Returns all questions and responses for the year.
Can you help me out in the following areas:
1. How can an online agency offer an advertiser pre campaign creative testing of ad banners? What are the variables involved and can you suggest links to sites that do offer such solutions?
2. Can you provide an online plan for any hypothetical advertiser? What is the step by step approach taken? I know one will have to proceed looking at marketing objectives, setting impression levels and then buying impressions based on the campaign objective and target audience.
Do you have a ready framework for a full online plan that you could share with us?
1. There are companies which do such testing, including IPSOS. C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment) will have a list of such vendors.
2.There are no standards for how an on-line plan should look, other than those for any media plan. Because the focus will be on selecting specific sites, the overall style will probably resemble a magazine plan more than any other specific type. One plan might focus on advertisng envorinment more than another which is more aimed at raw impresions, and both may
differ greatly from a third based on click-rates or revenue generation. Analysis might focus on cpm or reach or availability of relevant pages or keywords. Creativity is more the rule than following a format.
Data / studies on the Indian internet Market
Has there been any studies that have been done to analyze the synergies between Print and internet Media ?
"Synergies" is an extremely vague term. There are studies to show how well print advertising brings traffic to web sites. There are studies of net reach of the two media.
If you can make your query more specific, you may find relevant research at The Magazine Publishers' Association, Cahner's or Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter. For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
My target audience - accountant & finance managers. The region I want to cover: New York, L.A., Washington D.C. (4 now), I am dealing with a new product: launching, and need THE Business news-papers & magazines plus prices.
How would you identify and reach “gatekeepers” in charge of web development for fortune 5000 businesses? I’m assuming most of these would be CIO or upper-level IT Personnel.
The Guru would rather hope that such a key marketing function would be managed by marketing management. You want to distinguis control of content and function from control of process and infrastructure. Not everything that relies on computers belongs in the control of computer operators. In any case,
The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook') can generate lists of people by title/by comapny category.
Where can I find online advertising rates for sports sites?
What strategie can i use to have business relation with media companies?
What strategie can i use to have business relations with media representatives?
Just buy from them. If you aren't going to do business, you won't build a business realtion. If you do business they will seek a relationship with you.
If you are talking about the other sort of medai realtions, those sought by press agents and public relations companies, that's not the Guru's area.
Honorable Guru- I have recently started working for a dot com and have been given the "opportunity" to create a listing of all company address AND emails of decision makers of certain sectors (food,personal care etc). This is for a mass ad campaign.They want to do permission based emails, which I am unfamiliar with. I am at a loss as to where to start... any ideas? Gracias
"Permission based emails" are those sent to persons who have said they are willing to accept your commercial email in advance of your sending it. Otherwise, you are sending Unsolicited Commercial Email (UCE) or Spam, to which the Guru is vehemently opposed.
Permission for email can be secured by sending traditional direct mail solicitations of the permission or by providing a check-box "get email" option on your web site, when people register to use features of the site or submit product registration data, or make help and service requests.
Dear Guru, there has many studies and discussions about the effective reach and frequency, GRPs level, etc for the TV media. Is there any for Newspapers? Any industry norm about what is the effective frequency for Newspapers
The concept of effective frequency is based on psychological studies of learning which found three repetitions of information were required for the information to be "learned."
The original study, by Ebbinghaus, was conducted circa 1883. If the concept is valid at all, it is equally valid for print media as it is for TV.
what's the best media mix for a portal site?
The best media mix is based on the portal's marketing goals, target and budget. There is nothing about a portal site, per se, that dictates mix.
New portals today are typically aimed at specific geographic, cultural or special interest groups. Different media have differing relative strengths and contributions to communications in different countries or among different market segments in the same country.
A traditional media plan in support of a portal ought to be built in the same way a plan for any other product category with the same marketing issues.
Dear Guru, I would like to know the pro's & con's of sponsorship on TV , The minmum added value that we have to ask for, the payment terms that we have to agree on, the primium to be paid by the client in case of exclusivity of product, we are operating in the gulf market , dominated by few TV station (Satellite ) and weak teresterial TV Station. On the other hand I would like to know if there is any sites that features pictures of Media (TV, NP, ,,,) just to make the presentation more friendly ... Thank You
The essence of sponsorship is to give the consumer the idea that you, the advertiser, are responsible for the program. You want to pick programs that fit well with your product or selling points, just as beauty contests are typically sponsored by cosmetics companies. Secondarily, you wish to deny the competitor the opportunity of advertising in a powerful program.
For full sponsorship you would minimally expect opening and closing billboards, plus "bumpers" into and out of breaks. Major fractional sponsors might expect opening and closing billboards.
Sponsorship is premium-priced and the benfits are mostly judgemental and image-oriented.
A sponsor might earn participation of the actors in ads, rights to use logos and scenes from the show in ads, packaging and point-of-purchase material.
Searching for top rated shows/speical in 1999. We are thinking of recommending the NCAA Mens Basketball Tournament to our client and would like to find out how it did against U.S. households compared to other top rated programs such as the Superbowl & Oscars. I don't have access to syndicated research (ie Nielson) so I'm hoping there is a site on the internet I could get ratings and ranking for free.
Try Ultimate TV.
Is there a good way to translate points into spots (in terms of radio)? Say, you buy 100 points in a given week, approximately how many spots will you get, regardless of money spent? Explaining points to clients can confuse them and they understand a spot. Thanks, Guru!
In many markets, for many demographics, the top station might get a rating of 2.0 and others a 0.1. In African American and Hispanic radio, top stations may get ratings of 5.0 to 10.0 within their ethnic target. So there are far to many variables to answer your question simply. If you let clients beliefve that "a spot is a spot" then you won't ever be able to explain why you paid $500 for a spot with a 2 rating when they complain they know a guy who buys spots for $50, even though they have a 0.1 rating (which is only half as efficient as your buy).
But, you need to divide the point by the average rating you are actually buying to talk about the number of spots you're getting.
I am familiar with roving media buying courses such as "The Media Buying Academy". Do you know of any seminars like this for online media and marketing?
The Guru has not heard of any "roving" ones like this, though there are frequent internet conferences here and there.
What would you suggest the best site for advertising on in the leasing industry
Answering this would take extensive research. First determine
what you mean by "leasing industry." Are you tlaking about
real estate rental or equipment financing?
Then search the specific term at Yahoo or another search
engine, collect rates and audience information from the sites
that look suitable and compare to make your decision.
Guru does not expect that any such narrow, business-focused
sites would be reported by the on-line audience research
Would like to know the advantages and disadvantages
of free standing inserts as a media tool.
The allow good geographic selectivity and some coupon users will seek out and "shop" the FSI's.
They are readily disposable; some recipients ignore them totally. Coupons may only appeal to people who buy whatever offeres cents-off on the next shopping occasion, so people shopping coupon flyers may not actually be susceptible to trial and conversion.
The The Newspaper Advertising Association will probably have more information.
Is there any standard way of setting Reach & Frequency benchmarks for the Consumer durable category such as Motorcycles, Television, Tyres etc.
"Consumer durables" is much too broad to generalize. Purchase cycle, seasonality and budget are the key components for setting communications goals.
Target, media choices and geography might also contribute to level setting.
where can i found information about the targeting of
the mtv audience in usa?
i need to know ages, education? and if they
have any contact with internet?
and also when is the prime time in mtv - usa?
it was told me that the prime time for audience
between 18-49 in mtv is around 11:00 - 15:00.
what is the ratio? i assumed that youngers still having scholl
at those hours?!
Nielsen is the best source for loking at daypart ratings comparisons. MTV is targeted younger than 18-49, and the older audience would be at work in the same hours the younger ones are in school.
I need to hire an online marketing agency is there a standard rfp format?
The Guru believes that "standard RFP formats" should be avoided at all costs.
You will find yourself asking questions you don't really need or care about the answers.
You will annoy your candidates who wonder why you are asking about "X" when it has nothing to do with the services you wish to contract.
You will discourage some from bothering to respond, quite likely the ones who are busy and successful and don't want a client who wastes their time.
So what should you ask?
Regarding a research project on a client's customers' media habits, what is the calculation to determine the statistical deviation to determine the reliability of the sample size? And is there an acceptable statistic? The sample size, in our opinion, is quite small and we would like to know if it is meaningful or not.
See adjacent Query #3061
Where can I find audience accumulation tables for magazines?
Dear Media Guru, we are currently in the process of conducting a dip stick media survey to be integrated in a media reviews presentation for an FMCG. Based on your experience and references what would be the minimum acceptable sample size to use in order to insure the research findings are viable and reliable ? Note that the total population in our market is close to eighteen million, and the specified target group is about ten million. Thanks.
The population is not really relevant to determining the reliability of a sample.
The key consideration really is: what size are the answers you expect and what potential error can you stand in your decision making?
The formula to calculate one standard error (68% confidence) is:
The square root of ((P times Q)divided by N),
For 90% confidence, the above formula is multiplied by 1.645.
When you hear that results of a political poll are +/- 3%, this is the range of error around a 50% answer, usually at "90% confidence," meaning that if the poll was repeated with the same sample size, 90 times out of 100 the same question would have a response between 47 and 53%.
"+/-3%" on an answer of 50% means 6% relative error.
A sample size of 750 would bring you +/- 3% on a 50% answer:
100% - 50% = 50%
P=0.50, Q=0.50 and N= 750
0.50 x 0.50 = 0.25
0.25 / 750 = 0.000333333
Square root of 0.000333333 = 1.8275
1.8275 x 1.645 = 3.003
That's fine for political polls, where responses tend to hover around 50%. But in media studies, 1% or 2% may be exposed to a given ad placement. The same 750 sample would give reliability of +/- 0.84 on a 2% response, which is a relative error of 42%.
So, use this formula with your anticipated answer sizes and the level of relative error with which you can comfortably make decisions to determine a suitable sample size.
Dear Guru - what do you think will be the impact of
internet TV on the canadian market - is Icravetv.com
the first such viewing opportunity and if not, what
are the learnings in terms of classic TV viewing?
The Guru believes impact will be minimal. A small, low-quality image with low quality sound is not likley to becom anyones preferred form of viewing, internet in the corner of normal TV seems more appealing. Viewing by either method will likle be discounted for low attentiveness, too.
Hello, I need to find Media Listings or Advertising Sources in every single country within the European Continent, could you tell me where and how? Thank you!
In India everybody seems to be hyping up the interactive medium, as THE future media vehicle to reach the upper class, literates. I am a practicing media director in an ad agency. Wondering whether in the near future, internet will become so important as a media vehicle. If so, I intend coming up to speed by learning more about the medium in question to enable me evaluate and recommend or otherwise, internet as a media option. What is your opinion?
Many believe internet use will not penetrate more than 60% of the poulation, but it will be skewed upscale.
It may never be the dominant medium, but any media professional today needs to be familiar with its capabilities and limits.
where can i find metro radio ratings?
What is the effet of newsstand sales versus subscription on Reader-per-copy figures? Does one distribution method increase or decrease the pass-a-long opportunities?
There are a lot of "it-depends" issues. One example is the difference between mornig newspapers bought on a newstand on the way to work and evening newspapers bought on the way home.
The best course is to compare circulation audits which show newstand vs subscritption data alongside readership studies which show readers, for publication sets iin which you are interested.
There is a general perception in the mature online market like u.s.a that the effectiveness of a banner is coming down with sites reporting less percentage of CTR nowadays. what is guru's view in this. Does guru see any alternative form of web advertising(other than banners) emerging?. if so, can you inform me the examples practised by sites in this connection?.
Yes, click-thru is declining. Interstitials, and more detailed and animated ads with full selling messages are alternatives.
If clicks are your only goal, you need to buy at $/click which makes economic sense.
