Returns all questions and responses for the year.
I've heard about somethin called an MSA audit. apparently it's an independent service that does pos-buys, etc. and is used by some small agencies and media services. I'm tryng to get more information about them. do you have any information or a contact number?
The term "MSA Audit" is not specifically familiar to the Guru, but it sounds like some of the services provided by MSA (Management Science Associates).
Can you recommend any books or articles on Guerilla Marketing?
The definitive works on guerilla marketing are those by Jay Levinson, available at Amazon.com
I want to know if there is a software in the market that you can proyect awarness based on your grp goals? Last month I saw something like that but I do not know were can I have.
I will appreciate your help.
There may be software purporting to do this. The Guru would expect reach to be more relevant than GRP. The Guru would be quite dubious of any such simple, all purpose, solution.
We have a national client that has primarily used newspaper inserts and direct mail for their advertising efforts. We will be planning broadcast to build awareness for this client. My questions is: does it makes sense to buy spot cable in the markets (over 100) or to buy national cable in these markets? They have over 100 franchisees operating in major metro areas, but may not operate in the entire market - just a few zip codes. Also, any idea on cost?
Because of the high premium typically charged for local cable buys, a national buy for such a large area will almost certainly be more efficient.This would mean buying directly from national networks.
Alternatively, one of the national cable reps like National Cable Communications may be able to customize a "national" buy around your geographic needs.
I'm hoping to find a publication that deals with the needs of
small, or medium sized businesses that may do a substantial amount of
advertising in a particular area -- for example a funiture chain with locations in
two counties. These businesses may have marketing people dedicated
to advertising and may or may not have an agency -- but Advertising
Age and Adweek don't provide them with useful help. I think a trade
magazine for local advertiers makes sense -- covering many of the issues you
deal with on your website, but packaged for the person who is more concerned
with pizzas than rating points. Before I go out and invent something, I want
to find out if it already exists, and I figured you might know. Thank you
for your help!!!
This is a tough one: an ad publication for people who do advertising, but aren't really interested in it, just in their own businesses. There are local business newspapers, such as the Long Island (NY) Business News, and publications of local ad clubs, but the Guru doesn't know of any national publication with similar content.
It seems like your intended audience would have inherently local interests.
Can you furnish me with current network advertisng rates:
prime and local access time and cost of 30 second spot on Super Bowl? Thank you.
I am a very new media planner so I have a very basic question. What is the difference between average Frequency and average OTS and what is the formula for their calculation.
Thanking you in advace.
"OTS" or "opportunities to see" is used differently by various practitioners. One meaning is equivalent to impressions, or the number of exposures of a campaign to individual members ot the target demographic; a summing of the audiences of all the advertsing occasions of a campaign. In this sense, "average" is not an appropriate modifier.
Average frequency is the average number of exposures experienced by the members of the target who have been exposed to the campaign (net reach) over a measured time period such as 4 weeks.
Gross impressions ÷ net reach
GRPs ÷ percent reach.
Dear Guru, what is on your opinion better - to buy smaller ad. size in popular magazine among target audience or take a full page in a magazine with less coverage among target audience? Where can find some research on dependence of volume of print advertisement on influence on target audience (literature or web sites)?
Visit Starch for research.
The Guru would favor half pages, well targeted, over full pages less targeted, but cost efficiency would be a factor.
How do you get gross from net?
Assuming you are referring to media costs:
Standard media commission is 15%. Thus Gross = Net X 1.1765
or gross = net ÷ 0.85
and Net = gross X 0.85.
What is net reach?
Net reach is the number of different people exposed to the advertising.
I.e. Your first commercial may have a target rating of 10, which means it reaches 10% of the target. The second commercial might have a rating of 8, reaching 8% of the target. But some of the people reached by the second commercial will duplicate some of those reached by the first. If half of the 8% in the second commercial duplicate people reached by the first, then the net reach is 14%; the first 10% plus the unduplicated 4% in the second.
How do I go about finding companies who would want to advertise in direct email-outs?
The Guru is adamantly opposed to SPAM.
Dear Guru, I am a media planner interested in eCRM.
Can you suggest where I can get some dope on this subject?
MicroStrategy is a good starting point.
Where can I find free comprehensive books or websites talking about media buying and planning
The only such book or site the Guru knows of is right here, at AMIC
what is the circulation of the independent (u.k.)
Contact the Independent directly.
How many hours per week does the average u.s. adult (not household) consume mass media, specifically, tv, radio, magazines and newspapers (broken out by media)?
Additionally, is there a source available where I can get this same information for CFOs/CEOs/COOs?
This sort of data is compiled by TheYankelovich Monitor.
Hi Guru, it's the media buyer w/ little broadcast resources again (other than you). Can you tell me how to find out cable providers in a specific market and the percentage of HHs they reach? As always, thank you.
A.S.A.P....Please can you tell me what should a Brand Review presentation contains? what are the steps for preparing such presentaion?
Thanks for your help in Advance.
The Guru must presume you are referrring to a Brand review from the media perspective. Therefore, without anyother specifications than "brand review" the Guru would put together:
emphasizing all changes in any of these
My question is regarding print measurement. For a consumer print campaign (magazines, regional) I've been asked to provide a pithy statement (to be read by a board of directors with limited marketing savvy) adressing the effectiveness of the proposed print campaign. Our account planner asked for reach and frequency, which I don't believe I can provide. I can provide circulation and readership (which would equate to reach, I believe, but that doesn't account for duplication). I am to complete the sentence "This plan results in..." Am I missing something? Thanks!
You have not made clear why you believe you cannot provide reach and frequency. Once you have the readership of individual publications you can begin to combine their audiences in a rough way, by "random probability." This method will understate duplication somewhat, because related publications and particularly multiple issues of the same publication duplicate more than merely randomly. Using duplication between simialr national magazines, as documented by services like MRI, you can reasonable estimate the duplication in your own schedule and thereby estimate your reach and frequency.
I have been asked by a client to look into buying ad space in InterActive Teacher magazine. I have looked everywhere I can think of and can not find any current info on this pub. How can I find out if this pub is currently being published?
Thank you for your help!
The closest thing the Guru could find was Interactive Learning Environments [ISSN: 1049-4820]
Pub: Swets & Zeitlinger bv (3/yr; Netherlands). The Guru's source here is PubList.
Hi Guru. I work for a small agency that deals heavily with print. When we do handle broadcast buys, my resources are limited (as I've complained to you about before). I recently put together a modest cable buy for Lexington, MA - enlisting Cablevision as the cable system of choice. I found that Cablevision handles the Lexington area through their media kit (Media One, the other system that I knew of, does not handle this area). Well, the campaign has been underway for about a week. I recently received an email from the CLIENT that she heard that 60% of the Lexington audience uses RCN cable, not Cablevision (no clue where stat. came from). I have had the hardest time trying to locate the advertising sales dept. of RCN. There are no numbers on their website and everyone I speak to is in Marketing and not advertising sales. Can you direct me to a site which lists cable advertising contacts? I've already tried a number of resources with no luck. Any advice would, as always, be greatly appreciated. Thank you.
Try the cable reps of Katz Media Sales
what parameters exist for determining how much to spend in advertising (dollars)--or what is an effective weight level (GRP's) for a given brand/marketing situation?
There are many. Click here to see past Guru responses about setting levels.
Guru---How do you suggest negotiating radio rates in unrated radio markets? I am buying radio in small markets with generally one salerep for the entire market. Thanks for your help!
1. Audience data from coverage studies
2. Format type average ratings.
3. Offer a low-ball price and see what response you get.
One rep for an entire market seems odd; talk directly to LSMs.
I have a opt-in email list over 150,000 that I send a weekly newsletter. I am interested in selling advertising or renting the list or even selling the list. Where can I find a authority/expert or broker that can advise me on this project?
Several such services are decribed in an article in The Industry Standard
I am starting a DVD venture, and one of my revenue
models is selling ad space on the DVD.
The DVD will present lifestyle entertainment content
in a magazine-style format. it will be aimed at a
gen x audience 25-35. The DVD will have DVD-ROM
features for computer DVD players & will have web
Ad spots will be in the form of video commercials
appearing immediately prior to the films/videos,
web links and disk space for down-loadable software
(such as demos/shareware).
Is it reasonable to expect that web companies
(or other companies) would pay for ad space on
Have you heard of any web sites buying ad spots
on an entertainment DVD?
The Guru has not heard of this specifically, but there was a spate of (unsuccessful) CD-ROM magazines a while ago. The only the difference the Guru sees for your idea is that the required hardware has a smaller installed base.
Essentially you are offering a potentially high-impact medium to a very small audience with potentially powerful environment for certain relevant products. The closest analog the Guru can point to is DVD content web sites selling ads, like DiVerse DVD.
I don't know if this still hold true, but I was told that their is a survey/site that is done on kids/teens to determine the opinion on athletes,singer/performers, etc.
Can you point me in the right direction?
Sounds like you want TRU.
where do I find a list of television stations by state and city?
Dear Guru, Do you know where I could find information about qualitative rating, I mean to someting that can't be measured and refer to the involvement of the viewers? or abuot the "context effect" theory. Thank you in advance.
Measuring or rating "something that can't be
measured" is quite a challenge. Some have used regularity of viewing episodes as an involvement measure.
For the most comprehensive answer, see The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
where can I source data on the U.A.E advertising market? - Spends related
Try A.C. Nielsen
Question: My wife works for a satellite radio company and I'm helping her
put together a reasonable projection of subscriber growth. My concept is to
compare the relative growth rates for cable vs. satellite tv, vcr vs. DVD
and anything vs. the Internet. I believe the numbers will confirm that the
rate of adoption of new technologies is increasing. My question is: Is
there a single, reliable source of these rates of growth that I can access
on the Internet? If not a single source, can you tell where I might find
generally accepted data on these subjects? Thank you.
There is a forthcoming resource site for satellite radio data. Until it opens, send questions to firstname.lastname@example.org
Is there any research done on international viewing and the academy awards?
There are audience rating studies in most countries with commercial TV. The international results are typically published in trade media like Ad Age in the issue following the event.
I'm with a small agency in NY, we are currently doing research on what individual publications spend on their own promotion. What is a go company that can provide this information?
If there are 2 different target groups need to be sufficient in one TV schedule, the weight of rating for Target A is 40%, for Target B is 60%. how to calculate/evaluate the performance? and does it have a standard formula?
Thanks for your answer in advance.
If the Guru correctly understands your query, it seems like a simple weighted average would work.
What is the formula for cost per thousand?
Cost ÷ impressions expressed in thousands.
I have a question about an answer you provided on December 04 about turning commericals recieved in trade to cash (question #4014) When you are reselling these units are there any legal ramifications and do you need to confer with the station?
Commericial time within these deals often has contractual restrictions limiting potential advertisers, ususally barring any current clients of the station, but possibly barring any resale. In the absence of such explicit restrictions, one should be free to resell.
Dear Guru, Do you know where I could find information about the level of attentiveness to different genres of advertising during any genres of TV programs. In addition where I could find information on the "Quad Analysis" study, and generally on qualitative Rating.
Thank you in advance.
The Guru is not familiar with any studies of attentiveness within advertising genre within programming genre. If such exists, The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter will probably have cataloged it.
"Quad Analysis" is from Nielsen. Qualitative ratings, in the sense of audience size adjusted by attentiveness or interest etc, seems to be an abandoned concept as far as syndicated studies. A company called TAA tried it in the 80's. Again, the best reference source will be the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
total ad dollars spent in Columbus ohio- %Tv vs. Radio
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) is the best bet, but will geatly understate locally placed radio.
I gave a client a R&F for two years of advertising plus the cume. They asked me if the cume is an average of both years. I know its not but I really couldn't explain it so they would understand. Can you simply an answer.
The term "cume" refers to audience accumulation over a specified period of time. A two year cume should be the net audeince reached over the entire two years of campaign. The Guru doesn't see why anyone should confuse that with an average of two years' cumes.
Perhaps the confusion occurs when you say "R&F for two years of advertising plus the cume." Presumably the "R&F for two years of advertising" is the average 4-week R&F over the two year period and the cume is the total over the two years?
Guru - what is "guerilla" media? I'm picturing a bunch reps wearing berets who are hiding out in the jungle planning revenge on media directors.Thanks
"Guerrilla marketing" is basically a public relations technique, calling for researching the type of story that would really appeal to an editor and being a bit outrageous or off-the-wall in getting attention to the story to be placed.
Guerilla media might be a term for use of non-traditional media in unusaul ways, or it might be something else. Apparently it is a coinage by someone to sell something.
What are the pros/cons of 30 minute infomercial-type spots compared to :15, :30, or :60 spots with respect to production, unit cost, response, reach/frequency, target audience, etc.? Would the type of product be a factor in deciding whether to run :30 minute spots? Thank you.
The questions are essentially direct marketing issues, but as to the media points included:
Can you tell me if there is anyway to track FSI spending for companies such as Best Buy, CompUSA, etc
Thanks in advance
The Guru doubts it.
Hollow, Dear Guru! Can You help me please to clearify, is it possible to predict sales if we know expected advertising campaign effectivness? I mean can we somehow correlate pre-campaign analysys data with data we get from the client about the product? Is there any formulas and methods and what information about advertised product do I need?
A.C. Nielsens' BASES is a system for this sort of analysis.
Please help! I am currently marketing mobile billboards (Billboard trucks) to Advertisers and thier Agencies. 95% of those I contact seem to tell me flat out (before I even make a pitch) that they don't do mobile advertising. Is there a bad impression towards Mobile Billboards among media planners? Or Am I just not communicating with them in the right way? Thank you for your help!
If you are contacting people who are buying outdoor, then the Guru would expect price or audience documentation to be the main issue.
I have 150 sixty second radio spots on a classic rock station in Laurel Mississippi given to me in trade. What's the best way to turn it into cash?
Assuming there are no restricions on your trade deal, find out who the postential advertisers in Laurel are -- the Guru assumes they are mostly local, whether Mom & Pop businesses or the local branches of Burger King and Kinney shoes. Contact these local prospects with below-market-price offers.
Dear Media Guru, I've read all articles about recency planning written by E.Ephrone and i still have a question - can You say for what product categories or marketing goals(like product launch)it is better to use recency or effective frequency planning strategy?
Recency is based on the idea that the advertising exposure closest to the time of purchase is most effective. Therefore, when products are purchased continuously across time, continuous advertising gives the best chance of exposure to a consumer clost to the time of a purchase.
At times when other issues than maximizing sales over time are dominant, scuh as short term promotions or building awareness of a new product, other scheduling is more appropriate
Where's the best place to find target composition against TV vs. radio vs. print, etc.
What's your opinion on the media planners workload these days. The reason I ask, my director just retired and stated he couldn't handle the increased media to analyse (ie, additional stations, more mags, internet, guerilla, etc.). Back in his day, he mainly evaluated 3 networks and a couple mags. I wonder if all media professional experience burn-out much quicker than ever before. Just wanted your thoughts.
Your media director must be even older than the Guru if he could get away with only thinking about 3 networks and 'a couple mags.'
The number of tv options may have burgeoned in the the past 30 years, but not the number of spot markets, not the number of magazines which might be considered for any one campaign. And in that same period computers have taken over the number crunching load. 30 years ago we didn't even have electronic calculators.
Guru, how do I develop R&F levels for:
• Outdoor against the mass market and specific demograhic such as individual with $3Million in assets.
• spot market print such as business journals, lifestyle mags etc, where there is no syndicated research such as MRI.
• Local Cable against a high affluent audience
It is not clear whether your issue is determining the portion of the audience of each medium which falls within your target or whether the audience accumulation pattern among your target is the problem.
Syndicated print and product usage research, particularly The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study, analyze audiences od many media specifically aimed at affluent subsegments, although "assets over $3million" may be too narrow for syndicated research to have evaluated.
Outdoor companies are usually prepared to run R&F analyses against a wide range of demographics. Commercial media software, such as ADplus from our susiter company Telmar can produce R&F analyses from minimal target data input.
I handle a small investment advisor service client who's target is super affluent. They currently have decent awareness on the east coast but are virtually unknown on the west in LA where they just opened an office. They gave us a $1MM budget and we told them to use local cable on financial networks/programs, & other networks which generally reach a more affluent audience(A&E, Bravo, Golf Channel, etc). They are not convinced that TV will help them penetrate the market and assist with sales calls. Is there any way to convince them that TV is the best and most effective offensive media based on budget and awareness concerns.
You should start with a comparison of target compostion of all the options. Almost anyone accepts tv as the most impactful medium, all else aside. Financial networks are appropriate. However, some print will be far more authoritative than simply affluent cable networks. Wall St. Journal, Barron's, Financial Times, etc.
I am doing a national buy on an unwired radio network.
There are 85 markets in the top 100. What is an average
or acceptable CPP
Be guided by the radio rates in our Ad Data area. Unwired network may be as little as half the sum of the spot rates.
Guru--Can you please provide a suggested percentage of bonus spots for radio stations to include in annual negotiations to meet CPP goals? Also, do you have any suggested resources for more information on annual radio negotiations? Thanks!
The Guru would anwser differently to a buyer or a seller. If you want to make na assumption of how far below the estimated rating things might get, that answers your question. Since it's an annual negotiation, you need to determine at what points goals are evaluated, against what ratigns reports, and probably shouldn't see these as "bonus" if they are part of a goal.
In syndicated TV, these are called "recaps" which are spots reserved for the advertiser in case audience efficiency is not meeting the guarantee, but are recaptured by the syndicator if delivery meets projections.
If the marketplace is not unusually volatile, and the estimates are sensible, a very small percentage should be safe
The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB) may have further advice.
What are the strengths and weakenesses of using a :30 television spot vs. a :10 television spot. And vice-
The sole advantage of a :10 is that it is cheaper than a :30, usually about half the price. This advantage may be turned into added frequency and reach.
But it is a message that may be half --or less -- as effective.
:10s are not as freely available so using the added frequency potential may not be realistic. :15's are the more commonly available short form.
What are the shares of various media in advertising?
The "Coen Report" from McCann is a good resource for this information.
I am looking for information regarding the benefits of 30 versus 60 second commercials in radio. Anything measuring media effectiveness, notability, creative attentiveness etc. Thanks
where do I find a list of U.S. cities ranked by population size?
Click here for the Census Bureau's 1999 rankings of cities over 100,000 population and other cities' population data.
Where can i find the costs for staduim advertising (signage) baseball stadiums around the U.S.--specifically Atlanta, LA and houston?
Generally these are sold directly by the individual teams.
URGENT PLEASE :-)
I am searching for information on Travel/Trade Publications in Greece, can you receommend to me the best publication in Greece?
Thanks for all the help.
I was wondering if there was an online database that listed all the television stations by market, but included their respective phone numbers.
I'm trying to find out how much money DaimlerChrysler has spent on their "Five Star" advertising campaign. What sources are available to provide this information?
A client has asked for information pertaining to the level of advertising required to increase awareness and positively affect the perception of their company on an on-going basis. Is there a source for information regarding required grp levels for radio and television to maximize awareness. Our client is based in Phoenix, Arizona, with an interest in statewide coverage?
Awareness relates most to the reach and frequency of a plan. You must reach more people more often to increase awareness. You must reach more people than are currently aware.
Click here to see past Guru
responses about awareness and levels
For research, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Why isn't spot radio posted ?
Click here to see
past Guru responses about radio post analysis
I am looking a an article by Erwin Ephron - "Propinquity/Recency and Now Avoid Paying Premium for Top-Rated TV Programming, for Cost-Effective Reach". DO you know where I can get this? Thanks!!!
That specific article is not in AMIC's Erwin Ephron on Media area, but several of Erwin's others on Recency are. There is also direct contact information for further inquiries.
Hi, is there any trend data regarding the length of TV commercials? Are they generally getting longer or shorter?
In the US, over the long term, TV commercials have become shorter, but for many years there has been no movement beyond a certain level of :15's. Radio has seen a return to more :60's as the pricing of :30's has become the same as :60's.
Is there an international trends that the durations of TV commercials are becoming longer or shorter or no specific trend ?
In the US, over the long term, TV commercials have become shorter, but for many years there has been no movement beyond a certain level of :15's. Radio has seen a return to more :60's as the pricing of :30's has become the same as :60's.
In other countries your milage may vary.
Hi, I am working on a toothpaste brand in India which is a national brand and has limited market share .
It faces competition from Levers and Colgate Palmolive who spend many times more.
The sensitivity analysis says that for 1% increase in trial, there is a 4% increase in volume. Need to know if u could advice me some models on GRPs to awareness and awareness to trial correlations
Many many thanks
Awareness relates more to the reach of a plan than GRP. You must reach more people more often to increase awareness.
Click here to see past Guru
responses about awareness and GRP
For research, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Iam new in this sector...
Can you give me ideas for building brand loyalty & Trust for a Payphone Card?
The Target is:Primary - School Kids/Teenagers/Young adults (to keep in touch with home & speak with friends
Secondary - Expatriates / Tourists (for international calls)
i am trying to set a new strategy for this client
Can you help please.
You need to determine the decision makers. "School kids" are not likely to be buying their own phonecards. The Kids target is not likely to use the same media as expatriates or tourists. The Guru imagines you need to totally separate, unrelated plans. Probably using foreign or foreign language media for the expat/tourist target.
What are the average advertising costs for a national magazine ad?
There is no useful answer to this question. There are thousands of National magazines, and many ad usits. Just considering the top several hundred or so, the range is from about $4300 for a black and white page in Modern Baking with a circulation of 27,000 to $266,400 for a 4 color page in Modern Maturity with a circulation of 20 million.
Saying that magazines with circulations around 4 million have page-4-color rates around $150,000 is not much more useful, nor accurate, in the Guru's opinion.
I've heard that there are advertisers who pay to
put their logo/ad on your vehicles. Are you familiar
with this and which advertisers participate?
Visit Free Car Media
I am currently working as a media planner, and am keen to one day work on international accounts. How much benefit would it be to sepnd two years studying a part time masters degree? The degree I am interested in is a MSc Media and Communications at the LSE.
Any education can be useful in given situations. But, the Guru does not think this degree would be worthwhile in pursuit of an international job in the U.S. In the UK, the job market may be different. Consult your local employment advertisements for such jobs. Do they require any such advanced degree?
I am constantly being told that the banner is dead and that clients are moving away from banners to e-mail marketing. Do you think that this demise has been due to lack of targeting and hence ineffective campaigns. Shouldn't the Internet be able to provide one to one advertising?
The Guru doesn't believe the banner is dead. The Guru doesn't see an upsurge in email marketing.
lack of targetting would be a failing of the online planner, more than the internet. Possibly the appeal of big sites over well focused site is a drawback. Or the pursuit of reach and frequency which are not the best use of internet media. "one to one" advertising sounds more like an email than web function. The Guru believes that anti-spam feeling continues to grow. Email "advertising" offers far more annoyance than sales power. In email, like banners, a fraction of one percent reponse rate is all that can be expected. When goals are not realistic, this rate of return is more likely to to be acceptable in email than banners, given the ad rates.
Dear Media Guru,
I need some help from you. I know that in the United States the GRP-trading system for radio do exist for a long time. But where I can get the information about the main characteristics of the research on which it based on (I have already visited the ARBITRON site, but there is not enough information of the periodicity of the research and the sample size)? And in addition, could you give me some referrences for sites or other coordinates of some GRP-sellers for radio in the US?
And could you name the other countries who have the GRP-trading system for radio?
how is being spent in europe on streaming
The Guru has not seen any breakouts of ad spending by streaming media versus othe web formats, though there may be industry estimates.
If you mean how much is spent on production of streaming content, that is not a Media Planning/buying/research question.
Where can I find a listing of publication with the material ship to information for that publication?
Hello. My client has asked us to write a survey asking television viewership by daypart. My question is this: How would I translate/convert the following Eastern Time Zone dayparts into Pacific, Mountain and Central?
As a general rule, Eastern and Pacific are the same. Central and Mountain are also the same up to 3 pm, when they shift to one hour earlier. That is, 4pm start times or 8pm or 11pm start times are 3 pm or 7pm or 10pm, etc,
We have as a client a national family style restaurant chain. Our TV media is based on impressions with 25% running in prime, 25% fringe and the rest is daytime. Many of our spots are falling in the court shows which deliver well; however, the client feels the environment of these court shows will downgrade their image because of overall program content and other advertisers in these types of programs. Seems they are full of TV lawyers, etc.
Are their any studies that agree or disagree with this?
First the Guru's theories:
1. When people like a program, they don't think badly of advertisers who support it, even if many other people do not respect the program.
2. Guilt by association with other advertisers is certainly possible, but again, if people like these sleazy court programs why would they attach negative connotations based on other, highly relevant advertisers?
For real research on the point, if the syndicator isn't helpful, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
How can we reason for the phenomenon that usually longer campaign period(e.g. 3 weeks) could build a better reach for a certain effective freq. level, say 3+, as compared to a short campaign period like 1 week??
Over a longer period of time, more people become available to be reached, whether once or three times. The reach potential or people who have actually watched TV, over a three week period is greater than the potential in one week.
I posted a question on Tuesday, October 24, 2000 #3907
about Cable advertising and you told me to: "Make sure you buy the cable outlets which duplicate least with your broadcast buys." What do you mean by this?
In that query, you asked about justifying buying cable because of the concern that the broadcast networks undedelivered cable HH. So presumably your desire is to assure that your advertising schedule covers the cable homes which are not reached or exposed to adeqate message frequency through broadcast. Some cable networks tend to be more viewed by ("duplicate with") the same homes which are heavy viewers of broadcast tv and others attract viewers more different ("less duplicated") from the broadcast network viewer. These latter cable outlets better serve your purposes in considering cable.
When going from a plan to a buy, you move from the general (broadcast underdelivers) to the specific (cable network "A" or "B" delivers) to accomplish your goals.
What is cost per miller?
What is rating point?
What is efective frecuency?
This in turn means cost per thousand impressions delivered by the medium. An impression is one exposure of advertising to one single member of the target audience.
I'm a newcomer to the site and I very much enjoy your bright responses.
Re recency, you write >a core concept of recency is that once the third exposure is delivered, all additonal exposures are at 3+.< That concept belongs to Herb Krugman, ("Why Three Exposures May Be Enough.")whose work was misread as supporting effective frequency. The corresponding core concept of recency is a single exposure within a short planning interval is most cost-effective. These results in moderate TRP's and more weeks of advertising. When heavier weight is called for (i.e., new product introductions), instead of accepting random frequency, recency shortens the planning interval and maintains a solus reach goal. Planning for continuous reach produces a better distribution of frequency. My apology for this somewhat truncated explanation. I can provide greater detail if you'd like. Erwin
As the leading industry writer on the topic, your comments are greatly appreciated, and you'll have to excuse the Guru for using your own writings in his reply.
Maybe "seminal" concept would be a better term than "core" concept when the Guru cites this Krugman principal, since it is more part of the evolution than structure of recency.
Perhaps connecting the concepts himself, but gathering them from your own articles, such as Learned Any Ads Lately?, the Guru sees the concept that all additional exposure are at 3+, as part of the underpinnings of Recency. Because this idea gets us past the effective frequency issue, the -- superior, in the Guru's opinion -- Recency theory surmounts objections from the effective frequency camp.
I currently specialize in online media planning. I want to be able to broaden my skills and add in off-line media planning as well. I am not too familiar with this medium at all. Do you have any suggestions as to where I can begin to self-teach myself regarding off-line media planning?
The Guru does not believe this can be effectively learned other than by doing it in a work environment, such as an ad agency.
What are the number hours per week that the average person watches television
According to a recent report by Nielsen, TV usage ranges from 3 hours per day for teens to almost 5 hours per day for women 18+.
What are the most important concequences of global television?
When and if it happens, it will probably have small impact, if it assumes a globally common language and universal products as a precondition.
Breakup of the Expatriate Population in the US
Assuming by "expatriate" you mean foreign born and not some sub-set of that group, as of 1997, the latest country-level Census data available about the foreign born, there were 26 million foreign born in the U.S.:
Among the 13.1 million foreign born Latin Americans were
Among the 6.8 million Asian foreign born, were
Is there an online directory where I can get a list of advertising and marketing industry trade periodicals?
how do you calculae radio reach and frequency by hand?
The calculation is complex, because it describes a curvilinear function and considers several factors, such as grp, dayparts, turnover, quarter hours in a daypart, # of stations, etc. Sometimes agencies run computer calculations of several schedules with varying components and print tables summarizing these to allow quick, rough calculations.
Visualize a left hand column of GRPs from 50 to 1000, in 50's
and adjacent columns for 1, 2, 3, 4 or 5+ stations.
Read across the appropriate GRP row to find the reach under the correct number of stations. But wait, you'd better make a different table for schedules running only 6am-7pm Monday to Friday and another table for Mon-Sunday 6am - midnight. But wait, you'd better make extra tables in each of those categories for when average rating is 1 and when average rating is 2, 3, etc.
Years ago, some reps and ratings report offered slide rules for the calculations.
Can you give a definitive explanation of media quintiles (radio, tv, newspaper)?
Quintiles are used in two key ways:
Quintiles in either case involve dividing the people under consideration into five (quint-) equal groups for analysis. Why five? Why not? it has become the established method. Three groups would often be more useful: "average," "above average" and "below average" are easier to conceptualize. And some advertisers have considered "nine-tiles."
In media quintiles, the users of a medium, like radio, are divided into five equal groups, arrayed according to their heaviness of use, for example, the 20% of the population who listen to less than 3 hours of radio per week, those who listen to 3 to 6 hours, up through those who listen to 50+ hours. The range of hours of listening are set so that each range takes in 20% of the population. Then, other aspects of the behavior of these groups may be evaluated and lead to media or marketing decisions.
For example, if the lightest radio listeners are also light TV viewers, but the heavy newspaper readers, newspaper may be the best way to add reach to a radio plan and more evenly distribute frequency of exposure across all the people reached.
Quintiles of schedules are similar, but only consider those reached by a media schedule. For example if you had a radio schdule of 500 GRP in four weeks with a reach of 70 and a 7.1 average freqency, you might find that the lowest frequency 20% of your schedule reached (14 reach ou of the 70) had an average frequency of 1.0 and the highest frequency quintilehad an average frequecy of 19.8. When you add newspaper to the plan you can examine each quintile of the combined reach and will likely find the least reached group of the new total has a better average frequency.
I'm trying to understand the internet advertising terms and find it a bit difficult since in my country New Media is still taking it's first steps. There are some terms i often find in magazines and newsletters which i don't understand such as ''click-through rates'', ''interstitials'' and ''vortal''. I know that vortal is a vertical portal and I know what a portal is but can you give an example of a vortal? I am also a bit confused about the effectiveness of a banner. Should a banner be animated-entertaining or just serve the purpose of broadcasting a company's name?
Thanks in advance
Media Management...what do you feel is the best way to charge clients who consistently change their media plans on a monthly. The standartd 15% can only cover so much. Should there be a change fee
Typically, full service agencies charging 15% for ordinary sized accounts put up with these changes. Hence, many agencies have fee arrangements other than 15%. make an arrangement that reflects the work you do. If you are performing only media services and getting 15% your are well compensated.
Where can I find full year 1999 spot cable revenue in each of the top 25 DMAs?
Is there anyplace on the internet to find demographics for owners of certain types of vehicles (example Fords & Mazdas)?
The Guru does not believe this is available free online anywhere.
But various data sources on car owners, like Polk, JD Power and MRI can be accesed on line through eTelmar.
With what seems to be the demise of the online CPM model, we are trying to find other online ad revenue sources. How do sponsorships work and how do we find them? Are there any other online revenue potentials we can research? Thank you.
"Sponsorships" are a way of giving a marketer an identity on your site. It may be as simple as placing banners and pricing in a limp sum instead of CPM.
Visit Ad Resource for various revenue models.
Dear Guru - I have two questions - #1 - I have a client who wants a shifting reach pattern in place for a media test - No problem - however, there corporate department wants to run the test 2 on 2 off - I think it needs to be every week so that the hiatus time doesn't screw up the added frequency and reach you would receive by being on consistently - any thoughts?
#2 - I have a new client that I am working up a media plan for in general terms of spots, reach and frequency. We are using 4 different medias in each market - Radio, TV, Internet and Outdoor - How do I estimate a total reach and frequency, GI and Persons Reached for each market to give to the client when I am using general CPP's to estimate numbers of spots, etc.?
The Guru doesn't understand your first question. What do you mean by "shifting reach pattern" and how do you ssuppose this is affected by the flighting?
Where do you have a problem with reach and frequency in #2 other than the impossibilty of an accurate local market internet impressions count? Do you have reach and frequency tools for these media but face a local problem or something else?
What is the definition of dispersion and what is the formula? We are looking at various demos, their indexes across two programs to find out how stongly the shows are affiliated demographicaly. Is it a valid method to achieve such an objective.
You haven't stated an objective. "Dispersion" refers to the degree of difference in media outlet selection in your schedule. In TV it ususally refers to the number of different programs, in radio to the number of different stations, but may mean different dayparts. The usual basis for specifiying dispersion is how the reach models were constructed.
Dear Media Guru,
Do you know if any research has been done on the effectiveness of trade advertising in consumer media? Any help with this would be greatly appreciated.
are you aware of any research that compares the effectiveness of a full-page magazine ad vs half-page spread?
Dear Guru, I'm looking for the most up-to-date total annual advertising revenues from IN HOUSE agencies in the US. I've checked AdAge, and CMR. While I'm at it, any thoughts on how I would find the same #'s for small/independent media planning agencies?
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) is the only likely source. But your quest may be fruitless, because of terminology. In house agencies might show up undistinguished from advertiser direct, if the purchaser is recorded at all. "Small" and "independent" are hardley synonymous in media shops, nor likley to be grouped together.
Hello Media Guru,
I work for a franchise organization that purchases general market network radio. A small percentage of the stations on the radio networks are Hispanic. Our creative is, naturally, intended for the general market and thus does not air in Spanish. We have had several complaints from our field offices that this offensive to our Spanish-speaking consumers. I have heard that there is a way to "block" those stations from airing our message. However, I need to first verify that this is truly considered offensive, as some believe that it can't hurt and just adds exposure of our message. I have reveiwed sources that show a language preference, but do you know where I can find information that might support the argument that the field offices make?
Thank you for your help!
There are numerous sources which demonstrate that Spanish advertising is more effective than English advertisng among Hispanics, but the situation you describe is a bit odd.
The Guru wonders why a general market radio network would have Spanish language stations in its lineup? And why would Spanish language stations carry an English language network? But if that situation existed, and Spanish speaking consumers were hearing English language programming, it is not likely that they would be "offended" by English language commercials within that programming.
And, if you are making an "un-wired" buy, that is merely time on stations with no programming involved, then you should be able to substitute Spanish copy on the relevant stations.
I am doing some research involving Business Reply Cards (BRC) and Product Reply Cards (Bingo Cards). We would like to know which one would get a better response for our client. The BRC would obviously be located next to the ad, and the Bingo Card would be in the back of the publication.
Clearly the BRC makes it much more obvious that the advertiser has an offer of information or whatever. In some books where Bingo cards are more common the reader may have formed a habit of preferring that method to save effort on filling out addresses. The Guru would speculate that the BRC gets a more qualifed response.
I am in the process of making a media plan targeting
Germany and UK, but have had problems finding resources
for those areas. What I would really like to find is
something comparable to an SRDS book that gives the
prices along with ratings, reach, Index, frequency. etc.
Thankyou for your help!
International Media Guide
is the analog to srds, but don't expect ratings or reach and frequency from either.
How is reach and frequency determined for a print (magazine) schedule?
The average issue audience, measured duplication between issues of the same publication and between different publications are compiled using various formulas. Generally commercial media software like Telmar's or that of the magazine measurement vendors is used.
Guru---What is your opinion on placing a retail client's ad in a Holiday Gift Guide...do you feel there is too much clutter and is ROP preferred? The price for guides vs ROP is very similar and not a deciding factor....this is merely a question of location---thanks for your help!
For a small space ad, the Guru believes these gift guides to a good job af attracting the attention of the reader in the mood to buy.
WHat is the difference between a general media AMD position and an AOR AMD position? My headhumter wants to send me for an AOR position. How can I best prepare for this interview?
An AOR is the agency repsonsible for making the advertiser's buys. Presumably the AMD must be concerned with managing the flow of buy orders and stewardship as well as interfacing with the client's media department.
If you are not familiar with network and magazine buying, that's probably what you should brush up on, if that is within the AOR assignment.
What are your thoughts on the use of radio as an alternative to TV in recency planning? Do you see it as a viable alternative?
Recency planning does not dictate the medium used.
To what does "zoned" advertorials refer?
"Zoned" refers to newspapers' publishing varying editions in different geographic areas of their markets.
How and when do you do a weight average?
Weighted averages are used to calculate the overall average when you have percentages of various groups that are parts of the larger whole. Click here to see past Guru
responses using weighted averages.
Can you recommend me any sites with information about ad serving and management on the web?
I was wondering if you knew what - a Portal with 6+ websites aimed at a specific target market (globally/translations) with over 40M unique hits per annum and exclusive branding rights to the site with over 2000 pages - be worth to an Advertiser.
As we are not doing banners, the advertisers Logo and Branding will be intergrated in with the design and layout of the page and site.
We have been told by various Marketing Sources $10-20M (USD) per site but as Branding on the Web (in this format) is relatively new, there are no guidelines yet.
Your input and comments would be very appreciated!
40,000 "unique hits" per year is extremely few as commercial sites go. The Guru assumes you mean "unique visits" as "hits' doesn't make sense in this context. In fact, neither does "uniques visits per annum." The Guru imagines you are adding up 12 months worth of unique visits, which may not be mutually unique.
