or is the measure just Cost per Order? I have a client which swears that I need to give him in depth Cost per Thousand numbers but our agency owner says that is ludicrous in DRTV. Thanks for any info.
Cost per thousand (cpm) is mereley the cost of a spot divided by its audience. All station inventory is essentially priced at least partially based on a cost/audience ratio, which determines the value of the spot to the station.
However, the value to a DR advertiser is based on cost per response, whether that is measured in inquiries or orders. Most DR practicioners have learned that there is little relationship between audience size and response. It is not unusual to get more orders from a low-rated late fringe program than a prime time program.
So, while it is possible to calculate cpm in a DR buy, and inherently harmless to report cpms, it would be wrong to judge a buy on this standard. If your owner objects to the waste of your time and the client's, he is justified in his objections.
Distinguish between cell weighting and rim weighting
Rim weighting is a method of adjusting survey results according to known characteristics of the population. It is considered equivalent to cell weighting.
See On the Use of Rim Weighting by J.G. Upton in Journal of the Market Research Society v29 n3, July '87
and Weighting Survey Results also Journal of the Market Research Society, v28 n3, July 86
I want to have some information about the history of advertising in US media
Print: as far back as the existence of the country, ie 17th Century.
Radio: early 20th Century.
TV: Mid 20th Century.
Commerical CableTV: Late 1970's / early 80's
Commerical Internet: Late 1994 / early 1995.
For more details, see books in the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)
Guru --- Please let me know your opinion on maps as a media vehicle. Thanks!
If you mean the sort of map printed for multi-featured tourist areas like Charleston, SC or New York City, then these can be good vehicles for restaurants and other seasonal tourist tourist-oriented businesses. If you mean ordinary road maps, the value may be questionable for other than long-term travel businesses, like hotels and gas stations.
The timing of exposure and percentage of printed copires opened are also a problems.
Hello M.G.-- I'm looking for an "unbiased" source correlating ad spending with sales success and/or decreasing an established brands media budgets and getting diminished results. Is there a 3rd party resource or study I can use to help a client justify maintaining existing budgets which have consistently yielded successful results before the "big corporate bean counter" slices and dices advertising budgets?
Thank you for your help!
Unbiased research is unlikely in this case. Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Where can I find a template or example of Televsion buying guidelines (i.e. client dictated programming to stay out of) to give to my broadcast buyer?
Some advertisers have ratings minima, some have restrictions aimed at better reach, such as limiting episodes of strip programming.
Some have content restrictions, such as sex, violence, social or political issues or other controversies. In any case the details are usually treated as trade secrets and no "template" should be neccessary, just clear language. Also, since any restrictions work against efficiency, none should be used withouot good reason. For example, sometimes there is a bar against ratings below "X," on the theory that statistical tolerances will sometimes mean that rating dps to nothing. In reality, statistical tolerances swing one way as often as the other and the overall tolerance of a schedule's GRPs won't be much affected by the inclusion of some lower rated programs to make packages efficient.
Dear Guru. Is there any research telling that to build a product SBA 30 seconds formats are better than shorter ones (20-10 seconds)?
See ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization or The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
how much does it cost for a magazine ad?
How high is "up?"
How does seasonality effect radio advertising?
How does seasonality effect radio advertising?
Dear Guru, What are the major benefits of using spot
Spot adds geographic flexibility to the advantages of Television. See strengths. the Guru's "Media Strengths" .
Dear Guru, I am working on a research, "How long does advertising continue to influence consumer's purchase decisions after it has been seen." Where can I get the relevent info? Thx.
I am an a media planner, looking for opportunities to sponsor various web site opportunties for OTC brands interested in reachng MDs. I have been looking at Medscape - a pharmaceutical consumer portal. They sell advertising space and sponsorships on their site. When we look at Media Metrix data to see traffic, and determine whether we want to advertise with them, we see a fairly low number of visitors. We are told that that is because Medscape has an alliance with AOL, and when members go through AOL to Medscape, these visitors are not included in Medscape traffic counts. Rather, they are counted towards AOL traffic. We're talking about over 1 million visitors. Is this true? How can this be addressed? Is it possible to change the way Media metrix counts these visitors or is this standard. I have asked Media Metrix for a response as well, but have not heard back from them yet. What do you think and how would you proceed to address? Thanks.
AOL, per se, is not on the internet, it is a bulletin board service that predates the popularization of the 'net. Most members dial up directly into the AOL system. AOL provides a gateway out to the 'net for its members and there is also an aol.com site which is part of the net.
MediaMetrix, which measures internet behavior, might well be unable to track areas within the AOL system. However, it appears that when an AOL user accesses Medscape, the user is taken to the internet, to Medscape.com. Therefore, the MediaMetrix traffic for Medscape would be complete.
With a total universe of under one million MDs in the US, traffic of one million visitors seems quite high.
Could you recommend a good book or resource that would
contain information about planning and buying network
television? Thank you.
Visit AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)
Do you have a contact for voice mail blasts? I received some ads on my home answering machine and I am assuming that they used a vendor of some kind. Thanks
The Guru deems this sort of thing to be offensive and as SPAM, and will not provide vendor information.
Hi Guru - how is outdoor media measured? I see a lot of high audience numbers, but I'm not sure where they come from. Thanks
Outdoor is quantified as "Daily Effective Circulation (DEC), based on measuring traffic past the point of the display. According to the Outdoor Advertising Association of America:
"Daily Effective Circulation. The average number of persons passing and potentially exposed to an advertising display for either 12 hours (unilluminated – 6:00am to 6:00pm) or 18 hours (illuminated – 6:00am to 12:00 midnight)."
This is generally a # of cars multiplied by an average number of passengers, approximately 1.9. This may overstate the number actually noticing the sign, just as TV program rating may overstate the number viewing or paying attention to a commercial.
Defining last minute media buying as buying in the last 48 hours before TV broadcasting, what's the last minute media buying role in the TV advertsing? How much do the planners usually allocate from the whole budget to last minute spendings (as in the last minute peaks audience could be short termly forecasted)? Is this a frequently used instrument? Anticipated thanks...
The Guru beleives very few, if any planners allocate anything for this, it is not part of planning except to the extent that it effects price and is thus a buyers' issue.
The Guru does not see a way to forecast audience peaks 48 hours ahead. A bigger issue is whether inventory will be available on such short lead time. The only application of this short time buying in which the Guru sees an advantage is "firesales" that is, making oneself known as a ready buyer -- at deep discounts -- of unsold inventory, a tactic that defies "planning."
Hi Guru...I am looking for research/info on seasonality and
how it effects TV viewership and radio listening. I
know that TV viewership goes down in the summer months
and radio listening goes up but I was wondering if there
were any articles/research that I can use as backup.
I am working on a project to determine how much ad revenue is typically generated by newspapers - i.e. monthlies, weeklies and dailies. Are there books/web-sites with this information? - Thanks.
Is newspaper used as a reach or frequency vehicle?
Reach. With only one daily exposure opportunity in most cases, the frequency possibilities are far less than broadcast, online or out-of-home media.
dear guru ' Could I get information on the followings :
1. Is there any Indian Bureau from where we can obtain information regarding advertisement charges in Internet/online.
2 : What are strategic issues involved in internet/online advertising ? As well as how should i go about collecting information to conduct a market survey ?
The Guru does not know of any specifically Indian internet ad rate resource.
The strategic issues for online are the same as all advertising. The tactics and approaches used to answer the issues are where the differences occur.
Dear Guru, where I can find ad rates specifically meant for Internet/online advertising, and also are there any standards followed like what we have in press/TV advertising.
Dear guru. What is the difference between a strategic and a tactical campaign?
Click here to see past Guru responses on the subject.
Looking for research on newspaper ROP vs. premium position. Any differences ? Thanks
Dear Guru, Please throw light on 'role of women above 45 years of age in purchase of general household products' in INDIAN context. thanks in advance
I'm doing a research project on restroom advertising. How do I get the latests revenue figures for InSite Advertising, Zoom Media and AJ Outdoors?
Perhaps they are public companies which publish annual reports.
What would be an acceptable rate to charge for TV advertising during a horse racing simulcast? The signal reaches 255 betting locations including racetracks, casinos, and off track betting parlors.
You need to know the audience size. If you have advertisers who particularly want to reach bettors, perhaps a cost per thousand of $30-$40 could be charged. If the average audience per location, per commercial is 10 people or a total of 2550 people, then the cost per ad unit would be about $75 to $100. If the audience is bigger, then a proportionately higher rate is reasonable.
may i know what are the limitations of internet advertising!
Different ad units will have specific limits, but as a medium, some key limitations are:
I am looking for information on creative wearout, so how often should creative be rotated - is there any research that I can look at? Please.
Click here to see past Guru responses about wearout
is there a resource for finding average media rates CPP,CPM for electronic media in the charlotte market that does not charge a fee
Only the SQAD data posted on AMIC
Are there any statistics that show the response rates for driving traffic to web sites through traditional media, i.e. print, TV, radio? You answered a similar question last year with sources from 1999. Do you know of any updated information? Thank you.
Click here to see past and latest Guru responses about web traffic.
I have read a lot about the Jone's & Reichel's results about recency but I would like to know how was the research.
How was exactly the way in which the found the recency value. Could you help me?
Thanks in advance.
I'm hoping that you can tell me which companies sell outdoor billboards in Madison Wisconsin (or point me in the right direction). Thanks.
There's a list of operators, by state, at OAAA
Dear Media Guru:
Are there any "magic" formulas regarding advertising levels/weights and retail traffic pull through?
Please advise. Thank you.
There is no general magic. Individual experience will tell how it works in specific advertisers cases. There may be some ability to generalize within categories, as broad as "upscale restaurant in the NY metro area."
I wanted to know if radio clutter is currently increasing or decreasing. Also, how can I get information on a stations amount of airtime that they curently sell. For example, if I ask a station how much of an hour they sell for space will I get a truthful answer? (Or do I need to ckeck something).
The Guru would expect stations to be honest about commercial time. It's a matter of record if you should choose to investigate.
Try The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB) for trends.
A client of ours is concerned about a Stats Canada report that television viewing in the fall of 1999 hit a two decade low. I have been asked to compare this to other media.
Start with BBM. It may be hard to get as narrow a time slice in print media.
Is there a formula or program for calculating
optimum daypart mix? I am working on a client that
has used the same daypart mix for years. I wanted to
really put some thought into this plan and not rehash
every previous years plan and thought there must be
some way to take the MRI information in comparison
to the CPP's for each daypart.Please advise. Thank you!
Is it possible to buy taxi cab voice overs as an ad unit or are they all PSAs?
The Guru doesn't think it's available, but if it is it's most likely sold by a company that sells other taxi advertising, like Vector Media.
Why is television the priority branding medium?
TV is the priority branding medium in many cases. In the abstract, TV is the most powerful form of communications with the best ability to build a brand. Its combined audio / visual impact is unmatched by other media.
Dear Guru, this question was last asked in 1997. I would love to hear your comments based on current(2001) and beyond...your opinion on the changing shape of the media environment. How the media is changing for the near future, what are the main trends in the media and how will it change the media planning? Thank you.
In 1997, the Guru said
Media have always changed. Once there were only print media and billboards. Then radio, then TV. Not only do new media arise, but the numbers of media vehicles of each type of each type proliferate. The web is only the latest and most explosive example of this proliferation. What causes the changes for the planner is the availability of research and hard facts on which to base decisions, rather than using theory. One of the biggest changes may be the growing emphasis on direct response models for evaluating media effectiveness, rather than awareness, recall, or requests for additional information.
Or is it the ability to apply computer models to planning?
Today, the emphasis on the new has shifted to internet. Its importance as media must always be kept distinct from the prblrms of dot-com's business models. In 1997 the direct response issue and internet were moslty on the same track: click rate and sell-through. Today CRM is the buzz word and the webs' data capture and branding ability fit well with marketings new emphasis on those two issues.
The Guru believes that other technologies promoted as the coming thing will continue to languish until they give the user more than they demand of him/her, these are interactive TV and wireless internet.
why is there a shift of popular programmes from terrestrial tv to cable tv?
Clearly, the most popular programs remain those on the broadcast networks.