Thanks for your service. Could you please inform me some ad management softwares, with their url address, ideal for a site which get over 9 million page impressions per month. By any change do you know the advt. management software used by leading sites like yahoo, aol, amazon etc.?.
I have a production department and account manager that want to produce a :60 TV spot. I know that we need a :30. I need to give them (and the client) a concrete argument as to why :60's are too expensive to produce and place and the effectiveness of a :30 is what we need. I know that :15's can be 70-80% as effective as :30's - but I don't know numbers on the effective of :60's - help
When :30's were a new idea, research showed them to be about 75% as effective as :60's. Now that they are coin-of-the-realm, the ratio has probably improved. Even if less than half as effective as a :60, the reach/frequency and recency contibutions of running twice as many spots would outweigh this unit impact issue.
It is a mistake to consider only one execution vs another when it is the campaign that should be evaluated in measuring effectiveness.
The research should be at the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Where can I find out what the different tpes of internet advertising are, along with a description of them. Thanks!
The The Internet Advertising Bureau and C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment) sites have this kind of informationinformation. But the answers constantly expand and change.
How do I calculate a radio station's turnover rate?
Divide weekly cume by AQH (Average Quarter Hour) audience.
Dear guru, where can I find information about terms like clutter, GRP, CPR, benefit? Do you recommend any web site?
The Guru is quite certain that no other web site offers as much discussion of media terms and concepts as the AMIC Media Guru. You can go to the Guru Archives Search Engine to look up Guru responses about virtually any media term.
Click here to see past Guru responses about clutter, or here for GRP, or here for CPR (or CPP) or here for references to media benefits. "Benefit" is a very general term of course, and you may find you need to narrow the search to get the information you want.
Can you suggest an apt readership method to capture the
readership overclaims(a person claiming to be reader of
a publication,though he doesn't read it)
"Through-the-book" is considered better for this, if the overclaim is a matter of a frequent reader carelesly claiming to read every issue. If the problem is outright lying, it may be hopelss.
Can you tell me approximately how many non-commercial radio stations there are currently in the U.S.?
What is an interstitial and what is a superstitial?
Interstitial has had many definitions in the past few years. The word interstitial literally means in the space between two other things. An interstitial is usually an ad one sees when clicking on a banner, before arrivieng at the target web site. It has evolved to mean a multimedia presentation which may or may not allow clicking thru to the advertiser's site.
The Guru and a few colleagues consulted in the interent business are unfamiliar with the term "superstitial."
Perhaps it's an interstitial you see only via psychic phenomena.
Oh wonderful Guru...I am a female voice over artist and do voice for radio and tv production, industrial films and now web sites. I want to reach as many agencies, companies etc. as I can to introduce my service to them. Web site voice over is new....any ideas on marketing?
This isn't a media question, but the Guru will offer a few thoughts.
The Guru doesn't see why marketing a voice for web use should be any different than for radio, tv or films if your target is agencies and production companies.
I have heard there are thousands of ways to advertise on the internet for free. What are they, and do you think any of them are effective? How many impressions do you think can be generated with little or no money to spend. Thanks!
There may be thousands of sites, but the Guru doubt's there are thousands of ways. Here are some:
The Guru does not think many of these options generate large numbers of impressions. They may be effective, given a small scale goal.
what is a media shop?
The term "media shop" refers to a media buying service, a company which offers the services of an ad agency media department but not the rest of a typical agency's services.
how can i estimate reach precentages?
is their any model that i can study from?
i ask you before about raech and you answered that its
a judgement decision.
i am trying to estimate how many people will wxposed once , twice, and more to my ads on t.v
( old brand, the first time to adverise , direct competitores are not using advertise at all
the largest share of voice, the target audience: main shopper with children )
is it enough to compare my case to other t.v campaign
which had some close goals( target, budgets, adverisment environment, and so on) or may you
has any other way to guide me?
please try to help me
There are many parameters to consider for various media and dayparts. Computer models seem to be the only sensible way to deal with all of today's options. AMIC's sister company, Telmar, which has offices in your country (Israel), is the leading worldwide provider of this type of software.
Statistical texts can give you information about some of the basic reach estimating formulas, such as the Beta Bi-modal function.
i am looking for information: where i have to advertise
in usa t.v if my audience is american with high-average
incime which live in west/ east cost and which interest in
in internet, and use internet, my brand is a new internet
site? where i can found rates?
please help me
The U.S. is divided into over 200 television markets, each with its own TV stations, so you would be buying what we call spot TV (though there are ways to buy costal "feeds" of our TV networks).
In AMIC's SQAD area you will find a list of the markets with their population, size ranking, and recent TV costs. You will probably need a U.S.map to determine which are on the coasts.
A resource like The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study is designed to tell you the consumer habits and media preferences of the affluent.
What is considered an average level of annual advertising revenue for a consumer website? What is considered a low level, and what is considered a high level of revenue?
Stated this broadly, this question is like "How high is up?" With millions of web sites and hundreds of thousands of serious, commmercial web sites, no one could possibly have the data to make an intelligent average.
However, CPMs (cost per thousand advertising impressions) and numbers of impressions available to sell can be dealt with.
The giant sites, like Yahoo and AOL may have 25 billion impressions to sell anually, and sell them at $30 CPM. That would equate to revenue of abouot $750 million per year if they can sell all their impressions. It could be even more, based on premium offerings, like keywords and section sponsorships.
By the time you come down to the 50th largest site, there may be only 150 million ad impressions to sell annually. And by the time you're looking at the 100,000th, perhaps only 5 million. Very small sites may be very specifically targeted and able to sell at a premium CPM of $50 or more. Smaller, general audience sites may sell at a CPM of $5 or less.
I would like to have a list of all forms of media for
the film industry in Toronto to contact in order to
greatly promote a film ie; t.v,radio, newspaper, magazine, photographer
CARD (Canadian Advertising Rates and Data) is the source you need.
functions of advertising agencies,modes of compesation within the agencies and criteria for customer evaluation
Advertising agencies may do many things, but the essential services are creating advertising and placing it in the media. The "account service" function which manages these proceses will also participate in marketing planning. Underlying the creative and targeting processes, agencies also offer market research planning and interpretation.
Compensation is most typically a commission on money spent on the client's behalf, to produce the ads, buy media, etc, or agrees fees for specific services.
Agencies evaluate their prospective clients based on billings size, demands they will make, fit with agency expertise and potential conflicts with current clients.
All this is very normative and few actual cases will adhere to all these general rules.
As part of our consumer print advertising for our local convention and visitors bureau we run in a couple of in-flight publications. They have been chosen on the basis on the highest numbers of deplanements at our airport and the fact that they provide service in our region (the western United States). It is our assumption that many people have a loyalty to an airline, and we can entice regional travelers to our locale. (Although we do consider ourselves a national destination, our budget only allows us to advertise regionally.) What is your opinion on our reasoning...are we "preaching to the choir?" What considerations do you take into account when evaluating in-flights (within the category and also against other consumer print)? Thanks!
A very complex question. To break down the answers into managable pieces:
Without the budget for post-flight call out surveys what formulas or 'rules' can I use to anticipate message saturation and burn. What reach or net reach level over what period of time would be probable to achieve a 80% awareness within the target. Also what is considered too much exposure for one message before you reach a point of diminishing returns. I know that the the better measurment here is research before and during the campaign, but there must be some bench marks that are industry accepted. Can you share these and share a public location for other general assumptions like this. Thank you in advance Guru...
i am seeking an extended list of caribbean media vehicles
(tv, radio, magazines, and newspaper) reaching caribbeans
living within the us. can you tell me of any names or
places where i can find this information?
In addition, do you have any recent information pertaining
to which us markets they are living in along with population
figures. the only information i was able to find was
'90 census data.
The Guru will asume that you are referring to "West Indians" also referred to as Caribbean Black, and not to Caribbean Hispanics. In either case these marfket segements are primarily found along the U.S.' East Coast. About 75% of the U.S. Caribbean Black population is found in the N.Y. and Miami DMA's; within NY, primarily in Brooklyn and Queens counties.
There are print, radio programs and syndicated TV programs for this market segment. Once you find one, they can probably guide you to others. For example, New York's WLIB-AM offers some Caribbean programming.
MultiCultural Target Source produces a directory of media for many ethnic and cultural segments.
current wisconsin radio station's break down per station's format
Dear Guru, could you give an advice which media I should choose. I have one magazine with a big cover among target audience, small cost per thousant and Affinity Index 180. Another edition has twice smaller cover among target audience, twice bigger CPT, but the Affinity Index is about 500 (first one has very big total cover and another's total cover is small).
The Guru will assume your term "affinity index" is a measure of past purchase or usage behavior. Use the affinity index to adjust (weight) coverage and efficiency and then see which is better. That is treat the index as an indicator of selling opportunities. If the first magazine has 1000 target members, then the 180 index indicates 1800 selling opportunities. If the second magazine has 500 target members, the 500 index means 2500 selling opportunities.
Is your budget so limited that you can only use one insertion in one magazine?
Dear Guru, I am an Advertising student at the Univesity of Akron and I doing a promotional campaigns
project. What I am doing now is trying to develop a mock budget based on reach and frequency. Do you know where I can
get information on how much Advertising through different media (tv, radio, newspaper, magazines)costs per contact? Or even on average? I can't start
any research without information on cost of advertising. Could you please help me?
Visit AMIC's Ad Data area
what is the best media to reach college students?
I really need to know what websites are frequented the
most by 18-24 year olds. What source is best to find this?
How do I find information about media habits of 18-24
year olds? What are the major media types they are in
contact with, what are the specific media vehicles
they prefer? Also I need information as to how much
an ad in those media vehicles costs. Thanks.
Are there any websites relating to daily ratings in the Milwaukee Area?
if I looked at information on "unmentionalbes" in Marketing (such as feminie hygiene products, condoms, etc.) and
the history of "difficult" products in Marketing where would I have to look?
1.If you had to look at Marketing of Unmentionables what would your first thought be?
2. Do you think that feminie hygiene products and contraceptives should be advertised? If yes, how?
3. Is there still Unmentionables out there in the Marketing world? If yes, what is it and why?
4. What does it take to become a Guru?
1) First thought: These days, nothing is "unmentionable."
2) Everything that may legitimately be sold should be allowed to advertise. In a society where public mention of "unmentionable" items will lead more to ill will than to sales advertising might not be the wisest marketing tool to use.
3) The Guru does not think there is anything legal that is unmentionable in general. Some things are unmentionable in certain contexts or in certain media vehicles.
4) Becoming a Media Guru takes a lot of experience, good retention and the ability to express what has been experienced and retained. The core capability is knowing how and where to get the information one doesn't already possess.
I have two questions:
1. Can you tell me if there are any resources available that would provide county coverage for radio stations?
2. I am trying to find information on Hispanic Television audiences. Do the same principals apply as in the general market for daypart selections, i.e does daytime skew female?
Thank you for your help!
Arbitron provides radio county coverage.
Other than the similarly female skew of daytime, Spanish TV exhibits many differences. There is more family viewing and the nightime novelas (sort of a cross between soaps and minseries) get giant audiences; 20+ rating, 5 nights a week is typical for the top one. Nielsen has a national Hispanic TV service, NHTI, which is analogous to NTI, and NHSI for Hispanic spot in 16 markets which account for about 70% of the Hispanic U.S.
We are looking at buying Summer Olympic television packages in several non-metered markets. How do you suggest we project ratings and how can we post it after it is over.
A) Your investment may be enough to jusitfy commissioning ad hoc research.
B) You might use the index of the national weekly numbers and apply it to the two surrounding books in your local markets. Past history across the same time of year to project and for the actual times to post.
You recently gave me a current average click-through rate of 0.5-1.0. For my client's sake, who publishes such information or who can I site as a source for this? Thanks for the help!