Your expected pricing of "$10,000 - $20,000" per site seems ludicrously high, equating to a cpm of $1500 - $3000. Perhaps your low-traffic site has totally unique content of unique value to specific sponsors?
see Ad Resource for current rate comparisons.
We are a ad network based in Asia and represent a large number of web sites. These web sites have around 25% inventory coming from USA, Europe and Australia. We, however do not have a sales force presence in these markets. Do you know of any source where I could get links to concessionaires / sales agents in these regions? We already know of the larger ad networks in these regions and would not like to work with them.
To find the harder to find reps you may need to work a search engine. See AMICs web sites area first.
How much money has been spent on radio advertising during the first half of this year?
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
I know it varies but what is the average amount of commercials per hour on radio?
Do banner ad CPMs still tally when the browser is minimized? My guess would be yes, but I'd like to know for sure.
Impressions are counted when an ad is "served," that is, the browser takes an action causing the ad to be sent by the serving computer. Typcally, the action of arriving at a page of a web site when the user has clicked on or typed in a link is the action causing an ad to be served. Obviously, this can't happen when a browser is minimized. Some servers may rotate ads and load new ones on the same page simply because time has passed. This will cause an impression to register even though the browser is minimized. It is one of many bogus counts, similar to a bottom of the page ad which is never seen because it is outside the range of the browser window.
What research is available on the effectiveness of trade magazine advertising versus other mediums?
This is a little convoluted and I apologize, but my question is: In the world of internet advertising are there such a thing as an ad reseller? I am working on a business plan for my CEO and he seems to think that there will be an opportunity to add to our basic service by securing advertising for our website clients. If there is such an animal what typically is the comission, for lack of a better term.
There are several internet ad sales reps. Click here to see past Guru
responses about internet sales reps.
Where do I find information on weekly GRP levels to use
in radio for a service that is constant throughout the year, with no seasonality?
could you please explain what is usually meant by CPH?
Depending on who said it and to whom and in what context, it could be many things.
The "CP" is surely "Cost per." The first meaning for the "H" which occurs to the Guru is
hour. It is not a familiar term.
What is the total U.S. advertising by year for all products?
archives of Ad Age.
Since the Internet caters to the world, do websites have a standard page or are they customizaed for each region/market?
Some do it one way, others don't. Not all websites (probably not most) care about countries other than their own home. Some, for example StarMedia, are specifically intended to serve different countries differently. Some of these automatically detect the users country of origin and act appropriately, or offer a choice, assuming users in one country may be interested in content aimed at another country.
Like everyone else, I'm trying to assess the impact of the web on print media. Do you have any statistics (or resources) on the print media universe -- including total numbers of publications and what direction those numbers are trending?
The numbers of publications are too vast -- over 11,000 US alone -- to try to infer anything about the impact of the internet from the handful that come or go annually.
Internet users are the same people who tend to be readers, overall. You might look at time-spent-reading among the net of the top 100 publications in MRI against interent use of the same magazines' readers.
Today's interactive print seems to focus on the CueCat. Years ago there was selective binding in magazines. Are there any other interactive magazine or newspaper media out there today or on the drawing board that you know about?
There will probably be CueCat imitator, who will do it better. They won't be shy about making themselves known.
What is the typical awareness decay when advertising goes off air? Specifically, we have been running a campaign since April, 2000 consisting of Cable TV, Print, Internet, and some guerilla media. The current total plan delivers 75/15.2/1138 against A12-24.
One theory says each weeks awarness is about 90% of the prior weeks' when there is no advertising. Of course one would expect this to vary depending on other advertising in the market, how high awareness had risen, current share of market, etc.
Guru - are you aware of any print research regading the use of snipes on print ads? We have a client who's asking for justification (beyond the common-sense reasons).
Very basic: Why can't I add the weekly frequency for each week in a 13 week flight and have it total the frequency for the total 13 week flight? I know that I can't do this; but I couldn't explain it properly to someone. Help
If you mean the simplest definition of "frequency," that is the number of ads in the scedule, then you can do what you say. But most likely you are referring to average frequency of exposure, as in "Reach and Frequency."
Like reach, this kind of frequency is not additive. Why? Because it refers to the average frequency of exposure among the people reached. Suppose your campaign looks like this:
|Week #||Weekly Reach||
If you added weekly frequency, you would get a frequency of 15.6 by the 13th week instead of the correct 5.2. The trick is that the average frequency is the average among a different group of people each week. As more people are reached, the group grows. So the frequency of week number one is the average among 20% of your target, and in week number two it's the average among 27% of your target.
I am looking for a source of average agency charges.. 15% yes--I would like to know what is the average for a press release-What is the average for a display ad layout--What is the average to prepare and send out a public service announcement for a non-profit organization-What is the average for a television commercial-What is the average for a radio commercial. Is there any source for this???
The American Association of Advertising Agencies would compile typical agency charges for services.
Can you clarify the difference between a pulsing strategy and a burst stratgey? And are either one contradictory to or in support of the recency theory?
As the Guru sees it, "pulsing" refers to alternating, short and equal flights of advertising and periods of hitaus. Burst refers to sporadic higher levels, with no particular flight vs hiatus rhtym, nor equality of levels.
Pulsing is clearly contrary to recency. Bursts, if they are sporadic higher levels within lower level, continuous activity are not totally at odds with recency.
Dear Guru - I work in a vacuum. Do you have any suggestions for associations/forums that are useful for media planners/buyers? I used to be a research manager and was a member of the MPA and found that to be helpful.I just don't know of any for media planning. Thanks
The Guru has encountered general advertising organizations, like "The Ad Club" and media research oriented groups like the Media Research Club of Chicago, but never a media planning organization. You will find relevant working groups within The Advertising Research Foundation, AAF, anf American Association of Advertising Agencies.
Is this any information to reference why it is better to flight a radio schedule instead of running 52 weeks beside it being cheaper?
When you refer to "cheaper" it implies that you are talking about running less advertising in your flighted schedule than in your 52 week schedule. Generally, this would not be better in any way other than being cheaper. If you wanted to compare 52 weeks at 100 GRP per weeks versus running flights of 4 weeks on / 4 weeks off at 200 GRP per week, then there could be pros and cons on both sides.
Do you know of a theory that analyzes when it is ok for an advertiser to go dark with advertising?
Assuming sales occur constantly, going dark is never "ok." There are many theories about when it is les of problem. And known times to be quiet, such as following particularly bad publicity, like airlines after a plane crash.
Where can I find companies that monitor my client's television commercials?
One resource is VideoMonitoring.
Dear Guru - I've checked out media exxchange sites and find them to be confusing. There doesn't seem to be an opportunity to browse their sites without first providing credit information on my company. Since I don't own this place, I'm hesitant to give out information. In your experience, have you found these exchanges to be worthwhile or better yet, a safe place to buy media? I hope this question isn't too sophomoric, but I just don't trust it. Thanks.
Some sites show the kinds of offers currently available without intrusive credit information requirements. The Guru agrees that most typical media buyers will not have the authority to obligate company credit cards.
Try 1 Media Place
I'm looking for a source that explains, step by step, the process that a media planner would go through to evaluate trade publiations. Can you help?
No doubt the process is presented in some media texts: see the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com).
The Magazine Publishers' Association might also have a checklist.
The essential process will be like evaluation of any media: audience quantity, audience quality, "added value" and cost. The differences will come in how audience quality is judged in trade media. This may depend on what categories of business read the book versus your target, how they acquire the book (paid / free / controlled) and the authority of the book in its field.
Is there any site that provides figures on net users for varius countries; specially for Asian countries. Thanks in advance.
Go to NUA Internet Surveys
How effective is direct response advertising?
It depends on how you define "effective."
Typical DR return might be 1-2%. If that produces profit in excess of cost, it is effective. Since DR is the one advertising form best able to evaluate its own effectiveness, and we see the same advertisers repeating time after time, one presumes it is effective.
Experience teaches DR advertisers what are the most effective offers, copy and targets.
COuld you provide me with a source for US Hispanic besides Nielsen.
Nielsen is the only continuous, syndicated, measurement of U.S Hispanic TV audience.
Other, annual or semi-annual media measures will give some sort of Hispanic TV information, these include Simmons, MRI, Scarborough or Media Audit. The are numerous other sources of other Hispanic Market information. See Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator
Could you provide the total ad spend in latin america for cable (total and pan regional dollars)
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) is now part of a multinational company. Try your question on them.
I sat through a compelling "why cable advertising" presentation and while I buy into the fact that Cable HH's index higher qualitatively, I was really interested in the Nielsen Audience Diversion data they presented. It showed the local affiliates under delivering in the cable HH and Over delivering in the non cable HH. This looks like some real justification for buying cable. Any thoughts?
Let's break it down:
The basic Nielsen HH rating is the average of program delivery in cable homes and non-cable homes.
Naturally the non-cable homes, with only a small handful of viewing choices, will be more likely to watch broadcast programs and cable homes, with three or four or ten times as many options, will have a lower rating for any of the boradcast options.
If your target is the kind of somewhat upscale HH that has cable, there may be some reason to buy cable. Upscale HH are not better unless they are better users of your product.
Make sure you buy the cable outlets which duplicate least with your broadcast buys.
what is a 30 sheet and where is is typically found?
30 sheet is the typical highway billboard, about 10' 5" high and 22' 8" wide.
I would like to know where I can go to see a rating of web sites per visitors, ad expending, etc. Also where I can find out about competitors online ad plans, case studies, etc. I am currently planning for next year.
dear guru im studying gender sterotyping in advertising
is there any place or websites recommended with this topicm or are there other members who i should talk to
There is likley to be material on this at The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I have two questions
1)Is a rating for one telecast of a TV program equvilant to a one-telecast reach
2) If a TV program were measured for 52 programs (consecutively) what would the shape of the reach curve for the program look like
Sarwar Khan (Lintas:Pakistan)
2. Like all reach curves, it would rise rapidly at first and then flatten. Depending on the rating size and program type, the point of flattening will vary. Five-day-a-week programs tend to have loyal viewers and quickly flatyening curves. Once a week movies have more variable audience and flatten later. At 52 episodes, any single program is likely to have ceased any significant addition of new reach.
im working for a portal company .
we are situated in middle east where internet availablity is stiill to gear up.
we r on the verge to launch our portal and in due regard of that i would like to know your views regarding planning the launch or please suggest me any site or book available in regrd same .
The idea of a portal aimed at an area without internet users perplexes the Guru. But the archives of a magazine like The Industry Standard probably has useful anecdotes.
Guru - I'm working on a recruitment campaign for a high-tech company in some local mkts (NYC, Denver, Jackson, MS, etc). I'm based out of Boston and there's a local high-tech pub called "Mass High Tech" which is perfect for this plan. Can you recommend how I can find other local pubs like this w/o subscribing to SRDS's Newspaper source? I've tapped all of my free newspaper resources. Again, thank you very much!
Your local version, "Mass High Tech" might be able to recommend comparable publications in other localities.
Rome 20 October, 2000 .
Dear Guru ,
I am thinking to planning an Ad campaign on Restaurants placemats.
I would like know something about "the timing of exposure of Ads to gain the best effectiveness :
in the case , I would like to know the effectivness of 3 or more exposures in 1 or 2 hours .
This doesn't seem to relate to placemats. There have been experiments with multiple commercials in one pod, multiple ads in one program and multiple ads in one issue on magazines and newspapers. Probably even consecutive highway billboards. Generally these put a premium on frequency. For the ultimate collection of relevant research, see The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I need help. We have a client that wants to do a campaign around sports programming and corporate sponsorships. We are looking at 12 markets - most in the top 20 DMA's. Here is my problem: We've been asked to make a recommendation on whether it is better to run on local TV, radio and in-stadium signage as packages in each of these 12 markets or, if it is more effective to run on FOX Sports Net regionally in 12 markets. 42,000 sales people later - I am getting the idea that no one can give me accurate audience numbers for radio live broadcast of home game coverage. Do you know I can get this? Also, do you have any opinion on the effectiveness of Corporate Sports sponsorship packages. These are major teams that I am talking to - Stars, Lakers, Mets etc.
There are no syndicated measures of individual sports events on radio. Stations may have commissioned incidental studies, ask them.
In the Guru's opinion, corporate sports sponsorships do more for corporate management egos than they do for marketing. If your target is very committed to the sport in question, or the product is closely related, like motor oil to auto racing, then it can be an effective measure.
Dear Guru: My events department asked my how to estimate the "media value" of a product metion during the lead story of a primetime show like entertainment tonight. I told them that this was a very broad question, and it would vary depending on who the target was, what the ratings were, and what value really meant (i.e, dollars? contirbution to product sales? % contribution to frequency of a campaign, etc. They didn't know. Can you confirm how to go about this? What info do I really need? Am I on the right track? Do you have any math formulas to estimate this?
Your thinking is exactly right. The Guru kows you as a regular and recognizes that you have followed his thinking from replies to past queries.
In terms of "media value" you would best stick to media metrics, like dollars, reach, frequency, etc. In considering dollars, you can relate the length of the metion --full context, not just brand name mention -- to price of commercials.
If thinking about impact, the Guru believes such a mention, is worth twice as much as advertising because of its implied indorsement. This of course assumes it's a positive mention, not something like "the strangler's weapon was a pair of Donna Karan pantyhose."
Im a writer working for Media magazine, which is read by about 30,000 media buyers and planners. Im writing a story about senior citizens' use of the Web. Do you know of buyers or agencies that have experience appealing to this demographic?
This has been a specialty of Cadwell Davis.
Media Guru, do you know of any available sources showing cable TV household penetration by zip code? Thanks.
Nielsen will have this data.
I'm looking for a class/seminar on how to write an
effective media plan. Do you know of any?
The Guru never recommends seminars.
could you explain 1st, 2nd, and 3rd tier advertising?
The Guru needs a context for the terms. They are not standard, and may be someone's particular way of thinking about advertising.
Guru, I am the only media buyer/planner of a small
agency with very few resources. I rarely buy radio,
but when I do, I have no resource (such as Tapscan).
Can you suggest any n/c service online which could
supply stations by DMA and formats? I don't buy
enough radio to ask my boss for Tapscan software.
We have a client who wants an internet media plan, but will be using a buying service to place the buys. They have a monthly budget of $40k. Do you have any suggestions on how to price a media plan when not being involved on receiving agency discounts from the buys? Also, are there any average commission levels agencies use when purchasing internet buys? Thanks for any help you can offer.
The starting point, of course, is that the whole agency process is worth 15% of gross.
Many cases allocate 5% to media and 10% to the rest of the agency thinking work; creative, account service, etc.
In the internet, as in magazines, "planning" is very specific, down to number of uses per title, and on-line even more so, with pages, sections, units all part of the plan. This leaves the buying service with not much more to do than order processing. All this says planning might be worth 3 or 4% and buying 1 or 2%. If the buying service is pre-negotiating and providing you with prices on all the placement possibilites your plan will consider, then that tilts toward the 3/2 split. If it's purely order taking to your specifications, then 4/1.
In the recommendation of a continuation of a national brand strategy
do I allocate more budget toward broadcast or print?
Or should I just drop one completely? Why?
Not enough information. What has been primary so far? What relationships have been established with / through the media? What is the national strategy?
What does ROP stand for?
"Run of Press:" All the ordinary pages of the newspaper.
what is the difference in media planning to a FMCG product and a dot com portal
The difference in media planning between any two categories is about the markleting situation.
Fast Moving Consumer Goods need continuous presence in highly competitive marketplaces which generally rely on retail outlets to complet the circle with consumers.
Dot-coms have different targets, have an end goal of communication alone and will best rely on differnet media.
The planning process, however is essentially the same: turning marketing goals into advertising goals, advertising goals into media goals and answering the goals with the media which best deliver them.
I am interested in getting projected percentages of rate and cpm ioncreases for each major media type for 2001 over 2000.
Click here to see past Guru responses about inflation.
How do you determine the level of GRP's/week needed in radio or TV to establish an acceptable level for "Brand Positioning"?
Brand positioning is a process, not a goal. Positioning as what, against what, in what competitive situation are the issues which will determine GRP per week.
A new brand entering the market with a totally unique positoning has different needs than an established brand trying on a new marketing position.
Analyze the marketing situation first.
I've seen this question asked
before and have gone adage and mediaweek
but they don't have the current
entry-level/salaries/per region; specifically
media planning and Buying. Is there another website
or publication that you can refer this soon-to-be
R. G. A.
There are two sources other than the trade media you mentioned. Current classified ads in the regions you want to consider or headhunters serving these regions.
I just wanted to have a more in depth knowledge of why print, why outdoor and why radio.
A single Guru response cannot convey depth of understanding. In different marketing situations, these media are used for different reasons. For extended discussion, exploring various issues about these media,
What would the best food/wine magazines that avail, either specifically or have a regional print run in Northern California targeting 40Yrs+ high income earners
Is There any no charge site that enables to know where a certain company has banners or adds in the net?
We need to advertise an international school www, what is the best way to learn where to banner?
No. This data costs money.
I'm a print media business-to-business editor; I've worked for my publisher for 15 years. I'm trying to
encourage him to learn how to market our magazine's website, but he seems to think that selling on a
website is the same as selling an ad. on a printed
page. Where can I find information and guidance,
to show him that this is a different world requiring
different strategies and techniques?
Why not "walk" him through a major, successful B2B site like CMP's ChannelWeb. Point out the different types of ads, programs and relationships. Talk also about how the audeinces of various "pages" may diifere in audience size and composition, totally unlike print media.
Hi Media Guru,
What is the normal length of a test market campaign?
More specifically, if we're testing in a total of 9
markets- 3 low spend/3med spend/3 high spend. Thanks for your help.
No such thing as "normal" here. At least three months, not more than a year. It also depends on what you're testing. If it's a scenario of ongoing weight for a non-seasonal consumer product, longer is better. If it's something that only sells during two onths of the year. . .
What are the differences between Nielsen Competitive Spending and CMR? Is one more accurate than the other?
CMR does all media, Nielsen is TV only. Nielsen only reports on stations with at least 3 share of households in the latest three ratings reports. Their feature is inclusion of ratings with spending. Otherwise, "accuracy" sould be comparable.
What are the best computer programs for media planning? We are a small shop that does it pretty much manually and need a program to do small print media buys.
Where do I find a topline summary of CPM information for different media types --- Broadcast & Cable (Nat'l & Local), Print, Outdoor, On-line, etc. --- against targets of Adults 18+ and Adults 25-54?
Various major agencies publish guides to such data. The Media Week Directory will have sone of the data.
Dear Mr. G.
I am interviewing for a job at a major search engine for a position in international sales. The position would be selling the sites international properties to U.S based clients. I would like to show some inititive and come in with some sort of plan.Is there an easy way to track down agencies that buy interactive internationally? Thanks for your help.
Observe the advertisers on international sites and find trheir agencies via
The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook')
Hi Guru. Do you have any information about "Decay Reach" or "Decayed Reach"? My client asked me about it. I know "Decay GRP" but I've never heard of "Decay Reach". Does reach decay? Is it a popular concept?
This is not a familiar term to the Guru. It might refer to awareness decline after consumers are reached.
Hi Guru - I'm looking into PBS for childrens programming. Before I call them, can you tell me how PBS's audience is measured and anything else about it. I've never looked into it before. Thanks
PBS is measured by Nielsen the same way other television is measured.
Is there a software that would allow me to automatically allocate my marketing inventory on cable networks, as well as, optimize the inventory to meet communication goals?
Existing optimizers will accomplish this with the right data tapes. Consider Telmar's Transmit
HI... Looking to get figures on radio advertising.
Specifically, I need radio revenues for the last 3-5
years, plus any projections for the next 3that may have been published somewhere. Inquiries to the RAB
have not yet been answered, so here I am... thanks.
M Street Journal.
I have a client asking what a average National cost per impression for radio and television would be. They are trying to build a budget to launch a dot com
Can you direct me to articles or research about the rising cost of media?
Try the leading trades, like Ad Age.
Another question: What stewardship systems are currently available?
There are several. The classic is Donovan.
I'm new to the industry. What exactly is stewardship?
Stewardship is the process of managing the media that is bought from the point of placing orders, including checking confmations, watchings ongoing ratings performance, rebuying, checking invoices and client billing.
A number of years ago a CPG client I work on used
something called "Basis" or "Bases" testing. I had the
impression it was testing either copy or media weight
or both. Can you tell me something about them?
What is it? What's the methodology? How does one get in contact with them? Thanks.
BASES is an AC Nielsen service which evaluates various elements of marketing, saying that they
"...estimate the likely sales volume of initiatives before market entry,
... diagnose the key drivers of and limiters to the sales volume potential,
... improve the sales and profit potential of their efforts."
Dear Guru - I'm trying to get a ranking of the 3 most popular sports watched on television. I've been told that they are: NHL,NASCAR, MLB and NBA but i don't know the order or have any numbers to support it. Can you stear me in the right direction? Thanks
You need Nielsen data.
I have heard there is a company that places magnets on the side of cars and sells that as advertising space. Do you know the name of any such company, and do you think that would be a comparable advertising tool to say outdoor billboards? Thanks.
You have probably heard about FreeCar Media of Los Angeles, though the Guru believes they use all-over paint. The best comparison would be outdoor, but there will be some special applications.
Guru, I asked you last week about finding rep firms to handle ad sales for our trade pubs in Korea and Japan in the heavy equip construction sector. You suggested the Int'l media guide. I have looked on that site and it really isn't what I'm looking for any other suggestions?
When the Guru recommends a resource, it is standard to give the suppliers' web site as a reference. Most often, the answer will be in a resource that supplier sells, not free online.
Is the 153 billion spent on promotional campaigns in the U.S. part of the total(230 billion) advertising/marketing dollars spent or is that 153 billion dollar amount in addition to the 230 billion?
Advertising alone is $230 billion.
Of the approx 230 billion dollars spent by advertisers in the U.S., how much of that amount is spent to reach the teen market?
It is not really possible to identify advertising targeted to teens other than ads placed in teen-specific media, like certain magazines.
I am looking for a good internet school that will teach me basic planning and buying
The Guru has never encountered such a school that he can recommend. C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment) might offer useful training materials.
What methods can be used to measure television viewing?
i.e. Respondant Level Data, and Personal Probablity
Model. Can you provide information about each?
You seem to be speaking of ways to use measurements, not methods of measurement.
Best to consult a compilation of such applicatiosn such as Journal of Advertising Research
Are there any standardized formats for measuring the effectiveness of place based media? Said another way, what are the most common criteria used in mesauring OOH media effectiveness...
"Effectiveness" is a matter of interpretation, but OOH is judged by the same standards as any other medium: recall, awareness, sales impact, etc.
Do you know of any recent studies done on the use of larger
(i.e. 4-page) magazine inserts versus smaller P4CB and spreads? Where is this information published/available? (We already have some stuff from MPA).
Try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
What is CPI
Depending on who said it and to whom and in what context, it could be many things.
The "CP" is surely "Cost per." The first meanings for the "I" which occur to the Guru are insertion or inquiry.
Is there an industry standard when it come to agency compensation? I know there has been a shift away from the once acceptable 15% commission towards more of a retainer on hourly fee. Is one more benefitial than the other? Do you know of any publications that address this issue? Thanks!
The "standard" is still 15%, even if that is now a minority arrangement. Larger fees on small accounts and smaller fees on larger accounts make sense. "Beneficial" is a matter of perspective.
A client asked us to find out about "Direct Satellite TV Advertising." Even if a home has a satellite dish, don't they receive regular plus additional signals with commercials already? Or is there a separate way of buying commercials that go only to satellite TV homes? If so any names of comapnies that sell this kind of advertising would be helpful.
Click here to see the past Guru
explanation about satellite TV advertising. For the latest satellite TV penetration, see SkyReport
Oh great and powerful guru...
I've just read a series of responses concerning GRPs and wearout. Most questions seem to be based on X # of GRPs but no mention of reach or frequency. The real answer may lie in average frequency. If your GRP of 1000 is 1000 reached 1 time wearout is not a factor. If the GRP is 50 frequency for 20 reach, it's time to change spots. Am I'm living on a different planet or am I close to understanding something?
You are quite correct; the key audience metric in examining wearout is frequency.
But media people use boxcar GRP numbers as a general reference for schedule magnitude. Any reasonable TV mix of 1000 or more GRP will deliver about 85 - 95 reach for a typical demographic, making the average frequency about 11. The range in this discussion is therefore pretty narrow.
Some set a wearout standard according to frequency in the next-to-highest quintile, something like "when the next-to-highest quintile has a frequency of 20+." Even this kind of standard doesn't give greatly varying results across reasonable mixes of high numbers of GRP.
We are a publisher of international industrial magazines and I am looking for a magazine rep firm in Japan and Korea to handle our titles.
One of our clients is very interested in a rich media
He just want to have an approximated idea of the
production, deployment, creative costs and other extra
costs like extra fees for adserving or premium CPM.
tech savvy target (USA MArket)
I'd appreciate if you answer me asap.
Placement cost premiums of rich media vary from site to site, and may be as little as $0. The other issues are not media questions.
Do you know what is the most powerful radio signal in America?
Numerous AM stations radiate 50 KW. Because stations are assigned to markets, there are limits on power. No commerical station is intended to reach the entire country (except late at night with a good headwind).
Does latency occur when a company posts its own banners?
If this does occur, what is the time spent waiting compared to the
latency (or the nonexistence of it) with using an ad server?
then this is like asking whether there is a difference in how long it takes sunlight to get to New York vs Miami.
There is a time difference but it won't matter to the ordinary human perception. But when the user has only a 56K modem and there is plenty of traffic, there is a chance of visible delays or time differences in the two situations, not that this is a media question. . .
What is the traditional (inhouse) process of posting a banner ad and what are the pros and cons?
Just put an <img src > tag on the page if it's your own banner on your own site. Nothing can be simpler. If you are selling lost of outside banners, there may be a reason to use posting scripts. But this is a production issue, not media.
I am launching a publisher site next month. What is the best way to prepare to be able to sell my media ASAP? Many ad agencies, like engage, doubleclick, etc. won't look at you until you're big. Are there ways to generate advertising revenues during the first month after launch?
There are smaller reps who'll take on anyone for a large majority of the revenue. Best bet is to advertise, hire a salesman or both.
Dear Media Guru, Off the top of your head, what would you say are consumer "target groups" that are the most difficult to reach through television advertising. In other words, what are "target groups" that marketers of consumer packaged goods companies would like to more effectively reach?
"Off the top of the Guru's head" the most difficult targets to reach are not neccessarily the targets for consumer package goods. The toughest ones are probably young men and male teens.
Thinking more broadly, there is the Hispanic market, which is highly desirable to package goods marketers, and not reached effectively by general market TV nor at high reach levels in Spanish language TV.
Do you know if there is some other web-based reach/frequency analysis tool for creating media plans . . . in Latinamerica?
eTelmar has the tools, but the audience measures for Latin America based sites are up to you to bring along.
Could you recommend any Media Planning seminars/classes?
I'm looking for a beginner's class as well as an
advance class. Also, can you recommend Media Planning
books and/or software?
Where can I find data on online advertising costs in the UK.
M.G.- What is the % response for direct mailing ?
What does the response curve look like?
newspaper unduplicated reach
I have been asked to conduct Media 101 Camp. This camp is so the AEs have a better understanding of media, the time it takes to plan and buy, and its importance to the overall adverising objectives. (Yes I need to explain this. Can you refer to me a place where I can find a general workbook to use that would include examples?
You would be better off to think through what your specific AE's need to know. Workbooks for this purpose probably all tend to be like the one at The Small Business Administration, out of date, and full of ill-informed media thinking, without concepts like reach taken into consideration.
Guru, In broadcast planning, what is the generally accepted maximum number of GRPs per schedule when there is only 1 creative spot? I have heard 1000 GRPs as a guideline, do you agree? Is this true for TV and radio? Thanks for your help.
1000 is low, but it also depends on the lenght of time over which the schedule is spread.
Click here to see past
Guru responses about wearout.
How do I found out information on Polish Advertising?
which are the best mediums to advertise for a insurance client
Any can work, think through your marketing goals and advertising goals and the capabilities of the various media.
How does set-tops work, and what is the future of interactive television.
Interactive television has not been successful in the U.S. Other than ordering pay-per-view events on cable or satellite systems it does not ssem to have a projectable future.
I've recently heard of a company in California (I believe) that sells ad space on VW bugs. Do happen to know the name of this company or how I can find it?
Thanks so much!
The Guru had seen that years ago, but not recently. Why not call VW dealers in the LA area?
I have a client exploring the senior citizen market. Where can I find information on this demographic (purchasing habits, etc)?
The ususal sources, such as MRI.
Any thoughts about the pros and cons of ride-along Direct Mail inserts (like Val-Pak) vs. solo mailings?
It's a matter of price versus response rate. The Guru would go for the price option here.
I am looking for the phone number for "Executive Media Research". Thanks!
The Guru is not familiar with this company.
You have stated in the past that "it has been
demonstrated... that two, consecutive, one-third page
ads on the outside column or right hand pages will do
far better in awareness, recall, etc. than one full
page." Will you please tell me where to find a source
that will support this statement? Thank you!
I am interested in knowing the number of internet users in the various Middle East markets (by individual markets). Can you please suggest a source.
Thanks in advance.
Are they any media planning software awailable to plan campaigns on the net. If yes, could you let me know where can I access them an what do these software do. Thanx
See eTelmar's WebPlanner
Guru, what are your thoughts regarding optimum flighting for a low interest, non seasonal product (household insurance) that is purchased only once to twice per year ? Burst or continuity ?
Thanks for your service - itz great.
When there is no seasonality, there is no justification for bursts. There may be a break-through minimum threshold of awareness such as 30% reach per week. Beyond that, having a presence whenever a purchase decision might be made is probably most productive.
What do you recommed as the approach i should take to plan a net campaign to promote a on-line shop for sale of a leading beer brand. The target group is 18-24 yr, youth. The USP of the shop is (1) convenience & (2) price advantage over off-line purchase. Thanx
The Guru would use sites narrowly targeting your demographic and catetring to price shoppers. There may be legal issues; you couldn't do this in the U.S.
A client has asked us for the agency's recommendation on changing their demo and/or keeping it the same for Y2001 planning. They operate in 4 DMA's. How would you go about deciding what to change it to or whether to stay with the same demo? I've looked at cpp differences in sqad and there isn't much difference in tv but quite a bit in radio. MRI isn't much help because they don't delve into this category much. Any other ideas? Thanks for your help!
CPP is not relevant to answering this question. It just changes in relation to composition. If you buy a lower cpp demo, you may just buy fewer spots for the same money.
Target basis should be who is the best customer, in terms of sales potential (high user/usage/purchase index) for the advertiser. A large enough group of customers should be targetd so that the target accounts for the majority of sales. There are other resources like MRI which may go into more depth on certain categories. Try Scarborough or The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study.
Do you know of any "industry standards" that exist on the topic of doing post-buy analysises on radio?
The long-time "industry standard" has been either don't do it, or post from the same book as purchased. Either position is based on the assumption that there is a lot of statistical bounce in radio ratings, which are not reflective of actual listening. In fact, across a multi-station, multi-spot schedule most statisical bounce is compensated. The question remains of whether a single station can be accountable for ratings variance when they deliver the schedule as ordered.
Howdy Guru! What is the industry standard on break
averaging for television posts? My agency estimates
and buys in one system that does not break average,
and we post our buys in another system that does break averages every daypart. We have to run our posts
through the second system because that is our billing
Your question is not clear. To estimate ratings for breaks, the norm is the average of the preceding and following quarter hour.
I know this isn't a media question and thought you could lead me to the right source. Are there any recent studies/surveys tracking the popularity of broadcast commercials?
Best source would be The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
What is the advertising to sales ratio for an "average"
company? For a tech company? For a start up tech company establishing a brand?
Annual articles in trade publications such as Ad Age cover this data
What is the current average rate differential between
national and local newspaper rates? It has been as high
as 75% in the past (national advertisers pay 75% more
than local advertisers on average for the same space). NAA does not report this figure.
The Guru doesn't think there is any rule. The differentials are all over the place and an average would not be useful. He has even seen one case with retail rates above national. Using the online Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) might allow one to average. Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS)offers research analyses like this at a nominal charge to sunscribers.
According to Ephron, reach is most important for a brand. If this is true, should a major packaged goods company target A18+ rather than women? In their case, 70% of purchases are still made by women. However, we know men are a very strong influencer for this particular category. It seems to make sense, since we could achieve higher overall reach with an A18+ target, especially since tv cpp's for A18+ are lower. Thanks
You are confusing three different concepts.
The point about reach is that it is discussed with some target being implied. Theoretically, some demographic groups are much better prospects than others for sales, and it is more valuable to reach these.
Imagine a population of 1,000,000 A18+, including 400,000 women 35+ who have a 150 index of usage for a product and the remainder of A18+ average a 67 index. So, W35+ are more than 2x as likely to use the product.
Now, you might be able to buy a W35+ GRP at $100 cpp and reach 4000 W35+.
If A18+ CPP is $80, you can buy 25% more of those GRP for your money, but each untargeted A18+ GRP only produces 30 W35+ GRP.
The key is this, when you "targeted" W35+, every GRP you bought also came with cosniderable audience among the remainder of A18+. The idea of targeting is to focus on the best prospect. Thinking you get more reach by buying a cheaper GRP target is merely an illusory of improvement. Keep buying W35+ but count A18+, if you want to feel you've reached more people.
There is a simple technique for comparing two such buys. Add all the impressions (or net impression) of each and weight the segemnts acccording to their index of usage. The buy with the most weighted impressions, no matter how you bought it, has the advantage. (That is, an 80 GRP W35+ buy might have more value weighted impressions or net people reached than a 100 GRP A18+ buy).
What do you think the minimal amount of market coverage a business should have to consider advertising in a market? For examply, in the retail business, how many retail outlets do I need to have in a market before it makes sense to advertise with broad reach mediums (radio, outdoor)? Thanks
It's not simply a matter of number of outlets, it also involves competiton and desirability. For example there may be only one BWM or Hatteras Yacht dealer in a metro area, becasue the number of sales, while high-ticket are few and people will travel some distance for a unique product. If you have a restaurant or hardware stoer where choices are many, then it's more about dispersion across the market than pure numer of outlets. You need to decide how far people will go for what you're selling and compare that to coverage of the media considered. IN some parts of the country, people will drive 2 hours for dinner.
Keep in mind that there's a big difference between 'broad coverage" media and big reach media. For example, outdoor can be readily purchased to have a very high reach of a small area, like a single store's 3-mile trading circle. In some situations, local suburban radio can match a single store's trading area as well.
Dear Guru I am a media planner who is of late being asked to construct lot of net media plans. My problem is that I at times am at loss as what all (in terms of advertising) can be done on this versatile medium?? I am looking for something more than banner ad campaign. Is there an account of what all has been done on this medium in terms of innovation by various advertisers or even various things possible on this medium. Thanks
Guru, what exactly is "direct marketing"?
This is the technique where the consumer responds directly to the advertisement, by sending back a reply form or calling an "800" number. No retail channels are involved.
Where can I find media plan information that will guide me quickly, but efficiently?
See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan
I need to set-up a media plan for a new hand tool what is the best method to go about doing this?
Determine target, budget, seasonality, if any, communications goals, efficiency and what media environmnet might best support your message.
What are the most effiecient means to advertise for target markets of men 24-54 and women 25-44?
Start with the cost data mentioned in answer to your adjacent question, collect the equally voluminous audience data, and make the comparisons.
What is the cost to advertise per each median of advertsing? Newspaper local and national? Magazines? Radio? Television?
The resources to answer all these questions cover several volumes of more than 1000 pages each. Start at AMIC's Ad Data area.
Is there any specific way of relating media inputs to sales per region?
Some non-regional media can be translated into regional impact. For instance network TV or national magazines, if you have the research data.
I'm interviewing for my first entry level media planning position in a couple of days. I'm very nervous. Can you give me any tips? Any and all information will be greatly appreciated. Thanks Media Guru.
Stay calm, display common sense and communication skills.
Hi Guru. Can you direct me to resources that deal with
"making the case" for NOT reducing ad budgets...those
non-advertising agency/assoc. resources that won't
appear so self-serving. Dig?
The Guru imagines that almost anyone who compiles such data will be doing it for self-serving reasons, whether an association or a medium. However, the material compiled, such as the classic wartime "Lucky Strike" story may come directly from advertisers.
The closest to an independent source might be the University advertising schools, like U. Texas at Austin.
Hi Guru - Hope you are well. I am taking on a side project and would love to get your input on how to go about it. A prosthetic parts manufacturing company is looking to increase sales. They primarily sell direct to doctors who then sell to patients and the bills are paid by insurance. The market is very small, and to date they have gotten their awareness from trade shows and trade journals. Do you have any ideas on how to develop a marketing strategy for a product like this? WOuld looking a prescription drug advertising help give me some direction? Do you think there is an opportunity to reach customers after surgery in hospitals? Any input you have would be helpful. Do you know of any research shources for this type of thing? Market size, etc.
Why not create a "gift pack" for post surgical patients, like those typically given to post natal patients? It could include care instructions, dressing changes, antibiotic cream samples, etc.
Contact the maternity gift pack distibutors.
i have heard that 3500 GRP's equals to 70% of brand awareness what do you think
The Guru thinks that's nonsense!
In media and awareness nothing is ever so simple.
I saw a chart indicating the "time to purchase" in hours.
Something like 55% in first 30 min, 10% in 60 min, etc.
Unfortunately I didn't bookmark it ... any ideas?