If you mean the overall viewing of cable is growing at the expense of broadcast TV, that is ture but the cable audience is fragmented over 30, 50 or 100 programs versus a hanful of broadcast programs at any point in time. If you mean that certain "popular" programs are changing their outlets from broadcast to cable, that isn't true. Some relatively unpopular programs by the standards of broadcast audience have move to cable, i.e "Freaks and Geeks." And some, like "Law and Order" air on cable subsequent to trheri broadcast airings, but get lower audiences on cable.
The Guru does note that your syntax and spelling indicate you are outside the U.S. and may be observing a different scenario than the Guru sees in the U.S.
can you think of any media related theory to user's (negative or positive) attitudes to internet advertising?
Attitudes may relate to placement, load time and relvance of the site, etc. These all might be considered media related.
Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Dear sir, i am new to internet field, may i know is there any difference between internet advertising and online advertising, secondly I would like to know about the scope of Internet advertising in Indian context as well as where can i get database (statistical information) regarding advantages/disadvantages regarding internet advertising ?
email - email@example.com
Generally, "internet" and "online" are equivalent terms in this context. To be quite strict, advertising within bulletin board sytems like AOL is not "internet advertising" while it is "online."
Statistical info regarding advantages/disadvantages would need to be assembled. Statisics for various media are usually found or developed for that medium alone. There is a good internet piece at IAB
Media Guru, please help. How do I calculate reach and frequency for a two-week, two-newspaper buy? We are placing 4 ads per week (total of 8 ads for the schedule) on Newspaper #1, which has a maximum reach of 9% of our target. Newspaper #2 will carry 2 ads per week (4 ads for the schedule) with a maximum reach of 23% of our target. Please advise. Thanks!
Find some example newspaper R&Fs at The Newspaper Advertsing Associations Marketscope site.
In very general terms, you can estimate some parameters. If newspaper A has a 9% maximum reach, it probably has a single copy reach of around 7%.
If B has a maximum of 23%, then it likely has single copy reach around 20%. So the outside bounds of reach for your schedule are a minimum of 20, but more likely closer to 25, the random combination of the two papers' single copies. The outside maximum is 32 ( the 9% plus the 23% maxima), but more likely closer to 30 (random again).
A solid estimate of 25-30 reach for your schedule should be good enough, but you could use the eTelmar pay-per-use system for a specific calculation.
Frequency, of course, will be the sum of the single copy audeinces of all insertions (GRP) ÷ the reach estimate.
which route would you reccomend for buying media (tv and
print), 5 continents, main countries, for a worldwide
non-comercial image campaigne? Would going directly
to giant media conglomerates be a better option than
going directly to the media itlself? We are a very small
ad agency. Thanks in advance for the advice
Without full investigation, the Guru thinks that going to the giant conglomerates, like AOL / Time Warner or Bertelsman, would limit your choices too greatly and probably overlook the best local media in many countries.
What is the minimum TRP level ONE creative execution should
have allocated for a campaign? For example, if I have
3,000 TRP's total (NATIONAL) for different products, shouldn't
there be a limit on the number of commercials we run,
in effect because none of the spots would have enough
weight attributed to it?
Thank you so much!!
These decisions should be based on communications goal for each product, not numbers of commercials.
3000 GRP per year is about 60 per week. This is an adequate sustaining level for a brand, especially within recency concepts. If you are allocating this to products which have mutually exclusive selling periods of one month each, you could support 12 products comfortably.
Competitive climate should also be considered.
When planning network television versus spot, why are
the TRP's planned per week typically so much lower?
This may be true in some circumstances, but not as a general rule.
If you look at network TV plans where TV is part of a larger media mix versus spot TV plans where TV stands alone, this might be true.
If you look at plans where there are multiple national media and spot TV is the one local medium, used to bring markets up to heavy-up or "ideal" weights, this might be true.
If you look at national plans, which are more often for package goods or other national consumer products, where reach and continuity are emphasized, vesus retail or promotional local plans where totla noise level over specific periods is more valued, then again you might find the situation you describe.
What is spent on above-the-line and below-the-line media in South Africa in comparison to other countries?
Even more so than in the U.S., promotional spending is not well researched in South Africa. No valid comparison is feasible.
Have you ever heard of the Sesame Media Planning System? If so, can you help us find out whose it is and what the inputs are please?
The Guru hasn't heard of SESAME. It may be some firms proprietary system.The Guru hasn't heard of SESAME. It may be some firms proprietary system.
Does broadcast promotion of coupons (e.g "look for our coupon in Sunday's paper")increase redemption?
Broadly, yes. It depends greatly on the broadcast schedule and the print medium involved.
I am buying some media for a nutrition center in my area. He is doing this for just his three stores. There are 13 in the market. He has had a lot of success with my strategy so far, but I would like to look into what his company does on a national level. I know they do some tv nationally, but how do I find out more about what they do without going thru the client?
Can you give me or point me to advertising revenue statistics comparing network tv, radio, print, cable and interactive mediums?
Consult the archives of Ad Age
How do I convert CPM's from SPARC to CPPs by market?For example, NY radio Average CPM for 3Q 01'=8.40 for A18-49. Its population is 8097000.
Think of the CPP as the cost of 1% of the specified population.
So, the general rule for CPM vs CPP is
CPP = cpm X 0.01 X population in thousands.
This requires the cpm and cpp to be based on the same geography, so be careful. If you're working with DMA CPM and DMA CPP, that's fine, but typically cpm is based on total survey area (TSA) and you are looking for metro CPP.
I'm looking for competitive television creative. There used to be an organization, Radio and TV Reports,
that would provide copies of commercials but they may have gone out of business. Can you recommend a resource? Thanks for your help.
Contact VMS (Video Monitoring Services
I have developed a new product for the Golf Industry that will be with the golfer as they play their round. What is the best way to contact potential National coporate sponsors/advertizers like Buick, Nike, Callaway etc? How do I locate their individual advertizing agencies? Thank You
I noticed in the media strengths sections you don't include Internet Advertising. Why is that? Also, have you seen any best practices in how media people compare tradtional advertising with Internet advertising. For example, how can a media planner compare reach frequency in broadcast with impressions and unique audience in Internet? Any insight would be helpful. Thanks.
The actual reason is that the media strengths page goes back to AMIC's earliest days, late 1994 / early 1995, before the internet was being taken seriously as a medium. But the Guru will now add the following to that page:
Capture audience in the act of shopping (Search engines)
Narrowly select target by site appeal
Instant interaction / order taking
Instant copy change
Customer relationship building
Target customer / deliver ad variant based on customer profile or past action
Powerful environment for computer-related advertising
Streaming allows TV-like audio video within above advantages
Regarding comparing to other media, the differences are no greater than between Radio and outdoor or TV and newspaper. If you compare numbers, it's a clean comparison. If you need to explain communications impact and other differences, it's more complex, but merely a matter of choosing the right words.
I have a client that is interested in the "dreaded" bathroom stall advertising (back of door). Do you know where I can find any information on how effective this kind of advertising is? I would think people in that personal environment are not thinking about buying things. Please advise
Dear Guru, what do you see as the 'killer' type of advertising for interactive television? Will the banner ad win out like it has on the web, will the enhanced program be the winner or will the 30 second spot make its return?
The Guru clings to his doubts about the viability of interactive television. It has been "around the corner" for twenty years, without successful trials.
If it arrives, the banner is least likely to be the key ad form; since TV is linear, while the web is static, users are less likely to to follow a trail to an ad while their program continues without them. Granted, TiVo and other such devices could get around that problem, but that category has been failing as well.
Why use an outside agency to buy your ad media verses buying it yourself?
I realize negotiating pricing and bigger buying power, but what other value added services does an agency bring?
A professional buyer probably:
Is there any way to gather competitive media spending across all media without paying for it? My client cannot afford CMR.
The only other legitimate way is to ask the media reps with whom you are working.
The Guru generally feels that if some form of research is considered essential in developing strategies, "can't afford it" is a penny-wise, pound-foolish approach.
I would like to know, if there are any other (main) media strategies, apart from recency, effective frequency and dripping. If so, under what name can I find research and guidelines about them?
These are scheduling / communications strategies. Advertisng can be continuous activity, or non-continuous (flights / waves / pulses). Tactics within activity can be same level at each period of activity or different level at each priod of activity. Within periods of activity, levels can be stable, rising or falling.
Recency argues for continuity; effective frequency argues for minimum effective levels during any activity.
Other scheduling approaches may be merely spreading it around at a level that experience has shown to be effective for the advertiser.
The best repository of research on such topics is The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Have a client that questioned the use of Recency planning for a packaged goods product launch in spot market television. I've read all questions/answers from 2000 in the archives and found it curious that no one questioned the fact that the levels used for standard recency planning of 60-80 TRPs per week refer to MEDIUM EXPOSURE not ADVERTISING EXPOSURE. Considering that probably only 40% of the commercial message will even register, aren't these levels low (clutter factor), even if they are spread across multiple weeks (in this case 9)?
A: Medium exposure is the readily available planning metric.
B: Recency has been keyed to measured results from media exposure levels.
C: The media exposure levels referenced in Recency are -- and this is important -- REACH, not GRP. The reach threshhold is thought to be about 30 - 35, which might tie to various GRP levels, depending on media mix.
D: If best sales success is tied to sustained reach minima of 35, then that is the metric to connect with. The fact that the less readily available ad exposure or attentiveness-weighted GRPs are some other number is an artifact of the process, not a contradiction to the theory.
What incremental level of brand awareness can feasibly be generated by a TV and Internet buy as opposed to a TV only buy?. i.e. will adding an online component to media buy help to build better brand awareness?
It depends, among other things,
In short, this question needs to be very much more specific to answer usefully. But key facts are that TV has reach potential better than 95% and internet only about 50%. Thus with no budget limits, TV could add enough awareness so that any added benefit of internet might well be immeasurable. At some budgets, internet contribution could be significant.
I am looking for the number of subscribers to pay cable networks. Any one resource that provides this information?
Are there any accessable studies showing the enhanced reach and frequency by using a media mix of direct mail in conjunction with targeted b-to-b print advertising, rather than direct mail and email only?
Obviously email has a limited audience potential and many business people have developed filters to avoid such spam.
For studies, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I have a b2b client who is reluctant to advertise in the
media. Do you have research that indicates why it is
important for a client to advertise?
Good morning - I'm doing research on the effects of
advertising in trade/vertical publications.
Can you recommend where to begin my search on research
studies and/or articles? Thank you!
I understand that there is a softening in ad rates(mainly radio and print). Are there any services that provide estimates of ad rates out 12 months.
No services, but perhaps frequent trade articles.
I work for a major newspaper, and we are considering making changes
to our TV listing book, as well as our daily in-paper listings.
Most cable and satellite services publish their own listings,and/or offer listings on-screen.
Has anyone done a study on usage of TV listings, i.e. how often viewers refer to them, are onscreen listings preferred to in-paper or cable/satellite
Any help on this would be appreciated.
The Newspaper Advertising Association would be most likely to have this kind of information.
What is the Best advertsing method for the country of Irland? I need information on Irland's advertising expenditures thank you
There is no one best advertising method anywhere where ther are tow methods. It always depends on goals. One medium might have the best reach, another the best efficiency and still another some
required format or flexibility.
MediaMonitoring offers ad expenditure info.
What is a tombstone ad? I was asked to get costs for tombstone ads for a particular pub - I've never heard of this before. thanks.
"Tombstone" ads are typically plain text announcements of new financial offerings, listing the underwriting companies. There is no specific size. Some media will have a separate financial rate category.
we will be introducing a consumer product on a national level. I need to find competitive information like media mix, markets, spending levels, etc. Can you give me a list of research sources that are applicable? Thanks for your help.
Do you know where I can find the average number of readers per copy for a free weekly publication? Thanks!
Hi GURU. On what target group should I focus my online store in special spices spices from all over the world?
And how can I reach them with a low marketing budget?
Thanks in advance!
Direct response in spot TV is immediately pre-emptible. But on a spot market basis - is there a rule-of thumb in terms of the costs vs. buying regular fixed schedules.
The rule of thumb is "50% of regular costs." But since 'regular costs' are variable and negotiable the rule is not very meaningful.