I am an "old" media publisher, completely lost by the jargon the bright young things use when discussing new media!
I am up to speed with some of the broader issues but there seems to be a lot of contradiction and cross use of terms. Besides your own glossary, are there other sources of terms and references within new media?
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment) is a good reference.
Dear Media Guru,
I am currently a Media Strategist at a large agency in London but would like to re-locate to the US (New York in particular). Where can I find out about A) some basic information on the structure of the media business in the US B) A directory of media/ad agencies in the US and C)Information on recruitment consultants operating in this area.
A) Find someone who knows someone working in the business in the U.S. Experience trumps anything published and you would need to read U.S. ad trades for months to get a real feel for the business. But you can try Ad Age or MediaWeek.
B) Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) for media and The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook') for agencies
C) See the Sunday NY Times and find recruiters' advertising in the classified employment pages under "advertising."
Is it possible to ignore ROI data and still come up with a numerical range that would constitute a successful click-through rate at the end of an online campaign? If so, what is that numerical benchmark?!?! Please help.
One can always define success as one wishes. Branding or imagery goals do not rely on ROI, for example. To take a total abstraction of click-through and call it successful with no relationship to ROI or established branding / awareness goals makes no sense to the Guru. At best you might compare your click-through to current average rates which are about 0.5 to 1.0%.
How do you feel branding issues will be answered in on-line media. Currently it is mainly response driven advertising. What are likely to be the best ways to improve the brand's images rather than just driving traffic to a site? Also is there any research on the effectiveness of brand driven web advertising campaigns?
Branding can be influenced by media as well as message. True, banners don't do much by themselves to convey a branding message, but one test done by AOL and posted in their media kit area shows some results of awareness generated by banners.
A banner must capture attention to be effective in direct response or in branding. Using an interstitial, which is in effect, a full page ad, as the banner's click target, instead of a normal web site can allow a full branding message to be communicated.
The Guru does have his doubts about the potential click rate of a banner which says "Click here to see our ad," but finding sufficiently interesting ways to say it is what creativity is all about.
I'm preparing a media plan for a new corporate image of a finacial institution. I need some creative media buy ideas that could be applicable on TV & Press.
The Guru would need to know what are the image elements to be communicated, in order to help. Creativity in this case would mean using media or media positions which inherently underscore the image you are trying to convey.
I am a student of Communication Science Faculty,
Bandung, Indonesia. Now I am doing my Project about
" WEB AS ADVERTISING MEDIA FOR Small Entreupreners".
On my project, I write about :
1. web as interactif media, analize aplication system
that used on the web.
I devided the interactivity on the web bye users
on two :
a. interactivity with web site, such as search
fasility, form online,etc.
b. interactivity with other users, such as
mailing list, IRC, provide e-mail, etc
2. Ability of web gets global market,
3. Culture on the web,
I believe that the Net has a unique culture. The
users have their own language,
custom, netiqiutte, and comunity ties.
If you don't mind, i want to know your opinion about
what I told. And I hope
you give me more explanation about that.
1) Yes, the web is interactive, that is it's greatest distinction from other media.
2) Yes, the web is inherently global, but language still separates many sites from many uses. See Global Reach.
3) The Guru does not think there is really a net culture. There is a fanatical core of webheads, perhaps with there own jargon. Customs and netiquette vary from group to group, more people not observing them than observing.
Is there an average readers per copy number that can be used to figure out total readers for trade publications?
When the question is this broad, no. There will be great diiferences between publications which are dominnant in their field versus the 'also-rans.' There will be great difference between free or controlled circulation books and ordinary paid circulation titles.
Best procedure is to identify some books with known RPCs and which seem to be in the same situation as the ones you are analyzing. Average those to estimate the RPCs you need.
Where can I obtain information on Canadian TV and radio ratings and readership figures for Canadian newspapers? Thank you very much
Dear Guru , i' m interesting in any information about advertising on-line agricultural products.Please recomend me any relative site,book or article.
I thank you in advance.
Go to a search engine such as Yahoo. Use "agriculture" as your search term. Visit the sites listed and see who accepts advertising.
Does position of the ad make a difference to the
impact of the ad ? An ad in the Front Page of a
newspaper one could safely assume has a higher
impact, but what about Page X v/s Page y or a
Right Hand Page v/s a Left Hand Page? Do you
know of any study on this topic ?
Thanks & Regards
The theories prefer forward pages to rea pages and right han over left. Specific cases relating to specific editorial content may override the generalities.
Starch is the best known source of this kind of research.
what is religious advertising?
Advertising of religious products, like Bibles, religious texts or Church doctrines and services.
Over the years I have seen various TV test market translation procedures such as Little US, As It Falls, and a P&G variant (if I remember correctly) called "Correct Increment". Where do test market translations stand in today's much faster reactive pace? what if anything is still utilized?
As-It-Falls and Little U.S. are still in use. The Guru is not aware of how P&G may have revised "correct increment."
All of these however, are just ways to determine what weight should run in test markets to represent a given national theoretical plan.
Today's changes affect other elements of testing, like using cable systems as test laboratories rather than entire DMA markets, or reading scanner based results rather than full-scale survey research.
How do I target regionally on the Internet?
All web sites are normally available to all internet users. Web server software however, can detect the location a user is visiting from, and can serve different ads to people in different locations, or serve ads only to people located where you want them.
The biggest problem in this is that all AOL users, a major portion of web users, appear to be located in Vienna, Virginia. Something comparable applies to other national ISPs' users, such as Compuserv, MSN, and Prodigy.
Dear Media Guru: I am currently in a project for school where we have to develop a new product and create an advertising plan for it. Our product is a sweat-free golf glove. We are trying to find advertising rates for network television and especially during golf tournaments and other sporting events. Any advice or help you can offer in helping us find these rates would be greatly appreciated.
Best bet is SQAD
I represent an association's publication that is interested in soliciting consumer advertising. The publication is in the medical field. What challenges do we face?
1. Identify advertisers who want to communicate with a medical audience.
2. Make your pricing competitive. Justify any premium based on your audience value.
i am a media sales manager of a Pan Arab magazines .
Most of my clients are asking me of different ways of advertising in my publications i.e different than a gatefold cover or an island ad. or even a strip of 5cm etc. i need more ideas and opperations to suttisfy my client's needs. thanks and waiting for your your quick respose.
Variations in size and position are infinite. Other ideas are inserts, ads on mailing wrappers, bound-in samples, etc.
Of these three categories (Computer Related, Non-Computer Related and Run of Network) what percentage of ads fall into these categories?
There seem to be missing factors in your question. How does "run of network," a scheduling or placement concept, get compared to two product categories. Are you referring to all advertising or on-line only?
Once you clarify these elements,
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) is probably the best source to determine the answer.
Regarding November Sweeps and the success of ABC's Millionaire (stunt) programming. I am from a market that is not metered.
How would you handle the dilemma of posting against Millionaire TP's --- seeing that it is running every night.
Dump Millionaire ratings and look at weekly NTI numbers in relation to local numbers from Feb '99 and May '99 NSI numbers?
Your help is much appreciated.
he Guru would use the two bracketing local rating periods which lacked the stunt programming.
Using national weekly changes as a check is a good idea, if your market seems to respond with a consitant relationship to national at other times.
hi media guru
please guide me : how can i know how much frequency, reach,
and grp is needed for an old brand which first advertise
on t.v? ( the target audience: main shoper with young
children - 4-8 years old) thank you
This is a judgment call. The Ostrow model can help guide setting of effective frequency goals.
Reach then becomes what you can afford or what you need in terms of numbers of sales to become successful judged against anticipated consumer response as a percentage of target consumers reached effectively.
Further, one must keep in mind, since you are writing from outside the U.S., that cultural situations and media environments have a big impact on the matter.
What is the current average cost per thousand that advertisters are paying for national network radio or nationally syndicated radio buys?
Questions like this need to be much more specific to get useful answers.
For example, this week, the Guru has seen such buys delivering in the $1.40 to $2.10 CPM range for Adults 18+, using some very, very specifically targeted networks and syndicated national radio media on a short schedule with short lead times. Other demographics, other sizes of buys, other timings and other programming types may vary greatly.
guru-what are the major benefits to advertising online versus other forms of media?(tv,print, ect.)thank you guru
The biggest advantage, if that's your target, is the high composition of computer users.
Another is the potential for instant, interactive response.
Another is the possibility of segmenting the audience with almost infintite specificity, by virtue of selecting pages by topic or placement based on keywords.
Internet advertising also conveys something of an up-to-date, with-it image, if that is an issue for an advertiser.
More quantitative advantages, based on efficiency or reach must be compared on a case by case basis. Sometimes on-line has an advantage, other times not. One should never lose sight of the fact that only about half of the population uses the net today.
please let me know the following.
1.Leading news papers in France.
2.Leading business magazine/computer magazines in france.
3.Leading travel magazines in france.
Please also let me know if any company round the world interested to advertise in Indian media
Regarding France, see International Media Guide
Regarding Indian media, look at who is currently advertisng in Indian media.
I have heard that banner advertising on-line is a waste of money. Do you know if there are any facts supporting the ineffectiveness of banner advertising?
Effectiveness depends upon expectations. If your goals depend on consumer action, i.e. click-thru, you have to determine whether the expected 0.5% click rate will be enough. If you pay a $25 impressions cpm, you might be paying $5 per click. If 10% of those who click will buy, then you need to net over $50 per sale to call the advertising "effective."
If you intend to use banners for branding, you need to compare awareness results with other media. Some research has been done by DoubleClick and The Internet Advertising Bureau to demonstrate branding effectiveness.
Where can the amount of radio listeners in major cities be found?
Our client is asking us why we use reach & frequency to analyze the effectiveness of our media plans. We are not aware of any other tools/methods that have been developed. Can you give us some pointers on how best to answer this question? Thanks in advance!
Reach and frequency are used to help predict the effect of plans and, more appropriately, to compare the available alternate plans, when communications power is the issue.
Media plans are actually advertising communications plans: "how many people of the targeted demographic receive the message and how often?" is the most basic quantification of the expected acheivements of the plan. In the process of selecting targets amd media, other issues of prospect quality and ad impact are addressed, but the final wieghts and measures are reach, frequency, and their product, gross impressions.
During and after execution, of course, sales and awareness measures are more direct evaluative tools.
Where can i find information on TV advertising prices?
National media costs
AMIC's Ad Data area
Guru, thanks for your answer, a good on-line sales rep sounds the way forward, any hints as to where they hang out? and what do I ask them to make myself sound knowlegeable about what they do? Have you any rough idea of what they charge and how they will generate income. I am a beginner at this . Andrew
The Guru believes it is smarter to admit what you don't know rather than "trying to sound knowledgeable" and missing out on gaining information.
You need to know what the rep's commission structure is (15-20% for a sizeable site is reasonable). They should tell you how they will present your site. Reps who will only sell your site in a package of commodity impressions at a high (more than 50%) commission are to be avoided. Unless your site can offer over 1,000,000 impressions per month, your options will be limited.
what advertising agents do,how they do it,modes of renumeration and types of advertising agencies
Most basically, advertising agencies create and place advertising in the media. Agencies also participate in and herlp guide marketing planning. The services are traditionally compensated by 15% commission on gross media bought and 17.65% on net production or other out of pocket expenditures - 15% of gross and 17.65% of net are actually identical proportions.
Some agencies specialize in product categories and others may specialize in specific consumer categories, like medical professionals. Other specialize in media like on-line.
Compensation deals are most likley to vary from the 15% formula for very large or very small accounts.
What are advertising expenditures for e-commerce companies expected to be in the fourth quarter?