The Guru assumes you are referring to time between broadcast of a direct response ad and customer telephone calls. Moist likley site is Direct Marketing Association
Is there a metric for evaluating the performance of online advertising (Internet), print, radio and tv advertising?
The absolute metric is sales. Short of that there is ad awareness or recall. Otherwise there are audience measures; impressions, or reach.
Is there a site that ranks high-tech business-oriented magazines by subscription size?
Is there a site that ranks cable and tv programming by largest high tech management viewers?
The magazine data can be acquired from BPA International. The cable data maight be available in MRI or Intelliquest might nhave the cable data, but not online. It is likely that the small size of your demographic cell combined with the small audiences of cable programs will allow only unstable measurements, if any.
Anticipated rate increases for 2001
Click here to see past Guru responses about inflation.
Guru, did any channel in US of A added live chat on Internet to get better ratings? I know NBC did it for NBC21 and FRIENDS. How successful was this experiment?
Do any other have a live chat room association?
Many programs and networks have this feature. It is doubtful that a chat, which can't effectively include more than a few people will have any measurable effect on national ratings, where thousands of people are required to make a 0.1% diffrence.
Dear Guru :
Topic : TV Advertising Awarenness
I would like to know that if it is a factor or rate, that afect the ad position in the comercial break
Ad awareness is a broad measure, taken against full schedules of advertising. With the variance in positions experienced over a schedule, among som many othter factors, it seems unlikely that awareness could be attached ot pod-position.
There probably have been tests of day-after-recall for this, however. Check The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Can website banner advertising be bought on a regional basis, such as by telephone area code or Postal ZIP code? Thanks.
Yes, to an extent. Web servers can identify the IP address of a visitor. When the IP address is identified as having a specific location within a zip code or area code then a choice can be made to serve an ad. BUT, most visitors to general sites come from AOL or other national ISPs so that their invidual users appear to come from one central location.
How can I find out what companies market to teens and what percent of their marketing budget is allocated to the teen segment?
I am also interested in how to find customer acquisition costs per company and per industry. Some companies publish this information in press releases (such as Amazon.com's $19 cost per new customer) or in the annual report (for public companies only). Is there a source where I can find these costs? Thanks.
The easiest way to find companies marketing to teens is to skim through some teen-oriented magazines at your library. Of course, this won't be complete, so the next step is to use a tool like
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) to track advertisers in other teen oriented media. Most companies would treat the info you want as confidential, so only public or monitored behavior such as the Guru has mentioned will be available in most cases.
Cusotmer acquisrition costs are only relevant for certain industries and businesses like Amazon whose direct sales methods allow tracking. Otherwise you will need to find marketing expenditure and customer # estimates from sources like MRI to calculate this yourself.
In some industries, the trade media may have reported on this.
Where can I find data on luxury brand advertising on US National Cable? Thanx
Where can I find a list of national alternative media ideas?
By their nature alternative media ideas are rarely national. They are also highly individual and, the Guru thinks, unlikely to be compiled.
Dear Guru, I'm comparing print and web advertising for my diploma project. Where can find online forums with business people talking about their media choices and preferences?
AMIC's MediaPlanning and Market-L forums.
What are the best sites (metrix and satisfied customers) for content and job/career information in the marketing/advertising industry?
The Guru recommends AMIC .
What are the benefits of Spot TV versus print for a 3 month launch campaign?
TV is a more active, impactful medium than newspaper. There is a greater range of flexibility in schedule, reach and frequency, especially in achieving quick, up-front high levels. 95% reach at 20+ frequency in week 1 is possible in TV, with nothing close possible in local print. But budget will be a key issue.
What do you think about the accuracy of SQAD costs? Based on what I know I paid in some of my markets, I just find the costs they list to be extremely high. What is their methodology? Since I am from a very small agency in SC, I find it hard to believe that the bigger agencies of this world are paying 3 times my cost per point in several markets.
SQAD costs are sometimes said to be a bit higher than what is truly achievable, but perhaps just by 15 or 25%. They are based on the experience of several buyers of various sizes. SQAD costs are sensitve to timing versus airing and other parameters.
I have some questions on evaluation parameters on B to B sites and on the different units on these sites:
1. What is the "typical" response rate/click thru rate nowadays for banners?
2. What is the average for skyscrapers, sponsored links, tiles, download modules, and newsletter sponsorships?
3. How long is a fair evaluation period? After one week?
4. What is the national average click rate? ( averaging Bto B and B to C sites )
5. Any research that is avialble off the web on this would be welcome.
The overall average banner click-rate is about one-third of one percent. The Guru does not think there are any meaningful averages according to odd banner sizes or site types. There are too many sites and no standard measurers. You should be able to find a variety of studies at NUA Internet Surveys.
The best click rates are generally attached to key-word searches. Banner clicks decline rapidly after one or two weeks.
Kaun Banega Crorepati is the Indian version of the game
show Who Wants to be a Millionaire. It is a runaway success
in India just as it has been elsewhere. I have three questions
for the Media Guru:
1. What has the experience of Who Wants to be... been in markets
like the US and UK in terms of viewer fatigue? Did fatigue set in
after 30 or 60 or 90 episodes...did the network have to refresh
programme format or add new elements to keep interest levels high?
2. How has it impacted the performance of other programmes on the same
channel/network airing the game show? did viewership of other programmes
on the network too go up?
In the U.S., after a year, running multiple episodes per week, "Millionaire" is still often the #1, #2 and #3 rated program of the week, with no significant changes.
The program has helped its network and been used as a deadly weapon competitively.
The NY Times Sunday Magazine recently published an article comparing the imitators around the world, including Kaun Banega Crorepati.
Where can I find information on advertisers and agencies
that primarily buy national talk radio? Is there a source
that can give me a list of the top agencie and or advertisers
with regards to national talk radio?
As always, thanks for your help!
There may be a way to manipulate
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) for this information.
I have recently joined Angryman.comas VP of marketing. Being new to Advertising industry, I need to contact advertising network service providers for publishers. I know of doubleclick and engage. Are there others you could identify, preferably in the metro NY area, but include the major players as well. Thank you for your prompt attention to this matter since there is an urgency to seek sales representation.
See AMIC's "web sites" area.
hi guru...what are the best months to target new home buyers with direct mail. thanks!
The big months for moving to new homes are the summer months, so as not to interrupt kids' school years. Judge your mail months depending on whether you want to reach home shoppers or new move-ins.
Are there any practice of the radio advertising trading by GRPs as it is for TV? If yes, where in the WWW I can find something about this?
In the U.S this is standard practice and has been for at least 30 years. The Guru doesn't think there will be any data on this, because it is simply the assumed method of business. Perhaps in some country where radio ratings research is new, this woould be a topic to discuss.
Dear Guru, I have to look for information on how many people in European countries consult any sort of financial information online. Where can I look it up?
Whether this way or through traditional survey research, a lot will be missed, such as information sought within AOL or on broad portals that include some financial data resources, newspapers' financial areas, etc.
do you have any thoughts/research on how effective radio is in driving web traffic?
The Guru believes it depends a lot more on the copy and the targeting of the media versus site target than it does on generalizations about a media type, like radio. In radio, being able to memorably convey the URL will be crucial. It probably won't work very well with long or hard to spell site names.
Click here to see past Guru
responses on driving web traffic.
I am aiding in an ad agency search. My client has asked me to come up with a way to compare the way two agencies will receive compensation. Can you help me by suggesting the factors I should request of the agencies to do an apples to apples comparison.
As far as the media portion of this question goes it seems quite simple. Pose the question to the agencies:
"If we have a media budget of (fill in your approximate budget here) what will be your total fees for planning, buying and all supporting or related accounting functions? What fees are or are not refunded or forgiven in case of cancellations? Express the answer in dollars rather than percentages."
It might aid precison to break down the budget specification into print versus broadcast versus online, etc, and by national versus local.
Where can i find/Subscribe to:
1- Marketer's Guide to Media
2- MEDIAWEEK's Guide to Media
and are there other publications which provides data on advertising media?
What is your opinion on 4 week TV plan that has the most grp during the first 10 days and the last 10. Three new ads used for a brand with rather low brand awareness.
You don't cite any reason why the middle 8 days are less important than the first or last 10 nor why the first and last 10 have significance versus the middle. Since your other references are about simple brand awareness building. So the effects will only be part of a longer term scenario. The Guru imagines, without any information about what else you are measuring or trying to achieve, that this schedule won't have results any different than running evenly over the 4 weeks or running nothing during the middle 8 days and all the weight in the first and last 10.
i'm working on a plan that exclusively uses television and has a attained the reach cap- at what point is it generally effective to add a second medium?
The rate of reach building can be graphed as a "curve." You find a flattening curve as the potential of the medium is approached. (See example below for reach over time). If you plot the reach curve of your tv schedule, with dollars as the x axis, you will see where you begin to add money at a far faster rate than you add reach reach. The spending rate increase is always faster than the reach increase, but there's always a time when the spending increase notably accelerates. That's when to use a secondary medium
M.G. - please advise how to perform an analysis of TV HUT levels using MRI syndicated research tools? We want to evaluate HUT levels in our market in order to confirm that our daypart mix will be effective (to influence a purchasing action when our target is home using television). Thank you.
does not compute.You really can't and shouldn't anyway.
"HUT" is Homes Using Televison.
That is, the percentage of all Television-owning homes which have the set turned on at a point in time.
MRI does not report data about households and does not report point-in-time data about TV, but rather data which might be interpreted as cumes.
The analysis you propose, that judging effectiveness based on the portion of the audience which is using television in the dayparts which you purchase, is off the mark. A simple reach evaluation is much more sensible. You can reach 95% of the people in prime time, which has the highest HUT level or 95% of the people with the same GRPs dispersed though several, more efficient dayparts. Or you might reach more perple in dayparts with a lower HUT but efficient enough to afford lots more weight.
Dear Guru, we are getting into awareness based media
planning which means objective will be set on awareness
scores, rather than GRP, R&F. Please tell me the
factors which are required and procedure for setting
awareness objectives.Thank you
Very theoretical. There is no specific rule of thumb equating awareness to GRP. There will be a big difference in saying the objective is to achieve 30% brand awareness versus increasing an existing awarness of 30% by 30 points.
You should think about:
Frankly the Guru believes that saying "awareness based media planning" is just putting a marketing spin on the media plan. Ultimately a media plan sophisticated enought to have objectives almost invariably has some awareness objective mentioned. And ultimately, media must be bought in terms of GRP or impressions or insertions; the media vendors do not sell quantities of awareness. So either you have a formula which equates awareness numbers to media units or you do not. The Guru does not.
Dear Mr. Media,
I would have a question regarding the theory and research about positions in TV commercial breaks. Is it worth paying the premium for 1st in break... When it is worth paying...
The only advantage would be catching the viewwer before their attention goes elsewhere. This can be the difference between your commercial being seen and not seen, but for what portion of users?
Research on the topic would be available thorugh The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Can you direct me to a list of ad servers?
See the July issue of Media magazine.
where can I find the cost inflation for network and cable tv since 1991 to the present?
The trade publications such as Ad Age publish these trends
We are a business to business agency, and one of our clients is considering releasing a consumer product. Without investing in Nielsen, Arbitron, and Consumer SRDS- what would you think would be the most effective approach in reaching female teenagers?
Hi Guru, I have a client looking to open a new office
somewhere in the US and am conducting research to find
the best possible area to set up shop. We do not have
MRI and only have 10 Scarborough markets in house. I
have found USAdata.com can pull across Scarborough's 64
markets for certain qualifiers we are looking for but
am wondering if you know of anywhere else I could
obtain this information, specifically HHI, Housing
Prices, and educational levels across the largest
markets in the US (for free would be a plus)?
history of media independants
Media independents date from about 1969. U.S. Media, which disappeared shortly and Vitt Media which lasted nearly 30 years were the first big ones. RDR, SFM, and TBS are some of the surviving major U.S. independents.
The original premise was better media buying, specifically in terms of efficiency. The independents made media buying a separate profession; until they appeared, agency media departments' media carreer path was
assistant buyer --> buyer --> assistant planner --> planner.
Once the independents came on the scene, agencies separated their buying groups and tried to present them as them parallel to planners.
Our contract with the client states that agency commission is 10% on gross. The client wants to know the equivalent in net. I take gross as gross media cost when quoted by media vendors so the answer is 11.76% on net. My colleague takes gross as "cost to client", so the answer becomes 11.11% on net. Can you please let me know what is the industry standard?
In standard, industry, media jargon "gross" means specifically the total cost of media quoted by the media vendor before allowance for agency commission. of the gross. The media quote a cost and state something like "15% commission to recognized agencies." There may, on occasion, be some other stated commission. For instance, years ago, 30-sheet outdoor commonly offered 16 and two-thirds of a percent commission. The point is that "the net" is the gross less the media vendor's stated commission, and your deal with your client is not a factor in using these terms. assuming the media state a standard 15% commission, your 10% of gross is 10 ÷ 85, or 11.76470588%
Where can I get a list of the spill-in and spill-out of tv viewership by market.
This data comes from Nielsen.
Have a "network" of apprx. 50 radio stations throughout the U.S. that I own 15- 25 spots per week, airing 6:00a to 7:00p and I'm looking to sell the inventory. Can you point me in the right direction?
Without knowing ratings, markets, formats etc, the Guru can't offer any advice. Best bet is probably a smaller rep like MarketPlace Media.
How does the people meter work and what are it's merits and demerits and further more where can i find more information about people meter
The (U.S. Nielsen) People Meter is attached to each set in a sample household. In addititon to recording the channel to which the set is tuned, it has the means to identify each houshold member and for each one present to indicate that he or she is watching, and thus track personal behavior, and demographic audiences.
It is considered the best available means of measuring TV audience. Visit Nielsen for details.
I am new here, after long time of searching i found this site & it looks that this is a great site i still have more to check in.
I just would appreciate it, if you could tell me how can i become a professional Media Planner? in our country we have a lack of books related to Strategic Media Planning or else. I have a BA. degree in Psychology but never studied Advertising or Business Mang.
I have good knowledege of Adv. field. And i am working as a Media Planner for 2 years.
I read books, but still feel this isn't enough, i tried to search on the internet in Distance learning, and others but no luck
I just need to know what i can do to become a Professional Media Planner.
Can you help me.
In the U.S. it is not difficult to get an entry level media planning job in the major advertising cities like New York or Chicago, if you have a B.A.
You say you are working as a media planner now, so the Guru is somewhat unclear.
where can i find information or researches about postal
markets, and the competative situation with electronic mail.
I am an AAE at an ad agency, and a health care client believes that too much of the budget is being spent on direct mail. Do you know where I could find an industry average for budget allocation, or what % of a budget is too much to be spending on direct mail pieces? Thank you.
Direct mail is self justifying. It either pays out or it doesn't. In the Guru's experience. it is treated as totally separate from mass media.
I am assisting in the concept development of a local
information Web network which is MSA-based. As part
of my research, I have been looking for quality industry journals which routinely concern themselves with sites and their content. Can you suggest any, or a directory of such publications? Thank you.
How long should commercial breaks be in order to
maximise the amount of people who watch them?
The Guru does not believe there has been sufficent experimentation to answer your question. Today's audiences, trained that breaks are 2 minutes plus, readily channel surf. On some cable networks, breaks can be far longer. If viewers expected breaks of only one minute or less, there would be less zipping, but then the more frequent breaks which resulted would be likely to lose program audience, by annoying the viewers.
can you please explain various tools through which one can determine the efficieny of a TV plan
"Efficiency" has a standard definition, so it is subject to arithmetic formulas rather than tools. Efficiency is defined as cost per unit of audience. "Audience" might be expressed as impressions or rating points.
So "efficiency" usually means, CPM (Cost per Thousand), which is the cost of a schedule or advertising unit ÷ the sum audiences of the ad units (in thousands) and CPP (Cost per Point) is the cost of a schedule or advertising units ÷ the sum of the ratingss of the ad units.
Media Guru(s), Hopefully will not humiliate myself with this question: When planning a trade campaign (target is Neurologists,and GPs) how do I determine the time frame for reach/frequency? I have set effective freq. at 4. Is this over a 4 week period? Can it be over a quarter? I cannot achieve a 4 week freq. of 4 against the Neurologists, but I can against the GPs. Does this mean that using trade print to reach the neurologists is not effective/appropriate? How do I rationalize a 4 week r/f delivery time frame for the one target group and a quarterly time frame for the other? Or am I totally missing the mark in both cases???
The "standard" period for evaluating reach and frequency is 4 weeks or a month, if all print.
When considering effective frequency, some thinkers believe that every exposure after the crtical number is achieved is delivered effectively. This is a cornerstone of the "Recency" theory. So, you can think abouit your effective levels on a rolling, cumulative basis, and merely state that effectivene reach is being delivered to GPs as of "X" point in time and against neurologists as of "Y" point in time.
I'm trying to find out costs for a cable program. I've asked National Cable and they have told me that they can't sell nationally. Who does? Thanks.
The cable each networks sell their own time nationally.
Guru...I need to price the sale of advertising space on a time and temperature recorded message. I was considering using Internet CPM since I do have the call volume per month. Are there any benchmarks specifically for this time and temp service? I appreciate any insight you have -- thanks.
This seems to be a unique service for any given area, so competitive benchmarks aren't likely to be relevant. Like the internet, your message gets in the way of very specific information that the consumer is sseking, but even more so. Radio is probably a better comparison, unless you are selling to someone who can really capitalize on a time or weather environment.
What is the average online clickthrough rate ?
The average these days is around one-third of one percent, But variation is wide.
In an article I recently read about Internet advertising... the term "Viral advertising" was used. What does this mean? For Example: "Advertisers should adopt multiple-ad delivery strategies,
including cross-promotions, sponsorship, email marketing and viral campaigns."
Viral is trendy newspeak for "word-of-mouth," in other words, messages passed directly from consumer to consumer.
How fast is the usage of the internet growing by Adults 50+ as compared with the other age groups?
It is the nature of segmentation studies that the groups which had slowest intial growth eventually have the fastest growth, because all otheres have grown as much as they can.
For some demographic growth trends, see NUA Internet Surveys.
How can I establish an Internet budget as part of an overall
media mix? Lets say for the sake of argument that the plan in question
is for a traditional package goods advertiser who wants to reach A18-49.
In the Guru's opinion, reach goals against mass targets can't justify internet budgets for package goods. Virtually all traditional media do a better and more efficient job of reaching such targets.
The internet budget might be justified by a need for an interactive plan element, such as data collection, offering recipes, coupons or other inducements, etc.
I am trying to figure out the wearout for print. My target is African Americans 12-24 and 18-49. All I have is the FY reach, freg and TRPs. What would be my next steps?
There are no accepted standard formulas for wear-out. By the nature of print, which tends to yield high reach adn low frequency, there is generally less concern about wear-out than in broadcast.
Some of the broadcast rules-of-thumb for wear out include "over 20 frequency in the second highest quintile" or "2000 GRP.
Niether of these are likely to occur in print. Custom research may be the only real way to evaluate this. Start with Starch.
what is ment by B2B advertising?
Business to Business. The target customer is businesses rather than individual consumers.
I have a question regarding banner advertising servers. Do all banner ad servers allow the use of buyer side banner monitoring, like AdForce, or are there certain compality issues, ie. Doubleclick.net seller side ad server only works with this other buyer side banner advertisment monitoring software. Also.. is it pretty much the industry standard that all sellers ALLOW the use of these advertising buyer side softwares to monitor the banner flights.
Most commercial sites accept banners from adservers. Adservers monitor their own serving activity. The Guru is not clear on what you mean by "buyer-side" software. If the software can do its task without the cooperation of the site displaying the banner, then permission is irrelevant. The Guru doubts that most commercial sites would actively cooperate in allowing buyers sotware access to thier servers.
I am trying to do research on internet audio advertising. I would like to set up an audio ad campaign, but I do not know what companies deal with the technology and sales, and how much I should pay.
Start with AudioBase.
Could you please inform me how to look for an independent local agency in Hong Kong as media partner?
Visit the site of our sister company, Telmar
's Hong Kong office. Use the information request form.
Where can I find stats on how people find web sites. That is, search engine, offline ad, etc.?
This would be survey research. The range of answers would differ considerably for different types of sites. Try C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
We need ad revenues for newspaper, outdoor, radio & tv
for each of the top ten markets. Ideally we would like
to capture the final figures for 99, ytd for 2000 and
projected revenue for 2000.
I was sure one of the media mags published some of this
info but can not find out which one. The key here is
that we need the revenue info by market not total for
the top ten. Can you help me??? Thanks much & enjoy
your q & a...
The Guru doesn't think any trade publication would have so much detail. You will probably need to use
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
what is the difference between a media advertising firm and a regular full service ad agency
A media services firm offers primarily or exclusively media buying and planning and media research. It does not typically offer market research nor the creative services offered by full service agencies.
can you fill me in on zenith media's role in the advertising world?
Zenith Media is a media planning / buying service operated by the agency groups of Cordiant and Saatchi & Saatchi. It is comparable to the "ala carte" media operations of other agency giants.
What is the formula to equate reach and frequency from
an outdoor showing? i.e. a 25 showing has a reach of
76.8% and a frequency of8.2 (I pulled these numbers from
your media glossary)
"25 Showing" in out-of-home media indicates a buy with a daily effective circulation, or traffic count, or impressions, which equate to 25 GRP per day.
In considering a month's reach & frequency, it is common to adjust the weekend days' traffic down by about 50%. In a month, instead of 25 X 30 = 750 GRP, we credit about 630 GRP. This agrees with the arithmetic of 76.8 Reach and 8.2 Frequency.
My question is regarding the CMR BAR reports (Media Watch)...What are the 75 markets the competititve TV spending reports are done in? Is it the top 75 DMA's?
Thanks for your help.
Yes it is.
Guru...I am a media buyer in a very dynamic local radio market...book to book stations are having 100% plus AQH ratings increases and decreases. Since there is no consistency in ratings (several new stations have recently entered the market) how do you suggest handling annual negotiations? In the past, annual rates have been set, but this no longer seems applicable with the dramatic shifts in ratings. Is establishing a CPP goal and adjustings rates according to ratings appropriate? Thanks for any help you can offer in handling annual local radio negotiations.
Establishing a CPP and adjusting when ratings are posted is a good solution, and is analogous to network TV dealings. But, the station will probably only want to make-good by giving free air time, and an advertiser is not likely to agree to pay more money if ratings go up.
Consider the syndicated TV approach, where there are "recaps" or recapturable spots. They are scheduled for the advertiser as potential makegoods, but if ratings performance stands up to the deal, they are recaptured by the station for sellable inventory.
Guru - I went to the mediaquote.com linked to AMIC, and I was going through all the online advertising marketplace links. I personally am involved in one of these such media marketplaces.. What challeneges do you think an online advertising marketplace faces? and what benefits can an online advertising marketplace truly bring to media buyers and sellers?
The benefits and challenges are summed up in the Guru's prior comments:
"What these exchanges need to keep buyers is the capability to complete transactions
on line plus having whatever inventory a buyer might need. Otherwise it will be about
buyers' remembering to check for 'fire sales.'"
What are the different types of opt-in email lists, and how does the managing of these email list names works. What are the standards, how are these lists distrbuted?,...
...i would think that these email recepients on these lists have the ability to be "opt-out", meaning that there has to be one single place where these updated lists are constantly stored. The dillemma comes from seeing all these list brokers, what are the standards of the organization.....And also, what firms play the most prominent roles in selling and managing these lists?
The types of opt-in lists include
Legitimate "opt-in" lists are some variation of these. Many pieces of email arrive telling the recipient he has opted to receive it and many marketers may be defrauded into buying lists of people who have "expressed interest in receiving mail about . . ." whether they have or have not. The Guru gets piles of such spam.
There do not seem to be any other "standards" at present.
how are new dotcom companies using the search
engines to their advantage.
A search engine is a useful tool on sites with various content or products and adds appeal for return visits. Or do you mean using search engines to direct vistors?
Dear Guru, I run a small media department and up until now we haven't had any internet plans to develop or implement. Now I'm being asked to do both by several clients and my staff & I do not have the experience or the time to do an honest job for our clients. We were thinking hiring a buying service who specialized in internet planning & buying, similar to buying services we use for broadcast. What would you recommend?
This is a sound approach. Internet specialist have tools and strategic understanding to which you won't have access.
Visit AMIC's "Ad Placement on the Web" links.
I am new in the field of internet advertising sales, and I have never sold ads for the media before. Are there any web based pricing charts or formulas to use for calculating conversion rates, cpm, cpc and cpa?
Sample pricing and a cpm calculator can be found at Ad Resource.
"CP_" anything means "cost per" whatever. It's simply cost divided by thousands of ad impressions or clicks or anything.
Guru - I am new to the internet advertising arena. I find myself confused about the relationship between advertising server softwaress such as doubleclick, advertiser campaingn reporting softwares such as Ad Inelligence, 3rd party internet advertising auditors such as ABC.
Can you describe how all these softwares interact, what purpose advertisers and advertising sellers use them for and who is using them... Also, do you know of any website that lists all of these companies categorically?
The Guru doesn't think there is any one list of all these services.
A pretty good cross section could be found by searching The Industry Standard site for terms like "metrics," "server software" and "auditor."
Hallo, I am a media planner and I would like to attend some seminars in Europe about media planning. Could you suggest what companies I should apply to?
ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization has something coming up.
Explain cost per point in television advertising sales
A radio or tv advertising slot has a rating: the percent of the target group which is in the audience.
When the slot's cost is divided by its rating (rating points) the result is Cost per point. This ratio is a handy way to compare the "efficiency" of spots being sold.
Is there any industry standard that is followed that
determines how much should be spent on creative and
perduction in relation to total media spend. For example,if I spend $1 million annually on pure radio
time, how much over that should I spend on creative and
production? Is there a percentage that can be applied?
It completely depends on the medium and the marketing arena. A major national brand in network tv might spend 5 or 10%. A small advertiser in a smallish geography, using radio only might spend ½%. A major national advertiser, in Hispanic market TV might spend 25% to assure the same visual commercial production quality in Hispanic whjich only has 5% or 10% as much media budget as their general media.
We are investigating advertising to hotel guests. We already have information on hotel in room mags. Do you know of any additional opportunities we should be exploring? Thanks for your help!!
The hotel tv system should be an opportunity. You would probably need to place thise though each chain.
Dear Guru, Could please refer a book/web site regarding strategic programming or lineups.
The Amazon.com on-line bookstore has one,
Electronic Media Management
I'm a member of a company operating an internet portal. We are planning on making an ad for Television but I would like to know if there are any studies or research that will show how a coming out TV ad could directly affect the hits a website would get. Basically, we want information on how TV ad expenditure translates to click-throughs. Thanks!
It depends on many things:
In a NY Times article this past January, a variety of sites' ad campaigns were evaluated. The ratios of ad impressions to site visits ranged from 150:1 to 1:5.
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment) might have studies, but the Guru doubts that generalizations will be useful.
I run a educational website with variable traffice (about 150,000 page views per month in July; about 500,000 in February). My ad rep is Burst! (burstmedia.com), and right now (first two weeks of Aug.) Burst is serving 90% default (non-paying) banners. Burst says this is due to market conditions. Are they right? Will it get better? Should I be looking for another ad rep.?
August is a traditional slow period in advertising. Also, for the same reason that your traffic lags in August, so might the activity level of advertisers who target teachers or specific types of students or school-related anything. If your rep was doing well for you in February, this might be the case. But there is no harm in having a converation with another rep or two.
Are you aware of any documentation on the "insert" methdology of readership research for publications? What about the "in-survey" methodology where the survey is actually part of the publication and respondents tear it out for completion and return?
These approaches have well known problems:
Actual research on these approaches can be found at The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Do you have any research on trends in media compensation? Trends towards in-house media buying?
I am looking for information on rates currently being charged for sponsorship as opposed to advertising rates.
We hope to recruit a number companies who would sponsor specific sections of our website. Companies would sponsor
a section of the site that would be relevnt to their business i.e. travel information - travel agency. Thank you.
A cross section of various rates is at Ad Resource. "Sponsorship" can have a very broad range of meanigs, though.
I know that CMR can produce (and Charge) me for a report on Advertising Expenditures by brand by medium, but I am looking for something FREE. I have searched the web over and over, any ideas?
There are some abbreviated reports of online ad dspend, such as those by AdZone interactive in our AMIC's Ad Data area.
The Guru gets a lot of this sort of question, but companies which are in the business of generating data in exchange for revenue have figured out that if they give it all away, noone will pay then for it. Thus audeince research companies like Nielsen, Arbitron, MRI, Simmons, and data companies like CMR only release a narorw slice of data, such as Top 10 spenders or Household ratings or 12+ share to illustrate what they do. And they are strongly opposed to anyone giving away what they are in the business of selling.
A retail client of mine is planning a short media campaign to support a 4-day event (Thu-Sun). I'd like to show a reach curve or the like to illustrate the reach built by a 7-day media support (Mon-Sun) and a 4 1/2 day support (Wed - Sun Noon). Vehicles will be radio, TV, and newspaper. How can I do this?
In total, there is not likely to be much demonstrable difference between identical quantities of media delivered over a Monday-Sunday period.
If you want to illustrate reach accumulation day by day, then you can calculate the reach of the schedule that runs on the first day of the campaign in each case, the schedule that runs on the first two days of each campagn, etc. Then you can plot the two curves, with reach on the Y axis and days on the X axis, using the charting tools of Excel, Powerpoint, Corel, or whatever you might have.
It might look something like the chart below (not actual reach data).
Do you know where I can find some published articles about how to determine the media investment base on Optimal reach & frequency level ?
This is a very basic aspect of media planning. Probably the most common approach to formal media planning is setting a communications goal in reach and frequency terms and then examining the reach delivered by various plan options.
The richest source of articles might be Journal of Advertising Research.
I am trying to find annual B2B advertising expenditures, and annual internet B2B expenditures.
Would you know the information, or where I could find this information?
I start a small business(manufacturing and distributing electrocomunicational parts).I wonder if you can help me how can I measure ads ,espicialy newspapers.
Assuming you mean to measure the sales effectiveness, there are a couple of ways:
Can you direct me to effectiveness studies of internet
ads? I'm specifically looking for streaming audio ads
versus banner advertising online.
Thanks for your help.
My client would like to sell ad space on their website but doesn't have the resources for a dedicated sales staff. Would you know of any independant sales reps who specialize in selling this form of media for independant companiess.
See AMIC's list of web ad placement services at Web Sites: Ad Placement on the Web.
What are the top ten to twenty Web sites among teens?
Dear Media Guru:
Typically, how is the money I spend on broadcast (e.g. TV) advertising sliced? ie. Which player gets approximately how much of the pie? I dont need exact figures - since that would vary by actual agency, objectives etc. but just good ball-parks.
How much does the agency keep as commision? How much is spent on the creative portion? How much on the media itself? Are there other charges? Are there any other stake-holders? If the agency is not full-service, what commision/fee is given to the media-buyer?
If you must need more specifics: Lets consider 2 scenarios:
- Lets say my company is General Motors and my annual budget is $100 Million.
- Lets say I am a .com. My budget is $2 Million.
Thank you much!
Of course, there are many deals that vary from the traditional commission structure, and the bigger the budget the more likley there is a deal below the tradtional standard. But traditionally:
On a broadcast media bill to an advertiser, the agency gets 15% commission against the gross media cost. If a sales representative not an employee of the media owner has made the deal, the rep gets about 15% of the remaining net media cost. The rest belongs to the medium.
Out of the agency's 15%, it is being compensated for it's creative and marketing thinking. Actuall creation of the advertising materials, i.e. production of commercials is typically charged at out-of-pocket costs plus a mark-up of 17.65% (which is equal to 15% of the out of pocket + commission total).
If an agency uses an outside media buyer, the fee is usually 5% or less of the gross media costs, but there is a greater variation in these deals.
In dailies, for inter vehicular cost efficiency comparisons, are there any recent studies that compare ad. visibility for top of fold vs. bottom of fold or for odd vs. even.....
For inter media cost efficiency comparison, Is there a way where size of a magazine ad. can be compared with an ad. in newspapers? Any research reports
Regarding above / below the fold, see The Newspaper Advertising Association.
It is always a challenge when comparing efficiencies between media to decide which unit will be compared. Depending on the purpose, possible approaches include:
See Starch for research on print ad units.
I am in an in-house media buying service and we are entering the world of cable. Some of the networks provide VPVH as a measure vs. HH ratings. Which is a better measure? Can you provide a definition of VPVH?
VPVH and ratings are the same data expressed differently. "Viewers Per Viewing Household" is the number of viewers projected in a specific demographic category divided by the number of households viewing the programming. Household Rating is the number of households viewing divided by the household universe.
VPVH is demographic data and HH rating is not. Most buys are likely to be specific to one or more demographic groups.
Depending on your purposes one or the other may be more useful. In cable, it's important to get rating expressed on a total U.S. or total cable universe basis to make networks comparable. When the rating is expressed on a coverage area basis, there is no common denominator between networks.
Have you heard of online ad agencies charging a bad debt provision to owners of inventory to share the risk that media buyers don't settle their accounts?
It's possible. The Guru assumes that by "online ad agencies" you are referring to ad sales representatives, since media buyers are typically employees of advertising agencies (companies that create and buy space for ads).
At the enormously high commission rates ad sales reps often charge (40%+), the Guru would expect them to absorb this risk. At ordinary commission rates, such as 15-20%, the inventory owners might share the risk on non-payment, but certainly not reimburse the representatives.
What levels of commission are paid to third party agencies selling advertising inventory on behalf of websites?
The Guru has seen figures from 30 to 85%. Naturally, the biggest sites get better deals.
Dear Guru, what does the terms Bi-weekly, Bi-monthly actually mean. My assumption is that bi-weekly means every other week and bi-monthly is every other month. My collegue assumes bi-weekly is twice a week and bi-monthly is 2X per month. Can you clear this up for us. Thank you.
This is a semantic question, more than a media question, but interesting nonetheless. The Guru consulted his Random House "Webster's Encyclopedic Unabridged Dictionary."
The first meaning of bi-monthly is "occurring every two months." But the second meaning is "occurring twice monthly." Bi-weekly has the same pairing. In both cases, the second meanings are given an alternate definition of semi-monthly / semi-weekly. And, the "semi's" only mean twice per time period.
So, on balance, the preferred usage of "bi" would be once every two time cycles. But a publisher could mean either. A wise publisher will avoid the terms and say "twice a week" or "every other month" so that there is no confusion.
I have 4th Quarter 2000 spot tv rates and have been asked to do a quick and dirty estimate for 1st-3rd 2001. Are there an avg. factors to apply to 4th 2000 costs in order to estimate the other quarters I need? Accuracy is not needed here, just an estimate.
For year to year inflation, see TVB. For approximate quarterly indices versus annual averages, you may use
Hi, How do I compare two web sites targeting the same audience - should it be based on the number of impressions delivered or cpm? Any formal research on this??
CPM. You are buying a certain number of impressions. It matters little that the site could deliver 10 times as many as you buy or 50 times as many as you buy.
I need to know where can I find information about free newspapers, where are they running, its beginnings, its success (if). Please give me some addresses where to look for.
Thanks in advance.
Start with The Association of Alternative Newspapers.
Our client is interested in learning a cost range that advertisers currently pay for click throughs. (ie. $.50-$3 each)
Visit Ad Resource
CPMs for portals are often quoted as being in the $20 to $40 dollar range. As ane example, Yahoo! are shown with an effective CPM of more than $40 in the AdZone analysis for June 2000. However, taking the figures for ad revenue and page impressions in the latest Yahoo! financial figures (for Q1 2000) gives a CPM of only about $4.00. Why the big difference?
What you are asking is probably more of an accounting question than a media question, but:
So if Net is half of Gross, and real rates are half of rate card, and half of impressions aren't sold for advertsing, then it all hangs roughly together.
I.e $40 x 50% (net vs. gross) x 50% (rates) x 50%(unsold) = $5
When making buys across different mediums, I have found that the agressiveness of salespersons vary drastically between mediums. What type of commission structure do TV, Radio, Newspaper, and Internet ad sales persons make....generally speaking?
The Guru can't generalize on this. Different organization in the same medium have different structures. Different sales people may have different deals in the same organization, relating to commission structure and draw.
Aggression may be more a matter of the competitive situation.
Dear Guru, I have been challenged with justifying to agency management the addition of a new media planner. We are primarily a b-2-b agency. Is there an industry standard, or any resourse you can recommend that compares annual media billings vs. number of media department employees (ex: for every $1,000,000 in media billings, you need "x" number of media planner/buyers). I am sure that there is probably no absolute rule for hiring new employees in a media department, however I am looking for some ideas (above and beyone hours worked by current employees) to justify my request. Thanks in advance for your insight.
People per million is a dynamically changing concept. It takes the same number of people today to plan $10 million as it took for $1 million a few years ago. It takes fewer people to paln $10million when it's the budget of a single brand than when it's the budget of 10 unrelated brands.
The American Association of Advertising Agencies is probably the best source of this kind of staffing data on a current basis and addresssing the variables.
Compared to 2000, what is the expected media cost increase(%)for 2001 by the following mediums: radio, network TV, cable TV and newspapers? Any suggestions on how to find the information for a local market (specifically, Alaska)?
Click here to see past Guru
responses about cost increase projections.
How do I find a list of companies that are involved
in restroom billboard advertising?
Click here to see past Guru responses about restroom advertising
hi guru, what could be a sound web strategy for a
consumer durable product?
This is much too broad a question to answer sensibly. You need to evaluate what works with brand marketing strategy and other media objectives.