Where can we find information about advertising expenditures, by market and by individual medium. For example, how much was spent on television advertising in the Quad Cities DMA in 2000 (or by month)?
My name is Mark Waddell and I am a student at Syracuse University. I am currently working on a media plan for grey poupon premium yellow mustard. I was wondering if you could tell me where I could find information on timing & purchase cycle, geography info, and the creative history of the brand. I would greatly appreciate your help. Thank you. Sincerely, Mark Waddell
I need to find out the average price for pop up ads. Can you help me, or direct me to resources that may help?
Thank you Guru!
Try Ad Resource
how many internet connections are there in the us
As of mid April, Nielsen//Netratings finds 167 million people with internet capability at home.
What are the best resources for competitive media spending tracking for business-to-business and technology advertisers?
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)'s Business 1200 is the best known b2b magazine resource. Other CMR reports cover other technology activity.
What is the definition of effective reach?
Click here to see numerous Guru responses defining and discussing effective reach.
Regarding online yellowpages: I am trying to find out how much more effective a top-ranked display listing is compared to a later text listing. Can you suggest any sources that have information on this topic?
Try the yellowpages sites, themselves. Also, The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Dear Guru, we are working on a sort of educational document for an important client. What we have in mind is: what should the ideal media briefing look like, som basic media terms (GRP, OTS, coverage,...), what is the difference between strategic and tactical planning, media-memorisation, ...
I was wondering if you have some examples of such documents that could give us an idea of such a presentation. Thanks for your help.
To determine the right media briefing, you must know your audience:
From the syntax of your query, you seem to use British media terms (like OTS, rarely heard in the U.S.), but your email address is in Belgium. Therefore the Guru is hesitant to try to list the media terms most relevant for your needs.
As a broad guide, see the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan and
the Guru's Media Terms, keeping in mind that these are often U.S. - specific.
You may click here to see past Guru discussion of strategy versus tactics but briefly, tactics are specific courses of action taken to implement strategies. For example using TV is a tactic to achieve a strategy of attaining high reach towards and awareness-building objective.
Dear Media Guru, my client is a massive audience tabloid newspaper that needs to sell advertisement. Up to now, it´s excesive mass profile has been a problem in selling ad space to poweful brands. What kind of campaigns to the advetisers and the media agencies do you recomend? How can I keep the newspaper in their top of mind? Could you help me with outstanding campaigns?
Pure size should not be a problem for major, reach-oriented brands. Perhaps it's your demographics. But these are marketing and not media problems.
Can you think of a resource where I could find total media spending by MSA?
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) reports 75 top DMAs of Tv plus some other media.
I was wondering could help me in finding advantages and disadvantages of different types of advertising media i.e television, radio and newspapers. This would be of great help to me. thanxs
hOW CAN I FIND HOW MUCH IT IS GOING TO COAST ME TO PLACE AN AD ON THE TV , IN THE BOSTON AREAS?
Dear Guru :
Please help me, my companie is looking for a new softaware supporters, one of these is Steve Perry in London, another is Telmar.
Plase give me a phone,fax or email of Steve Perry software consultant based in London
Acording to our sources in London:
"Steve Perry used to work at IMS, he writes systems for TV
reach and frequency. He has now sold his company SPC to BMRB
and moved to South America."
where do I find demographics for Cable Networks?
Is there a source that reports advertising spending by market? If so, do they distinguish between "national" and "local/regional" ad spending on a market level?
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) local media reports distinguish between advertising placed with the stations from advertising running on the network.
But if you mean local placement distinguishing money controlled by a national agency vs a regional marketing office, that isn't likely unless there is a difference in copy.
which kind of programs tend to develop large reach and high frequency? Sarwar -Lintas
Generally, programs which are more different in content from one episode to the next, and thus are more likely to draw a different audience, each time get high reach.
In the U.S. this has meant programs like prime time, feature movies, a fading genre.
Of course, GRP for GRP, the higher the reach the lower the frequency. Therefore in media planning, a mix is used if the goal is to optimize both reach and frequency.
what are the major strengths of cross-media planning?
This question is unclear. A media plan is a process in which one determines which media in what mix best answer advertising goals. Thus one can't really effectively consider anything but "cross-media planning."
But perhaps the term means something different to you?
Please give me a list of DMAs in alphabetical order cross-referenced to their Radio Metro Markets (Metropolitan Statistical Markets or MSAs are also acceptable). For example: under Los Angeles DMA we have Los Angeles Metro Market, Riverside-San Bernardino Metro Market, and so on.
l am so glad that this site exists for us media planners. Its my first time to visit it and l was have so many things that l would to ask you but firstly l needed to know how best you can describe timing/phasing of campaign when preparing for a presentation. Thank you so much.
In words, we have
. There are as many other terms as there are ways of determining weekly weight. Click here to see discussion of "Recency", another approach to setting levels.
If you are thinking of how to graphically present the levels, a media flowchart, like the sample below, which is an industry version of the Gantt diagram, is most useful.
I researched your past responses regarding test markets
but could not find the answer I was looking for. I know
Ad Age, ANA, Media Week or the AAAA have published lists
in the past of what was considered the top twenty test
markets in the country. I know that true testing is
dependent upon a lot of factors but would like to see
list nonetheless. Can you help?
The Guru might well recommend the sources you mention. See also query #4307.
Is there a list of top 10 marketing/advertising
test markets in the US?
I want to locate the media planning&buyig companies
who are specialised in radio advertising. Do you know
any of them? How can I contact them online. Thanks,
In a US context at least, it would make no sense to have a "media planning company specialized in radio planning." How would a client expect to get a plan that considered all the options to best communicate its messages from such a company.
A radio buying service is feasible, but the Guru has not heard of one which limits itself that way.
If a TV prg. were measured for 52 weeks consecutively what would the shape of the reach curve for that program probably look like
Generally, it would start at the program's rating, rise through 4 or 5 or so episodes to perhaps double, and be nearly flat from there on. Strip programming rises less, weekly movies or other variable appeal programming rises more.
What is the relationship between GRp's and gross impression
For any given demographic,
gross impressions ÷ population in hundreds
What is the role of marketing mix in media planning?
Advertsing is one element of marketing mix. Media planning is an element of advertising. More often than not, the media paln is constructed in the absence of knowledge of other elements of the marketing mix, except perhaps sampling and promotional programs.
Hello Guru, it's been awhile since I posted a question. I always find your advice to be informative and helpful.
I'm about to ask a somewhat embarrassing question, so please forgive my ignorance. I'm interested in educating myself more on the mechanics of DRTV media planning, actually DR planning in general.
The little I know about it, feels to simplistic for me. Is it simply, buying spots at DR rates, tallying up the calls, then dividing spot cost by the number of calls to see if you hit your sales lead goal?
I'd like to speak more articulately on the subject. Any good reading material on direct response media planning you can recommend is much appreciated. Thanks in advance.
Most stations have DR specialists among their salespeople. Talk to the some of them. Also consider "Saleseman of the Century" about Ron Popeil, at Amazon
Network TV vs. Spot TV: At a certain % coverage of the U.S., some advertisers find that it is more cost effetive to buy Network TV than Spot TV. What is this percentage?
Usually somewhere between 25 and 50%. It varies according to:
In a market that is metered by Nielsen (49 metered markets), would the preffered local Cable ratings methodology be to:
a) Take HH overnight ratings and apply local demo VPVH estimates to these ratings
b) Use demographic diary info. I have heard that the diary information significantly underreports Local Cable. Is this true, and why/why not?
We are really having trouble getting a handle on Local Cable ratings. When looking at this medium it always appears to be extremely innefficient against our target. Is this typical, or might we be using incorrect ratings methodology?
The Guru is not surprised that local cable is inefficient. Economies of scale are surely a bigger factor than ratings.
But regarding underreporting, Click here to see as the Guru said in response to your recent question on the same point the size of the audience is a factor of the meter measurement, rather than the diary measurement, which is used more for composition.
I'm looking for a few Meeting and Convention Planners online sites. For example, a hotel trying to book small conventions. Any ideas?
Try the search engines, like Google.
We are doing research for a media plan and we can't
find the reach and frequency numbers for any of our
magazines, newspapers, and television shows. Is there
someplace that we can look that can give us the reach
and frequency with out us having to pay a subscription
Individual ad's reach can be found in some places, like our own AMIC's Ad Data. In these cases frequency always = 1.0.
For various specific schedules, it's not reasonable to expect all the infinite possibilities to be posted anywhere; this calls for calculations by software with a price attached.
For inexpensive, single use, pay-as-you-go software, visit eTelmar.
I'm doing a project on television and print advertising. I would like to know where I can find some televsion commercial rates, as well as some print ad rates. thank you!!
I have a client that is in the storage business. They just launched a US branding campaign in trade print in March. However, they have a new product that is launching in April and would like to promote it. How long should the branding ads run before you should begin to run product ads. Can you run them at the same time if so how much should be branding ads vs. product??
This is not a media question, albeit the answer will determine some elements of a media plan. This is about which copy to run or which message to communicate to build target audience response.
These are marketing issues to address before touching media. The answers will depend on the nature of the industry and the client's current awareness and postioning.
Would you help me to find out advertising media course that I may apply, if possible through e-mail?
The Guru would not recommend any e-mail based courses.
Do you know of any services that can provide competitive trafficing of magazines ad that run across all print mediums (actual tearsheet and/or copies of the ads)
Do you have any information what media is the strongest in driving to a website?
This will vary considerably depending on the site's target and purpose. One site may do best in network TV, another in niche magazines
Is there a company that offers information regarding colleges and possible media and promotion options?
How can I target A18-24 with traditional & non-traditonal media?
I would like to know about the current situation of the business magazines and their online sites.
Where can I get information about the business magazines industry?
I am looking for a directory for listings of Advertising Agencies in the US. I am in particular looking for ones that handle Television.
Hello... I am doing research for a project, I am having trouble finding a Database that contains the all(or most of) the information that I am looking for. I am searching to find the following...
A Listing of all the Television Stations in the U.S. The listing I would like would contain..... The Call Sign,Channel Number, The Address and phone, and the name or email address of a Contact Person in the Program Department/Program Manager. If there are any such listings, any help finding them would be appreciated. Thank You...
Concerning Local Cable ratings, there seems to some confusion as to the availability of Nielsen demographic ratings. While I know that HOUSEHOLD Local Cable ratings are availbale on Nielsen's HH overnights, how are demographic ratings developed?
I have heard of two methodologies:
1) Apply DMA VPVHs to the HH overnight ratings
2) Use Nielsen diary info to determine demographic Local Cable ratings.
From my experiences, Local Cable is severly underreported thorugh diary measurement. Therefore, I believe the use of HH overnights would be preferred. Can you provide some insight into Local Cable rating accuracy and methodology?
Household overnights are only available where Nielsen uses set meters to measure the Household audience. These meters automatically send their daily readings to Nielsen's computers so that Nielsen can then issue ratings "overnight."
According to information at Nielsen's web site:
" In 49 of the largest markets, we have a sample of homes with set meters (not people meters) which provide the tuning status (set on/off, channel and time) of TV sets in the home. We collect information about who is viewing from separate samples of homes in these markets with diaries for each TV set. We combine the meter and diary information in a way which projects the diary viewing data adjusted to the meter tuning data."
The Nielsen NSI service reports cable in local market reports when the audience meets reporting standards.
So, in any case where HH overnights would be available, NSI is adjusting diary demographic findings to reflect (preferred) meter measurment of households.
Where do I find "Q" ratings for celebrities?
Go to Q Scores
Do you have any reserach/learning on response rate for newspaper advertising between:
1)B&W vs. One (Spot)color
2)B&W vs. 4-Color
3)4-Color vs. One (Spot) color
Is there any way to assess the value of a nielsen ratings point? For example, if you could increase viewership by x, it is worth y in additional advertising dollars?
This is very simple. All you need to know is the average selling cost per point of the time period, available from resources such as SQAD
How can I find research regarding historical analysis of R/F trend on television.
Specifically, I am looking to find out for example: if you looked at a generic demo
maybe W18-49, and wanted to find out the difference between the number of spots in Primetime TV it took to reach 80% of W18-49 in 1970-1980-1990-2000.