"dot-coms" as a whole will probably invest over a quarter-billion dollars in fourth quarter. The Guru hasn't seen a breakout for ecommerce sites alone, but they will probably be a big share in fourth quarter.
Try The Industry Standard for more information.
JI is added to the name to give respect in India.
There are advertisers around USA,CANADA,Europe etc who want
to advertise in the INDIAN PRESS.We want to help those companies who
are interested to advertise in India.We will take care of the placing
of the advertisements sending of voucher copies etc.Please let us know how to go about on this.
Regards,Bharth R Curam - Chief Executive Media Matrix,.
With the plethora of media research companies today, I am having difficulty determining which research to utilize for different needs, based on the fundamental nature of the company's research. For example, are Claritas and Scarborough merely competitors or is there a basic difference between them which would determine which research I would use for a particular situation? Similarly, Simmons vs. MRI? Thanks
Claritas and Scarborough are both units of VNU. The former is best known as a source of market segmentation data with emphasis on geography, and is perhaps best known for their zip code-based PRIZM system. The latter is a media audience and product usage syndicated survey service, reporting market-by-market. Claritas could tell you where to find pockets of the best prospects for the most state of the art PC systems. Scarborough could help you define your target and choose your radio stations to sell those PC's in the San Franciso DMA.
Simmons and MRI, as they are best known are more directly competitive in providing media and product usage data on a national and top-few-DMA basis with very large samples. There are many technical differences in their methodologies, but few in the kinds of data they provide.
Mr Media Guru
I read here in England an article debating the ethics/legality of the use of "health bulletins" in order to encourage patients to ask their doctors to prescribe cetrain drugs. I am now lost as to where I read it, do you have any information on where I can source this material out?
The Guru would try Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.adn ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization.
Details of Ostrow's effective frequency model
The Ostrow model aims at establishing the minimum level of frequency to be deemed effective so that the plan can maximize reach at that level of frequency. The model can be traced back to his speech, "Effective Frequency" at an Advertising Research Foundation Key Issues Workshop, June 4, 1982.
Typically, the model involves evaluating a series of relevant factors on a scale of say, 2 to 6, and averaging the factors to determine the appropriate level of frequency to set as effective.
In the 1982 speech the factors discussed were of three kinds: marketing, message / creative and media.
Message / Creative
For the full speech, the transcript proceedings of the workshop are available from the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Dear mr Guru, I work for a newspaper. I'm looking for information about the link between the size (mm/col) of an advertisement in a newspaper (e.g. 1 full page) and the effectiveness (impact, attention, perception, etc) of that ad. Can you help me getting that type of information?
Oh Great and Mystical Guru, guide me on my quest. I need to discuss the pros and cons of a large advertising agency versus a small boutique. Where can I turn?
Not truly a media question, but the Guru would expect this information to be available throught the American Association of Advertising Agencies.
Where can I find a calendar with political windows for the year 2000?
These are available from major media representatives, such as Katz.
I have just been given the task of working out how best to sell advertising space on our clients web sites. The clients have clear well defined up market products but I know little about advertising and I need to know the simple route to selling this space without cocking up. Is there a list of reputable advertising agencies specialising in the internet?
we want to represent publications from Malaysia/Taiwan/Sri lanka.The biggest problem is that when we send the material and payment we will not know the fate of the adfvt.Please give us some contacts in these countries.Secondly we also would like to help companies aroind the globe who want to advertise in Indian publications.We can take care of their intertest and can give immaculate service.How to inform this to the advertisigng communities across the continents.Please advice.
To be quite frank, the Guru wonders how you can assume you can give excellent service if you don't know how to get proof of advertising or how to advertise your own services.
The standard proof of print advertising which the Guru expects is at minimum a "tear sheet," that is, a copy of the ad as published in the publication; at best; a full copy of that day's publication.
See the International Media Guide about advertising outlets around the world. International editions of various biusienss publications might be best.
When launching a new product, brand managers usually compare the launch build (cases shipped, consumer off-take, distribution build)of the number one brand in the category. Were can I get comparative information on the launches of web sites (visits, hits by day and mth, etc.)?
Unfortunately, this level of detail is only captured by the syndicated sources like MediaMetrix and Nielsen//Netratings once a site is successful enough to appear on their "radar." Information about a site's early days will only be in the proprietary server log information, unless the site is so unique, like Amazon or CD Now to have been the subject of trade articles.
Dear Media Guru could you tell something about differences between Target Group and Target Audience.
Could you mention articles or books where this question is discussed. Thanks.
It isn't clear exactly what you mean. When the Guru hears, "target group" he first thinks of the demographic segment to which marketing efforts will be directed.
"Target audience" can be simply the media aspect of this marketing designation, or an analytical result of evaluating ad vehicles or schedules or media plans. This appears to be more a semantic than media or marketing issue.
Media planning texts, such as those found in the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com) would probably be helpful.
What are the current researches going on around the world in the area of 'Zapping during commercial breaks'?
The Guru believes zapping research has become passé. It was heavily covered 15-20 years ago when VCRs became a significant presence.
Automatic zapping devices came and went quickly back then. Interestingly, the latest VCRs, a couple of which were just acquired by the Guru, have automated zipping as a built-in feature, but zipping - fast forwarding through recorded commmercials - is not the same as zapping - excluding commercials from recordings.
Where can I find information about Internet radio (Real Audio) listenership trends? I've tried Arbitron and other sites of this type but found nothing. Also, is there any info available about what's happening to short wave radio audiences. Thanks a lot in advance.
Internet radio audience is more likely to be captured by an interent measurer like MediaMetrix or Nielsen//Netratings than by a radio audience study. Why? The radio measurement is locally based, and has minimum reporting standards based on numbers listening locally. No one station, presumably distant from the listener's location is likely to get a reportable audience from remote internet listening. If someone listens to a local station through the internet and reports it in an Arbitron diary, there is no reason for staion listening over the 'net to be reported separately from listening over the air.
Regarding short wave, again the audience to the rare commercial short wave broadcast, presumably based somewhere outside the U.S., is likley to be too small in any one piece of geography to meet minimum reporting standards.
Can research determine which media is best to drive traffic to a local retail business? If there is a particular medium or media, what research approach can best determine which media works? Please consider that this a local business that currently advertises in radio, newspaper and billboards and is very successful at driving traffic to retai outlets that are not highly visible in their marketplace.
A specific individual business can use research to determine this.
Most simply, it is easy to include something in the advertising which makes people want to tell the business's operators where they heard of them. Or staff can be instructed to inquire where customers heard. More expensively, a commissioned study can probe awareness and shopping behavior from a random sample or a customer database sample. In any of these cases, the research must be carefullly studied and interpreted, to distinguish the results of branding efforts from promotions.
If the business has a long history of establishing its name and offerings in the community through radio and outdoor campaigns, the research might still find that "What brought the cusotmer in today" was a newspaper or Yellow Pages ad. Analysis might well show that the newspaper or Yellow Pages ad would have had little impact without the other media's branding effects.
Different businesses enjoy different effects from various media. A roadside, impulse business, like a highway restaurant chain can get immediate results from highway billboards which would have much less benefit for an in-town, white tablecloth eatery. A branding-oriented newspaper campaign for the latter would likely be more effective than one for the highway chain.
I work for a advertising agency and am trying to integrate a research department into our services. Do you know a good source that I can get information on how to start up the department from ground up?
American Association of Advertising Agencies should have materials on this.
what are response rates for surveys through the mail
It depends on many things, such as topic, length, respondent compensation, etc. For magazine audience studies, for examnple 35 - 50% is good.
Is it possible at this time to survey or purchase local or national commercial spot time via the internet? Will we always be at the mercy of what kind of day the sales manager is having at the televison station? Also will the Red book ever be available for free online?
There are some auction and broadcast sales sites, which the Guru has discussed before, but not recommended.
Click here to see past Guru responses
How can I access the red book online?
It's not on line. It sells for over $1000 per copy or CD. Why would it be online except for a high subscription price.
However, something similar to the Agency Redbook is developing at
what is the home page for the journal of advertising research?
Dear guru, I'm a student in mktg communications from India. Looking forward to work (a study, initially at small scale) for possibilty of terrestrial channels (contolled privately), focussed on rural markets.Given the technical feasibilty, with media perspective, I'm looking at the kind of change in programmimg it'll need and the prime time bands. what impact will it have on the viewership of the existing national network? what else can I look at? Can u suggest me some more things to improve on this project..??
This is a very narrow issue: what programming would appeal to rural Indian markets and what impact would there be on nation audiences.
The Guru would look for prior studies on viewing in these areas and analyze the portion of national audience coming from these areas. The Guru can't point to any specific studies on these topics in India.
Thanks Guru for answering my question regarding
any research done on qualitative viewing factors in
television. But let me modify this a little. Can you think
about any information resources that are free. The
ARF site requires you to be a member to get access
and I am just a student who I am sure cannot pay
whatever they ask. Further, I live in India and visiting
the ARF is not a realistic possibility. many thanks.
If your University has a school of advertising it ought to have some sort of research library, or possibly a mebership in Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. or ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization or a similar organization.
how matel as a toy company is been advertised.Does it fulfill the existing regulations and laws of the european Union?
The Guru does not offer legal advice.
Why is the median measure used versus a mean as an
indication of the typical age, income, etc.?
Because we look for the descriptive typical data:
Suppose there are nine Microsoft employees in a room. One is a new programmer who earns $50,000. The next seven employees each earn $10,000 more than the previous one; $60,000, $70,000, etc. and the last one is Bill Gates.
Now, the median income of these 9 Microsoft employees is $90,000.
The mean income is around $1 billion.
So which best describes the typical member of this population, the mean or the median? Bill Gates would throw off an analysis of the entire Microsft Corporation this way, maybe the whole Seattle DMA.
Similarly, a population with a lot of children and a short life expectancy would have a younger median than one with fewer children and a long life expectancy, but the mean could create a picture deceptively similar for the two groups.
Where might I find newspaper readership studies and audits?
What sources ca I use to find general information about audience delivery by daypart (both TV and Radio)?
Outdoor prices for billboard:
Size: your prices for the following sizes: from one meter to 2/3 meters
Geography: main cities for the following states:
I woul be very glad if you could send me your prices as soon as possible
(thursday at the latest)
This is not a standard outdoor size. As you must know, the U.S. uses "English", not metric measures
The smallest standard size would be about 12/3 meters by 31/3 meters.
These boards usually sell for $150-$200 per month.
I'm a media buyer that is new to buying advertising on the internet. What kind of questions should I ask or what should I know to ensure I'm getting the best deal or at the very least sound like I know what I'm talking about?
Interesting Hilary; weren't you a new internet seller just last week? The same questions listed for you in query #2923 still apply.
What is a media guru exactly?
It's a highly experienced media professional with the answers to all the questions you see here.
Media authorization form
If you mean client to agency,
in many cases, a flow chart, with an authorizing signature is used. Otherwise, the typical format includes dates and dollars by media types.
Has there been any research done on studying
qualitative viewing factors such as appointment
viewing, involvement, etc.. in television? If there has
what would be some good places to start looking for
such researches and their findings, especially on the net? Thanks.
The best collection of such research is at Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Dear Media Guru,
I am seeking information regarding message retention in
print advertising. I would like to know if there has
been any research done on the number of messages that a
print ad can contain before it loses its effectiveness.
In an other words, if a print ad is cluttered with a
number of messages, does that make any of the messages
less likely to be retained?
The Guru has not heard of that research, specifically. It seems to be one of those "it depends" kind of things: a Chevrolet ad can probably be successful talking about style plus fuel/maintentance economy plus price plus design plus dealer convenience.
An ad for something with more price-oriented purchase decisions, such as long distance companies, probably is less successful making points beyond price.