Do you have any research that shows how using multiple advertising medium (e.g. using radio plus outdoor) can increase effectiveness?
The first purpose of multiple media is to improve reach / frequency for the dollar. Otherwise, there can be many definitions of "effectiveness," such as brand awarenss, ad awareness, sales, etc.
For a range of research, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
How do ad servers like double click work - and which are the top 10 ad servers by continent and market
Without getting very technical, the site showing the advertising has a link with an image source referencing the url of the banner at the server site. The reference may actually be to programming scripts which then pick the appropriate banner to serve based on various specifications.
According to MediaPost's July 2000 issue of Media magazine, the top 10 ad sellers, ranked by monthly impressions sold, are
Because of the nature of the internet, the geographic location of the server or ad served is hardly relevant or discernable.
I'm trying to find ways to reach the travel trade on-line. I've checked with most of the travel agent magazine web sites, but most do not offer any advertising at this time. I've also checked web sites that are "tools" for the travel agent, but those sites do not allow on line advertising unless you are an agent. Is there anywhere I can look to try to reach the travel trade on line? Your help would be appreciated.
If all the travel agent magazines and "tools" sites that traget travel agents are unavailable, the next best idea would be to buy keyword on search engines. The trick will be to imagine keyowrds that are specific to travel agents versus other users, such as travelers. Presumably that is your area of expertise.
Dear Media Guru,
Where can I find media inflation estimates, for the different media types, for 2001?
Is there a service I can subscribe to that will provide me with this information?
For broadcast media, use SQAD. For other media, such as magazines or online, the Guru doubts such generalities are useful. It is one thing for an advertiser to predict its own next-year's inflation, but when an industry has so many niches, few advertisers will experience general trends.
I'm trying to find a resource that will show how media spending changes by quarter for the different media forms. For example, network television (on average) receives 25% of its total ad dollars in Q1, 35% in Q2, etc.; Radio receives 15% of its dollars in Q1, etc. etc.
Thanks for your help.
we're an ad agency that places a lot of radio locally. recently we've been experiencing a lot of traffic mistakes - none of them has been our fault - but it makes me wonder if there's something not clear in our traffic system. Do you know of any good "error-proof" traffic system? and how would you approach a client when traffic errors happen?
Nothing is really error proof. Without knowing what the error was, it is hard for the Guru to respond fully.
If it's not the agency's fault then the Guru has to assume that either a shipping error by your duplication house or an error in which commercial was aired by the station.
Traffic systems are basically instruction issuing systems. All they can be expected to do is develop correct instructions and synchronized them correctly with media buys. If that is happening correctly then it truly isn't your fault. If your dupe house is shipping incorrectly when the instructions regarding what to ship where were correctly issued, then advise your client that you are holding the duplicator responsible for any diect financial loss due to the error, and that you are changing vendors . . . and do so.
If the station aired the wrong commerical or wrong rotation or wrong schedule, again advise the client you hold the stations responsible for credit or make-good . . . and do so. Also consider barring the stations from consideration if possible, if they repeat the errors.
Hi media guru. I want to do online course in media can you please advice how to do it
There are no online courses in media which the Guru can recommend.
Dear Guru, where can I get information about STAS and the last news in this problem?
what are the demographics for boston?
A question like this must be much more explicit. Doe you mean age and gender demographics, the most commonly used. Or do you mean education, income, race, occupation, etc?
Do you mean city, metropolitan area or DMA?
If you want it free, online, assemble the DMA counties on the Massachusetts page of the Census Bureau site.
Ref. question 3663
Thanx for answering my question. I buy slots with high eff. index when my objective is to accumulate GRP's and drill my message into my consumers mind. This is the secondary stage where after creating the initial reach i focus on accumulating greatest total number of impressions (Funnel Treatment).
As for the decay factor it reflects the decrease in the recall leval when advertising is reduced or stoped. I normally use 10% decay level in IMphase(IM horizontal planning technologies)
The question that i want to ask you is what is the better way of flighting. There is a 70's 3+ eff frequency model by Prof. MacDonald which says that brusting is a better flighting patteren.On the other hand there is more recent Recency concept championed by Prof. JP Jones of Syracuse university of NY which says that as far as FMCG goods are concerned people are in the market every week and infect only needs one OTS to stimulate purchase.Please comment
MY second question is how do you calculate Eff Frequency. Normally i use Eff frequency model where i calculate the eff frequency by applying judgement and common sence in a disciplined manner using Marketing, Advertising and competitive factors
1. In regard to 3+ effective frequency versus recency, the Guru tends to favor recency for "Fast Moving Consumer Goods." Recency is not really a contrast to the 3+ frequency theory, but an extension. As championed by Erwin Ephron, a core concept of recency is that once the third exposure is delivered, all additional exposures are at 3+.
2. Once again, there seems to be a semantic issue when you say "calculate" effective frequency. If you mean setting the frequency level to be considered effective, then your "judgment and common sence in a disciplined manner using
Marketing, Advertising and competitive factors are the right approach, and the Ostrow Model will be helpful.
If instead, you mean to calculate the effective frequency delivered by your schedule, this has absolutely nothing to do with the subjective factors you have listed. A reach model determines how many persons are exposed to each discrete number of ad units in the schedule. That is if your reach is 75%, that means, explicitly, that 75% of the target has experienced one or more ad exposures. Within this, perhaps 70% of the target has been exposed to 2 or more, 66% to 3 or more, etc, up to the full number of units in the schedule. Reach models allow for expressing all of these levels. "Effective reach" mean those reached at least the minimum number of times established as effective, most typically 3.
Do you know where I may find research of the impact or effectiveness of bookend :15's or airing 2 spots in 1 commercial pod. Thank-you
The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Dear Media Guru
I am a media planner from Pakistan.I need to ask what are the possible comparison tools that we can use while planning for different programs on television.At the moment while planning i calculate cost index, rating index, efficiency index, Avg GRP's, Maximum reach, and avg.viewing miniutes for each time slot.
Normally i advertise in time slots with high effeciency
index, is this a good comparrison tool for planning or
Normally the decay factor that i take is 10% is this OK or not.
What are the different possible ways to break the adverising clutter on television and increase the possibility of high ad exposure.
Thax in anticipation
It always fascinates the Guru that countries sharing a common language can use it quite differently when applying it to the jargon of a particular business or interest.
What you are describing as "planning" seems to the Guru to be what he would regard as a buyer's selecting a schedule after a plan has been approved. You haven't mentioned what goals you are pursuing with your schedules. Selecting spots with the best efficiency index (audience versus cost) will get you the greatest total number of impressions, but possibly not the greatest net reach. The best rating is more often likely to lead to high reach, but perhaps not without due regard to efficiency and duplication.
"Decay factor" is an unfamiliar term to the Guru. "Maximum reach" and "average viewing minutes" don't seem relevant to assessing individual spots as the Guru understands the terms.
Overall, the Guru believes you should be comparing possible schedules, rather than individual spots to accomplish planning goals.
Optimizers serve this purpose, but running reach analyses of several schedules can get you there, as well.
Where do I look for advertising in the "welcome kits" for neighborhoods in the Baltimore and Washington DC areas?
The "classic" is Welcome Wagon
Does the guru have any cost projections for national spot TV for 2001 compared to 2000? We are primarily looking at HH CPP - all daparts.
The Guru's standard reference is SQAD
Do you know of any sources of studies regarding Vertical
publications. Specifically, are there differences between"how" people read vertical pubs vs. consumer pubs? Is there any quantifiable data on awareness/recall/intent to try from ads in vertical pubs vs. consumer pubs?
Thanks in advance.
No publication is itself "vertical." A set of publications is "vertical" because they cover the same topical area. If what you meant, judging from your context, is trade publications versus consumer, then Cahners might have what you need to know.
Do you have any (or know where I can find) research that supports the use of Traffic Report sponsorships as a support-medium.
The vendors should have the research.
The best resource, in general, is The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
On what website or book can i read about correspondence analysis
One, available from Amazon.com, is
Applied Correspondence Analysis : An Introduction
(Sage University Papers Series.
Quantitative Applications in the Social Sciences, No. 07-121.)
by Sten-Erik Clausen
Paperback (June 1998)
Sage Pubns; ISBN: 0761911154
Several sources say that 95% of online ad revenues go to the top 50 websites and that Netscape,Yahoo and MSN alone account for around 56% of online ad revenues. Is this really true? Doesnt that leave a really small slice of the pie with smaller web publishers?
Ad revenue and spending data compiled by AdZone Interactive, and available in our AMIC's Ad Data area would seem to support this statement.
Yes it leaves a small slice for others, but it's up to them to capture more revenue, not up to the big guys to share.
It's not too unlike the big broadcast networks versus the little guys in TV.
Please provide formula to manually calculate Reach & Frequency for press. Thanks
This calculation is very complicated. If you don't have detailed tables of duplication factors between different publications and between various numbers of multiple issues of the same publication, only fairly crude formulae are available.
Click here to see past
Guru responses about reach calculation formulae.
Hi Guru, I'm working at a media independent in South Africa. A lot of our newspapers like to run special surveys or supplements and are constantly asking for advertising support for these. For example, our daily business newspaper will run surveys and/or supplements on things like unit trusts, wrap funds, insurance etc. My feeling is that they are largely just money spinners, but I guess there is a market for them. Is there any research that looks at features and supplements rather than the main body of a publication?
Associations such as the U.S.' The Newspaper Advertising Association should have research on the question, but there are cultural imperatives involved, so it would be best to find a comparable South African resource.
The concept of these sections appears to be that they will especially attract readers with an interest in their topic and so are ideal environments for related advertisers.
We are looking for the top web sites for Adults 18-34, college-educated, professionals. Are there any sites or sources that will provide national site rankings on an as-needed basis?
What are current advertising rates for Internet Kiosks: gui's, portal affilite fees, billboard, stored access cards, etc.
A good cross-section of rates is found at Ad Resource
I'm working on a business-to-business media schedule for a client. To build awareness, is it best to buy two books (that reach the same people) 6 x each in a year or buy one book heavy (12x/year). And if you buy the two books, how much duplication would you be getting?
Awareness is usually analogous to reach, thus using two books would build awareness better than multiple insertions in one, because there is greater duplication between any two issues of the same title than between any two different titles.
The specific duplication between two different titles can vary considerably.
WHAT IS THE BEST TRAFFIC SOFTWARE FOR MANAGING COMERCIALS IN A LARGE GROUP OF RADIOS?
This is not really a Media Planning/buying/research question. Nor is it quite clear what you mean by "managing commercials in a large group of radios." If you are talking about allocating a large pool of commercial time inventory across several Brands' commercials, the Guru believes that DDS has such a system.
Whatis the correct mix between on -line and aff-line for a vertical internet site, particularly in the start-up phase.
There is no such thing as a "correct mix" for all occasions.
I have been searching all over for a direct mail list of international ISPs. I have checked the SRDS thoroughly, and I have also contacted several major list managers and relevant publications. So far, I have come up with zip. There are several domestic lists of ISPs, but I have been unable to find any international lists. Any suggestions?
The Guru presumes that when you say "international" you mean "foreign." There would be only a handful of ISPs operating multi-nationally.
A list of ISPs by country is available at The List. Direct mail list houses sell or rent lists based on cost per thousand. It is possiblt that there are too few ISPs outside the U.S . to make maintaining such a mailing list economically feasible for a U.S. list broker.
One resource to check is Direct Mail Connection
Where can I find information about the attitude of Internet users towards Internet advertising?
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment) compiles such research.
NUA Internet Surveys mostly compiles more quantitatively oriented information.
On a National multimillion dollar buy, what is the industry standard for an agency commission rate?
The "industry standard" for agency commission is 15% of gross dollars. When buys are big enough lower pecentages might be negotiated.
If you mean for buying alone, not full agency services, depending on the medium, it can vary from 5% down.
Can you recommend any publications (online or traditional) that specifically target online editors of weekly and daily news-oriented sites?
There are traditional and online publications edited for news editors, like Editor & Publisher (print circulation approximately 21,000).
There are traditional and online publications for online business, like The Industry Standard (print circulation approximately 100,000).
But the Guru does not know of anything narrowly addressing the intersection of these two sets. There would be a very small potential audience.
What are the advantage/disadvantages for local websites vs. national websites? Ex: washingtonpost.com vs. msnbc.com
If you are advertising a locally-oriented product or service, then a connection with local media can be beneficial. If you are merely targeting in people in a certain geography, large websites can usually select visitors by their location, leaving the comparison the usual one of reach, efficiency, positioning, etc.
Where can I find figures on rates and revenues for
billboard advertising in major sports facilities in
Generally, these are sold either directly by the facility (e.g Doger Stadium) or in conjunction with broadcast media sponsorships (e.g. the Lakers).
Where could I find a list of companies that provide
restroom advertising?... and how do I find out their
Dear media guru I am in need of list of top publications with their rates of advertising in Gulf, Dubai and South East Asia?? Mediatrek is not able to provide me that. Please help??
I have requested and received the latest media kits, and have given a single sheet description of the client and the demo to the reps.
Should there be an expanded RFP, and how long (or short) should a print RFP be, to be effective?
The Guru is not supportive of RFPs for print submissions. The concept of the RFP is best suited to soliciting complete solutions to needs. If you could give each vendor your complete print communications goals and were possibly willing to allow one publisher to win the whole budget, then the RFP approach could make sense.
Otherwise, the Guru recommends you specify, target, positioning, frequency desired, merchandising desires, and ad units and not be concerned with the "length" of the request at all. In other words, tell the sellers, as directly as possible, what the buying decision will be based on, and then let them respond. Feel free to request a standardized format for submissions, but allow enough flexibility to receive good ideas.
Is there a list of television programs that are family oriented or kid friendly? Where do I go to find?
Visit the Family Friendly Programming Forum site.
If I put an ad in some magazine with circulation of 500,000 per month, how many people may look to my ad or go to my website?
It depends on the magazine.
Free distribution, non-requested magazines may have less than one reader-per-copy, while others may have 20 or more readers per copy.
A magazine chosen because its readers are well matched with the sort of people who would be interested in your website might get visits from 3% of the ad readers; a less targeted selection might get well under ½%.
It also depends on the nature of the ad itself. So the expectation ranges anywhere from 300 to 300,000.
Dear Guru, Is there any fast way of getting display ad rates for Yellow Pages advertising without having to call each directory? I'm with an agency and have found YP reps a little uncooperative with agencies. All I need are ball park figures.
The Guru agrees that Yellow Pages sellers relatively aloof and disinterested. They tend to be order takers, not media salespeople. This is probably why Yellow Pages specialist agencies are successful. "The idea of ballpark" figures is fairly meaningless, since there are few comparisons between competing directories where they exist, nor complete standardization of geographies.
Guru, is there a source for cost per point averages by market for cable tv advertising? Thanks.
The few reps in the spot cable arena, such as National Cable Communications are your best source.
Are there any traditionally accepted reach & frequency
benchmarks for TV?
The Guru wonders what you really mean.
Could please tell me where I can find Cable Universe estimates for Latin American countries (ie 1.5 Males 18-49 in each Household in Argentina).
Typically, one gets this kind of information from the researchers measuring the medium, such as A.C. Nielsen Americas.
Can you think of any resource that lists all Radio networks, including a brief description and generic cost information. The SRDS lists the networks, but it has limited information.
Can you please explain what "Optimizers" do in media planning? Is it a separate program from media planning software or part of the package (e.g. Tapscan, SmartPlus, etc.)? Thanks.
Generally, an optimizer is a buyers' analysis tool using respondent-level data, to select a media list which has the greatest reach within a budget or achieves a reach goal most efficiently.
There can be considerable detail specified as to target, reach at "X" level of frequency, etc. The current use of "optimizer" most often specifically refers to network TV analyzers using Nielsen data tapes as input and examining "actual" versus modeled reaches.
Media planning packages generally don't include such optimizers. Optimizers typically cost more on their own than media planning software suites and also require purchase of relatively expensive Nielsen tapes. Similar buyers' analyses of print schedules, are typically built into these planning suites but rely on users' possession of Simmons or MRI data.
What are the top websites for boys aged 12-15? Is such data available?
i am searching for information about the "finance" segmet in the east coast area.can you assist?
Where can I get articles that evaluate press advertising
versus television advertising?
Can I get the articles which specifically focus on
the consumables category (like cheese or fruit juice) ?
Sources include ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization, Newsweek
Media Research Index and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I have just been hired as a media planner. I am new in the field, and I was wondering if you give some guru-like words of advice to a media novice.
Question everything, assume nothing.
where do I find the demographics for cable televsion networks?
I'm writing from India.One of our clients related to the travel industry is interested in advertising to Indians in the US and UK.The client feels that print is a good option to get conversions.The client wants to use ethnic publications targetted towards Indians in US & UK. Could you please let me know which are the publications one could use along with reach numbers if possible? Thanx in advance.
Some U.S. Indian publications are listed at Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator. One source in the U.K. might be the Indian embassy.
On July 5 you responded to a question regarding the
decline of brand awareness due to reduced advertising
activity. You indicated that the "formula predicts that
a brand running low GRPs per week loses awareness and
a brand with no activity loses 5-10% of the previous
week's awareness each week." I would love to pass this
information along to some clients. Is there a source
I can quote?
"5-10%" is a general summary of experience with various estimates the Guru has found over many years.
The Guru has been told that some people are quite comfortable citing the
"AMIC Media Guru, http://www.amic.com/guru/index.html"
as an information source.
It shouldn't need documentation to understand that awarenness will decline when there is no advertising. It also seems easy to assume that it will be like an inverse reach curve:
constantly approaching 0% in constantly decreasing increments.
No doubt many supporting studies are available through The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Is there a resource that lists agencies that specialize in sports and entertainment advertising, listed by city or state? Thanks.
Dear Guru, I am currently doing some research for a client and I need your help. They want to know what the top Web sites (according to impressions and unique visitors) are in the following categories: women 25-54, top Insurance sites (like a Insweb), top Health sites (like a WebMD) and top Human Resources sites. My agency subscribes to @plan and I found the top sites for women 25-54 but I am having a hard time finding information regarding the other categories. Do you have any suggestions or know of any other resource out there that I could use? THANKS
What is your opinion about the online ad exchanges? There seem to be so many of them. Do you think this method of transacting media is the way it is going to be in the future? Which are the good ones ? And in your opinion, what will differentiate one site/service from another in the long run? ThanX
Several "good ones" are linked on our own MediaQuote site.
What these exchanges need to keep buyers is the capability to complete transactions on line plus having whatever inventory a buyer might need. Otherwise it will be about buyers' remembering to check for "fire sales."
I do not work in an Ad Agency so I have no access to IMG or SRDS. I am looking for internationally distributed newspapers. Already considered the WSJ, NY Times (or is NY Times International edition listed as International Herald Tribune?) and Financial Times. But am unclear to the size of the list of titles, and don't want to miss any important title. Hoping you can fill in the gaps. Thank you in advance.
Hi Guru. I am working for software company. We are developing applications for analyzing data for advertising agencies. Basically, we are working in Germany and processing following sources of data: respondent level TV viewing data from GFK, spot level AdEx Data from A.C. Nielsen Germany, spot level data from TV-Spotcontrol, print media data, Internet data and so on. We intend to adapt our software for American advertising market. Can anyone advise some American companies or institutes, which publish any advertising data for demo targets?
I am new to this list, so my apology if this has come up before.
Thanks for your participation.
Do you know of any services (agencies or otherwise) that specialize in placing 30-minute infomercials on cable and TV stations throughout the southeast? Thanks.
The Guru knows of infomercial creative specialists, but not for placement. Any media buying service would be able to handle placement.
Are you aware of any research studies that have tried to estimate the average or typical reach of general market media across multiple ethnic groups (Asians, Latinos & Blacks)?
I am currently involved in a market research project. I am wondering which websites AMIC has sponsorships with for banner advertising? I am doing a project on college students therefore I was wondering if you would also suggest websites that will have a high traffic of college students. Can you also tell me approximately what those costs would be?
where can i find researches or information about drugs
advertising? which media have the best influence on patients?
t.v? press? Radio? which reach & frequency levels are
The answers will vary depending on typical media planning / marketing issues.
For example, in the U.S., there is one set of rules that applies when you are marketing prescription drugs and another set for "over the counter" pharmaceuticals.
For prescription drugs, you can mention a drug name without discussing the problems it treats or its results, or you can mention a problem to treat without mentioning a drug name. In these cases there are fewer rules to observe. When you mention a drug along with its disease or results, you must also provide the "patient information" (PI) which is all the side effects warnings, counterindications, etc. This typically means broadcast advertising must be accompanied by print to carry the PI. Or that print must devote a portion of space to this detailed information.
Hi - Super urgent - I am a new comer in the .com world in India - need to have a fix on how one designs a revenue model - what are the key elements ?
The key elements of a revenue model are
. Since this isn't really a media question, the Guru can't offer more detail.
Did you know of any book dedicated to cinema as a media vehicle? I'm aware that advertising expenditures compared to other media is minimal also that audience numbers are not available. In my country usage of the media has been growing for certain categories . I would like to find any available tools to evaluated.Thank you.
The Guru thinks cinema advertising a a media vehicle is a pretty narrow topic to merit an entire book. For more information about the concept, visit
Please could you mention media strengths of cinema?
The key advantages are freedom of length and content, plus a "captive" audience.
The content advantage will vary from place to place; the audience demographics may or may not be advantageous.
I've mostly handled print and DM advertising and am trying to master radio. If a client is saying that their optimum TRP level is 175, what does that mean?
Click here for a definition of TRP
Presumably, the client would be speaking of the TRP level which has produced nest results for the budget.
Is there a source for free zip code information on the
internet? Looking for HHI data and more by zip.
It isn't likely.
Who would have research on alcoholic beverage consumers,their rate of attendance at nightclubs and bars, and demo info? The "Lifestyle" SRDS doesn't touch this lifestyle.
I am looking for Albanian and Greek newspapers or
magazines in the New York area. Do you know of any?
Can you suggest some sites/links which contain articles
regarding the comparative analysis of various mediums
viz. TV vs. Press etc.?
what are the methods of pricing that most sites use for advertising? Is there any differences in ad. pricing methodolgies between targeted sites vis a vis large network sites Cud you also direct me to some sites that cud give me more info?
The most common method of pricing is cost-per-thousand advertising impressions.This methodology works across all types of sites.
Ad Resource has a lot of pricing information.
lets assume that a company has been running a branding and image campaign for 12 months at 800points a month. If the company goes completely dark for 6 months what are the expected effects on awareness and branding. The negative effects of going dark at then end of a branding campaign have been taught to me during several courses I cannot remember nor find a formula or case study which proves this point. Where can I go to find statistics or case studies to support your answer. Thank you again for you help.
The Guru can consider this in terms of ad awareness, since brand awareness is subject to so many more outside factors.
Whatever the level of advertising, awareness can never be more than 100%. One very simple formula the Guru has seen predicts awareness as a high percentage the previous week's awareness plus a small percentage of the current week's GRPs.
As will be obvious, this formula predicts that a brand running low GRP per week loses awarness. A brand with no activity loses 5-10% of the previous week's awareness each week.
Of course this is all general. One classic case is the old Certs "two, two, two mints in one" copy which had good awareness as a "current commercial" ten years after it last aired.
Where can I obtain information regarding ad spending by DSL providers?
I am planning for an ad campaign that targets the advertising community worldwide with an special emphasis on Asia. I find that there is a complete lack of information on the industry, its size, number of employees, avergae salary, consumption patterns and generally the sort of demographics easily available on most other segments - finance professionals for example. Any idea where I can access this sort of info?
Perhaps it is because there is really no international advertising community, as almost all media have no more than than national coverage - internet aside.
Though there are many giant international agencies, there is no one with an essential intertest in compiling worldwide data like this.
The most likely source for parts of this data would be Ad Age.
What does BPI stands for?
Thank you for your help.
It could be Brand Potential Index, which is comparable to CDI
What does RFP stand for?
The first meaning that occurs to the Guru is "Request for Proposal."
In a media context, is an advertiser's detailed solicitation to agencies or media buying firms to submit their offering of services and fees along typically along with certain credentials.
What is or where can I find an average current magazine responce rate?
What are the average commission levels charged from web publishers by ad networks like DoubleClick, Flycast, 24/7 Media etc.?
The Guru has seen commission levels from 15% to 85%. These larger reps, who handles larger sites, are probably at the lower end of the scale, 20% or so.
what are the advertising creative opportunities on the web? Example banner ads./ click thru.....
The beauty of the web is that imagination offers unlimited possibilities. However, since it all must come down to something which can be "served" through a browser, there are essentially just variations of banners, pop-ups and interstitials.
By banners,the Guru refers to a static or animated piece of graphic material displayed on a web page.
By "pop-up," the Guru means graphic or text advertising material displayed because of user interaction with the web site, such as clicking a menu choice or entering a search term.
By "interstitial" the Guru refers to graphic, text or multimedia advertising content served because of a click on a banner or pop-up, prior to the user seeing whatever destination was expected to be the target of the click.
Otherwise, there is the most basic click target, a promotional web site.
Dear Guru, I currently run a site with 1,000+ members, and it is growing 30-50 members a day. I need to find advertisers that will buy banner space in our "VoiceBox". A "VoiceBox" is given to every member, and they can talk live to friends and family via their "VoiceBox". The banner in the "VoiceBox" rotates every 30 seconds. My question is how can I find advertisers that would be interested in this unique way of serving banners? Is there an agency that may be able to help me find advertisers? Please check out my site and give me advice on how to find advertisers. The very lowest I can sell this space for is $7 CPM. Thank you very much, Shawn Randazzo
Unless you can find a way to qualify your members as highly desirable in some way, you don't seem to have an advertisng medium here.
Let's imagine your growth continues nicely and a year from now there are 10,000 members. How many are conceivable going to be in a chat at one time? 100? If so, one banner ad showing is worth 70 cents. Over the course of a month, which is the typical advertisng period, can you deliver 10,000 impressions for a banner? If so you will earn $70. No sales rep would bother with this.
Where can I find trend analysis on research on advertising by small to medium size businesses. In particular, I am interested in HOW they buy
their advertising CREATIVE (i.e., through an agency, develop it in-house, through their media outlet, etc.), and how they buy their MEDIA (i.e., through their agency, media planner/buyer, media outlet, etc.). I am looking for a credible source - research or industry analysis would be great.
"Small-to-medium" is too vague a term for any standard data compilations. For instance, one government definition of small business is "less than 500 employees." This may be far larger than what you are thinking of. It also may take in range of buinesess not applicable to your needs, from multimillion dollar law firms with two dozen employees and no advertisng at all, to small retail chains doing a loot of radio and newspaper business.
Some useful Advertising Guidelines are available from the Small Business Administration . Even if you refined your question to a more workable definition, like "advertisers spending $1million or less annually" there is no doubt a wide range of answers. Even if you went to an association like AAF you would likely get answers skewed to an agency perspective.
Ordinarily, for general research, the Guru points people to the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter, but this question need to be refined first.
Is there an alternative or weekly entertainment newspaper association? Thanks.
Hey Guru! Your information is Great! I am looking for statistical information of the small - mid size business advertising expenditures in Small local newspapers and "shopping guides". Can you help?
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) products include newspaper tracking. The Guru doubts that there is a category summary by advertisers' business size.
Do you happen to know who I can contact for information on MM+ software? Are there better, reasonably priced alternative?
Is there any research on the new internet ad media such as "get paid to surf", get paid listen to radio impact on the industry?
"Get paid to surf" is not a medium, it's a gimmick.
I am a media buyer at an agency in a metropolitan area in the midwest. I am very interested in going out on my own and being a freelance media buyer. Do you have any advice on the best way to do this? How would a freelance media buyer go about getting rating information from Nielsen and Arbitron? Any help you can offer is greatly appreciated. Thank you so much!
If you mean to offer yourself as a "temp" buyer at agencies, they will have their own ratings resources. If you mean to operate from your own location, and you don't want to buy ratings reports, you will have to rely on the sellers to supply information.
Many of the recruiters who do job searches for agencies also handle free-lancers, and there are job sites on the web (see AMICs'c Ad Jobs ). To set up in business, advertise or solicit referrals from those who know you and have contacts who might need your services, such as reps you've dealt with.
Is there a website that will give me an idea of what agencies charge for media planning and buying services?
The Guru doubts the information is online. American Association of Advertising Agencies probably has the information, but not online.
what, if any studies have been done analysing
spill from the American market into Canada - TV
1 : How many people are surfing on the internet in the US country ?
2- How many online buyers (e-commerce) are accounted for ?
3- Advertising Expenditure 1999 for e-commerce in U.S?.
4- Flower Market : Number of buyers ?
5- Number of buyers online ?
6- Advertising Expenditures of the flower market ?
Given that available inventory on web sites is virtually unlimited what prevents sites from continually dropping CPM prices? This is about to happen in India where a large international site with extremely large no. of pageviews has dropped prices significantly. How do other sites react in this case?
What prevents sites from dropping prices is the revenue the owner wants to generate.
A large number of "generic" untargeted pageviews is less valuable than targeted impressions. This is why sites charge a relative premium for keywords, section-specific impressions, sponsorships, etc.
"Unlimited" is a rash statement. There are only as many pageviews as there are visitor requests for pages, and only just so many ads that can be placed on a page.
I've got to make some kind of media plan for one of my clients. He wants to sell very expancive villas in South Africa, but he wants to start with a small budget. Do you think it's possible to develop a decent plan without including off-line media in the mix?
The Guru imagines that there are many more accessible prospects for expensive South African real estate in traditonal media than online.
When planning an integrated campaign involving both online
and offline advertising (print, press, billboards, radio
how do you track the effectiveness of those advertising
activities back to the traffic on the website.
(other than asking them)
How do you measure the effectiveness of the individual
offline campaign components against one another in order to
know which of the offline components is pulling more than
The Guru can only think of one possibilities other than "asking them" either online or offline: In each ad use a variant of the URL so that you can measure traffic to each variant page.
Where can I go to find out more information about trends in the media market for 2nd quarter of 2000 (april-june). For instance, are advertisers spending more or less than average in the 2nd quarter? In which medium are they spending more and why? What places can help me understand the media market more?
These data, at this time, would only be available by following the trade press, such as Ad Age.
What is the difference between: advertising objective vs. media objective vs. communication objective?
What is the best way to do an online branding campaing for a car manufacturer?
Advertising objectives are a broad set of goals which include media opbectives. Media Objectives are a broad set of goals for a media plan, which include a communications objective.
For example, advertising objectives may include a brand image to establish or a specific level of brand awareness to achieve. Neither of these are media objectives.
Media objectives may include a media target, a media budget, a region of the country or sales index standard for geographic concentration. These are not communications objectives.
Communications objectives may be such goals as minimum average four week reach, frequency, effective frequency, etc.
There are many ways to do any sort of online branding campaign. There is no "one size fits all" best solution. A branding campaing for "the safest car" would certainly differ from one for the car whic is the "best value for a family." It is important to have firmly in mind what "branding" means:
According to marketing consultant Rob Frankel, "Branding is not about getting your prospects to choose you over
your competition; it's about getting your prospects to see you as the only solution to their problem." (sm)
This means that most of what makes a campaign a "branding" campaign is outside of the domain of media. Study the marketing elements of the campaign and judge how you can make the media plan support it.
Dear Guru, I'm the Media Director of a 3 person department with currently 8 accounts to handle and a ton of new business. Unfortunately, all three of us have traditional media backgrounds with virtually no online planning/buying experience. Up until now, our clients had no interest in advertising online. Now, many of our clients are requesting online media plans. Although we're trying to learn this new media as quickly as possible, we can not develop online plans quick enough nor can we go to our clients at this time with a true sense of expertise. Do you think at this point working with an independant online rep would be valuable. Any advice would be appreciated.
The Guru's perception of the "planning" services offered by online reps is that
Is there a good source for information about the demographics of retail coupon users and / or the demographics of discount wholesale clubs like Costco?
could you give me an example of how an actual proposal has to be written for a branding campaign(on internet) for a car manufacturer?
The Guru does not have access to proprietary work. Follow the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan.
Dear Guru, I've heard about buying space on Fruit Labels - bananas, apples etc. What company sells this? I'd like to contact them. Thanks.
From a Yahoo search:
Fruit label advertising was created in 1997 by Tarzana, Calif.-based The Fruit Label Company. According to Irv Weinhaus, chief executive
officer of The Fruit Label Company, this innovative medium provides a two-fold service. ``The labels work for the advertiser who is looking for a
unique and informative way to reach consumers, and the PLU (price look-up) labels are used by the retailer to accurately charge for the produce.
Our labels eliminate the need for two individual stickers, one of which has to be on the fruit regardless if there is advertising on the fruit or not.''
We are establishing a membership, where each member will provide
their unique demographic information ie name, age, income etc
They will also advise us of what purchases they intend to make
over the next 12 months ie insurance, cars, homes etc. We will
therefore act as their trusted agent directing the appropriate
advertising and sponsership to them over the internet.
Therefore we will be in a position to sell to advertisers the
individual demographic data of our members. And for our members
direct to them the information/sponsership that they request.
So the question is what is the value(in $) to the advertisers for
this specific information?
Your question appears to confuse the sale of information with the sale of targeted impressions.
Lists of people with known demographics who are planning to make specific purchases arfe fairly common options sold by direct mail list houses. You can check prices of some of these, but the Guru estimates value at about $US75 - $US 150 per thoussand.
Selling targeted impressions against people of known demographics interested in particular purchases, and probably nearer the purchase decision is an option of various search engines or shopping sites like MySimon or AutoByTel, where impressions sell in the neighborhood of $60 per thousand.
Follow on question about SQAD CPP table columns-- particularly interested in understanding the times when one daypart transitions to another. Could you provide the time ranges for each designation?
I would like to know which reports as to my web advertising I should except from the web site I advertise on. If you have any examples of empty reports as to the traffic in my web page/banner clicking figures - that would be great
The miniumum basic report expected from any commerical web site would be banner exposures and click rates. Typical frequency is monthly. Sites could also break down exposures and clicks by pages associated with the exposures and clicks and the geography of the persons exposed and clicking.
Other than the basic exposure (impressions) and click count nothing is truly expected unless part of the deal. If you are buying a flat advertising rate, without cpm or audience guarantees, even that data may not be assured.
In any case, this basic data is too simple to need standardized reports. How many ways are there to arrange two numbers?
What is Viral Marketing?
This is the idea of communication spread by the same pattern as a computer virus. Get the message to one who gets it to several others who each pass it to several others. It's may be associated with less than reputable marketering techniques like MLM's and chain letters.
I can't find information in your glossary on the column abbreviations for the Costs Per TV Household Rating Point data from SQAD. Are they elsewehere on the site and if not, could your provide a brief tutorial?
The columns headings are:
Hi Guru, I need information on the subject: Management of the Media Department. Can you give me any sources where I can learn this? (Seminars, offices, books, etc.) Thanks.
Are there any software programs/database tools that will help me to run reports and do comparisons on the response rate to my media plan?
When you say "results of my media plan" the Guru would guess you are
probably trying to assess direct response results or marketplace
sales results. The only software the Guru has heard of to analyze these data against media were proprietary programs of DR houses.
But if perchance you mean "results of my media buy" or post-
analysis of media delivery versus purchase, then Donovan Data
is the standard.
Where can I find the estimated Internet penetration percentage for the US for 2002-2005?
Do you have any suggestions for plotting an annual media plan spreadsheet? I have tried doing it in Excel, but it's sooooooooo laborious, and it doesn't appear MM+ offers it yet in our software package.
Do you know of any stand-alone programs?
With a few tricks, it's not so hard in Excel. In the Guru's opinion, the keys are:
This is the most difficult part of creating a flow chart form. Then you just need to add month headers and summing on the right and bottom, and decide whether you are going to follow the standard broadcast calendar in defining months and quarters. All else is cosmetics.
Hello Guru, how can I define the competitors for local portals? Is it based on advertising spending or the statistics report?
This a decision you must make based on what is happening in your specifc case. Local portals may face competition from giant sites which offer to sell impressions targeted by DMA or other detectable locality. These sites may well deliver more localized impressions than a purely "local" portal.
Iam repeating qn. 3546. You havent clarified my answer. From ARF, will I get the info or not? If yes will there be any charge attached? Pls clarify the queries.
In all likelihood, you will find the kind of information you want at the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter.
The Guru is not going to visit or contact the information center on your behalf to see whether it can satisfy you.
The Guru provides guidance, not legwork. ARF provides its information at no charge to members and any one can join for a fee. It is far more efficient to contact the resource the Guru recommends than to simply repeat your question here.
Where I can find statistics on effective and usage of advertising medium?
This is a very broad question. The biggest compilations are at The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter, and ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization
How does one go about finding out share-of-market information by DMA? For example, how could I find out total sales for the Casual Dining industry for say, a six-month period of time?
I am in the process of evaluating a print proposal submitted by a business to business annual register with company listings/profiles, accessible by category. In addition to receiving a P4C ad, my client wil also receive 8 bold type listings with descriptive information and 4 bold type listings(company name and phone # only) throughout various sections of the register. At first glance the package looks like a great idea. The circulation is nearly 100% targeted, the CPM (based on the P4C alone) is very low, and there are additional merchandising perks that will expose my client to their target for one full year. The problem is, I must put a "value" on each component of the package.
Do you have any ideas on how to place a value on the "bold type listings" described above?
Your situation is analagous to evaluating reach versus GRPs or a full commerical in a special versus billboards.
Since the deal seems efficient and effective simplay based on the P4C, any value you give to the other elements can be arbitrary and will be just for the sake of dicsussion. Why not calculate the impressions of all the other elements and price them at 25% of the P4C cpm?