So basically, the idea is that today it takes more commercials to reach the same % of the population. I just need help finding actual numbers to support
that concept. Would know where to find that information?
Since today's average primetime ratings are perhaps half of what they were in 1970, it certainly will take at least twice as many spots for the same reach.
R&F systems have changed over that time, too, so you should really compare the schedule a planner thought necessary in 1970 to the one considered necessary today. Planners will have been more likely to work with GRP than number of commercials, though.
Perhaps there is such a retrospective available from The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
how many viewers watch big brother and who wants to be a millionaire in Europe an episode (on average)?
Contact AC Nielsen
Can you guess at an estimated reach for a 4-week radio schedule at 150 TRP/WK (W2554)? Also, do you happen to know the formula for manually figuring reach/frequency?
Thanks for your help!
The formulas for radio reach are enormously complex and must take into account number of stations, daypart mix, average rating and other variables.
Your 600 GRP schedule might generate (roughly) from 35 to 70 reach, depending on these variables.
Click here to see past Guru
responses abourt calculating reach.
How do you calculate CPM?
Cost ÷ audience impressions in thousands
How can I find information on advertising media (tv, radio, billboard)rates within the West Virgina market?
How can I find information on advertising media (tv, radio, billboard)rates within the Virgina market?
This question pertains to new ABC rule which takes effect April 1, whereby newspapers will be able to count as paid circulation any copies that are sold for at least 25 percent of the basic price.
I am currently paying $19.20 for my Sunday newspaper subscription. The $19.20 is for 12 issues ($1.60 per issue) of the paper.
Cost on newsstand = $1.75 per issue.
12 issues newsstand = $21.00 ($1.75 x 12)
12 issues subscription offer = $19.20
I am now receiving an incentive for 24 weeks of the evening paper (Mon-Sat) --- free subscription for M-Sat for the price of my Sunday sub.
Newsstand cost for daily paper = $.50 per issue
Based on this the math works out to:
$.50 x 72 issues (12 weeks x 6 issues/wk) = $36.00
$1.75 x 12 issues (12 weeks - Sunday) = $21.00
Total Basic Cost = $57.00
Subscription Cost for Sunday + Free Daily = $19.20
$19.20 / $57.00 = $33.7% === Does this mean that the newspaper will be able to count the FREE DAILY PAPER as PAID?
Your help is much appreciated.
The Guru believes the answer is no, based on section (d) of the following portion of ABC rules (and allowing for the change to 25%):
(b) Subscription Sales:
(1) On term order for a year the subscription must be paid for at not less than 50 percent of the basic annual price.
(2) In case of a subscription for more than one year the subscription must be paid for at not less than 50 percent of a pro rata of the basic annual price for the period covered by the order.
(3) If the subscription is for a period of less than one year it must be paid for at not less than 50 percent of the basic price for the period offered. If there is no basic price for the period offered it must be paid for at not less than 50 percent of a pro rata of the basic price for the next shorter period. If there is no basic price for the term offered nor for a shorter term it must be paid for at not less than 50 percent of a pro rata of the basic price for the next longer term.
A price for a period of less than one year that is less than a pro rata of the basic annual price shall not be considered a basic price.
. . .
(d) Subscriptions to any publication received as a result of an offer by a publisher that stipulates that part of the subscription term is free will qualify for inclusion in paid circulation only when a contractual agreement exists for the full term of the subscription and is in accord with the provisions of Paragraph (b) above. Without such contractual agreement, those copies which a subscriber is informed are free shall not qualify as paid circulation and instead shall be set up in unpaid circulation.
What is your preferred methodology for evaluating spot cable ratings?
Your exact meaning is not clear. What differences in method of evaluating ratings should there be as compared to spot broadcast ratings, other than to assure the same coverage base is being used in each rating compared? Perhaps you mean something broader than "ratings?"
What is the best way to do a spot cable vs.spot radio analysis?
Compare the facts you want to compare: geographic coverage, rating, cpm, cpp, reach, impact, etc.
looking for data on size of ad and effectiveness based on size, especially in DTC market for pharmacueticals/skin care products
I'm looking for information on the skin care category in Puerto Rica. For example, the strength of the skin care category, brands within that advertise as well as general information about the Puerto Rico market. Is there an source I can turn to for this type of international information?
looking for data on size of ad and effectiveness based on size, especially in DTC market for pharmacueticals/skin care products
I am a media planner from India and would like to know
the various mass media options to reach Non-Resident Indians
in the UK
Where would I find information of this nature ?
Desperately Seeking NRIs
This seems a rather difficult target. Try contacting travel services in India dealing with the UK for suggestions.
I am working as a marketing consultant for an eBusiness/solutions provider. One of our clients is a government entity. We are writing a marketing and communications plan to promote awareness of their new brand image. Do you have any suggestions of materials I could use for reference?
Do you have any info on tourist use of radio? The specific market is Orlando, but the info does not have to be limited to that market.
"Tourists" is an audience almost impossible to survey. But The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB) might have some info.
When an agency says that its billing is 5000 million-how much you discount it by?? I am a client!
There is no universally valid rule of thumb for how much agencies exaggerate. In different categories and niches and countries the margins of overstatement differ.
One factor is "capitalized billings" where all fees and commissions realized are divided by 15% to make them comparable to commissionable placements. On the other hand, a agency with some giant accounts honestly reoprted, but at gross, overstates agency earnings when commissions are actually below 15%.
What are the CPP for radio and tv in Atlanta?
Mi, If i am putting together a radio schedule what would the ideal reach be? For any buy, any market? is it 60%?
There is no such ideal.
Why settle for 60 when for some targets 90 is readily attainable.
Need Radio & TV CPP's for Toronto, Canada. Can you help.
Hello - We are trying to reach- on a national basis - people who have recently been diagnosed with a life-threatening disease, or the loved ones/caregivers of these people. Do you have any suggestions for media in hospitals, pharmacies, treatment centers, etc - that would be available to purchase on a national basis? Thank you for your attention.
Dear MG. I am currently involving in making an internal online media planning system.
It seems to me reach&frequecy planning in online media does not fit very well.
I am appreciated if you tell me current discussions on reach&frequency in online planning.
The key issue in reach and frequency is defining your universe. If your system is totally for online planning, then your universe would logically be the population with internet access. This should match whatever audience data source is being used to generate audience figures in your planning.
Presumably, if reach is an issue, then unique visitors will be the key metric.
In comparing to other media reach estimates, it should be kept in mind that online impressions are a very different sort of measurement than in other media.
Hello Media Guru --
Hopefully you can help me. We are currently in planning and we are analyzing our competitiors When - In Avg Weekly and Avg 4 wk deliveries by Quarter and Full Year. We have pulled their GRPs by week for Network by daypart, Syndicated and Cable so we have the National TV deliveries. We have pulled their Print schedules off of Stradegy and now want to come up w/the same deliveries (When-in Avg weekly and Avg 4 wk by Quarter and Full Year)for Print in order to combine the TV and Print deliveries. Is there a method that you suggest?
Thank you in advance--
It isn't clear which steps cause your problems.
If you're being strict, for average 4-week a simple arithmetic adjustment from average month to average 28 days will suffice. For average print week, you could take the year's schedule and divide it into 52 roughly equal groups, then average the R&F of all 52. If print is flighted, then you should calculate for active periods and average with zero weight for as much time as there is hiatus.
My ad agency is putting together a media plan for a client. Currently, the client is spending about 15% on radio and 85% budget on broadcast television. I am recommending a combination of radio, cable and broadcast. I am trying to show a combined reach and frequency. I am able to do this for radio and broadcast tv with my media software. How can I add in the reach and frequency of cable (since universes are different)? My cable rep says she can enter my entire schedule (broadcast & cable) to come up with reach and frequency. Is this possible? Won't I be neglect in showing reach to those HH without cable???Please respond ASAP. Thanks!
The Guru can recall when some managers opposed the introduction of computers because people would no longer know basic media math.
Keep in mind that the real story is how many people you reach. Once you determine that, it is simple arithmetic to express that number as a percentage of a target group, as we are used to seeing reach.
It is also standard to show reach within the cable universe and in the remaining U.S. For example, you might show that you reached 75% of the cable universe and 60% of the remaing U.S.
And. . . if the cable universe is 80% of the U.S. then your average U.S. reach is 72%
0.8 x 75
+ 0.2 x 60 =
Where can I find information about the cost of print and broadcast advertising in Detroit?
Dear Media Guru,
I have a client who is interested in an advertising
campaign to change the public's opinion of them. I would like to know what would be more effective, a sustained low frequency campaign over an 18 month period or a short 3 month flight with both high reach and high frequency. The budget level is the same either way. The goal is at the end of the 18 month period, the target market should have a MUCH better opinion of the the client.
I revere your expertise and look forward to your answer.
The simplest answer is that if you run a heavy, three month schedule, and then measure target opinion 15 months later, your message is likely to be all but forgotten.
If you spread your schedule over the entire 18 months then you will probably be in a better position at month 18.
A good compromise is probably a brief -- possibly one month -- schedule to establish presence and sustaining spread over the 18 months. Since you appear to be focused solely on image rather than sales, some flighting should not be a problem.
What are the basic steps of creating and running an Online Advertising Campaign?
Do u know what VELOCITY MARKETING is ?
This appears to be someone's proprietary term for some sort of advertising program. It is not a standard media term.
Media guru, hopefully you can help me. I am trying to obtain definitions for the following. These phrases get thrown around so often here, but I am not completely sure what they mean;
1) Media strategy?
2) Communications strategy - how does it differ from media strategy?
3) Brand communications as opposed to advertising?
Appreciate the help.
You are right that these phrases get thrown around loosely. Part of the problem is that they have common English meanings and another is that, like many advertising terms, they have different meanings in various English speaking countries.
Looking "from the top down" may help understanding.
First of all, generally "strategies" are courses of action designed to meet objectives.
Brand communications is a broad concept including all messages delivered to consumers and trade via advertising, promotion, public relations, etc.
How would I find out about advertising rates for the New York City Transit Authority Metrocard? I went to their website but could not find any references
NY City Transit advertising is sold by TDI. The Guru (a Metrocard carrying NY Transit rider) has not heard that ads were being placed on Metrocards.
Do you have a resource or cheat sheet of ideas that show the projection of media usage 5 year from now? Example: radio usage will maintain, television usage will decrease x amount, internet will rule the world...etc. Thanks
The Guru doesn't think any such projection would be worthwhile. Who, 5 years ago, would have forseen the importance of today's web? Who, in 1985 would have seen the cable vs broadcast scenario of 1990?
One can either project change in a linear fashion, and lately that might work for broadcast networks or magazines, or one can hope to foresee innovation, which is futile.
The Guru does anticipate web and television convergence will become a force within 5 years, but where will the audience impact be, web or broadcast network? Or specialized cable channels. Will new "broadband" cable lines now being introduced drastically fragment TV viewing further? Will the failure of HDTV to penetrate the market effect viewing when broadcasters are mandated to use only digital signals in 2006?
Too hard to see through a cloudy crystal ball.
What is Microvision?
This appears to be someone's proprietary term for some sort of advertising program. It is not a standard media term.
Is there a rule of thumb regarding choice of single books or adveraged books when posting radio? Thanks!
2 to 4 book averages are preferred.
How would you advertise a line of gardening products to a national audience with a monthly budget of 20,000?
Given your specifics, the Guru would probably opt for fractional space ads in gardening publications.
Is there any rational for using the long-duration ads (media-wise) other than it can convey full message?
Perhaps message retention is better, but most quantitative arguments -- reach, frequency, impressions, etc. -- would be against longer forms.
What are the best media for promoting motion pcitures?
It depends on your target, of course, but television's ability to offer a sample is important. So too, is the audience selectivity of specific entertainment publications.
Can you please tell me a great book to buy relating to media planning. Ideally, I want to pull apart what Strategic Media Planning is, also, what Communications planning is... definitions etc..
Consider any of the first four books (Kopek's, Bumba's and Surmanek's) in the AMIC Bookstore Media Planning section (in association with Amazon.com)
what is the ciculation of Latin Trade magazine?