Dear Guru, do you have any resourses that would tell me the growth of internet data marketing versus off-line data marketing for the last few years? I'm interested in the sale of demographic data and trend analysis culled
from internet advertising or web surfing.
I am trying to conceptulise a framework for the following two topics
1) Media mix descision - how do u decide on a media mix ( i.e. between print v/s TV v/s radio etc.) and what effect does multi media have on a media plan
2) How does one advertise when one is managing a franchise - i.e do you advertise the mother brand or the sub brand and which benefits more?
would there be any sites/literature availble on the net where these questions may have been addresed?
Also - Love your site! i think it is a boon to the advertisng community. Thanks
I am trying to find a way to reach CEOs/Presidents and other top-level management at computer companies, such as Gateway, Dell, Compaq, and Apple. The "computer" and "business" sections of SRDS have so many listings --is there an easy way to go through anis information? Is any syndicated research available to provide direction for reaching this type of audience?
Is there a better way to narrow my focus other than SRDS? I know the standard business titles (e.g., Business Week, Fortune, Forbes) may reach this audience, but will also deliver many more who are not in my audience. Your help is greatly appreciated!
The major business books may have demographic editions for the computer andinformation industries.
The computer books may have demographic editions for CEOs etc.
Either one or other sources might sell a mailing list of computer industry yop executives.
I'm hoping develop a reach curve for a client to shhow how audience accumuluates with increased dollar spending in the market. I have a table that shows % reached by GRPs per 4 weeks and wondered where I could get published tables and surveys realting to increased share of voice in realtion to share of market spending. Is there are projection formula that could be used?
Share of voice usually means share of GRPs. Developing a Cost Per GRP index would give you a simple conversion. The shortcoming of share of voice is that it ignores impact differences between various media and copy units, unless comlex formulae to equate GRPs are created.
Hello Media Guru, I was wondering if you think that
the possible ban on advertising to children throughtout
Europe will result in an increase in Interactive P.O.P,
Press Ads and internet advertising, and if so how could
i find out how european companies especially in U.K.
are preparing. Thank-You.
Of course a ban on advertising in some media will cause the advertising to move to other media. Just look at the changes in U.S. out-of-home and print tobacco advertisng when broadcast advertisng was banned in the 70's.
No doubt the European ad trade press, like the U.K.'s Campaign, will have covered an issue of this sort.
Where would I find information on what magazines spend on advertising to attract new readers and to encourage advertisers to place ads in their publications? Thanks
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) will report the consumer effort. Their Rome Report covers the trade end.
How can i get more information about web media planning?
Also send inquiries to The Internet Advertising Bureau and C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Hi Media Guru,
I’ve been asked to see if any research exists, either quantitative or qualitative that addresses the following issues for newspaper advertising:
1)Effectiveness of mono advertising vs spot vs full colour
2)Left hand vs right hand page advertising
If it exists, The Newspaper Advertising Association will have it.
I have been asked the following question: "Are there any impact/awareness studies or information that you have that measure the impact of spreads versus single page creative units?
Starch is best known for these studies.
I have a client that is a local car dealer and wanted to ask you about branding. What, if any in particular, media are most appropriate for branding purposes? I believe in the recency strategy for media placement and wonder how this philosophy would relate to branding as well?
The Guru believes that
Recency is specifically oriented to short term response; delivering "the message closest to the purchase decision." Continuity will also support branding, but can be looked at over a longer span.
Do you know where I could find information on attentiveness? In particular, I'm interested in attentiveness to sports programming as well as advertising attentiveness during sports programming. I have reviewed the Quad study and the recent analysis by Western media on attentiveness, but none seem to address sports programming. Any thoughts? Thank you.
Sports syndicators and network sports departments are likley to have any published research.
Always the best source is Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I'm trying to plan an online media buy for branding purposes and having a hard time devising a formula for adequate impressions levels. I think % reach is a better way to go, but what's the optimal % reach for online branding on a website (high enough frequency without waste)? Thanks!
It is very early in the scheme of internet reach models to imagine that there are standardized formulas.
You are correct to think that "branding," which means different things to different people, but seems to be about awareness in most definitions, depends upon reach.
But reach in relation to internet impressions is a curious thing. As in all media, it depends upon duplication between one day's visitors and the next plus duplication between one site's visitors and another site's.
When reach formulas are created, they begin from examination of the actual reach and frequency in real advertisers' schedules.
In this connection, it is instructive to visit the "Top 10 Advertisers of the Month" page at Nielsen//Netratings, a web audience research firm. In the month of September, 1999, the #1 advertiser, in terms of impressions, was TRUSTe, with 945 million immpressions and 25% reach among persons with internet access. But Amazon.com, the advertiser with the highest
reach, at 44%, had less than one-third as many impressions, 273 million. Other advertisers with as few as 103 million impressions surpassed TRUSTe's reach.
The bottom line is that
I am basing a media plan on the recency theory and wanted to know how to calculate cost per reach and/or cost per reach point for my broadcast buys?
The Guru has discussed this previously.
Click here to see past Guru responses
Hi Guru. We are about to launch an innovative new
e-intelligence service that provides timely, ongoing,
personalized information to users in a number of
categories. We will have a high level of returning users to our site for ongoing info & very high profiling due to user activity in each category. We would like to go with a sponsorship model whereby we offer advertisers categories and/or subcategories to offer a consistent brand message targeted to users. Are there any standards for online sponsorships developing, particularly for categories? Any suggestions how a site like ours can obtain advertising commitments prior to launch & large registered user base? Thanks in advance.
An advertiser or sponsor needs an audience. Perhaps by comparison to other similar sites you can credibly project an audience. A sponsor buying in on-the-come might be persuaded by a guarantee of traffic against a refund or free advertising.
Secondarily, you can model the audience quality, again with a guarantee.
It seems as if you are going to have a paid admissions site. These are not known for large registered user bases unless connected to established data sources, like the Walll Sttreet Journal, etc.
I just graduated from college and landed a job in internet sales(which wasn't heavely focused on.) Is there any information that can lead me step by step through the sales process, it's a bit overwhelming.
The Guru deals with media research, buying and planning, and not specifically with sales. There are media sales seminars available.
The Guru would expect any organization hiring sales staff straight out of school to provide some in-house training.
Please share your thoughts on the value of paid vs.
controlled circulation of consumer magazines. Thanks
Controlled circulation is not common among consumer magazines. It is likely to be something like pre / post natal publications, requested for a limited period.
The Guru thinks its is important to distinguish true controlled circulation magazines, meaning those received through active request, from those received incidental to a menbership, such as Modern Maturity from AARP, or Costco Magazine.
The supposed benefit of paid circulation is the presumption of interest on the part of the reader who spends money on the magazine. Yet, most magazine comparisons are based on total audience, not primary (subscriber/purchaser) audience. If a paid circulation magazine has 4 readers per copy, should we consider the 3 in addition to the purchaser more valuable than the "primary" reader of a controlled circulation magazine?
Bottom line, this issue could be a tie-breaker between otherwise comparable titles, but isn't important enough to make broad strokes eliminations.
I am new to online sales but realize it's much different from regular media sales. I've been trying to find information on the types of questions I might be asked, etc. but am not having much luck- can you help?
Most of the reasonable questions are parallel to traditional media sales questions:
Other questions will be unique, whether because of the nature of the medium or because the buyers are new to this as well:
How do we compare national TV-sponsorship in terms of cpm, with traditional spot buying?
In order to do this we need to evaluate the lenght, creative factor and the added value of presenting the program. I have used formulas including these factors using indeces. Is this the "right" way of doing it? Do you have these formulas, indeces?
Most of the comparison should be purely and simply cost-based.
Length and creative would not be a part of the difference between national and spot. The same commercial can run in either environment.
If you literally mean national sponsorship, that is with Opening and/or Closing billboards, this can be quantified by added length. As for formulas and indices, if you get ten "free" seconds of airtime, it is worth one-third of what you paid for a thirty. Any other element of national vs local is purely a matter of price and geography. Allowing a value for "in-program" positions versus in-break would be a judgement call and not worth much, in the Guru's opinion.
Hello Guru, where can I do competitive research on advertising spending?
The most popular is
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
Hi Guru! I'm trying to calculate magazine CPMs. Should I use the ABC Audited numbers, or the total audience numbers (some magazines have high "hand-off" rates)?
Consumer magazine CPMs are ususally compared based on total audience. High pass-along readership is good up to a point. You're most likley trying to reach
people not necessarily owners of copies of magazines.
What are the top 50 Internet companies that are spending $ in print advertising? TV advertising is on the rise, note the dot.com's advertising during the World Series. Are we going to see an increase in other mediums such as print? Or is print too much of a targeted buy?
The Nov 1, 1999 issue of Advertising Age included a special supplement on internet companies' advertsing spending, detailing a half-billion dollars worth in the first half of 1999, which was nearly one-third print.
The air seems full of dot-com advertising and there is some print. Logically, there is more reason to find more targeted sites in targeted print, but the Guru is seeing several, full-page dot-com ads in his daily paper every day.
Sites aimed at parents of young children, housewives, attorneys, etc will find print more efficient, while big-traffic sites can do well in the World Series. The Guru believes that today, radio is the medium feeling the most inventory pressure due to dot-com advertising.
How is the CPM rate calculated by the web publishers?. what are the criteria adapted by them to arrive on their CPM rate?(say $30 or $40 for every 1000 impression).
The CPM = Ad Cost ÷ Ad impressions. Many sites quote ad rates in terms of CPM. That is you can order the number of impression you want your banner to receive, and get exactly that number priced at "x" CPM.
Several issues are taken into consideration in setting CPM prices:
How to write a presentation recomending strategies?
Use bullet points and follow the outline in the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan.
what are the average agency commisions?
15% is "standard." Deals which differ are unknown by volume, but are for less than 15%. Fee deals for small accounts are often higher than 15% equivalent.
What is the difference between national spot television
and local television?
"Spot Television" is local television. "National Spot TV" can mean either of
-The source of business to the staion may be local, in the station's own market or it may come through their national representative from an agency or advertiser in a remote market.
-"National spot TV" may also refer to a planning technique of placing spot TV in virtually all markets. At times this may be more efficient than certain network buys or be necessitated because of copy or marketing variations between markets.
Dear media Guru,
Please let me know which are the two leading
magazines for teenagers in the U.S.A and
the two leading magazines for teenagers in England.
In the U.S it would be Seventeen and YM. For the UK, you can consult International Media Guide
please provide advertising expenditure in the uk
Trade publications like Campaign might have this data.
Doing a BDI/CDI on an entire population makes sense since in some cases it could point you towards a group of the population whi is not your target audience but is purchasing your product in large volumes.This could be true of categories like FMCG's. In the case of categories like white goods especially at the premium end - like premium end cars - wouldn't the given target audience be filtered out by set of demographics and psychographics and therefore a BDI/CDI done in that case should be on the target audience rather than total population. Can I have your views on this issue ?
As the Guru uses the terms and techniques, BDI/CDI are meant to evaluate and prioritize geographic markets.
Whether the demographic target has been correctly identified or not, using total market populations will work to evaluate geographic markets.
Premium goods or package goods equally have their specific targets. While narrower population groups may account for more of premium goods sales, nevertheless accounting for all sales has its benefits.
Respectable guru, I am writing from a country where
outdoor is still sold by number of sites. What would
be the pro's and con's for a 14 day campaign with 200
sites against a 30 day campaign with 100 sites (in the
same area for the same cost)? What would be the
relation between reach and frequency in both cases?
Are you aware of any web sites with research on this
topic? Thank you for your answers.
The Guru imagaines that in your situation, the daily effective circulation (DEC) of the sites is not known. This data is the basis for GRP based out-of-home buys in the U.S.