I am buying radio in two different markets - one is a large market which is measured by Arbitron. The other is a small market where I get the ratings through Arbitron county measuring.
The two cities are only 45 miles apart and there is a large amount of radio overlap. Is there any way to figure an accurate combined reach & frequency? Thanks.
First, define "market." If these radio markets are both in the same DMA, and you want DMA R&F, add the two stations' reach in thousands and divide by DMA universe. If they are in two different Metros, calculate reach within each and do a weighted average of the two:
Is there any published papers that tell us the efficacy (in terms of quantitative analysis)of "out of home options" with respect to measurable media like TV/Print? Basically the "impact scores" of mass measurable media versus the consumer's out of home options- any type of outdoor media. Would really appreciate if you could provide some light in this area.
There should be comparisons of sales response, recall, etc in the materials at the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Are there any industry "benchmarks" for response rates
or cost per response for driving traffic to web sites
through ads in tradional "offline" media? For example,
if you run a print ad for a dot-com, what response rate
should you be able to expect in terms of people visiting
I would like to know what the going rate, or average
rate, advertisers pay to internet sites?
It varies based on numerous details. See Ad Resource
Where can I find info. about SQUAD for cost per points? Do you have a web address or phone number?
See AMIC's Ad Data area
I am trying to find a source that carries b2b ad spending on an industry by industry basis. Could you please point me in the right direction?
The only such data of which the Guru is aware are the trade publication tracking reports from
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
Question: Dear Guru, In the course of my work, I need to evaluate
many media (mainly print)proposals for advertising. What are the
parameters I should look out for and points to consider if the
publication is suitable to advertise in
The basic points in comparing print vehicles are
There are a lot of new Internet appliances coming out on the market with built-in browsers. The display is always on. How or where can I determine the value of an icon/banner button for advertising on this display screen?
The Guru would count the times the machine goes through a fresh "on-cycle" or newly dislays the banner. The apply a web cpm.
Is there a source like SRDS that has information on alternative weekly newspapers across the country?
SRDS has a Community Publications Source which should list these newspapers.
I'm new to media software. If my agency is planning all media, is Donovan a better package than Telmar. Are there any others that I should consider? Thanks.
How real are the rate cards that websites post for their
I see rate cards that say $30 or $40 CPM, such as for
the individual sites represented by DoubleClick.
Yet DoubleClick's own statistics show they are averaging
only about $1 CPM overall.
Are the rate cards only the starting point for
negotiating very deeply discounted negotiated actual
rates? Does anyone ever pay the stated rate card price?
Just as in all other media, on-line sales at rate card prices are rare. Those that occur are most liley at powerful B2B sites where the desirability of a unique audeince is well understood and rate cards are more closely observed, even at cpms over $150.
Comparing individual sites' rate cards to actual cales across large networks is unrealistic. While a single site buy may be pricesd at $30, there is likely also a "Channel buy" of sevetral $30 sites at a $15 channel cpm, and also a full network published rate below that. The Guru would be surprised to see the actual average of sales across DoubleClick sites as low as $1 or to see DoubleClick publishing any such statistic.
But, yes, rate cards are only a starting points for general audience sites.
I think this service is super.Congrats.
Now for my question:
I am trying to value the cost of an web-alliance and
in doing so ,need to define metrics for the alliance.
The alliance is basically sponsorship and we will look
for exclusivity.What are the metrics you would
consider?Which are tangible and how would you measure
it?I have looked at CPM,Cost per Click etc.Also,what
are the costs for opt-ins ,like email addreses etc.?
Your inputs will help a great deal.
Obviously, the answers depend on the goals. An ecommerce site wants to produce sales. Clicks that don't lead to sales are not worth measuring. An ad-supported site wants traffic. Clicks and page loads at the target site are what matters.
The Guru is used to seeing email impressions valued comparably to web impressions, and clicks from email parallel to clicks on the web.
I need your help. (again!) I am placing for 500 newspaper across the U.S. Is there anything out there in "newspaper land" similar to BuyMedia.com. I need to communicate with these newspapers and am trying to research a way to "streamline" the way in which I communicate with them. Can you help?
Try Media Passage.
Can you give me any advice on how to proceed selling space for two mobile billboards which I own. I am not a member of the 4A's so research information is scarce for me. Are their any directories or Associations I should speak with or you would suggest I be a member of? Are their any independant outdoor operators I can speak with? Your advice and expertise would greatly be appreciated.
At what market penetration level does buying TV on a national level become more efficient than spot buying on a local level? Is it the same for Radio? How about Newspaper?
And secondly, is there a way to calculate this in general?
In TV the variables are demographic and daypart. Some demographics have a greater differential in spot vs network CPP. One daypart / demographic scenario may become more efficient in network after 25 markets, another one at 75.
For example, in one recent cost guide which the Guru has on hand, the daytime HH CPP for network was equivalent to daytime spot CPP for the the top 68 markets. In Prime, the Network HH CPP was equal to top 22 markets' spot.
For other demographics and other media the breakeven will be different still. There is no rule of thumb beyond experience. You need to compile spot costs and determine where they break even versus national.
I am the media director at a small, full service ad
agency. Most of our clients are b-to-b advertising in
trade journals. More and more we are finding that clients and prospective clients want to bring their media placement in-house for the most part in order to
keep the media commission themselves. How do we convey
the value of having their ad agency handle the placement? We are running out of ideas!
At his most cynical, the Guru wonders how much value there is if you can't convey it.
Theoretically, you bring professional experience to the table which the client doesn't have on hand.
You should be able to say and to demonstrate that you get better rates, better positioning and better value-added. The only other benefit that occurs to the Guru is if the client needs to compare the cost of an on-staff media professional to the agency fees for that stand-alone servce.
And media commission compensates an agency for much more than media placement itself, unless there are specific itemized fees for placement versus agency creative and other services.
What is the media value for a ad that appears in Sunday circulars? For instance, the media value for a Directv satellite dish ad in the Circuit City or Radio Shack sunday circular? Thanks,
As a quick and dirty rule of thumb, the Guru applies the cost of the total circular to the fraction represented by the paricular space devoted to the specific product.
That is if Radio Shack has an 8-page circular which cost $100,000, and Direct TV occupied one-quarter page of space, it was worth $3125 or 3.125%, because one quarter page is 3.125% of 8 pages.
Judgenments about the relative value of this kind of exposure are a separate issue.
Hi, I would like you to expain the terms, TG, TRP, CRP, GRP, ROS, RODP and the basic difference between the trems. Thanks a ton!. Anjali
Do you know where I could find some media statistics about online usage and habits? I am looking for any research, studies, etc. that can provide how consumers are using this medium, specifically how Corporate Management is using the interenet. After exhausting the "usual" sources (i.e. syndicated studies MRI, IQ, etc) I have reached a dead end. Please if possible, could you provide some insight to this area? thanks.
Hi Guru,What will be the right measure to evaluate niche media channels : reach,GRP's or Share.This keeping in mind that the niche channels are traditionally viewed and used as frequency channels and are traditionally decided after the mainline reach channels are selected.Regds RKB
The right measure will depend on your goals in a given plan. If you are considering niche channels to extend reach among that niche, then the reach added by the potential schedule is the standard. Note that this means how much reach you can add for the dollars available for niche channel investment, and not the total reach of the niche channel itself. It is a common miustake, in the Guru's opinion, to compare media based on an abstraction of their total performance rather than what they can realistically contribute to a specific plan.
By the same token, if the niche channels are to be used as frequency vehicles, then efficiency is probably your best comparison. Share will rarely be most pertinent metric in any case.
Dear Guru, In the course of my work, I need to evaluate many media (mainly print)proposals for advertising.
What are the parameters I should look out for and points to consider if the publication is suitable to advertise in?
Hi Guru - In your opinion, what are the best research systems for online planning/buying? We want to be able to do a crosstab, and discover which websites the target visits. Thank you!
Dear Guru, I teach my university's ad media course.
In an effort to make it as useful and "real world" as
possible, I want to know what topics/ideas/concepts you
feel are absolutely critical to include. Also, we do use
software designed for the college classroom to simulate buys. I would rather use the actual software
buys. Suggestions on "real world" software we could
purchase to utilize instead? Thanks, AdMedia Prof
The Guru believes the most important concepts are
. Of course, these are broad concepts which encompass a lot of detail. A person should come out of an advertising media cousre equipped, for example, to
Learning the audience data comes with the job and changes too fast for details learned in college to retain validity very long into real world jobs.
As for buying software Donovan Data Systems is the "mother of all" buying software.
Hi Guru, I am trying to quantify the value of leveraging a consumer DB for a targeted sports marketing campaign via the internet but am unsure where to begin. Any ideas as to how I might figure out what the ad space on our web site is worth? (be
it real as in banner, or virtual as in e-mail). This web site
will allow our clients to promote their products to their own
customers (we are merely an ASP). Moreover, we will have a DB of
email addresses of our client's customers and can implement a
limited direct marketing campaign. How much will this DB be
worth to our clients? Are there sites that contain this
For some ideas about online ad rates, see Ad Resource. The Guru believes e-mail advertising can be priced at the same CPM as web banners.
Do you know where I can locate any research on TV Viewing in Internet Households? Thanks
What is the general rule of thumb (in terms of number of :60 radio spots per week) in a non-metered market? The goal of the advertising campaign is awareness over a 7 month period (no weekly promotion to talk about - just letting people know about our business). In the past we have been running anywhere from 14 to 16 spots per week.
The "overkill" level of frequency will depend on continuity among other things.
In a market too small to measure, the Guru imagines that there are relatively few radio stations, perhaps 12 or fewer, and average ratings might be 5 or better. So suppose 16 spots is about 100 GRP. FOr reach you would still want to use more than one station, at least 12 times each.
Are you sure your market isn't measured, perhaps as part of a larger market as defined by Arbitron? Even tiny Lima, Ohio, the 201st of the 210 DMAs making up the entire country has ratings twice yearly. Check out Radio & Records.
How can you estimate the reach and frequency (or even TRPs) of a radio schedule in a market that is not metered?
In any county, there should be at least an occasional Arbitron coverage study data to use for audience estimates.
I am in the interview process for a sales position at a radio station in Portland,Oregon. The Sales Manager has given me an assignment to put together a "faux" sales plan for an imaginary furniture store. I have been researching day and night about ad rates, demographics, etc. I even pulled out my old college books, but my problem is this: I don't know what a radio marketing plan looks like and I can't seem to find a model anywhere. Also, where's the best place to look if I want to find out about furniture-buying habits. Thank You ..Guru!!!
Generally, the buyer will control the plan. Your first step would be to find out his or her goals. But here you need to imagine you have received the specs from the buyer. The Guru feels it is important that you maintain the position you are working against buyers' specs.
As to learning who buys furniture and where they shop in Portland, refer to the Portland Scarborough. In the Guru's experience, a buyer in the process of making a buy won't sit still for a station's marketing presentation. The Buyer wants to know rates, ratings and merchandising offers, plus a little about your content and audience overall.
Think less about format and more about making it simple and pursuasive.
My company publishes a 5 column tabloid newspaper. In order to cushion small retail advertisers from an upcoming double-digit rate increase (to offset rising newprint costs), I'm considering changing to a 6 column format. The theory is that we can convert small ad sizes to the new format, keep existing business at approximately the same rate per insertion for slightly
smaller sizes (i.e., convert 1/10 Pages to 1/12 pages), and gain greater efficiencies and a higher yield per page. Are there any case studies that you're aware of that examine this scenario?
The Newspaper Advertising Association would be a good source of such studies.
I was wondering if you had any information on the early adopter audience (or specifically those types of users who run for the latest and greatest technolgy) they are usually first to go out and buy the latest technology etc. I think that covers it. Any information would help
Intelliquest si a source for this type of data.
I am looking for a resource that lists upcoming online media planning seminars. Thanks!
Dear Media Guru I would like to know which all stock exchange sites take links, banners or any other referrals? If possible can we get rates?
Der Media Guru I am looking for linguistic break up among Non Resident Indians in America? Please help.
This data should be available at the Census if at all, for example English Ability by Language Spoken at Home. But the Guru is doubtful that a subset of "non-resident" would be tracked.
Where to have a profile of the Chinese media vehicles (both TV & NP) for Chinese market in U.S.? (By Anita from Taiwan)
You will find many of these vehicles listed at Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator on the "Asian" page.
For years I've been buying radio on a cost-per-spot basis. Now that I have an agency doing the buying for me, the planner tells me that I should be buying on a cost-per-point basis. Why?
The value of a radio spot is in its audience. On a given station one spot, in AM Drive time, for example, might have 5.0 rating points (5% of the target listens to the spot) among the target audience while a weekend evening spot has a 1.5 rating. If you buy the station on an average cost per spot basis you lose track of value. But the AM Drive spot's cost might be is $100, or $20 cost-per-point. If the weekend evening spot cost $45 the cost per point is $30. So the value of spots is represented by cost-per-point. Audiences vary and cost per spot ignores that key fact.
The above also applies to comparing spots on different stations.
I'd like to clarify my question from last week about national media vs. spot media planning. Based on the marketing and communication goals of our client, we have determined that network television is a necessary part of our media mix. We are in the process of aquiring reach/frequency software for national media, but don't currently have it so I can't do a run to determine TRP levels that will generate effective levels of reach/frequency. So, in order to get a feel of what other national advertisers planned, I looked at other plans that contained network television. In looking at those plans I noticed that the TRP levels are significantly lower than spot television plans. Have you noticed that same descrepancy in media plans that you are familiar with? If so, why?
You must be comparing all-TV plans where one is all spot and the other is all network for these comparisons to make sense, in the first place. If there are other media involved, naturally that will affect TV levels.
In national plans containing both media forms, the network will be mostly low-readh daytime and high-priced prime. So there are reasons to limit investment in each. Spot ususally is concentrated in fringe times, which offer better reach potential than day and better efficiency than prime, so that is one reason for higher spot levels.
In other plan where there is network as well as spot, spot may be used to give extra weight to markets with greater sales or greater sales potential or to fill in market that are underdeliverd by network versus national averages. In any of these cases, spot is typically used at higher levels, but in a short lis of markets.
There is nothing inherent in spot versus network to make spot levels higher than network when either one is the sole medium.
Dear media guru,
what is a "filler". Is it used differently on tv than the radio?
Filler is content used in odd bits of time, particularly in news or feature-oriented programming. It is more common in print
I've noticed lately that Showtime has become a lot more eggressive in their ad campaigns, especially online. Could you tell me which agency is currently handling their tv & interactive planning?
It's not really a media question. The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook') lists agencies by client.
I have had a lot of planning experience for spot television and local cable television and am now being asked to plan network television, network cable television and syndicated television. I've noticed after looking at several example plans that network GRPs are often lower than spot GRPs ... Why is that and what are effective GRP levels for network media? Please help.
The Guru would surmise that in spot, you have seen more promotional or retail-oriented schedules, where noise level is the basis. In network plans, more sophisticated assessments of communications goals may have been made, focused on reach and frequency.
The concept of "planning spot tv" or "planning network TV" is also puzzling. The media choice is the result of planning, not the going-in assignment. Are you part of the buying process moving to network tv where multimedia plans may have been assembled by others, prior to your involvement with a single element?
What is common way to calculate tv programm loyalty?
The usual basis is "how many episodes out of 4 does the viewer watch."
Are there any metrics for advertising on streaming media sites, eg: On2.com, where commercials and text links are incorporated into a media piece? Is the CPM cost higher in this format, and how are the impressions counted? (looking for a pricing structure to charge advertisers for a converging media site). thanks.
ADResource offers comparisons of various online rates.
There should be some added value if you can get the few consumers who are properly equipped (now about 4 million or fewer), to sit still for it.
The Guru tried ON2 and was discourages by the site's attempt to download a plug-in without asking first. In these virus-paranoid times, it's quite off-putting. The Guru imagines such sites are a very long way from generating enough ad traffic to think about charging in CPM terms.
Dear Media Guru,
Not long ago I came across the statement that audio and video spots do not work if they are shorter than 20". Please, give me some comments about this. If it is possible, can you ad your comments with some references on this theme.
It seems a ridiculous statement, considering the popularity of :15 TV commercials today. Were you reading old trade journals? 20 years ago, when TV :60s were the norm, they said the same thing about :30s. Comparing one unit versus the other, there will always be an advantage to the longer execution. But in the real world, one gets double the advertising, or perhaps 3 for every two. :15's work through added frequency if for no other reason.
Research is plentiful. Contact The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Media Guru - are you aware of any studies or statistics showing the effectiveness of newspaper bag wraps [polybags]?
The data might be available from newspaper which offer the option or try The Newspaper Advertising Association
What do you think is the most effective medium in generating visitors to an informational "yellow-pages" type web site designed to attract recently engaged couples?
Testing will tell. If not bridal magazines, then other sites related to wedding planning.
Hi Guru, I have a few, related r/f questions: Can you
please explain the technical differences between r/f's
calculated using the Metheringham, Mellow and Prince
methods? Are there cases where one methodology would
be more favorable than the others and what are the
cases. And, finally, is there any value to runnning a
You appear to be referring to magazine r/f in particular.
Metheringham is one of the oldest print r/f methods, based on duplication between titles and duplication between issues.
Mello is an extension of Metheringham created by MRI. The Guru confesses to being unfamiliar with the "Prince" method.
"Most favorable" would be a case-by-case judgement call. Assumong you have all three systems available, you can do the same schedule 3 ways and compare. The Guru doesn't think there are general cases that can be cited where one is superior to another. Most likely teh differences will be caused by multi title versus few titles/multi-insertion schedules, or weekly versus monthly.
Yearly r/f, when schedules are reasonably substantial, is not likely to be useful in comparing scehdules. Some advertisers might use yearly data when looking for box-car numbers for trade promotion or sales meetings.
I am looking for statistics regarding the current and projected size of the local advertising market in Canada. Can you please help me to find such figures.
These data are typically reported by trade media. In Canada, try AdNews
How the results of TV sposnsorship can be measured
and evaluated? Is it possible to compare it somehow
with ordinary spots advertising?
In Russia we have monitoring of TV channels.
All events - programmes, breaks & commercials
(all types - including spots, sponsorship etc)
are fixed in the database. Combining it with the
PeopleMeter ratings theoretically we can calculate
The main problem is that I do not know how can I
calculate rating for sponsorship. Should it be
rating of the whole program or rating of the real
moments of sponsorship or something else?
Maybe you can advise some literature about the subject? how it is done in other countries?
Thank you in advance
Generally, when considering the total commerical audience of a sponsored program, the total program audience rating is used. But if your people meter data allow you to accumulate the net of all commercials and sponsor mentions, use that.
Evaluating the total benefit of sponsorship goes beyond these data. The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. and ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization would have relevant research.
How do I find ratings for all the US radio and TV stations and circulation and readership data for all the US dailies? I need this for my company's market research. I appreciate your work.
The Guru finds it hard to imagine that your company really needs and would use all this data for a project, but perhaps you are building a library to have on hand for ongoing marketing work.
There are about 1000 commercial TV stations, perhaps 1,000 dailies and 10,000 commerical radio stations. Broadcast ratings will include dozens of age/gender/program/time period variants per station. The companies that produce these data do it for profit. You can buy TV ratings from Nielsen, radio from Arbitron and daily newspaper circulation audits from Audit Bureau of Circulations.
What are the top ten online ad spending regions in the US
The Guru finds more questions raised by your question. What do you mean by regions? For example, there aren't enough "Nielsen regions" to think about a top 10. Do you mean DMAs or some other "universe" of regions? On what basis would you want to associate spending with regions? Headquarters of the advertiser? Location of the buyer?
It is possible no data will have been compiled for this sort of geographic analysis, but the most extensive web ad spend tracking is probably the one by
CMR (Competitive Media Reports).
where do I find information about the volume of ad's in Radio market in USA?
Our company has client who wants to know the volume of radio share in USA market and ad's share spent on Radio
I'm putting together an Out of home analysis and recommendation for one of my
clients. We want to use inflight magazines, inflight television, and dioramas in
the international departure areas of their targeted airports. The goal is to hit
international business travelers. Where do I begin? I have a list of their key markets, all of
which have at least 1 international airport. Can you help me set up an outline?
The Guru isn't sure he understands your question. You have chosen your media. Do you just need help in documenting the plan? See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan
Hi. I writing a media plan for a B2B .com The target is small businesses and the marketing objective is "to build the brand". Should I use reach as the primary media objective or frequency? For example, the online portion, should I use larger banners and sponsorships on fewer networks and single sites or smaller banners on more nets and sites? Also do you know of any research that details the crossover among magazine hard copy readers and that same magazine's online newsletter? Thanks
Some research has shown that banner ads wear out very quickly, at least insofar as generating clicks. So reach would seem a more useful benefit of online ads. If your goal is branding, one presumes you have significant information content in the banners themselves, rather than relying on clicks.
Cahners has posted some research on crossover in a B2B context.
Where might I find research forecasting 4th quarter TV viewership and predictions? With the Olympics and Election 2000 in the near future, is there research to support advertising amidst this kind of advertising?
Most trade publications, like Ad Age, are writing about this.
The overall volume of advertising does not change so mush as its nature and price. There is little reason not to advertise. For research, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I'm looking for a list of Specialty Advertising Agencies in Texas. Do you know of a source? Thanks.
Can you give :15 second bookend television commercials double the rating since the commercial is airing "twice?"
It depends on who is asking and why, so the answer is yes and no.
If the two :15's were in different pods, 10 minutes apart, the answer would be a simple yes. Whether the should not count a two commercials because they are only about 2 minutes apart is a judgement call, communications-wise.
What are your views on the wear-out phenomenon of advertising?
Click here to see
past Guru responses
Are there parameters (highs and lows) for effective reach and frequency? In other words, is there a particular reach and a particular frequency that are considered "average" as they relate to broadcast media? How would one determine whether an advertiser is spending adequate funds to meet these "averages" when airing a broadcast schedule on a Mon-Sun basis?
The Guru finds the concept of average irrelevant in this context.Such measures are relevant in relation to competition and one's own communications goals. What does it benefit an auto brand if the "average" advertiser has a reach of 50% at 3+ frequency when all automotive competitors are delivering 75% at 3+?
As to turning spending into effective reach and frequency, that's typically part of a media plan. Budget gets expressed as schedules of TV, radio, print, etc. Reach and frequency are calculated by available software for these GRPs. Effective reach / frequency is an inherent part of the calculation.
What is the definition of "spill in" and "spill out"
These terms are generally used in relation to Designated Market Areas, but may also be used relative to metros. It is an issue for market-specific media, like TV stations, radio stations and newspapers, but not for national media or place-based media, such as network TV and out-of-home, respectively.
"Spill-in" is audience generated within the DMA by media located outside the DMA. For example, in parts of the New York DMA some people view TV programs broadcast on Hartford-New Haven stations and this viewing is reported in the ratings for the NY DMA. This is spill-in.
"Spill-out" is the same thing seen from the other side. When a Hartford-New Haven station gets audience in the New York market and it's reported in the Hartford-New Haven ratings, it's spill-out.
20+ years ago, this was a relatively minor issue, but today, with cable and super stations there can be a big impact for some stations and markets.
What is the usual time of TV copy worn-out? Please give me some examples of Western markets (I am writing from Poland). Is there a big difference when you use the same copy all the time or several versions (let's say - the same logo, text, packshot, but different scenario)? Please submit it to FMCG brands. Thanks in advance. Cezary
It depends on how you define wear out, which might be based on GRPs or frequency or sales rate.
Click here to see
extensive past Guru comment on wear out
My company is currently placing free internet terminals in high traffic pedestrian locations. We currently have our terminals in 3 mall locations in the Las Vegas, Nevada area. We have recently completed about 2 months of data collection in the Fashion Show Mall in Las Vegas. We are generating 1.2 million impressions per month out of that single location. We anticipate generating approximately 3 million impressions per month by the end of May.
Now that we have collected all this data. We are ready to start selling the advertising. We are considering hiring an advertising firm. How do we find and evaluate an advertising firm that will meet our needs?
Two sources of agency listings by selected criteria are
The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook') and AdForum
What DMA's have a high penetration of families with children? Is there a place where I can locate penetration of families with children across all DMA's and how would those DMAs compare to the national average?
I have been presented the task of recommending media test markets for a cross-channel campaign that includes DM, print, radio, web and outdoor. Ideally, these test markets should be representative of the US population (i.e., mini US markets). What are the most commonly used media test markets that take the following into consideration? No spill in or out/purity of environment, large enough to purchase direct mail lists, and of course representative of the U.S. population?
Nielsen publishes a test market guide addressing these issues. Note that "most common" is not really a good criterion. Why test in a market where lots of other tests are going on, thus making the market non-representative?
Realistically, being fully representative of the U.S. isn't possible unless you settle on a few demographic criteria that you deem relevant to your product or test. It isn't too hard to find markets approximately representative on age/sex/income parameters, but are these the most crucial parameters in testing a basic household product, or is it more relevant to be representative of African American and Hispanic penetration or household size?
what about Intelligent Transport Systems ?
The Guru thinks trying to turn them into media will reduce their effectiveness for their intended purpose, and therefore, will not happen.
Question: Would you please advise how audience accumulation
builds over time? For: (A) Weekly Consumer Magazine (B)
Monthly Consumer Magazine (C) Business Publications (D) Out of
I suppose that based upon the type of media -- daily newspaper
versus monthly magazine, that audience accumulation will vary
quite differently. But from the standpoint of audience
accumulation over the course of time from Week 1 to Week 2 to
Week 3, etc., because of duplication, the accumulation figure
will decrease --- with reach maxing out.
Could you please provide a run down by media type (A, B, C, D) as
to how accumulation figures build over time?
Generally, in any print medium, the audience builds quickly at first, within the medium's cycle. For instance, a weekly builds the vast majority of its audience within the week following issue, and virtually all of its reach within 3 weeks. A monthly has a similar shape to its "reach curve" over time, but the 3 week time line extends to perhaps 2 months. Business publications would probably compare similarly for weekly versus monthly.
Out-of-home media are quite a different story. Since they are not media with content, and are incicentally encountered in life as opposed to the audeince seeking it out, there is no aging content to affect readership. Because out-of-home, at least in the case of outdoor posters, is bought at enormous GRP levels ( usually 25 to 100 GRP per day), reach accumulates very quickly, reaching 85 to 95% of an audience in the first month. The medium itself does not get measured, the campaign does.
How do you arrive at, determine or set up or initiate your rates
when you are serving a small audience of under 20,000 who buy
goods worth millions of dollars? Are there similar sites with
rates to compare based on audience size and buying power?
A range of sample rates is offered at Ad Resource
Can we use Pagers as an advertising Medium ? If yes, then which are the countries it is in practice and what r the rates per insertion?
This seems to the Guru to be an outrageous extension of SPAM. Using a special communications device which the owner has acquired for the purpose of receiving urgent messages, and may even pay per message delivered, to send unsolicited advertising messages would likley infuriate the users. One wonders who would even provide the list of numbers, unless the pager system operator sold broadcast messages.
What is meaning of the term 'Properties' in webparlance?.( like Some site list out 'top 15 properties')
"Properties" may have different meanings in different contexts, but the Guru suspects you are thinking of something like MediaMetrix' listing of top web properties, which they define as follows
“Digital Media & Web Properties” include the largest single brands as well
as consolidations of multiple domains that fall under one brand or common ownership."
This refers to multiple specialized versions of Yahoo, or AOL both on the web and internal, for example.
one of our clients, whose commercial asks the viewere to call the 800# for information/brochure asked about direct response :60's and :90's on TV (National cable and spot) compared to buying regular spots. In other words, what are the advantages and disadvantages of buying spots on a direct response basis? I know the costs are cheaper but you run in broad dayparts. What else?
Cost are cheaper because you run in broad dayparts, but more so because the spots are immediately preemptible. If an ordinary advertiser wants the inventory at normal rates your spots will be bumped.
A good sales rep will give you a rough estimate of what percentage will be preemted If you can live with that, and don't miss out on specific programs that you find sell your product better then take advantage of the lower rates.
I am trying to figure out an answer to a complcated problem.
Say you have widgets. you have identified 4 markets that might buy widgets. you then have a number X for each market that shows the possible number of sites that could have widgets - how can you create a weighting scheme to balance the data by segment?
Market possible sites % have widgets
A 10,000 55%
B 25,000 25%
C 5,000 5%
D 10,000 90%
please reply to email@example.com.
With the data you have supplied the only approach would be to multiply sites by percents and calculate a new distribution.
I would like to run a campaign in the US targeting Arabs living the west coast, the campaign is about a folk dancing show that will happen in Las Vegas. I will use Arab TV that are available via cables in the states. I would like to use some outdoor posters just few weeks before the show in California main cities, Can I have contacts of media houses. Is there any poerfull radio stations. Any other ideas ??? Many thanks
Major outdoor vendors such as TDI, OutdoorSystems or Vista Media can place outdooer and have the resources to identify Arab American population centers. The Guru does'nt think there are any "powerful" radio stations, or even measured ones, but ANA Radio offers one listing of US Arabic radio outlets.
Is it possible to derive a demo rating from a given household rating, assuming I have populations for both? I'm trying to convert a household cpp to a specific demo cpp. thanks.
No, you need vpvh, because the rating among people will not necessarily be the same as among HH. Without that linking data the popualtions are no help.
Where can I find a list of Internet Advertising Sales
Where can I find information on banner placement statistics regarding where on the page, within what content etc.?
Various organizations, such as The Internet Advertising Bureau and C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment) have research on these questions. Many sites have answers specific to their own advertising experience.
A lot of this research will be available throughthe Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Guru, I am new to broadcast buying and would like to know the difference between, national spot tv, spot tv, local tv and network tv. Im confused because spot and local appear to be the same thing. Thanks
The differences all depend on who is the seller or who airs the advertising and not so much on the broadcast buyer's actions.
Guru. I don't have access to neilson ratings. How else would I find Daytime ratings for various broadcast show, specifically against A25-54?
If you can't get Nielsen ratings from a subscriber, such as a station or an ad agency, you can't. In various places, such as Ultimate TV you may find Nielsen household ratings, which are often released for publicity purposes.
Nielsen is in the business of producing ratings as a money making venture, not a public service so the details are not freely available.
I would like to ask three questions: First, is there a website that provides guidelines for advertising on the Internet. Our company only provides services in certain areas and want to evaluate how we can reach these areas using the internet. Secondly, are there any other alternative ways to get messages across besides traditional TV, radio, print and outdoor? Thirdly, is there a website or service that reports spending on ad circulars (for instance, DirecTV in a Best Buy ad)? Thanks,
The Internet Advertising Bureau and C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment) are sites with good, general information.
If your key issue is advertising to a specific geographic area, you can advertise on sites providing local information, which today exist for most localities, or you can buy geographically specifc impressions from most major, commerical, consumer-oriented sites.
Is there any software in the media industry that offers all information about various cable systems and allows you to create an order?
Networks available, zip codes, rates, ownership and sales contact.
The Guru does not believe there is any such commercially available software. The data you describe is typically compiled by the national cable sales reps such as National Cable Communications who would be happy to provide the analysis to facilitate your buy.
What are the essentials of media buying? How can one plan an optimum media buying (all media) ?
Of course, this can take years to learn this fully or everyone would be doing it for themselves. At its most simple, the "essentials of media buying" are getting the right media at the right price.
The right media involves considerations of
The right price is more than just the lowest price when all the above have been considered. Too low a price may lead to preemptions. Too low a total investment with one vendor may let you miss out on advantageous packages and merchandising.
Which TV programs have the largest number of male viewers 18-34? Which Cable station reaches the largest number of viewers in this demo?
These questions can be answered best by Nielsen.
hi i am a media planner in pakistan working for R-Lintas the problem that i face while planning is the clitter and how to deal with specially in TV we have tried different solutions but none worked so i need your in this regard .
mentioned clutter i ment the overload of advertising on
television where your message is lost. in Pakistan few years back
we just had one government owned TV channel so it was easier to
attract big chuncks of audiences through advertising but in the
past few years the media scene in Pakistan has changed alot now
we have three TV channels (24 hour), cable and satellite channels
are also very popular so now it has become really difficult to
attract same big chuncks of audiences now every individual dwells
in his or her own domain of interest and the question now arises
1-How to reach these people who are no more receptive and has
more options. 2-How to get maximum mileage out of the limited
resources(advertising budget) that we normally have. 3-How to
increase the reach and break the advertising clutter 4-How can we
make consumers sit and watch our ads?
Part of the answer will depend on how advertisng is delivered. If one minute of programming alternates with one minute of commercial time, the Guru would say it's hopeless. If your TV commercials run in pods, that is, 2 or 3 minute blocks of commercials after every ten or fifteen minutes of programming, then there are a few tricks:
Making the consumers 'sit and watch your ads' though, is not a media issue. At best it's a creative question.
Guru, why are most large agencies starting their own online division? I assume most planners in a media department would love to explore new boundries for their clients to advertise in. Just wanted a different opinion.
Online media, though they are new and hot at the moment, are just additional media and must be regarded as merely additional communications elements available to advertisig plans. The Guru doesn't believe online divisions will stay separate for the long term. Though production issue will be unique, online will become just other media. There may continue to be specialists who serve online marketers, just as there are specialized health care and direct marketing agencies.
Bottom line, agencies are starting online divisions to compete for online budgets which otherwise are diverted from the budgets the agencies get. It's the same as agencies opening ala carte media services to compete against independent media buying companies.
I work in a two-person media dept. and my primary media planned & purchased thus far has been traditional(ie, tv, radio, print,etc.) A client has now requested an online banner program targeting commercial real estate landlords in NY, Chic. & LA. I don't know where to begin. Your advice is greatly appreciated.
Your starting point, without any reference books is to try to imagine what kind of websites would interest your target, and try to find them using search engines like Yahoo, etc.
These might be websites of commercial buildeing and maintenance services like construction, painting or carting.
It isn't in the nature of the web to be limited to specific geography, but sites can sell banners targeted geographically.
Guru, is there a website that offers R&F calculators? I work at a small agency & don't have access to most research data.
Right here on eTelmar
What's the best way to get planning costs for TV advertising in Europe?
Assuming you don't want to ask a multinational media service or agency for rates, start with International Media Guide
Hi Guru - I'm doing a radio campaign for a small restaurant chain. I have about 3 different station options that will work well. My dilema is that the station that comes out the best is an Oldies format. Not my first choice for a "guy sportsbar". My first choice was a combo of stations - NTR, AC and oldies bringin up the rear. My boss wants to just use the oldies station based on the numbers. I say, since all of the numbers look good - let's go with the 3 station buy. This is not a numbers argument and I don't know what to use to convince him. Any suggestions, or does it matter? Thanks
You don't say on what basis oldies "comes out the best." The Guru would imagine it's based on target rating, target composition, target efficiency or some combination of these.
You also don't say what the communications goals are, reach, effective reach, pure target impressions weight or something else.
You don't say why you don't think an oldies station would be good for a guys' sportrs bar, but the Guru would expect it's probably misguided, as in you like sports bars and you don't like oldies. The Guru has encountered this kind of thinking before; for example in NY or LA buyers who think country music is strictly for lowbrow blue-collar workers and farmers, not considering the format's dominance across many strata in most of the rest of the country.
If all the numbers you can think of favor the oldies nad you don't have research such as Scarborough or MRI to tell you that oldies stations are not listened to by guys who like sports bars, maybe you should just go with the numbers. If reach is an issue buy all three stations.
Generally, when the Guru has encountered a buyer putting "instinct" ahead of numbers in making decisions, it has turned out to be very simple unscientific, personal preference at work.
Hi Guru -
I have seen information on how different positions within
a magazine can impact on ad recall, but is there any
research available on how inserts affect ad recall?
Regarding effective reach and effective frequency, are there general accepted boundaries of these measurements as they relate to radio and television? How do you compute effective reach and frequency?
The Guru has seen effective frequencies from 2 to 9 used in plans. Most often, 3 is the "bogie" but 4 and 5 are not uncommon.
In the Guru's opinion, the effective levels make sense when applied to a majority of the target, that is, 50%+.
As far as computing effective R&F, the capability is typically built into reach and frequency calculators. As part of calculating reach, the frequency distribution is calculated. This is a calculation of the discreet number of persons reached by each ad in the schedule. Thus one can compile the number (or %) of target persons reached "at least" the set number of times.
Can you give me a sense of the media landscape in Latin
America? I am advertising an luxury product to a dual,
Consult International Media Guide.
Can you tell me what percentage of people who have seen
a television public service announcement will recall
having seen it? Thanks.
To a small extent, this is based on placement, but to a much greater extent it depends on the copy. In short, this isn't a media question.
I need to calculate target ratings for a particular cable network. I've got HH VPVH and the target VPVH. Now what?
HH VPVH would mean "Household Viewers Per Viewing Household," which makes no sense.
You need viewing households and Target Viewers per Viewing Household. Multiply these two and divide by target universe to get target rating.
Can you supply the adspend in US$ on a global basis by media type. Grossed up for all countries (global spend)and then itemised by the 20 to 30 biggest adspend nations?
Ad Age offers this sort of data. For example, see the issue of April 24, 2000.
I am trying to determine how best to manually calculate reach and frequency for Out of Home Media.
Would you be able to help and provide me with reach curves and turnover ratios for OOH media.
Out-of-home (outdoor poster media) is usually bought in #25, #50 or #100 "showings." These are based on daily effective circulation, or traffic, equal to 25, 50 or 100 GRP per day, respectively.
Within the state of the art, in rough terms, these levels usually mean 4-week reach and frequencies of approximately
As should be apparent, there is not much room for fine tuning, nor much reason for considering other GRP levels.