105,585 as of their June 2000 BPA statement.
I would like to know about bartering for media services. As a media planner, what do I need to know about barter deals? What are the benefits/pitfalls for an advertising agency that is bartering with a corporate client? What kind of commissions/fees are typically involved in these type of transactions?, etc. Thanks!
Click here to see past Guru responses about barter
In general (barring competitive factors), how many grps per week (tv and radio) constitute a light schedule, a medium schedule and a heavy schedule?
These are all relative terms, with no specific definitions. 100 GRP might be medium to heavy for package goods and light to medium for short-term retail promotion.
What does a media outline entail? Could you give me an example?
I am currently writing a paper on consumer resistance
to advertising. Other that Naomi Klein's 'No Logo',
various papers by Pollay and Holbrook and afew basic
entries in text books are there any journal articles
or resources you can think of that I should look for?
Specifically, what are the (numerous!) root causes of
consumer resistance to advertising?
Rory James Duff
Consult The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I am trying to find out whether US marketers are returning or have returned to spot advertising on broadcast networks?
"Spot advertising" usually refers to local market advertising, as opposed to network advertising. Perhaps you mean "scatter" versus "upfront" network buying. In either case, there has not been a broadscale retreat from, nor therefore, a return to either practice.
Is there any research available on the quality of readership for the magazine purchaser vs the pass on readers
Consult The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I am about to graduate with a B.S Advertising and want to go into media planning, media research. I want to stay in the Pittsburgh area. Do you have any suggestions on companies, best places to go etc.?
Check Pittsburgh local newspaper classifed to see who's advertising for these positions.
Dear Guru,do you have any information about the keyfactors of the succes of a women vortal site?
How whas/where these women vortal sites launched?
There are vanishingly few sites of any sort that can be considered successful. Vortals generally rely on advertising for revenue. So audience flow and revisits are critical. Thus, frequently updated information which is interesting to women will be the focus. This information might include uniquely focused, women-oriented web search features.
please explain tv optimization, thanks
Click here to see past Guru
responses regarding optimization
Is there any researach or study regarding the effectiveness of long duration commercial on TV (e.g. 60 or 120 seconds)?
The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Where are places that do mall kiosks?
A major one is Adshel Mall Communications.
what should one consider when carrying out an audience analysis before running an advertising campaign
The key aspects of audience are coverage and composition. Yet the Guru suspects you have a more than simple English meaning in mind when you use the phrase "audience analysis." Please feel free to follow up with a more specific question.
Do you have any data or can you recommend a data source that provides me with costs on buying television time in the New York Area, and any articles on how many people really watch a tv commercial, versus what percent get up during commercials to get something to eat, or pay no attention, or change channels to avoid commercials, I am trying to compare purchasing tv time in cpm cost per thousand, and assess the media's effectiveness.
I need to find out
the total advertising dollars spent in Washington, DC
on radio and tv. Thanks in advance for your help.
CMR (Competitive Media Reports).
I am trying to come up with an estimate of the number of advertising messages the average adult is exposed to in the average day.
I remember seeing something on this somewhere, and I seem to recall a debate on the issue, but I can't find my source. Any suggestions?
It depends upon what you consider "advertising messages". If you mean TV / radio commericals, print and out-of-home ads, then the common estimates you see in the thousands are ludicrous. If yoiu assume a person is awake 16 hours per day and does nothing but consume media all day, the answer will be several hundred. Just think about TV and Radio's 20 or so per hour, or the number of ads you would see in an hour of reading newspaper and magazines.
The higher numbers are typically based on counting ecvery exposury to product names, logos and labels, as one might experience shopping in a store.
An issue of Consumer
Reports is the most recent place the Guru has seen such estimates.
what is the importance of advertising in small business
should there be motivation for them to advertise and in what forms and how to measure it?
Advertising is a means of generating awareness and sales. Ways and means vary according to each business' needs, customers and opportunities.
A chain of beauty salons will face very different challenges than a small electronics manufacturer.
what are the main issues and challenges currently
facing the advertising insdustry in south africa?
According to the Guru's correspondent in South Africa:
"Research - the main challenge is to fund the research requirements
of the industry bearing in mind the increasing fragmentation of
media such as radio and print media. Also the addition of new
media such as the internet. To do this within the SAARF levy and
make the data available to all will be a major challenge which we
expect not to meet. Already ACNielsen plan to measure the
internet and sell the data outside of the Saarf remit.
Measuring the satellite channels via the people meter is also a
major undertaking planned for this year. The accurate
measurement of channels within a satellite decoder is still in its
Economic issues are creating pressures on the very survival of
advertising agencies and already several agencies have gone into
liquidation. Media owners and others, like Telmar, take huge
losses when agencies cannot meet their financial commitments.
Consolidation of media buying into independent media buying
points are making the big guys bigger reducing the advertisers
choice and creating a commodity of the media planning/buying
what is and how do you use television optimization
TV optimization is a process by which the best schedule of possible spots to acheive a specific goal is selected. It may be best reach against the target or other measured aspects of TV audience.
The process is executed by proprietary, multivariate computer models.
One example is Telmar's TRANSMIT.
Hello: Have you seen any average response rates (or ranges) for major media ie TV, radio, newsp, mags, internet. For example, I believe internet run 1/2-2%
In traditional media, "response rate" would refer to the percentage of those exposed to an ad who respond in some way, such as requesting offered information, or actually ordering. ½ to 2% is about right in this case. On the internet, ½ to 2% or usually lower, is about the rate who click on a banner and frost become exposed to the actual ad or offer. Perhaps ½ to 2% of these would buy, register or request info.
We are doing the planning for an acount in a market we have not previously bought. The demo is Adults 25-54. What formula is used for establishing the weight distribution per daypart. If we are asked to buy 150 points per week how do we determine what the percent of each daypart.
This depends on plan goals. If reach is the main goal, then you can examine a variety of mixes of weight to see the best reach available within the budget. The same technique works if the goal is effective reach or frequency.
In all likelihood, starting with about 20% - 25% in each of 4 or 5 dayparts and changing mixes in 5% increments, you will find very little difference except by adding or deleting prime time totally.
If impressions weight is the key, then just buy according to best efficiency, once your reach minimum, if any, has been met.
Dilemma: marketing to the super affluent segment but have a feeling that the super rich actually are low users of the Internet, i.e. someone else does it for them. Do you have any data to support the later and any advise on how to build websites and then market/draw the super rich to them?
You need to define "super affluent." If you mean merely a certain income level, why would you suppose someone "does it for them?" The internet is an experience / entertainment medium as well as an info source. Does being rich lead a person to have someone watch tv for them?
If you are building a financial information site, you may well find data being collected on behalf of the investor or a CEO.
If you are marketing luxury goods, why wouldn't the affluent be available on the right site?
Is there a defined difference between a DRTV spot and a general spot with a call to action message? Also, can you run either of those spots in a general buy (e.g, on ER)? Also, does doing this make sense if you have dual objectives (i.e., awareness and trial?
Your first question is not a media issue.
Why not run a DR spot on ER to build awareness? But don't expect DR rates. "Trial" seems an odd goal for the typical DR - make a sale now - product.
What companies (besides Adman and Clients & Profits) provide software for maintaining a database of vendors for generating insertion orders, and summary reports? I'm looking for a system that DOES NOT link to an accounting system.
Any contact manager / database with mail merge capability should meet your requirements. Consider Act!
Hi Guru, we have just added an ad management tool to our newly re-designed website and are working on our rate card now. Our site averages approx. 450,000 impressions per month. Does a $30cpm for a full 468x60 ROS banner seem realistic? We plan on asking a minimum of 50,000 impressions, but is this typically sold per month or based solely on impressions? Also, are cpm's typically gross or net?
$30 is a somewhat above average CPM for a site with no special audience. See Ad Resource.
Buyers will ask about cpm and 50,000 impressions is a reasonable minimum for an interested party if you can interest serious advertisers. If your content is such that it's mostly going to attract "mom & pop" advertisers, $1500 might be a bit rich.
CPMs may be gross or net (AMIC quotes net), but be explicit whichever you use.
Do you have any statistics concerning the effects that adding color to an ad, increasing ad size, and/or increasing the frequency of an ad run on sales and recall of consumers? Could you please back these statistics up with studies and dates that these studies were conducted?
Is there a source of average cable costs per market? Similar to what SQUAD offers for TV and Radio? We are looking at cable nets to buy, but I have no clue what is a reasonable price for various markets. Thanks.
The Guru believes local cable should be priced competitively with spot broadcast on a marketwide basis. There is little reason to buy specific pieces of geography unless the area is specific to your trading circle, which would be too ideosyncratic to expect standardized price guides or unless you are simply trying to minimize out-of-pocket spending regardless of efficiency. If you think specific programming is desirable, use local broadcast efficiency as a starting / bargaining point.
what is "cost per aquisition" and what do you believe is the most acceptable way to count the effectiveness of a web site? Impressions or unique visitors? This is a huge problem in Greece right now. Every site has it's own general overview of it's performance and visitor's behavior so things are confused.
Thanks in advance
"Cost per acquistion" may refer to the marketing spending required to bring a new visitor to a site, ot the cost of generating a subscriber, or the cost of making whatever sale a site aime at.
Sites have different goals, missions and standards of success. A site might be designed to sell retail products such as books, vdeos, muic, food, cars, etc. These sites may need repeat customers, who buy music every month or more often. A site selling automobiles will probably not see the saem customer more than once in three years once sale is made.
Other sites generate revenue via advertising, still others from subscriptions, and some by conveying information to support corporate image, with a one-time message. If you are evaluating sites as advertising vehicles, and seeking reach, then unique vistors will be the key.
>"Brand Visibilty Index" is not a standardized media term. It might be a term invented by one agency or advertsing school to indicate a specific concept they use in describing some situation. It might be an index of Brand GRP versus category average GRP. Or it might be something else based on awareness, clutter, etc.
What may seem important to a site, like building impressions so that it has ad inventory to sell, may be relatively meaningless to an advertiser. Sites with a million unique visitors may be able to sell you as many unique visitors as a site with 10 million, because your needs only call for 200,000 unique audience. Evaluate according to your plan's needs, not the site's claims of success.
What is brand visibilty index ?
How do you calculate Brand Visibilty Index from Media Planning perspective ?
Please state examples ?
"Brand Visibilty Index" is not a standardized media term. It might be a term invented by one agency or advertsing school to indicate a specific concept they use in describing some situation. It might be an index of Brand GRP versus category average GRP. Or it might be something else based on awareness, clutter, etc.
Have to take a workshop on media planning and buying where can i find enough data.
The Guru does not recommend such workshops.
One of the best known is Media Buying Academy.
what are media specifics to rural markets
Farm radio and agricultural print are the only media that the Guru sees as specific to rural markets. There are some national print media, like Grit most read in rural areas. And there are local media in each rural area.
what is the changing role of media planners today?
For the most part the role is not changing: it is recommending media approaches that best meet the given advertising objectives. In the best cser, planners are becomeing respected consultant to the whole advertsing process. Changes in which media exist or are popular do not and should not change the planners' role, only the recommendations.
I am running a number of schedules per week and I guess I have atwo-fold answer regarding tracking? Is the traffic software package that monitors buys and secondly how I track the effectiveness of the ads since they are spread out over such a wide variety of media. The business I'm in is Clinical Trials and we are constantly seeking patient to participate in a wide variety of program with differeing demographics? Help!
Your question really goes outside media, but:
What you seem to need is some sort of key code in each ad that the respondent must mention when responding to the ad.
I am in the process of developing a business plan for a start-up internet company. I have reached a bit of a wall... I am trying to find a way to put together an est. budget for on-line advertising as a liability and also as a source of revenue... Any ideas where I can get some ideas? Or do you have any numbers in mind... what is costs to advertise, and what to expect to earn.
Visit Ad Resource
Do you know of any sources for advertising on gasoline pump tops?
I would like to start my own freelance media buying business out of my home. What suggestions do you have for me? I would like to know what is the best way to get my name out to the public so everyone knows about my business and the services I can offer them. Also, any ideas on what the average freelance media buyer charges in the midwest? Thanks a ton!!!