If we assume that the average DEC is equal for all 200 sites and the 100 sites, and that the 100 are evenly dispersed among the potential 200 locations the Guru would opt for the longer schedule. The net reach over each schedule should be similar and the longer presence should produce more sales.
advertising agencies general billing prices
The "standard" agency price is 15% of gross exenditure or 17.65% mark-up on net expenditures, but many agencies and many advertisers have made deals on different bases.
Are CPMs higher on sites that have high frequency of use (ex. email sites)?
There is no reason they should be. On the one hand, traffic is traffic. On the other, reach is often valued above frequency.
where are the best advertising scools?
I wanted to release a full page ad of my client in the following publications and needed the circulation and rates alongwith the break ups of:
Wall Street Journal ( American & European)
Australian Finanacial Review
Sydney Morning Herald
Also I needed to know the representatives of them if any in INDIA. Please co-operate.
My e-mail address is firstname.lastname@example.org
what are the advertisement options available in the net other than the banner?. what are the types of banners carried on the net?. what is called "interstitials"?.what distinguishes interstitials from ordinary banner?.
Banners come in a large variety of sizes and shapes. The C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment) has a display of various standard banner sizes.
The options are as many as advertiser and web publisher's imaginations allow. Physically almost everything begins with some form of banner or "pop-up" which is a text message keyed to appear in response to user interaction such as entering search terms.
Interstitial is a term whose meanning has changed over the past few years. Literally, "interstitial" means something in the space between two other things. Originally, an interstitial was a web ad, often full-screen which was the target of a banner click, when the advertiser wanted a better selling opportunity than just bringing the user to the advertisers' site. Today, interstitials are generally multimedia units.
I would like to know what are the figures for online promotions for business to business e-commerce.
What are some of the best software programs for getting national cable reach/frequencies (e.g. I know of IMS and Telmar, any others?) Which would you recommend?
Obviously the Guru feels that Telmar is the best source. AMIC is a member of the Telmar Group of Companies which provides support for the Guru!
Do you have any research that reports effectiveness of transit advertising?
Dear Guru,I want to know why ad agencies work with standards like a 15 % commission. Why are these norms like - commission on gross or net amount followed as a standard? When are the commissions charged on gross amount and when on the net amount? For ex. why only 15 % but not any other figure. Similar norms are followed when charging for media space/ time bought by a client. I have read your answers on the concept of 3 + frequency for ads. Could you please provide similar information for the aforementioned norms and the various norms/ standards followed during billing by ad as well as media buying houses and Agencies of Records. I would also be obliged if you could direct me to any site which provides this information.( The commission rates which I have mentioned are followed in India. Are they the same worldwide?) Thanking you in advance.
15% of the gross media cost has been the standard for so many years that no one questions the rationale any longer, though many big budget advertisers negotiate other deals, and many small budget advertisers must pay a different fee. When commission is based on net, 17.65% is used to get the same proportions.
Not all media have always used 15%. It used to be common for outdoor to base prices in 16.67% of gross, on the theory that more work was required of the agency for "riding the boards." Some media only publish net rates which agencies must mark up. These media are typically smaller locally oriented ones useed to selling direct to advertisers. Internet web sites often quote net rates as well.
On other items and services which agencies purchase for clients, such as production the 17.65% of net is commonly used.
how do independent buying houses opearate
and what are the advantages/ disadvantages
of using one?
These buyers usually charge 5% commission or less for media placement and also offer planning and media research services.
Many also buy "on the spread" meaning they earn all or a portion of the money they save compared to the client's buying benchmarks.
Their presumed advantage is that they negotiate better rates. This is credible, since this is often the only selling point. A buy "on the spread" demonstrates the reality of this advantage. Planning may or may not be superior. The key disadvantage, for an agency, is the cost. If the expense is less than maintaining a full scale buying capability, and the agency doesn't feel a need to have staff buyers for the sake of image, then there's an advantage.
Since I work at a local TV
station myself, I find it increasingly difficult for us to live through
this tough competition with the cable televsion network. Moreover, we are
losing our advertising clients. Could you give me any suggestion or
solution preventing this type of loss? Or could you just show me some
examples, say, how did you do in the USA? Or may you recommend some useful
I appreciate your consideration.Thank you.
Not knowing your country nor marketplace conditions it is difficult to do anyhting more than tell you about the U.S.
Here, there are over 200 "local" markets, and cable networks are national media. The out-of-pocket cost od a spot on a good cable network is likely to be much more than the cost of a local station's announcment in most of those markets. Local stations usually have much higher audience ratings in their coverage areas than cable networks do. When cable is sold on a local basis, it tends to be less efficient than local station broadcast time.
If you don't have any of these advantages compared to cable, then the U.S. situation won't be a useful comparison.
I am attempting to do a publicty report for the coverage (unpaid) our organization receives on a quarterly basis. I have been calculating the advertising value of publicity, based on what each medium would typically charge for that size ad. However, I am looking for a formula to calculate the publicity value of such coverage. I understand that the National PRSA has come up with a formula to calculate this (something like X 3 for television and X 6 for print), but I haven't been able to substantiate this. Can you help?
The Guru doesn't deal with publicity, but if PRSA has a standard, the advantage is that it is a standard.
Dear Media Guru,
I am looking for a source for companies that do media bartering. About 8-10 years ago, we used a company in New York for a client to barter their ad space, primarily in broadcast. Is this still done? And where would I find information on it? Thanks.
One of these companies is Active International
Dear Media Guru:
I need to measure the penetration of different media
but I need to know how, for example I know TV should be
the people that have a TV set, and I suppose is the for radio and Internet. But what about cinema? newspapers, magazines, outdoor, billboard?
Penetration can have different definitions. In TV it is usually the % of poeple in Households with TVs. In other media, like radio, magazines and cinema, what seems to make sense is the count of people who actually use ( 'are exposed to' ) the medium over a given period such as one week, or 30 days.
Internet penetration is sometimes based on used the medium and sometimes based on possessing the capabilit, i.e. having access to a computer with modem and internet account.
Thanks for your service. which is called "Rich media banner"?. Are sites carrying such banners?. what is the term "multiple cross links" refered to in web terminology?. Is it a sort of advertisement option on the net?.
"Rich media" generally means that there is more than just a static or simple animated gif banner. There may be interactivity or sound or full motion animation created by a technology like shockwave, etc.
These are more often larger formats used as "interstitials" than banners, but yes, they are in use.
"Cross link" usually means 'I link to your site and you link to mine'. It's an exchamnge of advertising, so to speak.
Dear Guru, Is there a source that will provide ad-to-edit ratios for trade magazines, specifically those in the "computer" category?
The Guru doesn't believe there is a published source for this information in trade publications.
What is the appropriate time that a broadcast or cable schedule should air to be effective?
There is no set rule. First you have to determine how you will define "effective." If you are selling a parity package goods product with a frequent purchase cycle, you may need to be on the air continuously to maintain market position. If you are promoting a retail or entertainment event, anything more than two weeks prior to the target date might be wasted.
I need information on time spent with each media type including the internet for adults and women 25+. Also, I am interested in the trends for the past five years. Thank you.
Dear Media Guru, I think that my question may have stumped you since I have not seen a reply yet. Over a week ago I sent a question regarding the dot com industry.
I will repeat the question, maybe you never received it or maybe I am being too impatient.
National advertising has seen an explosion of business in 1999 due to dot com companies. What do you forsee in 2000 and beyond? Do you predict that this trend will continue?
Any sources you can direct me to regarding this matter would be extremely helpful. Thank you.
The Guru has never been stumped, although some questions do make him think harder than others. Your query (#2868) was answered days ago, on Sunday October 17.
Dear Guru, What is your best estimate for advertising rate inflation for Internet or web site advertising, for the year 2000?
There is small basis for projecting, but there might be something at The Industry Standard
Do you measure a print ad in picas the same way as you measure an ad in column inches? Thanks for your help!
Picas are a width measurement. Columns may be specified as "X picas wide." Column inches relate to depth: whatever the defined column width, a column inch is one inch of depth of that column. So a 40 column inch ad might be 10 inches deep across four columns, but the pica width is unknown unless you know column definitions.
I would like to place Banner ads that are connected to a specific word such as "Snowboards". Can you tell me who offers this type of banner advertising or where I can look? Thanks for your help.
Keyword banners are a function of search engines or portals. Try Yahoo, Excite, Lycos, Go, Hotbot etc, etc, etc.
I’m trying to put together a print ”insert” plan for
a magazine and I have a little problem with calculating the duplication for the plan. The magzine circulation is 100.000 ex, target audience reach 40%
(1 insert), target selectivity/profile 80%. By adding a second ”round” of inserts in the same magazine the total reach ad up to 48% (same selectivity). How do I calculate the no ”extra” inserts distributed by the
second ”round” of inserts?
If you reach 40% of your target with one insertion and a net of 48% of your target with two, then the duplication is 32% of the target:
Two insertions has a gross exposure of 80% (40 + 40) and if the net is 48, the duplicated is 80 - 48.
Hi! I am the Head of Research at a programming agency based here in the Philippines. Would you have any information about the top ten programs
across the Middle East region, and more specifically, in territories such as Saudi Arabia, Lebanon, Syria,
Jordan, Egypt, UAE, Bahrain, Qatar and Kuwait?
Thank you in advance.
There is little basis for trending a projection, but you might find an estimate at The Industry Standard
Where can I get information about the top 20 media markets in US ?
Secondly, how are these markets determined ? Is it pop size, tv ownership,
Markets, under the broader definition of media markets, DMA (Designated Market Area), are ranked by their number of TV households. DMAs incorporate all of the U.S. counties, with rare exception counites are entirely assigned to one DMA, based on the share of the county's viewing attributed to stations which are "home" to the assigned DMA. This is all based on Nielsen measurement.
Metro areas are another definition used for media markets, and are particularly relevant to radio. These are Census definitions, also based on counties and use totoal population. Metros do not total to the entire U.S. population.
dear guru! i have a client in building industry who is still not convinceed that advertising in t.v will increase sales and will improve brand identity.
i must say that he is the leader in the building market
without advertising in t.v, even his competitors are using t.v advertising twice a year at least.how can i convince him that it is about time to use t.v adverising , in order to increse his brand loyality and identity? any research about the power of t.v in case like main? thank you
The Guru is having trouble dealing with this question. Here in the U.S. branding doesn't seem to be an issue with home construction companies, except perhaps in totlaly new areas where all homes are newly built to order. If we ignore the building industry element, than the Guru must agree that advertising is an important part of branding, especially when some of the competitors use it.
Can you explain the difference in "awareness curves" and "reach curves"
The "curve" reference in both cases simply means that both of these metrics can be comapared on a simple x/y graph and the result, whether reach or awareness (the dependent variables) charted against total exposures or toal spending (the independent variables), creates a line that is a curve. In other words. each increment of input yields somewaht less gain in reach or awareness than the prior increment.
But reach is a simple, process, it merely counts the different people exposed to advertising. Awareness measures retention of message or recallable knowledge of product or advertising. Awareness may be seen to decline when messages cease to eb delivered, but once someone has been reached, they've been reached. The curves are different. Reach can even be the independent variable in plotting awareness.
what is comparative advertising and how do a lot of companies still manage to do the same inspite of the fact that it is illegal in many countries. Can I have access to avi files just to see what a comparative advertising is all about.
Comparitive advertising literally compares the advertised product to its competitors:"Our brand is twice as effective as that brand." The Guru imagines that some advertisers use the technique where it's legal and not where it isn't legal. The illegal form may be just comparisons to named competitors and not comparisons to generically referenced competitors, such as "the leading brand," the "higher priced brand" and so on.
The Guru is not aware of any free site that allows you to call up ad avi's by style or other such criterion.