Do you have a source for locating a rank of hispanic markets by population that also includes some other demographic detail (income, m/f, education)? Thanks.
Do you have any data on how frequently media providers (buyers, ad agencies, etc.) engage in barter in lieu of cash exchanges? E.g. exchange media space for goods or services instead of cash. We're an online barter site and we're seeing a rise in the number of registered users from media buyer and ad agency markets
The Guru doesn't know of any tracking of such transactions. The Guru would be surprised to find a large volume of such activity
Typically, barter is a short term financial maneuver which can improve the look of the books of the product manufacturer and may have some benefits for media vendors. It is usually not seen as beneficial or advisable by agencies.
Can you please tell me the contact for advertising on the top of luggage carousel's at airports. TDI does NOT handle carousel advertising. I'm interested in Dallas,Fortworth specifically. Many Thanks for your help!
The Guru suggest you contact the airport's managers.
How do I find out what the most popular media in Brazil are?
Go to the media measurers for Brazil, for example, Nielsen.
I'm working with fast food client in Puerto Rico(PR). PR is very competitive in this category. I like to know what is the effective frequency and reach in sustainning level and promotional period. I know that exist many theorical procedures to found the reach and frequency goals. But i'm very confuse what is the more accurate to this reality(very competitive environment)Please help me.
Competitive environment, e.g Share of Voice, is one key variable.
Click here to see
the Guru's discussion of the Ostrow model for setting effective frequency goals.
HOW DO I FIND TV STATION ADDRESSES?
I just heard a speaker mention "micro-site" in regards to internet advertising. Do you have any idea what he may be referring too? Thanks.
Like many new internet terms, this one seems to mean whatever the speaker was thinking when he said it. "Interstitial" was like this a few years ago.
Generally, micro-site refers to a small area of a web site or a very small site, usually set up for a specific marketing purpose.
For example, if an advertiser came to AMIC wanting to run a banner campaign, but the advertiser didn't have its own web site to be the click-through destination for the banner, we would create a microsite of one page to present the full advertisng message for those who click.
Similarly, a large manufacturer might create a microsite for one particular product in the line during a particular promotion.
Are there general guidelines for media planners so that they will know how and when to consider ethnic or cultural groups in the planning process? Are there any planning tools?
The three major ethnic/cultural groups are currently almost one-third of total population ( see AMIC's Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator ): African American is 13%, Hispanic is 12% and Asian American is 4%. The rule of thumb is always "consider" ethnic and cultural groups. There are several common or basic product categories in which these groups have a 150 - 300+ index of usage versus the remainder of population. These include fruit juice, baby products, rice, corn meal, and many brands of beer, popular foods or over-the-counter pharmceuticals.
General advertising doesn't reach the linguistically isolated portions of these markets (50% or more of Hispanics and various Asian national groups). Even those reached, among all the ethnic/cultural segments, are less impacted due to lack of appropriate cultural cues in the general advertising or the media environments.
Upon due consideration, the planner may find that for his or her particular advertiser, no special effort is required. But, the planners may also find that there is a 12% segment of their universe consuming 25% of their product, and reachable through efficient media. It is not really unusual for the "first mover" in one of these market segments to gain 10% market share among the segments, which equates to a gain of more than 1% national share, something that couldn't have been achieved for three times the budget in general advertising.
Non-ethnic segmetns such as the mature market may also bear consideration.
Hispanic Broadcasting System (formerly Heftel) has created En Total which does general Hispanic radio calculations and media combinations.
The African American, Spanish, and Asian-American media all offer research analyses.
I'm doing a campaign for a small restaurant chain with a relatively small budget. The goal is to drive traffic for lunch. I'm going to run in the AM and afternoon drives. Is it really necessary to have a 3 frequency if I'm going to be on the top 3 stations on the same programs each day at the same time over a period of 8 weeks? The schedules that I'm getting back show in the low 2's.
The common reference to a goal of "3 frequency" which you may have heard stems from century-old learning theory which found that 3 repetitions of information were required for it to be "learned" and acted upon. Many media planners use this theory and so specifically consider how many members of their target they are reaching at least 3 times.
You, however, seem to be looking at the average frequency of a schedule, which is different. Any schedule with at least three annoucements will have some portion of its reach exposed to 3 repetions. You need to decide what portion of your audience should be reached three times. YOu need to judge this by looking at the combination of all stations: you may be looking at individual stations reach and frequencies.
Finally, you may consider the full 8 week schedule. A station may be reporting to you only the one week reach and frequency, if you haven't specified, all stations, full cume.
With a schedule of just two dayparts on three stations you are probably getting a fairly low reach at high frequency and this is a completely different sort of consideration than the "3 frequency" issue.
Many planners today are abandoning the effective reach (3+) approach in favor of "recency," the concept that the exposure closest to a purchase decision is the most effective one. You plan might agree more with this approach if it has enough weekly reach.
small market advertising: most effective print or broadcast? Product Casino-Resort.
This varies by market: what media are available and how well they cover the market. There cannot be a single rule.
What is an affinity score
This appears to be a British term comparable to the U.S.' "index of usage."
The Guru understands Affinity Score to be a comparison of a specific demographic cell's usage of a product ot service to the average of all persons usage. For example if 25% of men 18-34 drink Coca-Cola and 20% of everyone drinks Coke, the men 18-34 index or "score" is 25 ÷ 20 or 125.
I'm thinking of running :60 second radio spots vs. :30's. I have schedules and costs, but want to know if there is an industry standard that shows how much more :60's cost over :30's (if it's twice as much or 40% etc.) Thanks
The standard, once-upon-a-time, was that radio :30's cost 80 to 85% of 60's. Today, more often, radio stations sell "units" and have one price for :60 or :30. Under either standard, 60 is a better buy. But under the older system the added frequency with :30's was a real consideration.
We are putting together a sponsorship package that incorporates TV spots, our company newsletter, our website and our fleet vehicles -- is it possible to estimate a combined reach/frequency for all four mediums combined?
The TV is easy, using standard methods, of which you are probably aware.
The other estimates must start from simple counts of the newsletter circulation, web traffic and - the toughie - persons exposed to your fleet. Most simply, after getting a standard TV reach, convert the other media
impressions to ratings and combine by "random probability."
My agency has just picked up an account that does only classified advertising. It is a huge account and includes over 500 newspapers. I am trying to research and find if there is an internet resourse that will allow me to gather information, (classifed rates, closing dates, mechanical requirements, etc) It would be wonderful if I could do the insertion orders, too! Is there a site that exists?
MediaPassage might be just what you need.
When buying radio, do buyers get better rates just by selecting all Adults 18-54 vs. selecting a more specific demo? Does specifying the demo drive rates up?
Stations typically set their basic prices by the cpm acheived against a broad demographic which buyers often want, such as Adult 18-54.
A station with great competitive strength in a specific and hard-to-reach demographic might raise its pricing if a buyer asked for a proposal on that demographic. Conversely, a buyer might get better prices by asking for a proposal on a demographic where the station is less competitive.
Dear Guru - Are there daily and weekly/community newspaper associations in the US? Thanks
Start with The Newspaper Advertising Association
I am looking for any and all information on advertising via satellite television. I found some basic history of the media on skyreport.com, but that site doesn't provide enough info. Can you recommend sources either web sites or hard copy?
Assuming you are thinking about the U.S., you may be looking for something that doesn't exist.
Keep in mind that signal carriers, whether cable or satellite, may not insert ads in time slots already sold as national, nor into local broadcast programming, nor on advertising-free networks like HBO. When you see national ads on cable networks, these are sold by the networks as national and run as the network is carried, whether the viewer receives the program through cable or a satellite receiver. Local, cable-originated advertising runs in time slots reserved for local use. These "local" slots, about 2 minutes per hour, could theoretically be sold nationally by the satellite carriers.
I have searched in Cahners Information Reference to no avail for information regarding "sideways" ads, vertical versus horizontal pages in magazines. Do you have any information or know where I might find something? Thanks for your input.
The Guru would begin with Starch for this question.
Which medium (TV, radio, print, direct mail)does the Internet have the highest duplication with in terms of usage?
This question isn't really answerable as stated. TV, Radio, Print and (in theory) direct mail reach everyone, including all internet users. So, with this broad question, all media are tied at 100% duplication.
Specific schedules of traditional media , specific DM lists and specific web sites will have different duplication rates, and different frequency distributions. Or, you could determine something like "webusers are less likely to be heavy viewers of TV than heavy readers of magazines."
We are looking for research on how CEOs/4Cs use the internet. Basically avg. amount of time, primary uses, and the like.
The only research we find is about that they are on the web, which is obvious.
MRI reports on internet use and job titles.
What is the industry standard for the expected negotiated value added merchandising as a % of a media buyer's total buy?
When stated, it is usually 0.5%. However, a good negotiator can get far more if careful to request what the media vendor is more willing to provide. For instance, a radio station might buy you 0.5% worth of giveaways, but be willing to produce a remote event worth 10% of the buy.
What is your opinion on using out-of-home (30-sheets or
bulletins) as a stand-alone medium for a brand-building
On a related note, are there any "rules" for adjusting
different types of media for their "impact" versus
other media (e.g., impact of an all-newspaper campaign
versus an all television campaign given the same TRP
levels and the same "likelihood of use" by the target
The Guru has seen impact adjusments across media based on recall, on attentiveness and on an advertiser's proprietary research, but no general rules-of-thumb.
Unfortunately, such adjustments are too often based on one unit of the advertising, such as a TV spot versus a radio spot, and don't take into account the crucial difference in number of spots or GRPs per dollar.
As for brand-building in outdoor, there are two principal considerations in the Guru's view:
In short, the Guru's gut feeling is that outdoor can contribute greatly to brand building, but that the process needs at least one longer-form medium.
How do I go about finding web sites to advertise on that cater to my core demographic? I am looking for core web sites that does well with W25-49 and Grandparents.
I have a client who wants to advertise in two very local newspapers...Thrifty Nickel and The Employment Guide. I have found some info on Thrify, but not on the other. Do you have any suggestions on where to locate? Thanks.
The Guru assumes that you know the location? Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) has a Community Newspaper Source, whic might be helpful.
Then, too, with a location, you might be able to locate the publications though printed or online Yellow Pages and request information that way.
Dear Media Guru,
could you tell me what you know about beta-coefficient for different media measuring the percentage of the target audience who remembered the brand or at least one of visual or text elements of message after the first contact. Do you have any statistics on beta-coefficients for different media?
"Beta-coefficient" is not a standard term in defining recall. It sounds like a measure of correlation of two metrics, perhaps GRP and recall, which were cited in some unknown person's study.
For a collection of such studies, try The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I work for a regional retail eyewear chain. We'v been asked repeatedly to determine ROI for every ad dollar invested so I've bookmarked a number of your repsonses. The latest challenge is to prove the decline of yellow page advertising's effectiveness as part of our media mix. Can you help with sources of information to help me in my pursuit of a response.
You can really only prove this by tracking the advertiser's own results.
Otherwise, consult The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Understanding that this is a COMPLETELY subjective
question with many contributing variables, running
the gamut from network to daypart to quarter
I am trying to determine an average "National Network
TV" CPM to apply for a planning budget exercise. Do you
have a range you recommend using?
Thanks in advance!
With all the unspecified variables making any answer almost meaningless, try about $8.00-$9.00 HH cpm
Dear Media Guru:
Where can I find the Media Spending/Rating Levels
by Daypart(TV) and Magzines(Print) for the BP Amoco
Account over the past two years. (This is for United
States only.) Is there any site that would show their
recent commercials as well? I am researching a media
position for this account and would like to understand their
overall Marketing and Media Strategy to see if it would
be a productive match.
I need to develop a cost estimate and approx. reach/freq. for a US television buy in the top 40 markets. Here's what I have and what I still need to know:
I have the markets and approx. CPP per daypart from SQAD. I need to know how to calculate a rough estimate of reach & freq for 1 week to 1 year based on 200 points per week in each market. Can a network (CBS etc)place the entire buy, or do I have to do this per market. I'm one person and can't spend too much time executing this (if it happens). Any advice would be great. Thanks
No, networks don't place spot buys. You can use spot reps or media buying services. Find these in Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) or
The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook')
Either one can help you with reach and frequency, or eTelmar.com offers an inexpensive, online reach calculator.
If you are buying 200 points per week for a year in the top 40 markets, you are spending in the 10's of millions, at least. This is ample to hire a buying service or at least some experienced free-lance help. Either one would save you far, far more in media costs than the expense of their fees.
iam developing a marketing plan for a india based travel portal.this portal is designed to serve the needs of indian tourists as well as foriegners visiting india.how do i identify and best reach my target audience namely,people around the world who travel or have strong intentions to travel and are on the net?
thanking you in advance,maverickrr
1.Is there a resource that lists magazine publishing reps around North America?
2.Is there a resource that describes average fees and commissions?
3.Is there a resource for finding out average wage and commission structure for in-house ad sales reps.
Hi Guru. I've just become an official "Media Planner"...do you know of any websites for beginners? I find I still hear catch-phrases that I don't understand. Any help out there?
What is the Saisbury method?
Sainsbury was a media researcher in England. The "Sainsbury method" you refer to was probably his adjustment to TV reach to acount for understatement of duplication between TV dayparts in the basic statistical procedure used 30 years ago.
For a class project i'm trying to find information regarding rates and audience size for the 10 most popular childrens shows. Ages 2-11. Where would i be able to find this info. and if possible for free??? Thanks, Jaclyn Carlson
The Guru has not found program-specific rates for TV programs published anywhere, free or otherwise. Nielsen has cpm reports, though.
What is the radio industry standard for a denominator such as CPM in print media. The C/RP is fine for comparisons in the same DMA, but what about cross-DMA comparisons?
CPM works in radio, too, and it's the right metric to use across markets. Arbitron reports thousands as well as rating, so it's always available. To get a rough estimate of CPM, divide CPP by 1% of the target universe expressed in thousands; Cost Per Point is the cost of reaching one percent (one rating points' worth) of the universe.
Guru, I've never used a planning program as most of my planning has been national print and outdoor, local broadcast, and things I've felt I can handle on my own.I've seen so many planning programs and websites for planning it's hard to tell the good from the bad. Have you ever evaluated planning programs and, if you have, can you recommened one or two? Thanks
Such programs calculate reach, frequency, effective reach, frequency distribution, and quintiles for individual media plus combinations of media as well as cross-tabulations and rankers from media audience databases. Flow charting is also a typical option.
These programs don't actually create media plans, that is determine how much budget to invest in each medium, ad units to use, and scheduling. There are such programs on the drawing board, but require that the planner quantify and factor those concepts which would be subjective judgements.
Guru, I have been assigned the task of presenting the evolution of online media planning over the years.
India has very recently seen some activity in this sphere, but in general the industry stalwarts are a little lost in all this confusion about the web and new media etc. Can you please guide me on the following:
1. How was online media originally planned
2. What kind of models have evolved over the years and which ones do you think have the maximum chance of succeeding
3. Have the traditional full service or media specialist agencies lost out in the race of online media planning. If so why?
4. What is the future for online media planning
5. Do you have a module on your website focussing only on online media planning and buying, parameters of evaluation and similar resources
Where can I find free information on U.S. Hispanic Media usage?
click here to see past Guru responses about the US Hispanic market.
Finally, there are recent Hispanic TV Network ratings from Nielsen's NHTI and total market Arbitron radio ratings from major Hispanic markets, at HispanicAd.com
Is there a source where I can get information on International Business (trade) publications? I know that SRDS has several International SRDS, but I'm looking for something that would be at no charge.
The Oxbridge Media Finder answers this need.
Is there an internet site where you can determine a given cities DMA? Thanks.
DMAs are defined by Nielsen. They offer a city listing book.
any sites on history of FM radio ?
Thank you for your quick response...
For Banner Advertising.... If you have a commited
captured viewer that chooses to stay at your site for
a lengthy period say 5 minutes... How many refresh
times per minute would be acceptable for different
The real issue is whether the ad stays on-screen for the visitor. With various screen sizes and resolutions it is doubltful that the situation would be such, unless the ad is in an uncloseable, "floating window," which generally annoys the visitor.
where can I find a list of Media Buyers to offer Internet Advertising opportunities..
The standard source is
The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook')
For an "Impression Advertisement" what is the time that the ad must be available for viewing.
Can you place 6 banner ads for 10 seconds each and have each 10 seconds be credited with an impression ?
In broadcast, where presentation is linear, time of exposure doesn't change how we count GRPs and impressions. However, limiting display time of a banner means that there is less chance of exposure, as the user may have scrolled away from the active portion of the page. As a media buyer, the Guru would not give full credit to this method of display.
tell me more about recency planning
Click here to see dozens of past Guru responses about recency.
What is the difference between Eyeballs, Pageviews and Impressions?
"Eyeballs" is a colloquial term and has no standard meaning. Someone might use it to mean audience impressions or web visitors, etc.
Pageview is defined as a page request succesfully delivered to a user. A "page" is a set of files, generally text files and graphics files, which make up an html page.
Impression can be equivalent to pageview, if it's page impressions. Ad impressions are comparable but refer to delviery of ad banners, which are most often gif or jpg files.
Dear Media Guru - I need to get a list of all AM & FM radio stations in Dallas with a description, rating etc. How can I get this without setting off the rep process. I'm new to this country. Used to plan in Canada. Thanks
One great resource is Radio & Ratings
all my questions are rearging to 30 second TV commercial price.
1). does any other Web site provide free data of TV commercial price in US? i noticed AMIC has some.
2). where i can get TV commercial price data for the countries in Europe, Asia and South America?
3). where i can get TV commercial price data for national broadcasting networks such as ABC, NBC, CBS, ESPN, etc
I appreciate for your help, Tony
The Guru is not aware of any other free sources of these data, other than direct contact with the vendors.
I work at the research department of a newspaper.
Can you tell me where I can find more information/cases
about how to determine advertising rates for display
ads, different from the traditional mm/column price.
You seem to have made this a production question, rather than a media question. In media terms though, if an ad price is set as cost per column-inch, then this price can be re-expressed as cost per thousand circulation or cost per thousand audience for the given ad size.
How to calculate Affinity Index when both percents are equal, that is: target = 0,01 and universe = 0,01?
I learned to calculate target divided to universe x 100, but in some cases, the result is very high and something seems to be wrong on my calculation.
The Guru is unclear about your question. "Universe" is, by definition, 100% of something.
Hi Guru! Have a search engine question for you. Do you know of any Web resource sites that provide search engine keyword ranking stats -- the top quarried keywords that Internet users most often enter into search engine dialog boxes. Thanks again, Guru! Jim P.
Go to AskJeeves and ask: "What are the most common keywords searched?"
One of the links offered will be "Which are right search engine keywords?" and this will take you to an area giving keyword statistics.
Can you give me any data on the efficiency of using preprinted advertising inserts in newspapers. Are they more effective than display advertising? Is the response rate better? Are they a cost-effective medium? Are there any data on this medium that you know of?
The media term "efficiency" is reserved for the analysis of a price / audience ratio, so please only use it for that issue.
Pre-printed inserts are typically in color, while ROP display advertising is most often black and white, yet inserts are easy to discard and ignore, compared to ads in the ordinary flow of the ROP pages.
Research sources include The Newspaper Advertising Association, Newsweek
Media Research Index and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Is there any research that shows the effectiveness of display ads in Yellow Pages? How do you know what size ad is the most effective?
Almost invariably, all else being equal, a larger ad is more effective than a smaller ad.
Research will be available through The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Is there a website where freelance media planners can offer their services? Thanks for any help.
Try AMIC's Ad Jobs area .
iam developing a marketing plan for a portal in india and of indian origin.in that context i need to know what are the number of advertising exposures required on the net(say on sites hotmail and yahoo) to induce a person to visit the portal.by knowing that iam trying to calculate the effective exposure index.thanks in advance.awaiting ur reply.
Put this way, you make it a very complex question. Some individuals will never visit, some will respond to the third exposure they see. And of course, it depends on the creative.
As a general rule, though, current average banner click rate is about 0.5%. On that basis, 200 impressions produce one visit.
Can you give me any data on the efficiency of using preprinted advertising inserts in newspapers
You need to check ratecards. There is usually a statement of cpm for carrying an insert.
Broadstrokes information may be foound at The Newspaper Advertising Association.
The Internet Advertising Bureau has established nine standard banner advertising sizes to aid potential advertisers in designing and buying advertising on the net. Do you know of a specific web address to which I can go to view examples of each? Thanks.
Right here in the Guru's web glossary .
how can i evaluate sponsorship of tv and radio programmes and what's the best way to present it to the client. thanks
The basis way to evaluate any media opportunity is to compare it to your goals and strategies. This may be about reach or impact or targeting a specific audience.
Click here to see
past Guru responses about evaluating sponsorships.
How can I find out aboutjob opportunities in the UK advertising industry?
Can we accurately measure branding online in the
Branding is a long-term concept, and perhaps on-line media are too young or too quickly changing for valid measurement today.
The Guru dosen't believe on-line is the best branding medium, because it doesn't deliver it's full message to a significant percent of the already small reach potential on on-line. On-line can enhance branding for well established brands, with a logical connection to possibel on-line environments, like Microsoft, or IBM.
Click here to see past Guru
responses about branding on-line.
How does ad placement online affect the following
objectives: acquistion, branding, loyalty/retention
and usage? Are there specific cases where positioning
on a website has affected each significantly?
Possibly The Internet Advertising Bureau or C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment) can offer studies on thes topics. Surely the answer will differ by category.
Please explain the use of BDI/ CDI and MOI in relation to the media strategy, whether media activity should be aggresive, maintenance etc.
Indices like these, (though "MOI" is not familiar, possibly Market Opportunity Index?) are used to compare geographic markets media weight/spending levels. Typically, one, geographically flexible, element of the media plan, such as spot TV is adjusted up or down in DMAs or regions, to give each area the appropriate activity based on relative sales, or sales potential index. It's not exactly a question of "aggressive" versus "maintenance."
Click here to see past Guru comment on BDI and CDI
Can you provide links (or phone numbers) for MRI, Donovan and SmartPlus. Thank you
I'm looking for online/internet HH's/penetration by DMA or other published market definition. I know Media Audit and Scarborough have this, but is there anywhere that I could get this small piece free?
is there any researches about ads that include phone numbers?
I'm trying to get some numbers about advertising on web-sites, especially on web-sites about entertainment. What I want to know is: how much ad space are they selling ? are they sold out or not? is there something like a "buy rate" (or sell through rate) for advertising, like percentage of ads sold?
Thank you for the help.
Can you recommend some companies that link companies with e-mail lists (permission marketing memberships, NO SPAM) with potential promotional partners?
Chooseyourmail.com, a notable SPAM opponent and opt-in list operator, may offer what you need.
Working at an Ad Sales co. for Radio, we are targeting the Hispaic Market. What sites would be best to give me information on Hispanic Advertising Agencies throughout the United States? Thanks.
I am asking a follow-up to the performing arts corporate sponsor question and the value of their logo on our website. Thank you by the way for your prompt response - it has been very helpful. Could you also give me an idea as to the value of a link to the corporate sponsor's webpage?
If by this you mean you will make the sponsor's logo on your website "clickable" to link to the sponsoe site, that is the same pricing as mentioned previously for impressions; the typical web ad impression is mad by a clickable banner which links to the advertiser's site.
Some deals are made on a cost- per-click basis. On this basis, clicks are selling for a ridiculously low 25 cents. It is not a good deal for a site. When a site sells impression for a $40 cost per thousand, it needs to get $8 per click as an equivalent.
Dear Media Guru:
I am the publisher of a very niche oriented magazine called International Longboarder. We are a year old and the magazine is found in surf, skate and snowboard shops throughout the world. We appeal to men 18-34. Here is my question: what would be three inexpensive ways to let media buyers know about us - specifically those buyers who are looking to reach this demographic?
What is the typical direct mail response on a general consumer mailing? How does this response increase when followed up with telemarketing? If a customer calls in to order from the mailing, what would the average cross-sell conversion rate be? Thanks!
Your best source for these data would be Direct Marketing Association
How can I find out about co-op progrmas through Amercian Express and fine dining establishments? I am currently working with a client who has a website to purchase wine (both retail and wholesale) and we'd like to introduce the wine website through fine dining establishments via a co -op opportunity with Amex. Short of calling AMEX I though I'd ask the Media Guru for other suggestions. Thank you! -Thinking outside the box in CT
Going directly to American Express seems to the Guru to be the most efficient idea.
I am a fundraiser for a non-profit performing arts center. We are working with a potential corporate donor who is interested in naming our auditorium. They want to know the marketing impact their name would get from all of our advertising. We have been placing dollar values on all of our advertising but we are having hard time estimating the value of their logo on our website - not to mention links to our performing arts tenants which would include the corporation's name with regard to location of events. I have heard website values are based upon the number of visits. We are working on getting that info - I do not think we get that much activity right now but we have great potential. Could you give me a general rule - dollars/per visits? Any input would be greatly appreciated. Thank you!
Website impressions (ad views) sell for anywhere between $2 and $200 per thousand, depending upon the rarity and desirability of the audience. A performing arts center surely has as special audience, which might sell for $35 to $50 per thousand impresions. The corporate sponsor of an arts center logically would find value in that sort of audience. The number of visits might be anywhere from 10 to 25% as many as impressions, depending on how many pages a visitor views per visit. Using visits as a value standard would depend on whether the corporate logo is on every page or some portion.
What is "Spot TV" Advertising?
Spot TV means TV advertising placed in individual local market areas (DMAs) rather than nationally, though a network or nearly nationally, through a syndicator.
Has there been any studies done on Theater Advertising in relation to how consumer feel about it?
Hello I am currently enrolled in the 3-year advertising program at
Mohawk College in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. In response to a class
project and of great interest to me, I am in search of answers to the
following questions regarding obtaining a career in the Internet
1. What programs are used in the creation of Internet advertisements?
2. What are the job titles and descriptions of jobs within Internet advertising?
3. What are the specific qualities looked for when hiring a person for Internet advertising?
4. How does Internet advertising differ from other forms of advertising?
5. What should a student keep in mind and focus on while attending
school in order to further their changes in Internet advertising
6. Is there an organization solely devoted to Internet advertising?
7. What forms of Internet advertising are offered? (Ex. WebPage design yes, banners, etc)
8. When should a company inquire about Internet advertising as a form
9. How long has Internet advertising been around and how has it grown throughout the years?
Since this is the Media Guru, we will address those of your several questions which relate to media issues.
Dear Guru, I have one client that is launching a new brand name of juice, We will be using TV,outdoor, & press, he suggested to have a teaser campaign on Radio like one week before the launche . I'm not really supporting his idea since I believe the teaser should be visual not only audio ?? Thanks to advise
This is a creative issue in the Guru's opinion. Since there will be TV, there should be ample visual and audio material from which to take a teaser.
It is also the Guru's opinion that juice, as a category, is not likely to inspire sufficient consumer interest or curiosity for a teaser campaign to be particularly effective.
Perhaps in your country, juice is considered more exciting than in the Guru's - primarily U.S. - experience.
I would like to know which company create the following media software? If I can only pick one of the following for use, which will you recommend?
1. TV Works
2. Nielsen Galaxy Navigator
3. Audience Analyst
Obviously, the Nielsen Galaxy Navigator comes from Nielsen. So does Audience Analyst.
The Navigator allows analysis of spot overnight (NSI or NHSI) Houshold audience data. The Analyst offers online access to the monthly audience demographic reports of these two services.
Navigator is important to buyers who need to know quickly and broadly how their schedule is delivering. The Analsyt is more useful as a planning tool and when demographic targets are most important.
"TV Works" is not familiar to the Guru. It is a very generic
sounding name and may be a subset of some company's more familiar, larger media
could you tell me what aperture theory is? cant seem to have heard this before. Thanks
Some see aperture theory as a companion to recency, some as a contradiction.
Most simply, aperture theory holds that there is a point in a brands purchase cycle when the consumer is most susceptible to advertisng persuasion regading the next purchase, and that is when to concentrate message delivery. The connection to recency, is that recency theorists hold that, to the extent that advertising affects purchase, the exposure closest to the purchase decision is most influencial in the purchase decison. When purchases are occuring constantly, the best plan distributes exposures continuously, which achieves the most consumers reached relative to purchase occasions, as compared to palns with hiatuses or occasional big peaks in weight.
I am trying to evaluate media value of our website. We get about 4000 hits daily and anticipate greater number of hits as we advertise and develop the site further. What would be the estimated media $ value for banner advertising?
Let's assume when you say "hits" you mean page loads or page impressions, since "hits" literally means server log entries. A single web page can include 10, 20, 30 or more files of text, pictures, decorative graphics and banner ads, which cause server log entries, when a visitor requests the page. The ad banner impressions you can sell relate to page impresions; but as you will have seen, there can be multiple ads on one page.
As media value, the range of selling prices for ad impressions is anywhere from under $2 to $200 or more. The difference depends on the rarity and desirability of the web site's audience. Let's assume the average, for specialized web sites, is about $50 per thousand impressions.
So if you have 4,000 page impressions daily, or 120,000 per month, when you put an ad banner on every one of those pages, you might charge the advertiser $6000.
Is there any type of resource on the Internet where I can go and side-by-side compare third party ad servers as well as companies like Nielsen-Net Ratings and AdRelevance? Just like CNET does for comparing hardware?
When CNet compares hardware, there is a potential of hundreds of thousands or millions of interested buyers. WWW audience tools are likely to be bought only by the biggest sites.
However, at these levels, the individual vendors may be expected to provide detailed comparisons of their offereings versus the competition's. But be sure to get the comparison from more than one.
A few years ago, I saw a budget setting tool called the Jones Diagram. Do you know of this and where an explanation of how to use it might be found ?
It diagrams the findings of Jones' analysis showing that low share-of-market (SOM)brands ususally spend at a higher share of voice (SOV)than their share-of-market percent; that higher share-of-market brands underspend share-of-voice and that this situation is correct. This then allows budget setting in accord with SOM and SOV information.
The author is noted media theorist John Philip Jones of the Newhouse School at Syracuse University. It is fully described in his book, How Much Is Enough? : Getting the Most from Your Advertising Dollar published by Lexington Books in 1991. The title is out of print, but - at this writing - is currently available online through the Barnes & Noble Rare and Out of Print site.
An explantory article might be available from The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Challenge: How do we reach recent movers/home buyers? What media vehicles are available that would reach this target audience? Direct mail, magazines, etc.?
Any information you have would be very helpful in
my media planning.
Direct marketing through resources such as Welcome Wagon are a starting point.
Many telephone companies have special packages with new telephone book deliveries. Other utilities, such as gas, electric, cable, etc are also potential partners.
Can you tell me why agency commission is figured by dividing the net cost by 85%, which is more than adding 15%.
There are gross and net prices. The gross is the price typically quoted by media used to dealing with agencies. The standard commission is 15% of the gross price. Sometimes media quote the net price, which is the cost after the 15% commision is deducted, or 85% of the original gross price. Therefore, to convert net to gross, you divide by 85%, and to convert gross to net you multiply by 85%, or deduct 15%.
To convert net to gross by adding commission, add 17.65%. This is equal to dividing by 85%.
All these approaches keep the relationship of commission to gross price at 15%.
I was wondering if you could help. Our agency is in the process of reviewing media buying and planning job salaries and it would be most helpful if we have a national benchmark. We are looking for entry, mid- and senior level ranges. If it is at all possible, could you e-mail this information to me? Thank you!
See the salary surveys in Ad Age.
what are the parameters to consider when we evalaute the internet as an advertising medium? we want to develop a model for this so we need some help. and if you know of studies done in this area, could you please let us know.
If you are evaluating the internet against other media to use in a plan, use the same parameters as any other medium: cost, efficiency, reach, environment. As a supplemental medium, does it add reach you couldn't get through some other medium?
When you are planning within the internet the principals are the same, but you will need to deal with impressions, visits, visitors, and duplication.
Where can I find a schedule of all upcoming Sports programming on all Broadcast Networks?
Can you explain what "SQAD" and "SPARC" are and how they work? What are the benefits to the advertiser to use these? Does it require professional advertising knowledge to use and understand? Thanks.
SQAD and SPARC (aka SQAD Radio)
are standardized cost references, from which recent sample data is found in our ad rates area at the links given above. They represent the average buying achievement of actual buys made by a representative panel of cooperating agencies and media buyers.
If you know enough to place a buy based on ratings and demographic Cost Per Point (CPP), you can benefit from using these tools.
Question: Hello. Do you know where I might find a list that provides names
of Interactive Companies that Advertise on Television? (e.g. Amazon.Com,
Ameritrade.com, etc... )
Thank you in advance for any insight you may be able to offer!
I would like to know if there is any equation to calculate media mix reach?
There are several, equivalent ways to express the arithmetic to combines media according to random probability, which has been found generally adequate for the purpose of multimedia combination.
Here's an easy one:
To add additional media, treat the combination as medium A and the next medium as B.
In some cases, a planner may have access to research which shows that an adjustment should be made for actual, measured, duplication between different media, rather than use the "random probability" formula above. In that case, more sophisticated reach calculating software packages, such as those from
Telmar allow you to make the calculation and build in known adjustments.
Where I can obtain information abut de marketing and children?
If you mean direct marketing and children, start with the Direct Marketing Association
Does Campaign (the British ad trade) have a web site? If so do you have the URL
Re: Creative messages (ads) in consumer magazines and/or newspapers.
Is it customary to run difference creative in magazines than newspapers? In the past, the agency has tried to convert a magazine ad to run in newspaper. However, the color reproduction quality is very poor in newspaper printing compared to newspaper.Therefore, the question - do advertisers usually run different ads/campaigns in magazines from newspaper?
We would appreciate any feedback you have.
Yes, newspaper copy is usually different than magazine copy. Color is just one reason.
Guru, do you have an estimate, or can you tell me where to look, to determine the impact of political advertising on spot television. Specifically, I need to estimate an average amount of preemptions during the political window. Thanks.
The ad trades, Ad Age and MediaWeek, will have written what happened after each past election.
The patterrns change depending on issues and candidates, and how hotly contested local races become.
where can i find out about e-mail list rental in the uk for a direct e-mail campaign.
The Guru considers SPAM marketing beneath contempt.
1) In the absence of any continuous tracking of readership ( unlike peoplemeter for TV), how is it possible to measure the deliveries of a multi media campaign ? Assume readership estimates are available at 6 month intervals
2) Is there any study done to determine the impact of internet on TV / Print viewer/readership ?
1) It must be assumed that readership is constant for each issue in each six month period. Keep in mind that each readership release is several months behind when released. If it is crucial to closely estimate audience on a continuos basis, you can get issue by iise seasonal circulation trends of the magazines to make adjustments to the per-issue assumption. For new publications, the growth trend can be projected.
The findings of such studies generally show that internet users use less of other media. The studies typically over look the fact that these internet users were lighter users of traditional media before using the interent.
The best collection of studeis should be at The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Dear Guru I would like to know, what are those documents, reports I need to present in selling TV media. And, how should I prepare them?
The basic information a buyer wants in considering TV includes ratings for the demographic target, price, and audience composition. In the U.S., the rating and composoition data typically come from Nielsen Media Research.
Other information can include program content details and competitive information.
The first thing to find out from each buying prospect is how the prospect wants data presented. You want neither to leave out a desired fact nor to bore the prospect with unwanted detail.
This is a follow-up to my question of yesterday, regarding cost per web visitor for the major media. The data to which you referred me were very useful, and I thank you for that reference. As you note, however, nothing is provided there (or anywhere else I have searched) to determine the rate at which such CPM actually results in a web visit. Any thoughts on sources, or a means of reaching an educated guess, on that all-important information? Thanks again and best.
t was not clear that you were asking about other media being used to drive web traffic. The Guru thought you were considering these media as competition.
Keep in mind that the ad itself may be more important than the media vehicle. On January 2, 2000, the NY Times ran an article on ecommerce giving a comparison of web visits versus traditional ad impressions, thought these were not identified by media type except for TV. The range was enormous, from one visitor for every 2.7 TV impressions at Beyond.com to one per every 2977.3 at Living.com. Of course, the number of impressions in other media is not considered in this ratio.
Click here to see past Guru responses
I'm sure you get several questions about CPMs for Internet advertising, I have one more for you.
I have seen figures showing the average business to consumer cpm to be around $35, do you know what the average b2b cpm is?
Thanks for your help.
Of course, the ranges are enormous. Consumer probably averages lower than $35, these days. Business to business is higher than consumer, simply because the smaller any target, the higher is its CPM, typically. Business-to-business CPMS range generally from $12 to $200. The Guru would guess the average is more like $50-$75.
I come before you with a novice question. I am involved in the early stages of a dot-com startup and am trying to develop some kind of idea of what numbers of visitors are delivered per dollar by each of the major advertising media. Generalities are just fine; when you've never played ball, just entering the ballpark is a big step. Thanks and best regards.
"Visitors" is one of the unique measures of the internet. It isn't readily comparable to measures of other media. On the other hand, the way internet impressions are counted is different as well. The best comparison will be your cost per 1000 visitors versus cost per 1000 (CPM) on impressions in other
media. You will find some CPMs in AMIC's Ad Data area.
Keep in mind that on line vistors measures are usually not specific as to age while other media CPMs are usually based on 18+ or 12+.
During a commercial break in a special event on TV, which place is best to allocated the commercial , in the first or the last during a commercial break? thanks Guro
If your concern is aboout channel surfing, then first position is best. If your concern is that viewers get progressiviely more bored as one commercial follows the next, then again first position is best. The Guru can't think of a good reason to prefer last position.