Get your name out through sales reps you know and ads in local ad trade media. Frelancers charge from $20 to $200/hr or a percentage of placement. Reputation and selling yourself are the keys. Talk to others you know who do the same thing. If you can't find others, that may be a warning to you.
What are your thoughts on attaching software to a client's phone that reports when the phone rang in relation to the TV spot that is airing at the time. It is used as a way of measuring how successful your direct response commercial is. I am skeptical, because people don't get off the couch to call immediately, especially for high priced items like
replacement windows for your home.
The general theory seems to be that direct response calls are fairly close in time to message exposure. Many DR ads use phrases like "call in the next 20 minutes and we'll include a free something" to help the process along. This measure of DR is standard. If you can demonstrate that the reponse is less timely in your category, do so.
Have you heard about planning media using lifestages instead of psycographics? How can you do it? Which is your standpoint?
Thanks in advance
Planning media according to lifestages, like psychographics or any other variant of demographics, depends on finding data that provides media usage according to the same measures as the product usage data. If that is available, the process is the same as demographic planning.
Dear Guru, First: thanks you for your answer on my previous question. Here I am again with another...
I would like to know about the practice of sectorial exclusivity on radio and tv around the world.
Furthermore, what about tariffical supplements for co-branding in all media. Is it more to be seen as a negotiation tool or is this really a practice that is going on in every country?
If you could tell me something more about this 2 questions or/and tell me where I can find more info on this I would be very grateful.
Neither question seems to make any sense in a U.S. context.
If your sectorial exclusivity question applies to what governing body allocates broadcast rights to certain frequencies in certain geographies, part of that is the natural limitation of boracast transmission range.
I'm looking for information on what companies charge other companies to advertise with them.
The Guru presumes you are referring to "co-op" advertising. Click here to see past Guru discussion of co-op.
Hi! Dear Guru thank you for your last ansewrs! How do You think is it possible to estimate budget/GRP limit with wich there is no sence to advertise on TV (ad. cmp. will be lost in ad.clutter). Or there is no any limits at all? For instance could 10 spots placed in prime-time on national channel(with av. rating 10%)give some results? Spasibo!(means thank you in russian).
Any advertising has some effect. There is a threshhold of awareness where a noticable difference in consumer response occurs.
Some say those exposed more than three times respond noticably more. Others speculate that once the three exposure threshold is past, continuous exposure wit a reach of 30+ per week is the key to sales.
Your 100 GRP schedule is a good starting point.
My client in computers asks me if it would be possible to sell the opening screen of his computer. In other words, when you start your computer there is always an opening screen of the constructor. It is this opening screen that he would like to sell to another advertiser, another brand. What's your opinion on this? Do you know if something like this has already been done? Thanks for your answer!
The Guru doesn't see any reason not to sell this opening screen as ad space. Problems are that there is no way to change it once installed. It should be of great interest to some advertisers with software and computer peripherals. There is probably not a lot of money in it for any one computer manufacturer.
Can you explain the recent phenomenon in radio with the
growing popularity of voice tracking? How does voice
As always, thanks for your help!
The Guru presumes you are referring to VoiceTrak, a competitive expenditure service based on vendors' submissions of ad spend data.
The Guru would not yet call it "popular."
Dear Guru, I am a media planner from India looking for a change of job from a traditional agency. Can you suggest any options that I can look at?
Within the media field, there are on-line agencies, selling and marketing jobs with media vendors, and client side media work.
Hello. Hoping you can help. I am trying to understand if there is a trend in the average number of cable networks used in a media plan. Do you happen to know, on average, how many cable networks were used in a media plan in 1997, then the % increase year-on-year for 1998, 1999 and 2000? I have already tried the CAB website and TV Dimensions 2001. Thanks in advance!!!
The Guru does not think any such average could be meaningful in the absence of several other factors, such as:
The Guru does not imagine a sensible plan specifies "number of cable networks," rather that that figure is the fall-out from budget goals, proposals made, target, importance of content vs efficiency, etc.
Dear Guru. I was wondering who I should build up frequncy and reach, for a company in the financial sector, were the target is both, individuals and businesses. Should I plan for a week, or a month? What would be the minimum GRP needed..or maximum? Is TV the primary media?
Not enough information given to say TV should be primary. Generally, TV will not be efficient for a business target. Some financial cable may be efficient but won't meet the entire reach goal.
There are numerous considerations in setting levels. Click here to see past Guru responses about establishing levels.
Is there some sort of media "brokerage" company that a
national planner/or buyer can use to go and buy
national programming by daypart? Example: You tell
this company what dayparts you want to buy and they go
in a find the programming based on your CPM.
This function is the basic job of a national buyer. It seems strange that a national buyer would want an intermediary to do the job. Advertisers without national buyers on staff nor at their agencies would use a media buying service to contact the national broadcast organizations, have them submit proposals of schedules in the desired dayparts and negotiate the rates. If you intend to do your own negotiation, it is pointless to use such a service just to solicit proposals.
Several buying services are listed in AMIC's Web Sites area.
Hello Guru:A national client of ours was asked by his
regional counterpart how much money he should allocate
for advertising spending in his region of No.California.
How do I begin the process of figuring this out? Thanks
in advance for any information you can provide.
Begin with these considerations:
Is there a rule of thumb on what do professional
service firms spend on advertising versus consumer
No. There may be averages, but not rules of thumb, because organizational structure and profit margins diifer too much. See trade articles from Ad Age, etc. for averages.
Many experts are warning advertisers that cutting advertising during a soft economy could be harmful...however I'm finding it difficult to find current research to support this fact.
Research like this can only really be done when an advertiser sees a "soft economy" coming, cuts ads and measures before and after. Since it's been nearly eight years since the economy last went soft, research won't be too current. It's also more likely you'll find historical perspective than research.
It is however axiomatic that when one advertiser cuts spending in such times, the ones who do not will gain market share. The one who cuts may never regain the ground. Classic case: Lucky Strike cigarrettes, which were #1 before wartime ad cuts, and never returned to former strength.
Check The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I have done some research and have discovered that CPM rates vary across genre; but I was also wondering if there is information about CPMs and how they vary across demographics.
Naturally, there is variance across demographics. A given commercial announcement has a specific cost. Let's say $1000. CPM is that $1000 ÷ demographic audience. So if there are 200,000 Adult 18+ viewers, the Adult 18+ CPM is $5.00.
If those adults consist of 125,000 Women 18+ and 75,000 Men 18+ then the W18+ CPM is $8.00 and the M18+ CPM is $13.33.
Obviously, M25-49 will be at a higher CPM than that and so on.
Guru help! I have an offer from a traditional agency. i am currently at an interactive planning shop. They have matched my salary, and I have been told I am on the higher end of the range from many people. I don't know whether to go. I want to know what you think about the future of Internet only web/media shops, and if you think it is smart for me to go back to a big traditional shop at this point. Do you think these intenet only shops are in danger becasue of the state of the marketplace? What is the best decision? Thanks for your advice.
If a traditonal agency tells you that matching your salary from an interactive shop puts you at the top of the range, that says interactive pays better. Of course, that might be just a negotiating posture on their part.
The Guru sees two possible scenarios:
either the internet advertising arena fades and the future of internet shops is limited or
the internet advertising arena becomes very important and traditional shops incorporate the skills set.
In either case, the future of internet specialist shops seems limited. For some time already, there has been accelerating consolidation of internet shops and/or acquisition of them by the traditionals.
Since you are considering a switch for a matching salary, the Guru imagines you are experiencing some dissatisfaction at present. Most signs point toward making a move.
Dear Media Guru, My client is looking for information on the Hispanic viewership of general market cable networks. Without buying the entire Nielsen Hispanic ratings service, is there a way to find out this information? Thanks for your help.
According to Telemundo's STRETCH
With cable ratings averaging in the range of 0.5 or less, this does not leave much room to measure variance in Hisapanic audience.
Depending on the reason for asking the question, one should also consider the far lower effectiveness of advertising in English to Hispanics, roughly 5 to 20% that of Spanish advertising to Hispanics.
Your best source for Nielsen Hispanic data, if not Nielsen is one of the cable networks you ordinarily buy.
I need some information on pricing of advertising on airline ticket jackets? Do you know of any companies that sell this space?
The Guru believes the individual airlines sell the space. You might try the sales people of the in-flight magazines.
Hi Guru! I have a new client that needs to target the "Black Programmers Association." Do you know what that is? or if they have a official publication?
The Guru knows of a National Black Programmers' Coalition, which has a newsletter.
I work with a small shop that at this time does not have the resources to subscribe to the research giants such as MRI, Simmons, Intellequest, Forrester, etc... Do you know of any company that can run one-time qualitative reports (for a fee of course). My boss expects this to be easy but I'm finding it to be just the opposite. Any help would be great.
In general the Guru finds that these services will sell small subsets of their data to answer specific problems.
Shortly, eTelmar will be offering these ala carte, pay-as-you-go analyses.
Hallo, Dear Media Guru! Can You please help me to solve the
1 - I know that my TVcmp should get effective reach of 50%
with effective frequency 4+. How can I get(count) the number of GRP I need
to buy and TRP I need to reach?
2 - what concrete methods do can You recommend to define the levels of reach&frequency for concrete product's/brand's TV cmp. Thak you a lot.
The Guru is not clear as to what distinction you are trying to make regarding GRP and TRP.
Click here to see past Guru discussion about establishing levels.
Where could I find a complete explanation about the Sainsbury Method?
Thanks in advance
Sainsbury was a media researcher in England. The "Sainsbury method" you refer to
was probably his adjustment to TV reach to acount for understatement of duplication
between TV dayparts in the basic statistical procedure used 30 years ago.
More detail should be available from The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I am interested in finding out if there are companies
that record radio programming that can be purchased
without having to contact the station directly?
What media events/occurences could have possibly caused general consumer and business media spending to increase in the month of June 2000?
We have been asked to apply a media value to a client's presence at trade shows, and I'm not sure how to approach this task. Any suggestions would be appreciated. Thanks.
The process of determining media value of non-media activity is typically based on applying the cost-per-thousand of one prototypical medium to the audience of the non-media activity.
Since trade show attendance is never anywhere in the range of mass media, this is likely to be a disappointing exercise. For example, a major trade show might have an attendance of 50,000. If you use your TV cpm, and it's $20, then the value of the trade show is $1000, which is likley to be far less than the actual cost. And if you more realistically only count those who vsited or at least passed your booth, then your media value might be only $100.
We are preparing for launch to a Parking Meter project, and i need to know which are the best medium to use in the media plan to (People takes a ticket from it
and park their cars where the meter is installed. Its a new project in our
country and people never saw such a thing so we need to educate them and
announce that there will be a number of parking meters installed in
specific areas, and who doesn't have a ticket and parked the car next to
the parking meter will take a fine).
There are no competitives as it is the first company who is doing this.
Appreciating your reply A.S.A.P
"Best media" in your case will depend on what media are consumed by your target people in your country. Unfortunately the Guru is not very familair with media audiences in your country (Jordan).
You should define who is most likely to be the driver parking in the geographic area where the meters will be located and then find media which efficiently reach that sort of person.
What is currently considered an average response rate for phone studies?
It varies considerably by sample frame, pre-screening, respondent alerts, survey length, etc. If you are trying to plan something, get competitive estimates from potential vendors.
Could you tell me exactly what a media barter service is? Do you know the names of any of these services / companies?
A media barter service essentially turns your goods and service into media time and space. It's a financial solution, not a media solution: Inventory in your warehouse is turned into an asset on your books. The downside is that your product is converted to a credit which you are then allowed to use to buy media through the barter service. Often, you can only use your credit for a portion of the buy and must pay cash for the rest. Often the cash portion is equivalent to the full price you could have negotiated for the same media without barter. Thus, there is may be an illusory or bookkeeping-only benefit.
Click here to see past Guru responses about media barter .
What is the best way to Geo target online? The client wants to do a test in two markets, and he wants it to be translatable nationally. He does not want to buy any local or newspaper sites. Geo-targeting through doubleclick seems to have problems becasue of the AOL situation. Do you have any suggestions? Are there any other web-based ways I can reach a specific market (e.g., advertising in downloaded software geo-targeting by product registration?) Thanks for your help as always.