I have just recently become aware of your web site, and I think it can be a vaulable resource for me as I begin to plan advertising campaigns on the Internet. My first plan has an overriding goal of driving traffic to its web site, with banners playing an important role. Therefore, I was wondering if any measurements, benchmarks or other standards for click-through rates exist for the following:
1) Buttons vs. Banners
2) Half Banners vs. Full Banners
3) Traditional Banners vs. Rich Media/Interstitials
4) Single Banner vs. Multiple Banners on a page
5) Placement of Banners within a page (top/middle/bottom)
Guru, any information or insight you can provide would be greatly appreciated, and you would obviously receive full credit for any information I might use in a presentation. Thanks in advance for you help.
All else being equal, that is color, animation, etc., bigger banners outperfom smaller banners. Full banners will get 2 to 3 three times the clicks of button banners. Top of page will outperform lower positions, if only because there is a greater chance to be seen, because visitors usually arrive at the top of a page.
Where can I get information on pricing of
advertisements in a web site? What are different
methodologies for pricing and types of advertisements
in a web site? HOw can Return on Investment ROI be
Many web sites have on line rate cards. Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use " rates" as your search term, to see what we have on the topic. Industry information sites, like The Industry Standard, CyberAtlas and NUA Internet Surveys may also be informative.
ROI is simply a comparison of money spent to money coming in. What you plug in to each side of the equation is up to your judgement and your business model.
I have a client in the travel industry who is still not convinced that advertising on-line will increase sales. They have a website, but do not use it for its full benefit such as bookings. They have read somewhere that there is only a 1% clickthrough on banners and therefore are convinced we don't need to include Online Advertising on any media mix even though we have the budget for it. Can you offer any advice.
"Only 1% click-through" is only good or bad in relation to cost and business expectations. If you buy one million impressions for $30,000 and get 10,000 click-throughs (1% of 1 million) and they all book something, it's all net profit after the first $3 of profit each one generates. If your conversion rate on clicks is less than 100% (which of course it is) than you just need to estimate the conversion rate and profit per sale to judge the value of on-line.
And don't take the Guru's $30 as gospel, see what you can get.
Guru, I'm looking for some research to put together in an effort to show a plan to interested investors. Some of the metrics I am looking for seem basic but I am having trouble finding a good site. I worry about paying for information from a website because they may not have the information I am looking for. If I'm going to pay, I want my exact requirements filled without missing anything. I'm looking to find out the following:
1) the amount of spending of online advertising in 1995 and 2003/2004
2) the growth of online advertising v traditional offline advertising (1995-2003/4)
3) the growth of e-commerce sites from 1995-2003/4
4) number of people buying online in 1999 and 2003/4
5) graph of e-commerce audience reach from 1995-2003/4
6) demographics of e-commerce audience
Thank you for your guidance
Nobody knows any of these answers. Good estimates might be free at The Industry Standard.
Where can I find information on media vehicles in the
new millenium (developments in entertainment
communications technology) ?
The whole new millennium or just the first few year or two?
Media technology developments are not really foreseeable very far ahead. Who in 1993 predicted the web's rise to what's happening by 1995? Right now DVD is new and almost ready to be replaced by other laser disk formats. HDTV is just coming in and may be replaced before it's two years along by some form of computer convergence. There's nothing magic about it's being a "new millennium" which really starts in 2001 despite the masses' fascination with round numbers. Browse the media/tech web sites like Wired and The Industry Standard.
National advertising has been very fortunate this year with the amount of spending by dot com businesses. What do you forsee for 2000? Do you think this growth will continue or do you think the dot com industry will taper off and only the leaders will prevail?
Since the Guru believes most dot-come advertising is investor oriented, he believes most sites will taper off after their IPO. E-commerce driven sites may continue to have reason to advertise.
The web is young enough that current advertising volume is likely to continue for more than a year.
How can I obtain a cable calculator?
The Guru isn't sure what you mean by a "cable calculator" but one is discussed on the Cable Advertising Bureau site.
What is the difference between a TRP and a GRP?
2. Some people use TRP when referring to GRPs of a specific demographic and say GRP only in reference to Household Rating Points.
i am new to the business. I was wondering if there were any webpages (downloadable or not) where i could get information on media buying/planning? Thank you. Vince Barbera
We believe AMIC is full of that kind of information, especially in the Guru's area.
It seems that most of the news about advancements in media and in media planning focuses on the on-line arena. However, changes have to be happening in the off-line arena, even if they don’t get the same play. Introductions of products TiVo or Replay TV are going to create major concern among the television and advertising communities once the universe of ownership begins significantly cutting into the viewership of commercials. The digital superimposition of products into programming, rather than just having them featured in the show, seems to be an area where both creative and media departments are both going to have to play close attention (Stuart Elliott’s article in 10/1 NYT addressed some of this).
However, with this long preamble, what in Guru’s opinion are some of the other innovative things happening in the off-line advertising side of TV, radio, mags, newspapers, OOH, etc.? Could you cite some articles or Websites that might go into more depth on these?
The offline "innovations" to which you refer are just new mechanisms for achieving the same results with which planners have coped for many years. Not long after VCRs, devices to eliminate commercials were available and never sold well. Remotes have long since made zipping through recorder commercials quite easy.
Product placement and stadium signage are old-hat as well. Placing them digitally instead of physically isn't media planning news.
The Guru doesn't see anything happening off-line as big as the creation of on-line and new advertising vehicles in the on-line arena.
News in off-line seems to focus on new ways to buy and package. Perhaps we will see a return to the early days of TV and real sponsorship. Segmentation - in the sense of a focus on minority groups which in the aggregate now outnumber the presumed mainstream majority, and personalization of media are the new direction the Guru sees in traditional media.
Is there an industry benchmark to determine what effect traditional media advertising has on web site visits. So many dotcoms are advertising on traditonal vehicles it must be working? But can that be quantified?
There are some resources at Cahner's
The Guru believes that dot com advertising is more adimed at the stockmarket than at traffic building.
Looking for an up to date general CPM rate comparison across traditional media (TV, Cable,Radio, Newspapers, Magazines, Billboards)
Is there any info source that gives the general range of CPM rates ?
See AMIC's Ad Data area
I am looking for information about current prices for 15 and 30 second video and audio ads streamed to viewers before news clips, short films, animation or other on-demand streamed content. I am in a position to sell this kind of advertising space and am having difficulty determing its value. Also, could you lead me to information about the value of banners placed around the border of the media players used to view streaming content.
The Guru has not seen such video ads nor heard of them being generally used. If they are, then sources like RealPlayer would most likely be best informed. There are not likely to be "benchmarks" for pricing at this stage.
The banner at the edge, like one might find at ABC News should not have a different cost than other banners. With thousands of large, commercial sites out there, it is difficult to generalize about pricing.
If we say that $30 is roughly an average of major sites full-banner cpm, and this is well above TV's broad-demographic pricing, and streaming video quality is miles worse than TV, what is the basis for pricing it above banners?
Do you know where I can get a list of the top advertisers in the Los Angeles area, by media? Of course, I want it for free! Many thanks.
Not for free, unless you know someone who subscribes to
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) and your business realtionship allows that person to provide the information.
Have you heard of a webresource that catalogs various sites; tracking their average monthly pageviews AND unique visitors per month? Is there a free site like that? Any direction you can provide is appreciated. Thanks in advance.
Doing this requires access to large scale research. So the only sites which offer such free data are the sites of the research vendors themselves. Both MediaMetrix and Nielsen//Netratings offer some of their data on their sites, but since they are in business to sell these data for lots of money, they don't put it all out there for free.
How does one set effective frequency and effective reach targets? Are there any models which can help set these targets? And is this approach(effective freq.) media neutral or does it apply differently to different media?
The Ostrow model is one such model.
The concept of effective reach/frequency is based on repetition of messages as the key to consumer action, and so should be media neutral. However, since the nature of various media makes one generate higher frequency than another at the same reach level, plans often take different approaches to "effefctive." For example, a plan based on major magazine which average a 20 coverage among the target, will rarely generate even a 3 verage frequency in four weeks, while a radio plan for the same target might equal the magazine plan's reach in its first week and double the average frequency.
Planners work with the rules and rationales which make the most sense in a given situation.
What are the advantages/disadvantages of advertising during sweeps? We have a client who is TOTALLY hung up on advertising during sweeps. Isn't there a lot of self-promotion going on in TV? The client is a newspaper.
Also, I've heard that political advertising during the fourth quarter 2000 is projected to be phenomenal. Do you have any information on how advertisers are reacting?
It is true that ratings are higher during sweeps, because programming is selected to increase audiences when they are being measured. And yes, there is a lot more self promotion in these periods.
But, assuming your client is going to buy "X" GRPs, they will get them with fewer announcements in a sweep than otherwise. If it takes 20 announcements to get 100 GRP in October but only 15 to get 100 GRP in November, the difference to the advertiser should be infinitesimal in terms of more impact. If any measurable effects are seen, there would be a hair more reach and a speck less frequency in the sweeps scenario. The cost per point might be higher.
Political advertising surges during every presidential election. Advertisers will not be visibly reacting today, since Fourth Quarter is sold as the first quarter of a network's year. When Q4 2000 selling starts to move next May, the upfront advertisers will secure their time comfortably. Some advertisers who don't usually buy upfront will. As the year goes on, some money which would have been spent in some places will go elswhere, network to spot, TV to radio, broadcast to print.
It happens every four years and used to be worse when both summer and winter Olympics fell in these same presidential election years.
I'm currently working for a company (a commercial real estate brokerage firm) that does not believe in advertising at all...just public relations. Can you steer me to some recent date/studies that will help me to convince them that not advertising and branding our company is a big mistake?
I have to give a presentation on buying print media. I want to explain how frequency discounts work when advertising in newspapers. Can you help me explain, in the simplest way possible, how these discounts work? I appreciate your help. Thanks!
The more often one advertises, the lower the price per inch of space. That's as simple as the Guru can make it.
Where can I find general information regarding television viewing trends? I know that shares and ratings are higher in the Fall with more PUTs and pilots, and they are lower in the Summer. I need to find some documentation supporting these trends for NATIONAL NETWORK television.
The definitive source is the reports of Nielsen.
Dear Media Guru
I'm a media planner in Thailand. Here we are just at the begining to advertising on the net. Would you recommend a good books on Web advertising? Thank you
There are a few here in the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)
How effective are off-the wall (i.e., aerial banners, blimps, in-flight ads, newspaper bags, buses, etc.) media?
Effectiveness of such media varies. It can be fabulous or a flop. Key issues will be matching target to the vehicle and understanding the relationship with the audience.
Aerials and blimps have a long history of apparent success on the beaches promoting beach realated goods from sunscreen to beer, plus local concerts and clubs. The same vehicles might be far less successful for on-line brokerage or high-ticket luxury goods.
College wall boards are often succesful with products aimed at college students.
In flight and transit media are much less "off the wall." The Guru has seen subway car-cards generate a full, local market Nielsen share point increment in 6 weeks for a basic household food staple, with a message aimed solely at Hispanic consumers.
Is there any study to show that spots in prime time(say 8pm to 11pm) are more effective than those telecast in off prime (say 1pm to 3 pm or 6 pm to 8pm)?
Hello, I am currently doing some research on media databases. I am looking for a database which contains print and internet media contacts and also allows me to add my own contacts. Because I work for an Internet company the database must be able to email our press relases out to the public. Can you suggest a few? Cheers, Annabel http:www.abebooks.com
This is somewhat outside the Media Guru's area, but try PR Newswire
What is the best way to reach Adults 18-24 with out using television?
Most efficient? Selected out-of-home.
Most targeted? Some magazines or college newspapers.
Broadest reach in a single medium? Probably radio.
Best total reach? A combination of the above.