I'm looking to identify major trade shows and
association publications within numerous industries.
I thought the best place to start was to locate "the"
big associations within each industry. Unfortunately,
the only web sites I have found are useless for
reference without already knowing the names of the
A good place to get list for starters is the Federation of International Trade Association's list.
Dear Guru- I have been asked to research and develop a presentation about the history of co-op deals between e-commerce companies and financial institutions or other partners. Where can I go to find this data? I am supposed to find not only the partnerships between companies, but what that actual deals were (% of sale, $ spent on co-op ads, etc. ) Is this public information? THanks GUru!
The term "co-op" ususally refers to ad cost sharing deals between manufacturer and retailer. The Amazon.com on-line bookstore has the standard resource,
Co-op Advertising Programs Sourcebook : The Comprehensive Guide to Programs For: Media
Companies, Ad Agencies, Manufacturers & Retailers .
Deals for revenue sharing, like the one the AMIC Bookstore and many sites have in association with Amazon.com can be found on the store's site. It should be simiarly easy to find out what the deal is wherein an ecommerce site says it "prefers Visa."
Oh mighty Guru, I have just entered in to the realms of Recency Theory here in Australia. There are many things which I am not sure of and was wondering whether you had a document or presentation of sorts which outlines what recency theory actually is and all of the fundamental rules involved i.e. If you want to upweight weeks, how do you go about this and should you ensure all of the weeks are full before you do this?
Click here to see past Guru responses which extensively discuss most aspects of recency.
I am looking for a salary survey for Traffic coordinator, production artists, designers, Art Director, Creative Director in the Northern Virginia, Washington, D.C, Maryland area.
Mainly working in print collateral, some web
This is not a media question of course, but you should be able to find salary survey information in the archives of the major trade media, like Ad Age.
Please describe the major steps and information
required for Network TV Media Planning at an
Agency. What computer skills are needed or
research sources most used to evaluate Network?
Are there any trade journal articles that would provide a description of this aspect of media planning, as I am applying for a position in this area, but have not planned Network in many years.
What are the current Network $/GRP and target
delivery efficiencies? What is the current
coverage of U.S. Houselholds, for the three
There seems to be some confusion in your terms. The job of an agency Media Planner is to determine which media are best to meet the advertising objectives of the specific product/service.
In some cases this will include network TV.
When an approved paln includes network TV, the Network specifications are turned over to Network TV buyers. The plan's specifications are not likely to include than demographic target and weight goals, budget, timing, dayparts and/or program types.
Network buyers will then review program package offerings and sponsorship opportunities from the networks to meet all the specifications.
Nothing more than a spreadsheet is really needed, but there are some specific TV analysis programs, including optimizers, in use. Nielsen is the basic audience measurement source used.
When optimizers, which are programs that do extensive analysis of program data to select best schedules, came into use a few years ago, there were several trade articles in Ad Age and MediaWeek about the network buy "planning" process. See the one by Erwin Ephron in our Telmar 30th Anniversary Awards section.
See samples of current rates in AMIC's Ad Data area.
Iam a student at Mohawk College. I am presently looking for information pertaining to a topic in one of my advertising courses. I have to find out about internet advertising. I have to take one traditional ad and compare it to an ad on the internet. Using the same company. I have to find out how much sales have increased since the advertisments were launched. Was the internet ad more effective or the traditional ad? Which one was more cost effective?
You may have an impossible task.
The easy steps may be to find matching online and traditional ads.
The advertiser company itself may not have the data on 'sales since the ads were launched.' Unless a specific test is in progress, advertisers' sales tracking is not likely to be keyed to advertising copy cycles. Therefore you will need to target an advertiser who uses one of the syndicated short-cycle retail sales tracking services, like A C Nielsen or IRI.
If you can get the data, you may not find that sales have increased; sometimes maintaining sales against increasing competition is an achievement.
Unless the online and traditional ads have run separately, it may be impossible to distinguish the effects of each.
Finally there's finding the spending behind each ad, which should be available from
CMR (Competitive Media Reports).
If any case studies like this exist, they are most likley to be available through C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment) or The Internet Advertising Bureau.
Guru, does the sum of individual monthly effective reach equal the total compaign effective reach? (e.g. 3 month campaign - month 1=10%, month 2=10%, month 3=10%. Total campaign = 30% effec. reach?? Should/could there be a discrepancy as large as 10% between the sum and the total? Thanking you in advance, R.
The Guru wonders how you could get such an idea. In your theory, reach would be 120 after a year! Reach, as you surely know, is a percentage of the universe, and cannot excedd 100%
As in any other combination of reaches, there is some duplication between the effective reach of one month's schedule and the next.
The difference between reality and your addition could easily surpass 100% over time.
Guru, I have a client interested in network TV. The challenge is that they go by 10 different names across the country. Also, they are only in 50% of the U.S. TV households. Can you tell me if purchasing network with 10 different copy splits or tags is possible? Also, can you tell me how the big 4 networks breakout their regional networks? It's my understanding that I can initiate a regional network buy if we purchase at least 50% of the country. Thanks.
The primary network splits, or "feeds," pretty much follow the time zones.
You would probably need to do cut-ins, which is an arrangement where the local stations run a specific spot in place of a network spot you've bought, in order to accomodate your 10 different names.
The Guru would guess you'll be better off buying spot for the markets where you really want to be, but talk to some netwokr and spot salespeople to see who will best accomodate your unique needs, rather than trying to solve this in the abstract.
When promoting a two week festival, how far out from the festival should the advertising promoting it be placed
This depends on a lot of variables.
Will the attendance be local and spur of the moment, or will it be nationwide with people coming for one to two weeks?
If it's local, spur of the moment than you probably don't need to advertise more than two weeks ahead.
If it is, instead, the latter case, with attendees making travel arrangements, vacation plans, and hotel reservations, then 4 to 6 months is probably more appropriate.
Why not study the highly successful (three week) Spoleto Festival, the leading arts festival of the southeast.
In a budget meeting I´D been asked to reduce the number of stations planned for certain cities, in order to have money to cover other markets......My argument is that we need to buy at least 35% of total PUR (persons using radio) to have an effective impact with the promotional radio campaign...I´ll appreciate your comments...AZ (MEX CITY)
The Guru has never encountered a share-of-PUR-standard, nor have a couple of his senior, radio researcher colleagues.
The big issue is what you determine makes an effective impact, in concrete terms so that you can make a case. Is it reach, effective reach, frequency or what? All these issues relate much more directly to consumer communication and impact than the abstraction of share of PUR. If you can buy GRPs and reach to your needs, but have to do it with fewer stations, it doesn't strike the Guru as a very significant issue.
do you have any info on developing a successful e-mail marketing campaign?
If you mean Unsolicited Commercial Email, better known as SPAM, the Guru disapproves strongly and will not help.
If you have a genuine, legitimate, opt-in list, that's fine. The key to successful direct marketing, at least as far as the media element, is the quality of the list.
This means a list of people known to be good prospects and who have agreed to accept email marketing.
If the SPAM the Guru receives is any indication, there are a lot of lists for sale out there identified as opt-in and/or as good prospects for something or other, but in fact are just email addresses collected in any way possible.
So the Guru feels the only legitmate opt-in lists are those the advertiser itself has compiled and knows to be true opt-in.
Is there a formula which calculates effective reach and
frequency? I know that reach x frequency=grp's, but how
can I determine what the effective reach and frequency
would be for 100 grp's or 150 grp's?
Of course there's a formula, but it can be immensely complicated. In fact, media planners rarely, if ever, considered effective frequency before computers became a part of everyday reach and frequency calculation in the 70's.
Your "reach x frequency=grp's" is not a formula, but merely the arithmetical relationship of these quantities as they are defined.
GRPs are the convenient weights and mesures we use in media buying. They are simple statistical measurements, whereas reach and frequency are more complex statistical models In some cases, there are relatively simple reach formulae derived from compiling the actual, measured reaches of actual schedules with known GRPs.
The formula is non-linear.
To find the effective reach of a schedule, you first determine level of frequency to consider "effective" and then examine the frequency distribution of the schedule to see how many people have been reached that number of times The frequency distribution shows exactly how many people have been exposed to each integral number of announcements in a schedule.
The math is based on non-linear functions. For any given reach and GRP set, the frequency distribution can vary considerably depending on the media combined and the dayparts within the media.
Dear Guru. I'm looking for some recent litterature on the followin subject: the future of magazines next to internet... or: the challenge of magazines facing internet. Could you tell me where I can find info on the net? Thanks for your precious help!
Media Guru-- I have been searching for any sort of Media Plannning training opportunities for developing Media Planners. I am interested in something that will provide some academic foundations as well as some practical application. Any suggestions? Thanks.
The best training is on the job, particularly at larger agencies with formal training programs.
Many universities include Media Planning in their advertising or communications curriculum, for example,
I am doing planning for an image campaign on TV for this Spring (May-June). The are going to be 5 separate spots running under the same theme, but with different messages. Since there are so many spots, about how many GRPs per spot per market should I consider to be reasonable for delivery of each message? Thanks.
This is one of those "how high is 'up'?" questions.
Do you need for each spot to be seen by some number of different people? Then buy GRPs adequate to build that reach for each spot.
Does each peice of copy need to be remembered rahter than just the overall theme? Then establish effective reach goals for each execution and buy to required GRP's for that goal.
There are no real magic numbers like "a minumum of 100 GRP's to do X."
It's a matter of setting communications goals either for a campaign or for specific pieces of copy, and buying the needed media to achieve the goals.
By the way, in an image campaign, the Guru would expect that the overall theme is more important than the individual messages.
It is my understanding that there is a small handful of publishers responsible for producing 80+% of all US trade journals. Is this true and if so, who are these publishers? Also, is there a total ad revenue figure that reflects all US trade journals for years '97, '98 and '99? Thanks Guru.
The Guru finds this statement ludicrous, unless you have a particularly generous defintion of "handful."
At Oxbridge Media Finder there are over 100,000 North American, mostly "trade" publications indexed. The Guru believes that it must involve a few thousand publishers to account for the 80,000 titles your 80% requires.
Just in the small arena of computer trade titles, there are more than a dozen publishers.
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) is most likely to have revenue estimates.
Dear Guru! I am interested a lot on web-site of Willward Brown research company. Could you please give short historical overview on company development and it's range across media research companies in UK.
Thanks in advance. TE.
The Guru cannot possibly know the history of every research company in the world and its activity in each country where it operates. But like most such companies, Millward Brown is eager to tell you about itself, so just ask them.
I am considering becoming an internet consultant for an established media-buying agency who currently does no Internet/banner advertising work, but wants to start. I have many years experience in Internet, web site production, and marketing, but I know little about media buying. Where would be a good place to start? I will be attending Thuner Lizard Web Advertising 2000 conference in Ny in April.
The Guru is quite opinionated on this concept. His opinions include:
Conferences like the one mentioned are likley to offer an experienced person a few new insights, but not likely to confer job skills.
Your best hope is that the company you are joining, if they are hiring internet specialists from outside the media buying world, is putting on some sort of training / mentoring program, where you can learn by doing.
is there any researches about " coupons "?
what do you think about using coupons to sell cars ?
or fcmg/ shooping goods?
please guide me.
There are many Guru comments about these topics. Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use your keywords as your search terms.
is there any place that i can read about media strategies?
( flighting, continuous,pulsing ,recency)?
can you guide me what are the right reach/ frequency levels in
FCMG ? shooping goods? others?
There are many Guru comments about these topics. Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use your keywords as your search terms.
Question: I was looking for any media available in doctor's
offices that you may know of....ex wallboards, magazine cover
wraps, etc.....any ideas?
At one time, Whittle did doctors office wallboards and TV, but the Guru can't find anyone who does it now.
Contact the inflight magazine wrap people Inflight Newspapers and see if they can refer you.
Dear Guru: I recently became the new Sales Director for a regional Hispanic publication.
In addition to the Red Book is there a listing or directory of Media Buyers and or Media Planners I can contact on Line to introduce our publication?
The Guru and AMIC are adamantly opposed to the kind of SPAM marketing you are considering and will not offer any help in such a program.
AHAA, the Association of Hispanic Advertising Agencies may be able to provide standard mailing addresses.
Is there a conference, show, or course of any kind that details how to buy network TV? From what I understand, buying locally vs buying network is a completely different ballgame.
The Guru has not encountered a course in buying network TV he can recommend. It is indeed very different than spot.
Please can you specify what means buying audience (I understood that is different from target audience)
Sometimes the brand advertising target is one which is not readily available in ratings reports. For instance beer will usually have a target of Males 21-34, but only find ratings reports available, for buying purposes, on the 18-34 demographic.
I am interested in determining an effective strategy to target broadband Internet users (i.e. cable modem or DSL). I am planning the launch of a new service and would like to understand how to market this directly to this specific segment of the market. It would be great if I could get an "in-principle" feel for the associated costs.
The Guru, a broadband subscriber himself, can't think of many ways to target this segment. While they may be better able to enjoy streaming media, it is hardly a format which is mostly theirs.
There are not many companies behind broadband as yet. Perhaps Covad or NorthPoint, who provide most DSL services and @Home or Optonline, the leading cable modem services, would sell or rent their address lists.
Otherwise, placing bill inserts with @Home, Optonline and the DSL ISPs is possibly the only channel broadly targeting broadband subscribers.
what do you think are the media issues facing
planners and buyers in 2000
They are pretty much the same as in any other recent Olympic and elections year. The biggest difference will be in assessing the right mix of on-line advertising.
Guru, any thoughts on how to estimate % trial as a result of advertising (effective reach 50% at 3.6+ effective freq. print plan, only medium).The brand has done little advertising,has limited awareness(8% unaided) in a moderately competitive category(indigestion remedies). I have factored the target group pop.(W55+) by the incidence of the condition, then further adjusted by % likely to treat the condition, to arrive at a "Total Potential Prospects". At this point I would like to estimate the % that can be persuaded to trial, to determine estimated prospects and potential sales, but I have no historical advertising or client data on which to base the expected return. Would you base return on current awareness levels, or current SOM? No growth expected in the category,assume trial at the expense of the competition. I am attempting to devise a systematic method of determining ideal effective reach,linked to sales objectives, as I am not content to leave it at "maximum affordable at effective freq. level" Sorry for all the blather, but your thoughts and wisdom would be much appreciated.
What you seem to need is a persuasiveness measure: what is the percent who would try the product (purchase intent) with and without advertising exposre? Many marketers have done such research and, if available, it can be factored against your "total potential prospects."
What are the criteria that a media planner has to
consider when planning for advertising on the internet?
The criteria are the same as in any media planning: reach, environment, composition, consumer response, etc.
In the internet there are merely different sources, standards, and formulas in dealing with these elements and thousands more options.
A couple of the most important differences are
It's relatively easy to get numbers on click thru rates. Do you have -- or are you aware of where I might find -- statistics on conversion averages? Thanks!!
Online retailers don't generally release these figures; they have no reason to do so. But on January 2, the NY Times had an article analyzing Christmas ad spending for dot-coms, visits versus ad impressions, plus percent of on-line shoppers who made a purchase at a few dozen of the leading consumer ecommerce sites.
This combined Nielsen//Netratings web audience measurments with an Ernst&Young study of global online retailing. The Times article can be analyzed in various ways, and the Ernst & Young report gives a 1 to 10% conversion average across retailers interviewed.
Could you please define the following internet advertising terms:
- Vortal (please give an example)
- Run of Network vs. Run of Channel
- General Rotation
- Run of Service
- Run of Site
- Run of Content
- Category Select
- Site Specific
Thank you for your assistance.
Many internet terms are coined by the first site that needs to use them, Therefore some terms will overlap, and some will have different meanings when used by different sites.
With that understood, here are the Guru's definitions and examples:
Where can we get a list of agencies who specialize in Direct response clients?
The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook') could generate for you a list of Direct Response agencies.
The Direct Marketing Association
(DMA) might make available a membership list
Where can we get a list of agencies who specialize in buying media for "dot coms"?
While there are agencies which specialize in placing online advertising for various advertisers, the Guru is not aware of agencies which have specialized in the advertisng of dot-coms. There is no reason any agency can't have any category of business as a client, but some agencies specialize according to the kind of business, as opposed to the means of doing business. That is some agencies focus on mediacal and pharmaceutical accounts and some specialize in business-to-business. But there isn't a reason why the agency for Amazon.com would also be the right media buyer for Starmedia.com.
The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook') could generate for you a list of agencies with specific dot-com accounts.
I am planning for a channel. The channel is a niche channel in India. Basically a youth oriented channel. I was wondering on how to set media weights for the communication. How to stradle between the thematic (brand building) and tactical (traffic generation)campaign.
This will depend on marketing goals, budget and Click here to see effectiveness considerations, more than the basis fact of being a youth niche channel.
WHERE DO I ACQUIRE EMAIL LISTS OF GIFTWARE BUYERS FOR DEPARTMENT STORES,MASS MERCHANDISERS AND DISCOUNTERS.
NEED TO LOCATE US, CANADA,EUROPE PTC7@AOL.COM
The Guru and AMIC are strongly opposed to marketing by SPAM and will not in any way help someone planning to use this method of communications.
How do I find what the top five radio stations are in Cincinnati and Columbus, OH if I don't subscribe to those markets in Arbitron?
I have a tough question for you. We are coming out with a new print form of direct marketing/advertising for a specific market niche. Although I can’t explain the details of the piece, my question is what type of incentives (i.e. price discount off base rate, more/larger ads, betters terms, etc.) do you suggest we offer in order to entice prospective advertiser to come aboard in our inaugural issue(s) knowing that we don’t have a track record? Also, what % of available ad spots do you think we’ll be able to sell over the first 6 issue’s of our monthly piece assuming we have a sales force of proven sales reps. Any help will be greatly appreciated.
The more unique your vehicle, the harder it might be for prospects to understand the benefits, so the more incentives you would need. A good salesperson's job is to discern whether there is a probability of making a sale and what the considerations are that will make the prospect say yes (see the online excerpts of High Probability Selling. The best approach might be to arm your sales force with a variety of discounts, bonuses, and deal enhancements, with instructions to offer one only when they can tell that it will close an order. After a few attempts, you should be able to learn what works and what doesn't, or if it's a case-by-case situation.
As in many other selling scenarios, some buyers are looking for price and others are focused on buying what will lead to their company or client's success.
How can you measure listenership in non rated markets for play-by-play sports broadcasts?
You would need to commission research through one of the many survey research compnies which offer this kind of service.
Is there any way to find out how much money is spent annually on
licensed music in commercials?
What are average ROI's for small businesses across various media- Yellow pages, print, tv, radio? Do you know where I can find this info?
There are too many variables in terms of ad unit and quality, offer, expenses, etc to hope to find meaningful averages.
If you narrowed the question to ROI for toothpaste on page, four color ads in the seven sisters magazines, the question would be closer to answerable. Even so you would most likely find only anecdotal information in the form of case studies, but no meaningful averages; advertisers don't share their results with the media, as a rule.
How much time is assumed per SPOT under the SQAD Costs Per TV Household Rating Point; Fourth Quarter 1999 chart?
I.e., if it costs you $464 for a rating point in NYC -- how much time do you get with that point?
These costs are :30's
Guru - internet CPM models do not appear to involve the issue of how much time each banner is displayed.
Is there any numbers on this (i.e., average stickyness) that is expected?
Nor do CPMs in other media relate to the duration of exposure unless time is the unit of sale, as in broadcast. The Guru considers stickyness to be about time spent on a site, perhaps viewing several pages with different banners, and not related to the amount of time a banner is visible. It would be a tricky concept anyway, since banners are not neccessarily visible the entire time a visitor is on a given page, depending on screen-size settings and scrolling behavior.
can you tell me the legal implications of buying competitors company / brand names as key word buys n search engines. do regulations differ in the US and UK.
The Guru does not believe that there are any laws specifically regarding this practice. Buying the right to display one's ad when a competitor's brand name is searched is legally permitted, but has led to some lawsuits under existing trademark laws.
Some search engines won't do it and others will.
I'm an assistant media buyer and in college part time at night. I am currently attempting to do extensive research for a paper that I have to write. I am going to be writing on Television, Radio and Outdoor. I am looking to start with the basics, and work up to the specifics of how each is measured, and has a different effect on audiences. I'm looking, if you have any ideas, of particular books and/or websites where I could pull a substantial amount of information. Thanks A Bunch!
Your plans seem overly broad for a single paper. The differences in how media are measured or diffrences in how they affect consumers are each big ideas by themselves.
For many thoughts on each point, go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use your various topics as your search terms.
see the books in the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com), particularly the media planning section.
It is my understanding that NET rates are for an agency only. I have heard that it is un-ethical for an Account Executive ot offer NET rates to a direct buyer if they are not an Agency. Is this true? Is this a recognized industry standard, or is it , as they say, "traditional"?
"Net" is distinguished from "gross" by the fact that a 15% agency commission is deducted.
The ethics depend upon what the medium publishes in its rate card. If an advertiser sees that it is paying a higher rate because it is using an agency and that anyone else gets a lower rate, this will become a problem between the medium and the agency. Sometimes a "local" or "retail" rate is establsihed to get around this. Sometimes the negotiability of rates makes the point moot.
What does ASBOF stand for?
It is a levy that has started being added to media schedules in the UK. How long has this levy been in place?
Advertising Standards Board Of Finance.
Apparently it has existed for many years, but thought by some not to be still in use.
I would like to have information about typical rates of frequency that are considered necessary for advertising to be
effective on different media.
I would like information for television, radio, outdoor and print advertising. If there is such information, I would also
like information for internet ads.
In short, how many times does an ad need to be seen on different media before for an effective reach.
Most judgements about effective frequency are just that; judgements. The traditional number, 3, is based on century-old learning theory about repetitions of information needed for learning to occur. This theory is not medium-specific but has many other aspects.
Click here to see past Guru responses about this and the Ostrow model
Research by DoubleClick about "banner burnout"
shows that internet ads lose effectiveness (in the sense of causing clicks) by the third repetition. Of course, if you want to apply this approach to internet advertisng then you would be considering the awareness-building and sales-driving aspects of banners, rather than click-thru.
where can I find info about media environment in china?
Where do I find the average Cost per point by demo for television in Chicago?
For demos not shown in our SQAD area, contact SQAD directly.
What are sources of media strategy info on the two wheeler categoey in the countries like South Africa, Indonesia, Phillipines, Thailand, Hong Kong?
Besides media strategy info, i also want to know the current market informations. Main focus is on Motorcycles.
Case studies of media strategies which appear in publications like the Journal of Advertising Research are rarely current nor even very recent.
First, it takes time to evaluate the results, and
Second, advertisers do not care to publicize current strategies.
An informative exercise, and one which may be neccessary in this case, is to assmeble all available data about the media schedules purchased and analyze them to determine the strategy.
Question: i need to find an estimate of german on-line
advertising spend. NB NEU does not include the answer.
Try the UK based service called MMS/Register Meal from A.C Nielsen
Question: Where would I find competitive ad expenditures in
trade publications, internationally for the high-tech
industry. Internationally more specific...UK, Germany
and Sweden. Thanks.
Try the UK based service called MMS/Register Meal from A.C Nielsen
Looking for ideas on unique media vehicles in the Southwest US. Unique as in non-traditional.
Traditional being: spot tv, spot radio, bulletins, posters, transit
shelters, bus wraps, taxi tops, wall murals, kiosks, print, aerial
advertising (blimps, airplanes, etc.) trailer panels, mobile video
in-airport displays, in-transit exposure, direct mail, flyers,
When you rule out the traditional mass media, "new" electronic media, direct mail, most forms of out-of-home, and require geographic specificity, you have pretty much come down to untried out of home, such as painting the sides of mesas in the desert or putting logos on souveniers, like arrowheads.
What you want probably isn't in place yet, but the world is waiting for you to invent it.
What are the average CPP for Chicago radio dayparts?
Is there any company who provides information about internet advertising investment by category (i.e cars) lets say on 1999. I've been trying for days to find one and I still haven't. Thanks Guru!!!
There is a
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) division for the internet.
Media Guru - thanks for your great answers to previous questions! Here is another one for you. Do you know where I can find data showing marketing expenditures by industry? How about marketing expenditures by size of company? Thanks, KP
I need to find a company that specializes in setting up sweepstakes or contests for a retailer who is going to open a new store in Rochester, NY. This event may be a one time only event. Thank you.
One is Don Jagoda Associates
Dear Media Guru:
Is there a syndicated or published source for network radio cpp's or cpm's? Thanks.
The Guru thinks there is not. Spot radio is offered by SQAD
i need to find an estimate of german on-line advertising spend. NB NEU does not include the answer.
We are interested in information on marketing&media research education programmes (courses, workshops etc.). Could you provide some info (dates, subjects and fees) on such events. Mostly we need contacts in Europe.
Thank you, in advance.
You might get the information from ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization
I need to analyze a cpm tv negotiation on w1849.
I would like to transfer the negotiated w1849 cpm to w2549. Can you please explain the formula to transfer
Step 1: calculate the vph ratio (or impressions ratio) of w25-49 versus w18-49.
Step 2: divide the w18-49 cpm by this ratio.
Suppose w18-49 CPM = $10.00
Suppose the w18-49 vph is .700 and w25-49 is .600
then the ratio is
.600 ÷ .700 or
Then $10.00 ÷ 0.857 = $11.66
It's best if you have the actual vph or impressions of your buy, but you can make an estimate from the daypart averages.
I am looking for information regarding product samples available to radio stations as give-aways.
Product samples given away by radio stations are usually provided by the manufacturer, who is interested in having samples distributed. SOmetimes the stations give the samples away as a merchandising program attached to the manufacturer's having bought an ad schedule. If the product is highly desirable, the radio station might give it away at nop cost to the manufacturer, to enhance the station's promotional events.
Could you tell me which are the most visited sites in Russia?
Thanks, Kirstin, Bates Interactive
If you can read Russian, you may find some answers at InfoArt
Guru- Are there any standard formats for online competitive analysis? I am putting together my first one, and I have nothing to work from. I put together an outline, but I always like to get your input so ensure I don't miss anything. Thanks Guru!
The Guru sees no reason why an online competitive should be formatted differently than a traditional media competitive report.
Advertiser, spending by vehicle (if that level of detail is required) or site type, and in total, by month, quarter and or year, should be the basics. Analysis of media weight may also be included.
Please tell me who the Metheringham was of the Metheringham Method.
Is this method still used today or is computer technology replacing it?
A Media Guru in Training
Dick Metheringham was Research Director of Foote Cone Belding, London. Current computer systems have adapted the method. One such is Telmar's using an improved version created by Dick Dodson, Neil Shepherd-Smith and Metheringham himslef himself.
Other systems still use other variants.
I would like to know how agencies who work on 15% commission basis protect themselves when planning & preparing to buy for a client who cancels all plans after the proposal is submitted. How do they recoup planning costs? Do they have planning fees or cancelation fees negotiated into the agency agreement?
Typically, commissions are lost on cancelled media. Contracts may specify minimum fees for cancelled work on commission-based accounts
Is there any study that compares the effectiveness of
full-page magazine advertisements to fractional (1/2-page
and 1/3-page) magazine ads? If so what are the
conclusions and why? Thank You.
Go to Starch
I am looking for cost per 1000 for TV advertising in the US by demographic categorie i.e. ABC1 16-35 ABC1C2 35-55 and any remainder "grey market". are these groupings correct? where can I fing some numbers (avg. would be fine as I am a student and can not afford to pay for the research...
The ABC1, etc classifications are not used in the U.S. They measure "class" issues that are not part of U.S. demographics' structure. Also, U.S. standard age breaks are 18-34 / 35-54, which may be close enough for you. There are some breaks at age 15 as well. The equivalent to your class distinction demographics may not be available in TV ratings reports.
Some of your informion will be found at AMIC's Ad Data area.
The Guru is not aware of any totally free source of the data you need, unless you have a friend who has paid for them.
Are there any sites that offer free PR services to new websites? I recall having seen something similar but have been unable to find it since. Thank you.
Where can I find out about spillage from American
publications into Canada. ie how many Canadians
read various American publications?
Is there a quick and easy source from which I can access what I'd call "WOW" statistics about the growth of radio, TV, newspapers, magazines, etc. over the last 10 to 20 years? Thanks.
Where can i find an analysis of cpm for all media, including print, radio, television, outdoor and internet?
Is there a site, commercial or non-commercial, that lists some celebrity spokesperson's likeability ratings? Can't remember the name of the scores they get, but there is a company that scores celebrities.
You are probably thinking of Q Scores' "Performer Q". But data is for sale, not posted on the site.
I am looking for information concerning the historical
and current ad time slot invetory held by radio, TV,
cable and how that is sold - rate card, barter, etc.
The Guru has only seen anecdotal information on this in trade publications like Ad Age. The media themsleves would rather not discuss it. Perhaps a barter company would have information.
Where can I find information on the buying behaviors of "Generation X?" I am a student in college working on my semester project and therefore I don't have access to paid services such as MRI. Is there a book version or some other type of resource that I could refer to for this info?
Guru: Got an e-tailing site performance question for you. What sort of visitor-to-sale conversion rates do most online retailers typically experience? I would suspect that large, well branded sites like JC Penney, Amazon, etc. experience much higher conversion rates than smaller, lesser known sites experience. Am I right? I haven't found any marketing research source sites that have any relevant stats. Thanks Guru! Jim P.
It's not a media questions, but the Guru recalls that there was an article just before Christmas, in NY Times comparing such results for a dozen or so e-commerce sites showing results all over the place, with no apparent realtionship to advertising or other obvious factors.
According to a survey posted at NUA about 2.7% of e-commerce shoppers buy, on average.
Guru, I've been asked to size the market. Can you give me some ideas on what exactly that entails and how should I go about it? The target is webmasters of online newspapers or magazines- basically any site that web users go to for information about news, entertainment, weather, sports, etc. Thanks!
It sounds like you are being asked for a count of the number of sites meeting your target criteria.
You could go to MediaMetrix or AdKnowledge and ask how many such sites they report. It won't be nearly all, but it will be the biggest andhence your best prospects. Publications like InternetWeek , Inter@ctive Week or The Industry Standard may have made such compilations
where can we find TV prices for special events such as the summer olympics, US open, the masters, the indi500, NCAA,
Past pricing will have been covered (and generally exaggerated) in Ad Age and other trade publications. For upcoming pricing, which is volatile and depends on the other activity of purchasers, your best bet is to call the individual network.
Looking for a company, thought name of it might be
Media Watch, but can't find anything. Basically it is a
company that tabulates what personal injury law firms
spend in Designated Market Areas for t.v. advertising,
Costs were broken down monthly and on an annual basis.
You are probably thinking of
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
What have you found to be the maximum weight one should put behind a specific television spot before it "wears out?" Assume 200 TRPs per week for 39 weeks of the year exposure. Thanks.
For this question, asked in this specific form, the Guru would say 2000.
But it isn't so simple. Different daypart mixes will build different reach and frequency -- and it's frequency that's the issue. Some say 20+ frequency in the second heaviest quintile is the cut-off.
Even then, the qualities of the specific commercial and the size of the commercial pool are important factors as well.
Define "Universe Estimate"
In survey research, there must be an estimate of the size of the total population group to which the results will be projected. So "universe estimate" is the size of the total population assumed in the research results.
Is there any information about the efficacy of radio remotes in the winter months?
The Guru wonders why you believe there is a general, seasonal difference.
If you think of remotes only as a van in a store parking lot or at a beach, then opportunity is surely less in the winter. But remotes based indoors or tied to non-seasonal activity which occurs at the same rate year-'round, such as grocery shopping, shouldn't change in "efficacy."
If there is any such information, the Guru would expect to find it at the The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB).
Where can one buy a national probability sample frame?
About 10000 unduplicate names with phone # and addresses?
I remember one organization Metromail but can find no listing.
One company which could help you is Survey Sampling
Could you please provide me with some sources where I might find recent Internet market penetration levels on a metro-by-metro basis? Thanks!!
Guru: See if you can answer this one. I can't find the answer anywhere. It's a site bookmark question. On average, what percentage of a site's total unique visitors typically bookmark the visited site. Seems to me it's an important question since a site's bookmark rate (i.e., total visitors to total bookmaked visitors)would certainly indicate the site's overall user appeal. Got any thoughts about this? Jim Pflaum
Server logs don't record vistor's bookmarking. Even if it did, only the % bookmarking during a first visit would indicate appeal. The nets most "appealing" sites which may get visits from 50% of netizens in a month won't be getting new bookamrks from many people after a couple of months.
Is there a site, or other source that lists ALL the different sites and types of sites on the internet?
I am trying to "size" our targeted market but can't find the information.
(AdKnowledge's eAnalytics 2Q report explores the number of sites in different categories, but the source for their findings, how the categories are broken down, and whether ALL sites were included is not evident.)
Anything you could provide would be helpful. Thanks.
Answer 1: No, it's impossible, thousands of sites are added every day to the 10's of millions already in existence.
Answer 2: Yes, true search engine/ indices, like AltaVista or Google can list all the sites and do it by type if you are clever with your search terms. These options list a very high proportion of all sites. It is not practical nor even useful to list literally all sites.
We are in the early stages of learning more abouthow internet banner advertising works and how ads are priced. Could you please help me with answers to the following? Can banner ads be placed locally, regionally and nationally? How are the rates structured - cpm? How do companies who measure website audiences determine the number of viewers? Regarding advertising costs, is there a range of what an advertiser expects to pay for banner ads? Do you know what the name of the ads at the top of the home pages are called? What about the ads that typically appear to the right as you scroll down - do they have a name or term?
Another is a survey, such as the ones conducted by MRI which asks another very large sample about their web activity. This type of measurement is capable of much less detail, relies on memory, and can only report the largest sites, a fraction of those reported by metering.
The third common measurement is analysis of a site's own server logs, preferably with a third party audit through a service such as ABC Interactive
1. I wanted to know if there is any web site which will have information on the media activities of products advertised.
2. How would you define Interactive Media?
1. The Guru does not think there is any web site offering ad spending data on line except for a few which may occasionally report a "top 10" of one category or another, or some which charge substantial prices for data access.
2. "Interactive media" are those which allow the user to respond to and / or affect the message. These include the internet, some CD-Rom media, and experimental interactive cable.
Is there any data that shows whether celebrity endorsements for a product increase response?
Best source would be the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
At what point (number of markets or percent of US population)is it more cost effective to buy network radio rather than spot radio.
Depending on the demographic, and relying on the standard of buying :30's in network vs :60's in spot, the cut off may come as early as top 10 markets / 30 % U.S.
I am looking for a source to provide cost per points/cost per thousand for the various radio networks. Thanks.
Click here to see past
Guru responses about Network Radio costs
Could you tell me how to set reach objectives if I have sales objective in terms of no. of SKU and average purchase frequency.
If "average purchase frequency" means you know how many purchases are made by some percent of your target, then one approach might be to think that for every member of the target exposed (the effective frequency) number of times in a purchase cycle's length of time, you will make a sale to the same percentage of those exposed as the percent of the target group which is expected to to purchase in the time frame.
Of course this assumes that advertising is the only cause of sales or of incremental sales, but it should give you a framework upon which to build.
How many people in the united states shop on the internet and browse the internet, out of the total population?
According to Nielsen//Netratings, 119 million had online capabilty and about 74 million went online in the U.S. in January, 2000.
Interestingly, while there are numerous estimates like the above and several studies of the attitudes and demographics of on-line shoppers, there seem to be very few estimates of the numbers of shoppers.
The Guru has seen estimates that 10% of those online will shop online for Valentine's day presents and another U.S. Hispanic market study that showed 62% of those online had made on online purchase in the past year. The Guru tends to believe the results of a study by the Intermarket Group, posted at NUA, reports 32% of interent users have made an online purchase.
Hello Guru, I need to get hold of case studies on the
effects of the ban of ads to children in canada.
Please could you give me some suggestions of where to
look. I have found references to the Wall street Journal
and Advertising age but how can i gain access to past
articles without having to suscribe.
Thank-You for your time.
Many local libraries, even suburban public libaries, such as the one in the Guru's town, have years of microfilmed back issues of these publications. In addition, many today have internat access to such archives for thier members. If you are or near New York, the incomparable Science Industry and Business LIbrary and their online Electronic Resources are available to anyone with a library card, and virtually anyone can get a card, by applying in person.
How many media buying companies are there in the US?
Is there an association of media planners and buyers?
Where can I find statistics on the media buying industry?
There are numerous media buying companies in the U.S., probably hundreds, in addition to over two thousand ad agencies which offer media service.
The Guru has never encountered any national association of media planners or buyers, though there are some media research assocations locally, such as in New York and Chicago.
A client of mine has recently published a web site and is seeking information on available ad serving/tracking/reporting software or services. Where do I begin?
There are numerous products in these categories. Go to a search engine like Google and use "ad serving," etc, as your search term.
Where would I find competitive ad expenditures in
trade publications, internationally for the high-tech
industry. Internationally more specific...UK, Germany
and Sweden. Thanks.
Can you suggest a site on the web to find information on grocery coupon redemption rates?
Dear Guru: Do you have an information on 'buget cutting'. I have a client that plans to cut l/2 of his original budget. What happens when infufficient funds are appropriated for media use (we have 5 new products to launch). Is it the planners job to tell the client that this remaining budget in not adequate? Any suggestions? Many thanks, as always.
Yes, sometimes low levels of spending will be completely inadequate to accomplish even a proportionate piece of the goals.
It is certainly a planner's responsibiltiy to advise the appropriate parties of the problem and to recommend alternatives in the form of new goals for which the budget is adequate.