Broadly, there are only two web-based ways to geo-target.
1. The site somehow detects the location of the visitor, for example by registration records or IP address. Or
2. You advertise on sites with a local appeal.
You have acknowledged the problem with #1, and ruled out #2. Your though about advertising in downloaded software (PKZip, Eudora, or Infogate perhaps?) would possibly have too small an audience.
The AOL problem is that sites' servers don't recognize the specific user's geography for AOL's Virginia-based internet entry points. So you would miss out on advertising to the many AOL users. But the Guru believes that AOL can sell you advertising to their userswithin their system, based on user geography. This would fill your AOL user gap.
Please, could you explain what is "halo effect"?
Generally, halo effect means characteristics imputed to a product by virtue of association, for example association with the program it advertises in or association with Brand mates.
what is cost per page?
If you mean the definiton of the term, "cost per page" is the cost of an average page of advertising as defined in the context, e.g. average cost of a four-color page ad among a specified list of magazines.
If you mean where can you find page rates, try MediaStart.
where do I find a list of arbitron markets?
where do I find a list of cities that make up an radio MSA?
Is there a tool or a formula that can effectively guestimate the number of leads expected from an advertising campaign?
The only valid tool is past experience with similar campaigns. In direct response the importance of the content (offer, price and pitch) means that media factors are outweighted as predictability issues.
I am responsible for scheduling 15,000 spots to support various campaigns. This is a very lengthy, manual process. Could you recommend some vendors that would allow me to 1) optimize those spots for each campaign and 2) allocate them accordingly.
You should find useful tools at DonvanDataSystems
Where could I go to get information on spending for old advertising campaigns? Is there someone who tracks this (e.g. the long distance spending wars with MCI, AT&T, and Sprint)
Is there a rule of thumb as to what percent of a total advertising budget should be spent on agency fee, production, and other "non-media" activities vs. the actual media buy?
No. There are too many variables based on overall budget, target, media types, etc.
Where can I find pricing for out of home advertising including printed signage, kiosks, and video advertising?
Hello Media Guru,
I need to find some competitive research (spending,
products,sales numbers, etc.) Where can I go on the web to find such information (non-fee service)?
The Guru does not believe this data is available free on the web.
Where can I find a resource or search engine to track down web-zines directed to college students. So far I have found only two sites - excluding college based sites.
Also, interest in finding web-zines which require a subscription (this relates to above).
Thanks. (Saw your picture in AdWeek. Sorry you missed the question.) Also, I'm an instructor for AdWeek's Media School and The Media Guru (AMIC) is noted as a great resource!
Find college webzines by using
college webzine -electoral
as your search term at Google.
Thanks for your compliments, but the "Millionaire" loser in AdWeek last August 21 is not AMIC's Media Guru. Just an odd, coincidental use of the words "Media Guru."
Currently I'm preparing a business plan for a startup. I'm considering radio and print advertising in the top 50 markets. I will eventually hire an agency to work out all the math. But for the sake of projecting marketing expense, is there a way I can show "so many spots/print ads in so many main stations/magazines in the top 50 markets for a total budget of $500,000? I'll be happy as long as I can quote average rates for radio spots and print ads from reliable sources.
Please help. One of my clients started a TV campaign YESTERDAY and wants to know why sales haven't gone through the roof yet. Where can I find research explaining R/F, etc. to help him answer this question? Thank you.
This is not a matter of reach and frequency, just common sense.
If first day schedules usually put sales 'through the roof' why would anyone ever advertise all week or for several weeks?
Look at your GRP per day: is it perhaps as many as 20? If so, perhaps day one's schedule reached 12 or 15% of your target.
What's a reasonable proportion of those exposed to your message just one time immediately wanting to buy that day (assuming killer creative)? 1% as a generous estimate? Thus on day one, if there were one-tenth of one percent of the target as new customers, that would be a raging success. Over the course of the first week, more of those who heard it on day one may get around to buying, plus those from day 2,3, etc. Plus those who hear it 3 times by day 3 or four may finally become persuaded.
If you are doing direct response, you might expect the build to be flatter and resonse to be more immediate.
Do you know if there are companies who provide and specialise in strategy-only services to clients? If yes,could you name them and tell me what's your point of view on this. Thanks!
Yes there are. Abbott Wool Media/ Marketing, LLC, here at AMIC, is one. Others are likely to be listed on our Media / Consulting Services' page, but most of the ones listed there are buying or creative services.
A strategy / planning consultant can be an ideal solution to fill a gap in your current capabilities without disturbing other relationships or organizational structure. Such a consultant can also help you to find specialists in other areas, as needed.
I have been a media buyer for almost three years now. I am just starting to plan media. Can you tell me what are efficient GRP levels for tv and radio buying? I am in the entertainment industry and our audience is A25-54 and 55+. Thanks.
Effective levels depend on what you are trying to accomplish:
maintenance of regular purchases, building awarenss of a new product or driving immediate attendance to a short term event.
The plan is all about working through these goals, and making decisions about levels within available budget and communications strategy.
Could you please explain media characteristics typical for television, newspapers, radio?
I would like to further my education in media. Do you know of any colleges that offer Masters program in Media Planning?
Click here to see past Guru responses about advertising education. The GUru would be surprised if Media Planning per se was a masters program somewhere.
I'm looking for information concerning Fair Share in television. Is there any other way to tell how much % one should invest in a television channel? Since the Fair Share formula is taking the amount of breaks one channel has into account, the more breaks a channel has the more % of the media budget will go to this channel. So even if a channel has let's say 30% of bad breaks (not viewed by the audience) this channel will score good in terms of Fair Share.
What's your opinion on this?
Thanks in advance!
The Guru does not support buying based on stations' share of viewing. This practice undercuts the point of negotiation. If a station sales person thinks he/she is entitled to "X" share of your budget, then the incentive is to keep unit prices high.
It is even less logical to reward a station for having more inventory, which is a disincentive to viewing.
Share might be a starting point. Efficiency, reach/rating and composition should be essential adjuctments from there, and number of breaks of little or no impact.
what is a good cost per point for cable in Anchorage, Alaska
Something better than broadcast spot. See SQAD.
Can you please tell me what Effective Buying Index is? Claritas provides reports for both Household Income and Household EBI - and they obviously differ. thanks!
HH income is a simple total. Various services like Claritas create adjusted figures called "effective," "discretionary" or "disposable" to compare the impact on the marketplace of specified households. Typically, the adjusted figure is after taxes, rent/mortgage or other unavoidable basics that don't call for ongoing decision making.
Have you heard of the term a "Media Metrix" online buy that basically defines a driving traffic/unique user strategy so that the site rises in the ranks of its Media Metrix number? Please advise. Thanks!
There's nothing unique about a site's advertising being aimed at attracting traffic. If the site wants more unique visitors it would presumably buy for the greatest reach dispersion instead of merely big boxcar impressions. The Guru has not heard the specific term "Media Metrix buy."
Where can I find market size estimation, spending, and employment and segmentation for the film and production industry?
If you mean advertising spending, then see
CMR (Competitive Media Reports).
The rest of your questions are not media questiosn, but might be answered in film industry trade pubs.
Hello. Hoping you are able to answer this sooner than later. . .
I am trying to generate a ratio that compared the CPP (across Dayparts in Tampa and Orlando) among total people compared to a CPP among the just the Hispanic population. I do not work for an agency or have the $ or consistent need for a service like SQAD. Hoping that you are aware of some "rule of thumb" that gets at an average difference between the two populations in terms of what it costs to reach them at different intervals of the day (ON TELEVISION). Thank you very much!
There is no rule of thumb here. The markets you're looking at do not have Hispanic audience measurement, so GRP can't be calculatd hence CPP won't exist.
If you are thinking about the Hispanic audience of the General Market TV stations, than a rule of thumb could exist if there were measurement. But if you are thinking of comparing CPP of Hispanic TV to General Market TV, these are two independent media and no specific, predictive relationship would exist, even if there were measurement. If there were then buying experience or SQAD could offer ratios from past buys.
Where can I find a list of the major media companies (i.e. Time Warner, Disney, GE) and their subsidiaries?
Hi, I'm in the research stage and need some advice- do you know where I can find abundant info. on media available in Vancouver and British Columbia? Thanks!
Which is the best way to decide how many billboards are effective in a specific city?
Out-of-home media are sold in "showings." These are typically #25, #50 or #100. The numbers indicate that the daily traffic being exposed to a showing equates to impressions which would translate to the indicated number of marketplace Adult TRP.
So, a #25 showing is 25 TRP per day, etc. This means 150 TRP weekly (discounting a bit for lower weekend traffic) and 600 TRP in four weeks. Reach and frequency are given in the defintion of "Showing" in the Media Guru's Encyclopedia of Media Terms
In different markets, billboards will generate different daily effective circulation, depending on traffic patterns, and locations. The outdoor plant operators know how many locations are necessary to achieve each showing level in their markets. Market differences may not be proportional to market size differences. One market 4 times as big as another may need 6 times as many boards.
With this information, you can plan billboards to suit your communications goals.
I am in the process of planning for the entertainment/film industry. How do I go about targeting this audience (filmmakers, cinematographers, VFX, etc) within radio advertising? Also, what are some good pubs and sites?
Radio would be quite inefficient in targeting such a narrow audience. Possibly some Los Angeles stations have programs aimed at the film industry.
Find publications by topic at PubList.
Use a search engine to find sites referencing cinematography, etc
I am in the process of writing a plan and am running into some problems. I am trying to find some resources to justify why the following mediums are good to advertise on: print, outdoor, and online. I know that I can find information regarding online on the IAB, but I'm not sure what information and statistics I can find on the net about outdoor and print. Can you help?
Visit the Guru's Media Strengths page.
I was approached by a company called themail.com They offered to sell me a list at a really low rate. They also required that I pay them upfront before they go and collect the names. Have you heard of this company and can I trust them?
The Guru avoids all involvement with spam. He does not trust or approve of commerical emailers in general, even if they claim to use opt-in lists only.
Dear Media Guru,
I am curious how you would flight print ads in a daily newspaper promoting a holiday sales event(say Valentine's Day, for example). If I have enough money for 6 ads, and the busiest in-store days are over the weekend, when should I run my ads? I usually run ads Wednesdays through Saturday (stores are not open on Sunday) for this client in an effort to support their weekend skewed sales, but Valentine's Day is on a Wednesday, so I'm at a loss. Would it be best to place ads closest to the event (on the Monday or Tuesday before Valentine's Day) or the Wed - Sat the week before in hopes that people are shopping for that holiday over the weekend?
Thanks for your help.
If your store client knows that its busiest days are ususally Wed-Sat, it should also have a history of the specifc days leading up to past Valentines Days. You know that you want to advertise right before the best shopping days, that's the media decision. But whchi days those are for your particular client is a matter of record, not a media question.
Is it reasonable to concentrate all one week's budget
on Thursday, Friday and Saturday? If not, what's your
It's reasonable if these are the days immmediately preceeding purchases.
Hi! When I was a sales manager for a cable advertising company, we were approached by a company called voicetrak, which, in return for our reporting dollars invested in our system, would have provided us with information on the total dollars in the market... and they have a website... www.voicetrak.com. Do you have any opinions about them?
No specific opinions about Voicetrak, but the guru is hesitant to trust services based on self reporting by the media versus third party tracking.
How can we find out the top 10-20 pharmacutical companies, by total media spending for CY 1999 and/or CY 2000?
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) or possibly, pharmaceutical trade publications.
I WOULD LIKE TO KNOW IF THERE ARE ANY PROGRAMS IN MEDIA MANAGEMENT, ADVERTISING RESEARCH IN SOME GOOD UNIVERSITY
Universities wth various advertising and mass communications courses can be found at U.S News & World Report. Various additional qualites of the scholls can be specifed as search criteria.
The list is by no means complete. For example, the well regarded media program at The U of Texas, Austin is not apparently listed for this area of study.
I do patent research for attorneys who represent other attorneys who in turn represent inventors.As a start up business, I am looking to contact the inventors and their primary attorneys through some form of media advertising. Would you be so kind as to point me in the right direction?
A search at Publist for the keywords "patent," "invention" or "inventor" will give you numerous titles aimed at your targets, some legally oriented and ohter more to the inventor "business."
I am writing from Istanbul,Turkey.I have two questions.
1. Would it be a good idea to place tv commercials on
Monday, Wednesday and Friday one week, and Tuesday, Thursday and Friday next week. And repeating this
cycle for three months. Since the product is a FMCG,
I want to keep Fridays continiously so that just before
weekend shoping our ads will continiously be in front
of the consumers. Is this a wise use of alternating
technique? This way I am hoping to have more effective
frequency on three days of a week but leaving the four other days "empty". What's your opinion and guggestion?
2. As we all know, GRP =FREQUENCY X RATING. Therefore,
it doesn't take the length or size of the ad into account. In other words, the GRP for a 10" commercial is considered equal to the GRP of a 45" commercial, which is not fair. There must be a way that doesn't ignore the length or size of the ad and reflects it , one way or the other to the final GRP figure. What do you think about this problem? Do you know any solution?
Thank you very much for your kind assistance.
Concentrating on Fridays may be beneficial, but the Guru thinks the other alternation is insignificant.
Regarding GRPs, "fairness" is not a media concept. In some calculations, such as reach, they are a way of counting people, not impact, and GRPs are simply headcounts. In other situations it is common for planners to make adjustment to GRPs for schedule comparisons. These adjustments may be based on commerical length, daypart attentiveness or other factors.
Guru(s), is effective frequency planning really dead? I have been reviewing the literature and it would seem that the concept of effective frequency is now outmoded and has been misinterpreted, over-simplified etc. I have been a proponent of the effective freq. approach in combination with Ostrow Model. I am loath to abandon, but don't want to be a media anachronism. Your thoughts would be much appreciated. (I have a presentation on Friday, during which I am sure to be grilled on the topic. R.
Effective frequency goals are apparently fading from favor in planning for products with continuous purchase patterns. There are sometimes good reasons, in time sensitive or highly seasonal categories, for example, to consider effective frequency. The distinction is a matter of professional judgement and assessment of marketing goals. This should outweigh planning trendiness, in the Guru's opinion.
What is the total audience (universe)of Media Director/planners and buyers?
One resource would be
The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook').
The Guru's guess would be about 30,000 in the U.S.
I am trying to sell in the value of an online media presence form a 360 degree branding perspective. THe client is jaded becasue of poor click throughs. We want to present that we are so integrated with the other offline agencies (events mktg, tradiditonal media) that they cant refuse to fund our programs. What do you think is the best way to approach this slide? What can I talk about? So far I have Joint proposals,Cross over creative
Power in rate negotiation. Thanks!
Overall the Guru does not believe in concepte like "360 degree branding," "Surround strategy," nor McMann and Tate's "saturation campaign."
Putting advertising everywhere simply because the opportunity exists, indicates to the Guru a lack of strategy.
The Guru does not see a marketing advantage in joint proposals, nor that there is particular cross over in rate negotiations for events or traditional media.
Perhaps a better approach would be to focus on something other than click thrus, such as branding and consumer relationships.
When was the last time the Reach & Frequency Curve was updated? And what is the significance of that?
Reach, as we use it, is a mathematical calculation, based on average performance of actual schedules similar to the ones for which we are trying to estimate audience accumulation for a plan. A large number of actual schedules are evaluated from survey research such as Nielsen. Because reach is a factor of duplication, as a schedule grow in size, the reach added by each increment is less and less. When reach is graphed against an axis of GRP or insertions or dollars, an asymptotic "curve" like the one below, is drawn. The actual formula which descibes this graphic curve is what is in reach evaluation software. Typically it is a regression of the frequencies vs GRP levels, because frequency, too, is linear.
The Guru imagines you are thinking of TV reach, but could be referring to radio, magazines, or internet, etc. There are different "curves" for any given medium / daypart / demographic / mix situation. If you use Nielsen actual data, the "curves" are -- in effect -- continuously updated. If you use other media software like Telmar or its competitors, you need to ask your representative how recent their update of formulae is. Curves based on reach vs GRP are not very variable over time unless there is a major change in the medium.
For example, Telemundo's Hispanic TV reach system "STRETCH2," was updated in 1998 (by running new Nielsen actual schedules), 5 years after its introduction . There was no significant change in reaches.
But looking at general TV reach curves from the days before cable was significant, versus today's would show big differences.
What is the number of men vs women who have purhcased an automobile for 2000? How many women are purchase influencers for automobiles purchased in the household?
I am a print planner trying to evaluate national network radio proposals. Other than CPM, what other criteria can I use to compare various proposals? Any advice you can give me about evaluating and negotiating this buy will be greatly appreciated. Thanks!
All the same standards as you would use in print can apply:
Coverage, composition, reach contribution, content/environment, value added/merchandising, etc.
I am trying to understand the pros and cons of buying media in April for a September launch vs. June for a September launch of a product. The media plan includeds spot/local TV, newspaper, radio and outdoor advertising.
The Guru would estimate that either timing is far enough in advance that there would be little difference, unless you intend to include a special event or unique medium with very limited inventory. Some outdoor sells out far in advance.
There is alweays a small chance that by June, sales people are getting a bit hungrier about meeting their quarterly goals if the quarter has been soft.
i want to know the contents of a Launch Document of new product. This needs to be given to all the employees of the organisation, pl help me
You want to steal trade secrets? The Guru won't help.
how does job/career web sites earn money.
Monster.com charges employers for job postings. Some sites have advertising.
I was wondering if you have any information about...what kind of ads are compatible. For example, if you have 22 seconds in tv...is tha equal to 1/2 page in print...or 3 15 second ads in the radio?
These equivalents are arbitrary. Usually the basic unit of each medium is compared. So :30 TV versus Page 4 Color magazine, versus :60 radio, etc.
How do I convert HH numbers into a Demo number. In some markets, my clients want me to post weekly to keep on top of shortfall, however, that's means using a HH number from the overnights. I need to see how that relates to the Demo. Can we just assign a HH and demo ranking going in and then check HH to HH - or can I use a formula to convert.
There is no formula that works in the absence of data such as viewers per viewing household or demo audience in thousands. Lacking those, the Guru would take the average ratio of HH to demo audience by daypart, according to the latest available demographic data. Use these ratios as a factor to apply to the HH overnights for your tracking.
I am working with another agency on a client - they are buying DR TV in many markets using :60 spots instead of utilizing a "regular" :30 spot buy. Their costs for the :60's is the same that I am paying for 2 :30's - I thought DR was suppose to be much less, and also the first thing bumped out. What would be the logic on this? Should the DR be the same rate as my fixed position spots?
The standard is that DR spots cost "half as much as regular spots" because they are more preemptible among other reasons. But the key is, half as much as what spots? Your DR agency may be paying half as much as they would pay for regular spots. And perhaps you are a much better buyer, getting lower rates for your regular spots. Or perhaps there are other differences between your spots and theirs than just the DR element.
Do you know where information could be found on the allocations of particular media within online media plans? I am specifically interested in understanding the percentage of the buy that is allocated to list rental and email sponsorships (both opt-in, naturally) vs. banner ads, as well as any aggregate statistics on yearly spending in this category. thanks!
The Guru doubts the existance of such information. It isn't trackable and not likely to be reported by users.
What does the term RADAR mean?
These acronyms are used over and over, but most likely you want
"Radio's All Dimension Audience Research" a syndicated network radio ratings service.
The info on Ad Data is great. Do you know where I can get similar data (radio CPP) on Canadian markets?
The closest is CARD (Canadian Advertising Rates and Data)
I am working on a new product introduction and was wondering if any information is available that would allow me to see the GRP levels used by some major companies as well as unknown companies as they launched new products. What I am trying to do is benchmark reasonable GRP levels for successful product launches in order to gauge the appropriateness of our current media plan. Thanks.
The Guru does not believe that there is any such public listing. Nor would these facts generalize well across different categories. There will be anecdotal reports at The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Dear Guru, Do you know where I could find some theoretical information about different types of advertising on the radio?
Guru- do you know of any websites/publications that are targeting B2B Wireless or Mobile top C-level audience. I am looking for the top 10 in the industry. I have used SRDS and it does not have many resources listed. Please advise.
The Guru would suggest visiting the wireless service providers to get the lists of sites they promote to potential customers.
First off, just wanted to let you know that I find this to be one of the most usefull sites on the web - as a management consultant in need of a crash course on media planning, the information found in these pages has proven invaluable...Now, on to my question:
I am working on the launch of a branded consumer services play (auto related), and am trying to build a marketing budget from the bottom up, rather than as a strict % of sales. I have modeled an overly simplified media plan, and am looking for guidance on placeholders to use for weights (TRP) for TV and Radio, # of weekly inserts for newspaper, and showing level for outdoor. I know there are numerous factors and considerations I am leaving out (I know the GURU doesn't like sweeping generalizations), but I need a place to start. Goal: generate "substantial awareness" (think Midas, Maaco).
Thanks for your insights.
The Guru thanks you for the compliments.
Keep in mind that while "substantial awareness" may be a snappy phrase for discussion of plans, you need to quantify such a term in order to quantify the building blocks of getting there.
Let's suppose we decide the goal is 80% ad awareness among the target within a given campaign period. Therefore, your advertising must reach at least 80% of the target in that period, with enough frequency for the message to penetrate and stick, let's say at least three times.
Now, you can calculate that generating that reach in TV will call for a certain number of TRP (you can use the media software at eTelmar for calculations). Or you can examine getting that reach with radio or a combination of TV and radio.
Outdoor will generate high reach more efficiently than either, with a #25 showing, but outdoor's necessary simplicity of message may not stand alone in filling your needs.
Newspaper has its own contribution and you need to judge from a marketing perspective whther you need a small store-locator ad every day, a full page branding message once a week, or some other approach, if any.
Do you know of any out-of-the-box media solutions for luxury brands? What are the brands and what did they do?
It makes no sense to expect the same plan to work for Mercedes, Piaget and Orrefors.
Dear Guru, While this is not really a media question, I wanted to know if you had any information on the Media Buying Academy's 4 day workshop on media buying. I'm thinking about taking it, but it's very expensive and I don't know if its reputation. Any advice on this would be greatly appreciated.
The Guru does not endorse seminars or workshops.
Guru - Do you know where to access information about
media placement in syndicated television programming.
I need demographic and target information of several
different shows and have limited time to call everyone
invidividually on the list.
You need Nielsen data.
Guru ... I am analyzing various GRP levels for a radio only schedule for a retail client. Is there a benchmark for an acceptable average frequency to ensure the schedule is worth airing? Thanks for your help.
Beyond a reasonable minimum, say 12 spots, any schedule can be useful.
Hello Media Guru, Where are the highest concentration of kids geographically ages 2-18? Someone mentioned they had seen an article that stated there are about 20 counties in the US with the greatest number of children in that age group. I need a method of knowing the concentration of kids in any geographic area. Thank you for your help.
County population data by age can be accessed at the US Census site.
1.) Who are the leading buyers (advertisers/media buyers) of kids media?
2.) What's being bought heavily...what's hot (TV ages 2-18)?
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
Do you know of a free on-line service that provides competitive media spending (spot market)?
Within the plethora of recency documents you've
reviewed, have you found any that plot effectiveness
based on timing prior to the purchase decision?
Phrased differently, if you have a leisure product for
which the purchase decision is time-sensitive (e.g.,
a television show or movie with limited release dates),
how much more effective are ad exposures immediately
prior to air time vs. 1 day out, 1 week out, etc.?
Recency is about continuity and non-time-sensitive purchases. No doubt there are studies which have genrated scales base on time elapsed between exposure and purchase.
Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Can you recommend any sources for articles on aperture
The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Have you ever hear of the Stanley Principle? If so, what is it?
The Guru has not.
Great Guru, I know there are services that monitor over-the-air radio advertisers for clients, but are you aware of any software that can (ideally) monitor internet radio broadcasts and identify/capture/save only the ads for later analysis and review? A fallback would be software that can be set to capture/save the entire internet radio broadcasts for later review. Thanks for any ideas.
The Guru has not encountered any, but ask a major internet radio resource, such as RealNetworks.