These might include:
I recall that there were starch tests comparing the noting of ads in Magazines , measuring the relative noting of front vs back of book , noting of left vs right hand page , OBC's , and different sizes of ads . Do you have access to this info , or do you know where I can source it ?
Go to Starch
Guru: We're planning to use magazines, national newspapers, banners and direct mail to promote a new shopping portal we expect to launch in a few months. I pretty much know what results we should get from the mags, newspapers and banners, but have no idea what to expect from the direct mailer. Went to DMA's site but got no answers. Need your help, Guru! Here's my question: What sort of "recall rate" should we expect from mailer's recipients when we do our post campaign reader-recall follow up(i.e., out of 1,000 recipients, what percent should typically recall receiving the mailer)? I realize lots of varibles come into play, but give it your best shot. Thanks, Guru!! Jim Pflaum
The Guru does not evaluate direct mail in terms of recall rate. Since the only result that really matters is a sales inquiry or other consumer action. Direct Mail is more often evaluated on its opening rate.
The Guru would not expect as much as 3% site visits resulting from mailing recipients.
Dear Guru, I would like to know some of the criteria that makes out of a TV grid a "good one" or what criteria that a program should have to be successful . More presicly, I'm talking about a TV station broadcasting to the general public (Not a nich TV). Another question, how many spots maxiumum a station should air to respect the viewer's comfort and the advertising effectiveness.
Everything you ask about is relative.
Programmers watch trends in programming and imitate what succeeds on competing outlets. A good example is the startling success, in the US, of the quiz show Who Wants to Be a MIllionaire has led to similar shows, Greed, Twenty One and others soon to come.
Manipulating lead-ins, lead-outs and couonte programming is another technique: ABC has used Who Wants to Be a MIllionaire as lead-in to introduce new programs and to squelch pospularity of programs on competitors.
Numbers of spots also depends on the competition, to an extent. Devoting more air-time to commercials than another channel will damage appeal, and using too little time may force price increases beyond competitive pricing.
Could you please tell me the names of the most often used media buying software for broadcast? Would you know their web addresses or telephone numbers? Thanks Guru.
My group for my Public Relations Case studies class
was assigned the term "New Media" to research,and give
a presentation on. I thought it was the Internet , but
my professor said no. Can anyone help me out with a
definition and some examples of what "New Media" is.
The term "new media" includes the internet and other electronic media forms, such as advertising on CD-ROM magazines. The internet is certainly the biggest and most significant element.
Of course, a different perspective might change the meaning: for example "new media of the 20th Century" would include radio, TV and skywriting.
Do you have anything to help me answer the question of whether 3Q advertising is wasted?
The value of 3rd quarter advertising depends primarily on the seasonality of your product. In the U.S., the seasonal "dip" in audience experienced by some media is in fact quite minor.
we are an export firm and deal with granites(floor decors)
we have our presence in france and are interested to spread our promotions through out europe...in this connection i wish to have the media options available in europe for my product...i in fact used the international media guide and found it useless....if u can give me some statistics country wise regarding media reach and visibility and rates you will be doing us a big favour
The Guru is puzzled about what you want. The
International Media Guides list print media rates and circulation for Eurpoean media, which should be most of your information need. In most of Europe, commercial broadcast media, such as Independent Television are few and easy to track down.
TDI can help with outdoor media.
My company sells publicy accessable internet kiosks we would like to generate additional revenue streams by selling the advertising available on the kiosks. I would like to know about any available resources that would pertain to demographic / psychographic information. For example: In a geographic are, say a zip code. What % in that area have health insurance, what % go to a pharmacist and how often, also income levels, etc.
Which companies provide online media spending data and online creative?
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
Is there a publication of print planners for ecommerce agencies anywhere?
The principal source of agency staff lists would be
The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook').
The Guru does not believe it includes a classification called "ecommerce" agencies. Within the category of on-line agencies, some may specialize in ecommerce sites, but not many are likely to specify listings on print planners, in the Guru's opinion.
How can I get the avg. page exposure (APX) of a magazine for my particular target?
MRI reports these data.
I am looking for information on the media scene in Sri Lanka.Can you help ?
what are the different media options available in europe and what is the reach individually/country wise??
For the media of Europe, see International Media Guide. Reach will depend on the media and schedules used. IN any country, the total of all media is likely to reach 99%+.
Hello Media Guru,
I am searching the information about the media planning model worked out by Canadian Media Directors Council (CMDC). Please, can you tell me what is the heart of this method. I would be also very grateful for any references about this theme.
Thank you in advance.
The Guru's limited knowledge about this "model" includes these points:
What would be the first thing you would do if given the job of advertising sales manager for a new web based business to business site and had no previous experience in selling advertising on the internet?
As a media buyer, the Guru imagines he would get quite impatient receiving a sales call from someone without internet selling experience.
We are rolling out a large, interactive site targeted towards nurses and similar health care employees. What is the most effective process of gathering online advertising areas for this specific demographic?
I am in charge of IT for a small advertising firm. I need to compile a comprehensive list of software solutions for media buying/planning/research/management. I need to be as exhastive as possible while weeding out the weaker solutions. Do you know of any good sources of information for this question? What are the top five solutions (including Internet/"zero client" solutions?).
Thank you in advance,
The solutions of which the Guru is aware are our own Telmar, as well as IMS, Strata, MediaPlan, Simmons' Choices and MRI's MeMRI
Some do it all, some only handle broadcast rankers and audience analysis, some only handle print. Some focus on detail in one medium or another.
As far as the Guru knows, only Telmar's system, which can run on a PC or via the internet, and IMS, offer multimedia analysis. Also, as far as the Guru knows, only the new, combined offering from Telmar/Strata does it all, covering planning, buying, research and managment needs.
Guru: I have been an Assistant Media Planner/Buyer for
about 4 months. At my six month review I will be asking
for a raise because I am convinced my current salary
is well below the industry standard for entry level, even for the low cost-of-living in the market where I
am employed. However, the only entry level salary survey I can find to back me up is a 1997 salary survey from Advertising Age. Can you clue me in to current salaries in the industry or web sites that have this current information?
The best starting point would be the current employment classified in the Sunday New York Times (print version), which should be available in a local library. Your market's salary ranges may be different.
In the Guru's opinion, "industry standard salary level" is a poor argument for a raise, especially for a new, lightly experienced assistant. This is at best a back-up argument when a it is agreed a raise is merited. Achievement and contribution are always most persuasive.
what is the best form of advertising to college students?
Click here to see past Guru
responses about reaching college students
Does AMIC have a media kit? I am interested in finding
out what advertising space on AMIC costs. If you can
give me an idea of AMIC's target audience and the
market segmentation it uses, I would greatly
Click here for the AMIC Rate Card . The audience is made up of advertising and marketing professionals seeking media, marketing and research information.
Guru, I am currently trying to put together a newsletter for clients of my radio station. The newsletter would be about our new website and pertinent facts that would entice the clients to become more involved in the site. My questions is: What are the most important topics to cover when telling a client about how great and effective a website is?
The Guru asks:
Are the clients getting free ad space as merchandising for their radio schedules? Are you trying to sell them ad space on the web site? Is the website creating marketing tools for the clients? If none of these, why would they care at all about the web site?
So if one of those is the answer, then the greatness and effectiveness will be in the site traffic, number of vistors, length of visit, frequency of visit or sopme user interaction with the site that effects the client, like contest sign up, listener club sign up which creates a database available for client use, etc.
What are the different ad serving software/ companies on the net ? How does the basic concept of ad serving work ? How do they help advertisors target audiences and on what parameters ?
Click here to see
past Guru responses about ad serving.
Is there any research showing whether there is a difference in readership between right hand and left hand positioning in a consumer magazine?
Are you aware of any studies that examine the ability to recall Internet Addresses in TV commercials.
I have only been able to find a few studies that examined cross-promotion (when a previously established company included internet addresses in their advertising).
I would like to find a study that specifically focuses on Internet-only companies.
Something of the sort is available from a Cahners Business Information Advertising effectiveness study.
Otherwise, the most likely and complete source would be the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I posed a question to you earlier today that might require some clarification. I'm speaking specifically about Internet advertising and am really looking for some guidelines in what are generally considered to be optimal levels for reach and frequency in a campaign. That is to say, how many times does a user generally need to see a banner before its value starts to diminish. Secondly, how many banners should one consider purchasing -- again as a general rule -- in order to maximize the flight's impact. Another way of looking at might be to say, if one were to buy one million impressions, what is the likely number of people who will have been impacted? I realize there is a wide range, based on the narrowness or broad-based appeal of the sites, but is there a general range that can be modeled from?
This is a very interesting question.
Our Internet marketing company uses metrics such as Are you aware of any studies or "rules of thumb" that suggest how many banner impressions one must buy in order reach specific number of people?
The differences between various sites and schedules in reach building are extreme, so there are no safe rules of thumb; see the Guru's reply to query #3167
What is the average CPP in network radio and/or
how do I go about finding out?
First, you will need to focus on a specific demographic group. Averages are only meaningful for specific targets and only when compared or averaged across schedules appropriate to that target.
Could you help me locate sources for information related to Truck Wrap (Transit) advertising? Is there any data on cost versus value. For instance, to actually wrap a truck may cost $3,000; however the advertising value may be more than $3,000. How can you determine such info?
The Guru would expect such information to be compiled by a provider of truck wrap advertising, such as Digital Graphics
Just curious to find out what your thoughts are on "Share of Voice". Is it realistic to conduct such an analysis or is it just a concept of an ideal situation? How would you go about determining share of voice?
Share of voice is typically an analysis of the GRP weight of the competitors in a category. (Some use dollars, but that would more properly be separately evaluated as "Share of Spending").
What can make SOV analyses unrealistic is:
I am in the midst of developing a media plan and our marketing manager is developing an Ad Library. He wants to determine at what point a commercial creative unit should be replaced. For instance, is a commercial dead after being on the air for 3 months, 6 months or 12 months? Or is a commercial dead after it has achieved a certain number of GRPs. Any feedback would be greatly appreciated. K
Click here to see past Guru
responses about wear out.
Am very interested in the effective frequency and recency planning debate. I would be very grateful if you could forward some articles or suggest sites where I could read about John Phillip Jones and Erwin Ephron on STAS and Recency Planning or Mcdonald and Naples on Effective Frequency. Any other articles/sources would be of great interest to me
AMIC's sister company, Telmar, recently celebrated its 30th anniversary with special "Anniversary Awards Papers" written by Jones (on STAS) and Ephron and posted here.
Click here to see
numerous past Guru comments relating to recency and effective frequency.
The most complete collection of articles on these topics is the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Some would be found in the Newsweek
Media Research Index.
Hello Media GURU! Online question...
Are any Online Ad Networks such as Doubleclick, ClickNow, Valueclick, 24/7, etc. negotiating on a Cost Per Click basis? Are the sites they are serving ads to quality sites? What are the pros and cons of cost per click vs. traditional CPM buys?
Yes some are doing this. For the most part it seems to be lesser operators, offering low ball prices for remaindered space, for instance 25 cents per click.
So a site doing this business has unsold inventory it is willing to let go at about $1.25 cpm impressions. Neither is an indicator of quality nor, at least, of strength.
I keep hitting dead ends! I am looking for information containing "cost per lead" or "cost per sale" for various types of media marketing different types of products. An example of the information I am seeking (using figures from my imagination):
Home Security Systems
On-Line - $2.00 to $2.70
Direct Mail - $2.50 to $3.20
Television - $4.70 to $5.10
Radio - $1.90 to $2.60
Billboard - $2.20 to $2.80.
I need this kind of information for campaigns that were/are directed to households. Examples of products or services might include: life insurance, health and beauty products, automobiles.
The best source would be the Direct Marketing Association
One thought: It is a general truism that list quality is one of the most important factors in direct marketing success. So a much tighter target than "Households" would be recommended.
I am doing a MIS project for Newspaper.
Could you let me know any sites where I can get mor information about Advertisement management Vis-a-Vis News Paper
The question is too general for the Guru to offer much help. Best source would be
The Newspaper Advertising Association.
Media Guru, can you tell me an effective method for a relatively new, regional, biweekly arts & entertainment publication to familiarize itself to ad agency media buyers?
There are the usual handful of methods:
The most effective one for you may depend upon how broad a set of media buyers you target. Publication of this sort often sell most advertising to local advertisers who mostly have local buyers. Further, publication of this sort often have an audience which matches the typical media buyer demographics. A good approach would be to start mailing the publication to all the buyers in your area.
One caveat: Publications of this sort have lately run into circulation problems because their target is the same one which like to get entertainment information on the web. The Long Island Voice (an offshoot of the famous Village Voice) is one example of a recent failure in this arena. Since media buyers may be aware of this, take the problem into account in your story. One approach would be offering ads on your web site as merchandising (Of course you have a web site, right?)
can you provide information on the Media Multiplier Effect(any model to explain the concept).
The Magazine Publishers' Association has a discussion of the research on the Media Multiplier Effect in their Advertising Effectiveness Study (by Millward Brown)
Where can I obtain a ranker for magazine readership among Adults 18-34 living in Japan? Also, I am looking for a list of the top 50 websites to reach Adults 18-34 in Japan. Thanks much.
In a case like this the Guru would make contact with a media seller who can present a competitive picture. Start looking at the Japanese Magazine Publishers Association
Guru, Are there specific business-to-business magazines and websites that target webmasters/developers and "desicion makers", specifically for websites such as online zines and newspapers? Thank you.
How Effective is internet advertizing?
It depends upon your goals. Click here to see several past Guru responses about internet effectiveness.
How do you measure cause marketing? What is the influence of e-commerce on cause marketing?
Like any other marketing, cause marketing must set the specific goals to be measured. In some cases, it's donations, in others, volunteerism / memberships or attitiudes or public activity.
Donations or memberships can be measured by actual acheivement. Attitude or action may require survey research on attitudes, awareness or intents.
The question about e-commerce is puzzling. Some causes may have made donations or sign-ups possible on line, and the Guru imagines that this has generated action that might not have otherwise happened. Some commercial e-commerce sites are soliciting donations on behalf of causes or allocating a portion of profits.
Do you think WAP will become part in advertising? (WAP means Wireless application protocol. This is a new standard
for a minimized hyperlink system, designed for use with wireless devices
cellular phones, pda with small screens.)
Yes, it seems inevitable that when enough people are checking their stocks or the weather on their cell phones and Palm VII's, someone will find a way to include advertisng in the information. The audience will be a highly desirable target for tech and financial products.
I am compiling information on Marketing and other initiatives Indian Press Associations can take when faced with a situation where they are'losing' ad revenue shares rapidly to Television. Would appreciate if you suggest some references, or throw some light on this.
SHRIPAD KULKARNI, MANAGING EDITOR, TOP OF MEDIA
Do you know a investigation about newspapers in these topics :
Ad in color or Black & White
Ad in different ubications
Another question :
How is the recomendated efecttive frequency for a launching campaing, for maintennance, for a promotion.
The efective frequency is relative, but the experience and the knowledge of the people there somilars in many countries.
Please help me
Effective frequency always seems to start from the basic 3+ times which comes out of the original research. Then the next question is what reach level to set at this effective frequency benchmark.
Some planners set various other efeective frequency goals depending upon various marketing factors (see the Ostrow model).
Most simply, introductions and promotions would suggest higher effective frequencies while maintenance can use minimal levels.
Hello Guru : I´ve many questions :
1º Do you know how i can add the impacts in TV, Radio, Newspapers and Magazines.
Exist a table of factors for obtain this results
"Impact" is a term with no standard defintion. First you will have to quantify the term before any intelligent answer could be given.
For example, if you decided impact equalled reach, weighted by historical selling ability, you could first establish each medium's weighted reach and then combined these media impact scores by a probability equation just as you would combine reaches. But a different way of defining impact might lead to another approach.
Can you please direct me to a source for brand awareness benchmarks - whatz good and/or typical preferably across a range of industry types Thanx Guru, from Sydney, Australia
It is not likely that there would be awareness benchmarks in the abstract. They would only make sense in relation to market share, sales, media weight, etc.
The Guru would expect Journal of Advertising Research to have covered this and other data to be in The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I am trying to target two diverse groups. One would be CEOs/Managers of retail, e-commerce companies and the other would be the people in those organizations responsible for selecting shipping/mailing services (these being the core decision maker I am trying to reach) however, the CEOs/Managers would ultimately make the decision. I can't seem to locate a business to business publication that would reach the secondary target. Do you have any ideas?
What is a local broadcast network
It sounds like an invented marketing term that someone has created as a sales approach, and not a standard term.
The Guru would parse it thus:
i am doing a project on effectiveness of print medium vs Televion. i would like to know if you have any studies or articles on the same. i would also like to know the trends in advertising spends on both the mediums in various markets across the world especially India. could also please suggest various parameters of comaparing the effectiveness of the two media.
Effectiveness studies would be available from Newsweek
Media Research Index, ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization and The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter.
Professionals working in one country and culture typically overlook the basic fact that the relative strengths and impact of the media differ in different cultures. They have the same physical nature, e.g print allows visuals plus detailed text, radio is sound only, tv offers visual/sound and action, yet the strengths may differ.
In one country broadcast is government controlled and print is the only viable commercial medium. In another, TV has only one commercial outlet and one government outlet in each area while radio has few outlets to compete. In yet another culture, radio is the best reach medium while TV has the biggest individual audience ratings and print is very weak.
The ultimate standard of effectiveness is sales, when that can be directly linked to advertising. Brand Awareness and Ad Awareness, Attitude and use, purchase intent, etc are also possible comparisons.
Dear Guru- I was wondering what you thought of the AOL-Time Warner merger, and how you think it will affect the way we buy and plan media in the future. I also wanted to know what you think of the government's anti-drug deal with the networks, and what you think about them having any say in programming content.
The Guru believes that the AOL / Time Warner deal was much bigger as business news than media news. AOL adds no media property to Time Warner except AOL itself, already a top internet property. If there are some new or better merchandising deals only media buys which place merchandising ahead of reach, environment, efficiency etc will change. Time Warner already had another leading (if not profitable) web arena for all its media in Pathfinder.com.
The Government already had that much "say" in programming, by requiring that some time be devoted to public service announcments. It merely gives some PSA credit for entertainment programming with a strong enough anti drug message. The Guru is not troubled by this, as far as it goes, in this specific case.
Dear Guru, What is the best way to evaluate spot cable with spot broadcast? I fear that CCP won't account for universes of cable systems. Is it CPM's? And wouldn't you have to use impressions derived from the cable universe? Thanks and GREAT site!
Yes, the cable universe must be taken into account. It is simple to adjust between the two universes. If you start from cable ratings, multiply against cable unverse and divide by total market universe to get comparable ratings.
Are there any studies on the effectiveness (in terms of cost and reach) of non-traditional mediums, such as, tradeshows and presspacks?
These marketing tools are evaluated more against direct results than reach. There should be some research on effectiveness at the The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Is there a simplified reach and frequency calculation formula that allows for the number of stations (TV or radio) as well as the target audience size?
Reach and frequency calculations have become quite complex today and are typically done by computer. Because reach is curvilinear, the formula can be quite complex, even without this issue. A different algorithm is needed for each dispersion scenario.
A good system will account for number of stations, at least in radio; AMIC's sister company, Telmar has such a system.
Since reach calculations are typically done with percentages of universe, like rating and percent reach, target audience size is not specifically relevant. Different curves will have been deduced for different targets, based on their accumulation patterns, which may not exhibit a direct correlataion to size. If reach in thousands is needed. it is simple to calculate by multiplying perent reach against target population.
how can i enroll reps???
Your meaning is somewhat unclear. If you refer to hiring salespeople to work in your organization, you can advertise in the local editions of advertising trade media and newspapers. If you mean contrating a rep firm to sell your medium, media rep firms of various sizes are listed in the front of the Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) for each medium. These resources are available in libraries.
I am searching for the information about subway audience data. Can you help me in finding the information about the main characteristics of the subway research in different countries.
I have only the data about passanger flows per subway line (direction) and per concrete station and socio-demographics from TGI survey for subway usage frequency.
Do you think it can be enough to make mediaplans?
Thank you anyway.
Subway advertising sellers should have demographic data about their medium.
Start with TDI.
looking for "total ad revenue/expenditure" figures for 1. spain (for the years 1991,1992 and 1993) 2. south korea (years 1987, 1988, 1989).
What is media planning, and how does it differ from media buying?
To put it very simply:
Media planning is the process of determining which media best meet the advertiser's objectives and strategies, as well as which geography merits what share of budget. Levels of spending and weight by medium and daypart or vehicle are also a planning responsibilty.
When these determinations have been made, Media buying identifies best locations of individual advertisements and negotiates their price.
Is there any quantitative research for monthly traffic in shopping malls...for example, in the month of December "X" amount of people shopped in malls....and so on for January, Feb, March etc...???
What is the national median HHI for the US?
For 1998, according to the US Census Bureau, it was $38,885.
Dear Media Guru
I know this sounds "absolutely creative" in a sense but an account executive has gone ahead and quoted a "certain research" that he claims to have read which says that in the outdoor medium high clutter actually contributes to higher recall(this is only specific to outdoors). I have been given the task of substantiating this research or finding references to this research when my basic media sense tells me otherwise. Keeping all things constant - creative impact, innovation, size or placement and the like - are you aware of any data that suggests such a hypothesis ?
Thanks a lot
Hi Media Guru. Could you provide me with total ad dollars placed on radio and separately TV in the United States in '99 (or '98 if that is the latest). Can you breakdown the percentage of dollars placed by ad agencies versus direct clients? Is there an industry percentage estimate of agency vs. direct ad dollars placed in radio and in TV? Thank you.
Hi, Media Guru... I am new to media planning and need to know how to figure out how to distribute the budget among media. We have decided to use Direct Response TV ads and Radio, but how do I determine how much of the budget to put in either? I understand the definitions of the terms reach and frequency but do not know how to use these tools. Also, is there an online (free) resource that can help me come up with psychographic data either in general for a demo or by market and demo? Thank you in advance for your help!
When the planner has a free hand, media mix is determined by examining various combinations to see which best meet the Media Objectives and Strategies.
You may go through an examination of efficiency, communication impact, environmental support, etc, of broad types prior to testing various mixes for reach and frequency or other measurable contributions.
In the case of direct response, you probably have some track record of the relative selling ability of each medium on which to base an intial distribution. After start, careful tracking of response will lead you to modify budgets. This direct tracking of sales, typical in DR, makes reach and frequency analysis moot.
The Guru does not believe there are any free online market psychographic/demographic resources.
I work for a Latin American Business news source, and am looking for two types of information.
1. Free Latin American Internet user information and Web site statistics. Companies such as Jupiter and Nielsen/Net Ratings hasn't hit the market yet.
2. Ad spending information, specific to Latin America - Who spends money on Advertising in the region (sectors, companies, etc.)? In which media are the investments made?
Thanks for your help. The site's great.
Dear Sir / Madam,
The question that I have is related to media weight setting.
q1) Often in the past we have used the market prioritisation technique in BDI / CDI. Having done this we simply super impose the market dynamics to arrive at a market task.
Now the question is can we make the BDI / CDI numbers talk harder. Is there a relation between BDI and the frequency required.
BDI and CDI are typically used to establish the effort which will be made in each market in relation to the other markets. These indices reflect a market's contribution to national sales versus its portion of national population.
The application of the index typically addresses allocation of media dollars or impressions. It could just as easily be used to set average frequency or effective frequency goals, but since frequency grows in a non-linear fashion - the growth rate accelerates as GRPs accumulate, it is simply a more complicated basis for media application.
What is the minimun number of GRP's a radio schedule should have to reach A35-64? I have planned a minimun of 50 GRP's for various markets, but I do not know if this is too little, or too much.
The only generally accepted "minimum" in radio advertising is 12 spots per week per station. But GRP must be considered as well in judging communications value.
50 GRPs is almost too small a total schedule to bother with. Most advertisers, pulling a number out of the air would probably start with 100 GRP per week in a campaign if radio is the only medium being used.
A total campaign of 50 GRP should reach about 20-22% of the target, at a low level of average frequency: about 2.3. This would not be expected to generate much consumer response.
weeks at 100 GRP/week will get about to 50% target reach at an average frequency of 8x.
Certainly budget is a constraint, but effective levels in fewer markets is better than wasting money in a longer market list.
I'm an advertising student and will be going out into the working world of advertising on a media buying internship in two weeks. I have one question which i would much like your input on. The question is as follows; Junior media buyers are routinely asked to book millions of dollars worth of advertising. But do they know enough about the vast complexities of media to do the job right?
No, they don't. But then again they aren't actually asked to do this. You have a somewhat oversimplified view of the roles, the Guru believes.
Junior buys operate within tighly defined limits on their authority to make spending decisions.
Over the course of a year a "junior buyer" at a large agency might book millions of dollars, a few tens of thousands at a time. Each time, in a properly run agency, there should be a set of buying parameters from a olanner which specifies the target group, amount of media weight, (GRP or impressions) type of programming or environment, minimum audience size of an ad unit, cpm/cpp range, and perhasp even reach of the schedule.
With all these parameters properly set, there is little room fro a junior buyer to make a significant error. The job is to find the right media according to clearly set, mostly numerical, standards and then to negotiate the best possible price.
Additionally, there should be review of a junior buyers proposed buy by a supervisor.
If you find yourself in a situation without these controls, then you are not observing a professional media operation.
Our client is a business to business, e-commerce marketplace for secondary capital assests. We are researching online advertising opportunities and would like to know where to advertise to hit Fortune 500 procurement officers/asset purchasers and liquidators and mom-and-pop machine tool shop owners. Are there other or better sites than vertical net. How effective is banner advertising on search engines based on a key word search? Where do I find what web sites people in this industry visit? Help!
There are two categories of sites to consider:
Sites that these people visit in their day to day work
Sites that would interest your target people, but are not specific to their professional activities.
In the former situation, these highly specialized sites are not likely to have enough audience to be on the "radar" of the syndicated web measurement services, like MediaMetrix or Nielsen//Netratings.
The latter category of sites requires you to use some imagination rgarding your targets' interests.
Keyword-based advertising on search engines is one good way to target by user interests. But keep in mind that banners should stand on their own, because less than 1% of those who see them are likely to click through.
Ad Knowledge offers a way to find sites by audience type.
I have CPM/CPP for traditional media (newspapers, magazines, tv, radio) for the US, but need it for other countries. Do you know where I can get up to date information for this please?
hey guru, please could you give me some technical details of how ad server systems work. Namely, i want to know if the ads are held on the publisher's site or if they are kept centrally by the ad server (like doubleclick). also, how the server knows which ads to display based on user profiles - are these profiles the publisher's or the ad server company's? thanks for any help
The adservers you have heard about are most likely the ones that reside at the services, as DoubleClick's does.
Others, like AMIC's are based within their own sites.
The decision on who sees which banner can be based on the geographic point from where the user is browsing. Of course, this gets blurred by national ISPs like AOL whose users all show up as being in Vienna, VA. Other data, based on the domain of the user, can be applied as well. For instance, a person using the Telmar.com domain, as would an AMIC staffer, could be identified as working in a field related to advertising.
Cookies, which can indicate past sites visited, are another way to distinguish vistors.
Registration data filled out by individual users can also be used.
Why don't Agencies hold radio to the same
standards of TV in terms of posting. I understand
there are flaws in measurement (as with TV) however,
shouldn't radio stations be held accountable for
under-delivering the points they project? Clear Channel has
even made it a corporate policy to NOT post and, since
they own such a large percentage of radio stations in
many markets, it's virually impossible to "buy around"
Any suggestions on how to make these radio stations
Spot Radio ratings typically appear quarterly, meaning that there isn't an opportunity, during a buy, to monitor how the buy performs and to add weight if necessary.
Spot TV, even where weekly reporting is available is not usually sold with an audience guarantee.
Network radio, like network TV is sold on a guarantee basis.
The old theory, that radio ratings were too subject to statictical bounce, due to limited sample size behind any given rating and that therefor neither buyer nor seller could be sure of performance, still holds.
Radio buys can be guaranteed if
Dear Guru. Do you have information or can you help me with the following question : What is the best way of surveying the audience in dailies and magazines ? I would highly appreciate to know about your experience about this.
Hello. As responsible for the positioning of magazines within a saleshouse, I'm looking for information about trends in women's magazines, and more precisely wellness, health and beauty magazines in Europe. 1/ do you know interresting internet sites / papers / research about this subject? Thanks for your help !
ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization might be your best source. Also try BPA.
I am putting a planning proposal together for a national radio and cable tv buy. What average CPM and CPP should I be looking at to target women 25-54 for each of these mediums?
How would I go about starting an e-commerce business sight and registering a domain name? This involves the media industry. Thank you.
Registering a domain name can be accomplished online through several registries. A list of registrars is available at Internic. Domain name availablity can be checked and registry bought and paid for at one of the listed sites. It is best to have available when you go to register, the information about your host ISP, - the computer where the site will be maintained.
Online software dealers and software stores have software packages available for design of ecommerce sites.
Of course there are always web design firms and full-service ISPs who will do all the work for you, at a fee.
ISPs can be found at The List
I am working on a preliminary recommendation--a branding awarness campaign for a bank that currently does product advertising but no image advertising. Thre are three levels of spending that will be discussed. The question that I have is what freqency levels should be achieved to have not only a increase in awareness, but also influence the target to switch banks. It is a competitive banking market. What do you think of these reach and freq levels based on 4 weeks of advertising?? The media mix for the first 2 includes TV and Outdoor/Transit and the last Outdoor/Transit. There would be 1 TV commercial, 2 messages for Outdoor and 2 messages for transit. So, I am not concerned that much about wearout as having adequate effective frequency levels. Schedule #1 91% reach/14.6x; Schedule #2 is 90%/11x ; #3 is 79%/9.9x please let me know what you think of these frequency levels. Thanks
When you evaluate media schedules which include out-of-home media, considerations of "effective" frequency go out the window. The nature of these media is to amass enormous levels of frequency behind simple, undetailed messages. Statistically, any of these schedules would have plenty of effective frequency, although you haven't mentioned the effective frequency in your details. The most effective schedule would be one of the first two, and the best of those is the one with the higher reach and frequency. Apparently the second costs less than the first.
Are all trps equal?
The Guru knows a loaded question when he sees one.
TRPs are statistical measures. They are always the relation of impressions to population. 1 TRP is always equal to one percent of the specified population group .
But if you mean is one TRP in medium A always equal in communication impact to 1 TRP in medium B, then the answer is no. Even in the same medium, TRPs don't distinguish between 15 second copy and 60 second copy. One advertisers network TV :30 may not have equal impact with a competitor's network :30 depending on daypart, postioning, and copy quality.
FIGURES ABOUT THE SUM INVESTS BY MEDIUM.
WHICH COMPANIES INVESTS IN WHICH MEDIUM.
For the U.S., refer to
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
I'm trying to find information on the effectiveness of
fax broadcasting. My client feels it is an inexpensive
way to advertise (CPM) but I'm worried it my cheapen
their high-end product. I know we're now able to
target such fax advertising just as you would direct
mail but...isn't it considered just as bad as SPAM?
The Guru would be surprised to find it's efficient, it must cost 3 or 4 cents per address which is $30- 40 per thousand.
Not only is it as annoying as Spam, it is also actually illegal - that is, advertising by fax to persons / businesses with whom you do not have an existing business relationship.
In fact, this law had been the early model for anti-Spam legislation.
Is there any information on "copy fatigue"...or how many grp's does it take before copy loses effectiveness? Any thoughts on this would be of great value. Thank you!
It depends on the quality and nature of the copy as well as marketplace dynamics in the category, media mix, etc.
Research is available at The Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Is there an international norms to carry banner advts. in a particular fashion?.(say a maximum of five banners in a page which consist of one top banner,one bottom banner and three buttons on the right hand margin). (or)Is it upto the websites to leave slots to carry banners the way they want?.Can you quote some examples of websites which have excellent banner positions in their sites?.Thanks in advance.
There are no layout norms. The Guru has not seen anything that seemed to be worth mentioning.
In Brazil we can't find good books with media
theory. I'd like your suggestion of good american media books
so I can recomend them to my college students here in Brazil.
I am looking for elementary books and advanced ones.
See the selections in the media planning shelves of the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)
Hello media guru,
I actually have a confession to make - I am not in the advertising business. But I am interested into getting into the industry and would like information. How defined are the tasks of job positions in the advertising industry? Can the same titles vary in job tasks and what positions tend to use both skills in organization, management and artistry?
Many jobs' functions vary from one company to the next. Obviously, art direction postions make the most use of "aretistry." Organization and management skill would come into play as one rose within art positions.
On an typical day, what is the average number of commercial minutes within a broadcast hour?
And- do you have any idea how that compares with prior years (1990, 1993, 1996, etc. . .)? Thanks in advance!
Depending on whether it's a network affiliate and whether or not it's within network programmed or local time there can be a variance from about 7 or 8 to 16+ minutes per hour, with prime-time network at the low end. There has been about 10 to 15 % increase in the past 10-15 years.
can you please tell me who are the company dot.com
which advertise in VH1, and mtv in usa?
Please can you tell me how I know when x% reach is
enough? From going through the archives it seems as
if your answer will be "that this is a judgement call"
but surely there must be something more scientific
Yes, the Guru has often answered such questions with that phrase, but went on to list the considerations to review in making the judgement.
You need to build toward a reach goal, not pull it out of your hat. There is no piece of science that makes one specific reach number correct as an abstraction.
If some level of ad awareness is your real goal, the reach must be at least as high as the awareness level desired: people must see an ad before they can become aware of it. If you believe that it takes three exposures to a campaign before the consumer is consciously aware of the campaign then the awarenes level becomes the 3+ reach level, and a total (1+) reach level may be inferred from that.
If you follow recency theory, you will evaluate the continuous levels of reach delivery affordable in possible media options.
So "enough" is not simply "enough," it must be enough to accomplish a specifed goal of awareness, sales, image change, etc.
Oh Great Guru --
I need to calculate GRPs, but I don't have reach or frequency on some tv buys. I do have CPM, total impressions and impressions/week and the total population of the demographic. Can you supply a formula for calculating GRP based on what I have?
(Impressions divided by population) x 100 = GRP.
if impressions are 2 million and population is 1 million, GRPs = 200.
Is there a data avaliable which maps the Indian Internet audience demographically ?
There is some data at Mica-India
Is there any conclusive data available on the relation of print and internet advertsing ?
Nothing is ever conclusive to those who chose to believe something other than the research findings. Nevertheless, see Query # 3081
Thanks for your service. what is the term "stickiness" meant in web terminology. Is it similar to the meaning of "session"?. Please clarify.
Stickiness refers to a site's ability to keep the visitor there, browsing through various pages, generating more page and ad impressions.
can you help me finding websites which provide following information:
circulation and sales-figures for women's magazines (e.g. cosmopolitan, elle) in ITALY, FRANCE, HOLLAND.
I already found an interesting site in the UK: www.abc.org.uk , but not for the other countries
Could you tell me which supplements are issued with which daily newspapers and on which day?
for example what day does the Independant have the IT supplement
This sort of information is provided by Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) Newspaper Source.
Additionally, MediaPassage has newspaper media kit links.
what is a good way to track banner inventory and manage it for sites on an ad serving network on the basis of country, city, ISP etc.
any guidelines or formats?
IP addresses tell you country, city and ISP if you have the regsitration database. THe biggest problem are the vast numbers of web users who seem to be in Vienna, Virginia, because the use the web through AOL.
Master Guru: I have a wireless telecommunications engineering firm that I am planning to take public the 2nd or 3rd quarter of this year. What kind of advertising would be most effective for me on the web and would banner ads help here at all? I have patented products and expect to carve out a small percentage of this Multi-billion dollar industry. At this time though, money is a considertion and we wish to get the most bang for our buck. Richie V.P. Operations-VosiTechnologies
Not enough information for a reasonable answer. The key quetions should be:
Do you have a resources that can tell me how many websites exist? And, on average, how many websites are added daily to the Internet?
There is no real way to count them. Everyone and his brother can put up a website without anyone other than the ISP becoming aware of it. Even just counting commercial websites is virtually impossible.
Dear Media Guru,
I am writing from India. The Television Audience Measurement System to which we subscribe covers 27 Geographical locations.
The Total Projected Universe of individuals aged 4+ years is :
Access to Terrestrial Television = 97374000
Access to Cable or Satellite Television = 51165000
On the Terrestrial base, the total number of Peoplemeters installed by them are 3454. The number of individuals residing in the panel homes are 7425 approximately.
Thus each individual in the sample represents about 6891 individuals of the universe.
What are the standards in terms of the number of peoplemeters, individuals residing in the metered homes ?
What would be be the requirements for smaller target audience : individuals residing in one city and belonging to one age group : say residing in Mumbai, aged 25-34 years ?
Please tell me the world standards in the sample sizes
"Standards" is not quite an appropriate term. Sample sizes in media research are economic decisions more than research/statisical ones.
Understand that population size is not really a consideration. A sample of 7500 is subject to a specific degree of statisitcal error regardless of whether it represents a population of 3 million or 300 million. However, the cost of implementing a the larger sample may be at least 50 times greater. The stations, agencies and advertisers in a city of 3 million may be willing to underwrite the costs of a sample of 750 while it takes the stations, networks and advertisers of an entire nation to fund a sample of 7500.
When one looks at a list of geographic markets and their sample sizes within one research vendor's system, there appears to be a direct correlation, but the crucial intervening variable of economic base is missing.
In the U.S., Nielsen's national sample is 5000 homes, 13,000 persons, for a population, aged 2+, of about 260,000,000. Nielsen offers a good explanation of their sample.
Click here to see past Guru
responses discussing sample size and "acceptable error".