Other qualifications of "best" might yield additional answers.
I have been put in the situation of planning, negotiating and buying online advertising. I'm having
difficulty in determining the appropriate number of impressions to purchase for a two week flight of an entertainment
property. I understand every site is different, but is there a benchmark to follow? Someone once said that the minimum
level of impressions to be effective is 10% of the site's available impressions. This seems high. Also, is there a syndicated source that lists
the total number of impressions available per month? Can online impressions be purchased against a specific demo (i.e. Men 25-54)?
Thank you for your help.
There are many buying-minimum rules of thumb that seem arbitrary on first consideration, like '12x per week per station' in radio, but have a logic if someone clearly explains it.
However, this "10% of the available impression" idea is certainly not one of these. It's not only arbitrary, but relatively ridiculous.
Consider a site like Yahoo, which may generate well over 1 billion monthly impressions. 10% of that is 100 million. If you bought that weight at a $30 CPM, that would be $3,000,000 per month. Are there many advertisers spending at that rate? And, if you think about other top sites, it becomes even more fantastic.
According to Nielsen//Netratings, top, deep-pockets, online advertisers like Microsoft, Amazon.com. AOL and Yahoo each ran about 200 to 600 million impressions in August. And of course, they didn't do that on just a few sites.
What would a 10% rule achieve? Identification with a specific site? Perhaps some very targeted sites which fit your campaign creative very well are worth sponsoring at this level. Or do you think each person exposed is aware of how many other people are seeing other banners on the same site?
By the way, the Guru would be interested to hear anyone's justification of a '10% of available impressions' rule and will post here any that make sense.
It's also worth noting another point here: Bigness is of questionable value in selecting on-line media vehicles.
Exposure isn't figured in the same way as for other media: In a magazine, each ad page is treated as if it had the average audience of the issue; within some tolerance, this is realistic. But in a popular web site with potentially hundreds of pages, neither the home page nor those within the site get all the monthly impressions the site accrues. Any one page might get less than one percent of the total, and a rotating banner might get less than one percent of the page where it's shown. One million impressions can be bought from a site with one billion to sell or with just two million. If the targeting is controlled, there is equal value.
Sometimes page or section content will allow targeting to be assumed. On some sites, registration data, or 'cookies', or IP tracking can allow ads to be served to specified categories of visitors.
I am doing research for a german based software company, that is about to go international with its produkct. Hereford I am completing a media plan. The countries I am mainly intrested in are Those in europe and in North America.
I would like to know where I would get relevant infor mation about; How effective are different types of media in the different countries and what target groups do I reach if I use that type of media. I would prefer this data to be specified for individual magazines, newspapers, tv stations ect.
I have read thru your past answers, and my main problem at the moment is that I don´t have a large budget to pay a market research company. I am still a student doing this as a final assignment (thesis) for college.
I hope you can be of any assistance.
In the U.S., universities which teach advertising and marketing often have in their library past years' sets of the broad product and media usage studies from MRI or Simmons. Perhaps your school has the same or a relationship with a U.S. university.
By the way, data would not be about TV stations, but about networks and programs. The U.S. has over 1000 TV stations.
I am going to be freelancing from home. What are the tools that you would recommend me subscribing to, or the sources to have to keep me in touch with the industry?
Ad Age and MediaWeek will cover the basics. Depending on the areas in which you expect to be active, you might want to read The Industry Standard for interactive, Business Marketing's Net Marketing for Business to Business, and to have a basic set of media software with reach and frequency capability, like ADplus or Telmar's N3P.
You might also need some of the sources fromStandard Rate and Data Service (SRDS)
What is the difference between achieving a 10.0 rtg. on one spot of Seinfeld, vs. a combined 10.0 rtg. on Oprah, The Today Show and Just Shoot Me? Are we reaching a larger audience? Is there a way to measure duplication of the three programs? Thanks.
A combined 10 rating points accumulated across three programs will also represent 10 GRP, or an equal gross audience, but because of duplication the reach will be somewhat less than 10 and frequency somewhat more than 1.0. The reach will be at least equal to the rating of the highest rated program of the three.
The syndicated ratings reports, i.e. Nielsen, measure the duplication; the planner's standard reach & frequency tools estimated the net audience, accounting fo this duplication.
We work with a client who is a franchise of a larger hospitality company. In previous years, their plans have consisted of heavy spot TV schedules in their various markets. In 2000, they are making a large jump into network, leaving minimal dollars for supplemental spot buys. They are not achieving total TRP levels of previous years, and want to know the trade off of heavy spot vs. lighter, higher quality network. Besides anecdotal info, I'm at a loss. Please help!
Thanks in advance.
The key consideration is how close to national your client is. How much waste are you buying when you use national media versus media falling only within target areas?
You are using an assumption of "quality" here that the Guru couldn't justify. What is your definition of quality, rating size? First run versus rerun? The Guru doesn't believe those factors contribute much to sales. In either case, whether in spot or in national, you can chose your programs, air in prime-time, first run programs, etc.
If there are large parts of the country where advertising weight is waste, and if you must short-change good prospects in order to be national, what's the benefit? If your coverage area had been close enough national, you would have found economies of scale in moving from spot to network.
Useing TV's formula for ratings, apply to the newspapers circulation of 108,000 with a population of adults 289,400. What would be a rating number for this situation?
If we know that the circulation is 108,000, we next need to consider the readers-per-copy to get your answer. According to the The Newspaper Advertising Association the 1999 daily newspaper's average adult readers-per-copy is 2.148. Therefore, your 108,000 circulation would have 108,000 x 2.148 or 231,984 readers.
With an adult population of 289,400, the rating would be 231,984 ÷ 289,400 or 80.2, which indicates a very popular newspaper, indded.
Can we say that the Hispanic Market market in Chicago is the same as the Hispanic Market en Miami. Eventhough they are Hispanics generally speaking aren't there some differences that we marketers should be aware of. For instance, Miami is tropical. The needs are different when it comes to certain items. Besides elements like the weather, are there any other elemnts to be aware that would make these two markets different?
There are many differences, for example:
Hispanics are nearly a majority in the City of Miami and nearly 40% of the metro and the DMA. Hispanics are about 12% of Chicago's DMA. This population presence leads to amjor diffrences in the lifestyle of the Hispanic.
About two-thirds of Chicago's Hispanics are of Mexican origin, the rest primarily Puerto Rican and Dominican. In Miami, Cuban is the predominant origin with South / Central American next largest. So there are substantial cultural differences in food, music and social structure.
Miami is a wealthier, better educated and older Hispanic market. Hispanics are well integrated into the business and governmental structure. Miami's Spanish media frequently outperform general market media in the ratings.
How often are the SQAD cpp's "Refreshed"?
What does the designation "CF" stand for? It appears to signify late fringe or late night.
SQAD TV CPPs are updated monthly. "CF" is combined fringe, the early fringe/late fringe average.
As a publisher I am interested in sites like adoutlet.com. Do you know of other sites, that are similar, where I can go to sell my excess inventory?
Where can I get information on media usage by country in Europe?
What is the number of adults reached if the rating is 8.7 on a national level? What does one rating point represent in numbers of people reached?
One rating point equals one percent of the specified population. The U.S. adult population is roughly 203 million so an 8.7 Adult rating equals 17.7 million persons.
Hi Guru! I'm looking for information on Australian Media, can you suggest any sources such as websites or the like?
Is there a documented research/ benchmarks followed which indicates a) how long (in units of time and GRPs) should a TV commercial last before fatigue for that commercial sets in. b) Is this likely to be different for FMCG or durables? if yes, how much? Thanks, Praveen
There have been many studies, most of them proprietary. The variables are too many to be generally applicable: Commerical length, quality, recall, enterntainmnet/annoyance value, number of executuions in rotation, etc. The differences in cultures and media environments probably also have an effect.
Some set a standard based on quintiles of exposure, others on GRPs.
The major compilations of publicly available research are at ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization and Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter.
I have read all your responses regarding recency. If you wouldn’t mind answering a few more, this is a multiple question predominantly regarding recency as a planning theory.
1) What Telemar program deals with TV R&F on a weekly basis?
2) Do the same audience accumulation formulas work for a one-week cume vs. 4wk or 52 wk?
3) When now planning an a weekly basis rather than a flighted basis are frequency guidelines or goals a consideration in the recency planning theory?
4) Has there been a clear industry swing relative to EF or recency yet?
5) A 1997 JAR article by Erwin Ephron cited some minimum target reach guidelines like 35 weekly, 65 four-week and 80 quarterly. Has there been anything more definitively determined since then (I noticed reply 2631 7/14/99 lowering the weekly reach to 30)?
6) For those espousing recency, is the trend to a 52 presence or extended flighting like 8-10 continuous weeks of each quarter?
7) On the Effective Frequency side, where the defacto goal has centered around the 3+ level, has the time frame shifted to anything other than a 4-week period?
1) Media Maestro and TV Buyer handle TV R&F.
2) No, formulas differ for one week, 4 week, and long term. 400 GRP, spread ove differend programs might come close to exhausting the reach potential of one week's TV audience, but not if spread over 4 weeks or longer.
3) Recency planning is focused on weekly reach, and incorporates the concept that every exposure after the third one is at the 3+ level.
4) Some have adopted recency, some cling to effective reach. The Guru is not aware of any polls of agencies or advertisers, but suspects that recency is still growing in acceptance, but is a minority approach.
5) The reach minima are a bit loose, and 30 vs 35 is not a major point of contention.
6) The idea of recency is that being there whenever a purchase decision is made is ideal. Flighting, when continuity is affordable and there is no major seasonality is contrary to the principle.
7) Four weeks has always been somewhat arbitrary, likley stemming from the one-time dominance of monthly magazines. But it is a convenient benchmark. A logical approach can set a level other than 3+ or other than 4 weeks, etc.
My media department is getting bad service from the majority of broadcast rep firms we work with. However, when we have a market where we go direct everything runs smoothly. We are think of becoming a direct only agency. We know this will be hard? Can you give me names of other agencies that are direct only? Anyone I can talk to? We spend approximatley $50 million in 65 markets.
The Guru's answer here assumes your problem is literally with service, i.e. returning calls, delivering proposals, confirming buys, follow up on make-goods, etc, and not with price negotiations.
If you haven't warned the unsatisfactory reps that you intend to go direct, do so and see if service improves, and let their immediate supervisors know as well. There is no reason to accept inadequate service. With 50 million spread over 65 markets, you won't have a lot of clout with individual stations; you ought to get good attention from reps, though. The Guru can't recommend any direct-only agencies. Your problem, if you can't solve it directly, might be better resolved by using a buying service to control the reps.
Hi! I am making a presentation about internet marketing sites and this site is among the ones I am reviewing
I live in the U.K. and as I can see this site is very relevant for marketeers in the U.S., but less so for the
European market. Is this correct or did I overlook some menu for us Europeans? Otherwise, there seems to be a lot
of useful information. In fact it is almost overwhelming. Let's assume that I would want to market a product outside
the U.S., would you be able to give me advice or do you specialise in the american market?
Forgive me for asking these dumb questions, but I have 200 different web sites to review and so I did not have
a lot of time to browse through any of them.
Hope to hear from you soon
Telmar has offices in 14 countries, serving all of North America, most of Europe, plus Asia and Africa.
AMIC itself was begun in the U.S. and mas more U.S. information than for other countries. The Guru question page is the most international page of the site. Although questioners and their countries are not usually identified on answer page, the Gura answers numerous questions from and about all of Europe as well as Japan, India, South Africa, Australia, Bangladesh, Hong Kong, Thailand, and elsewhere.
Our market is the Hispanic population in the Midwest.
Research conducted at a national level reveals details of how consumers purchasing behavior. However, the Midwest affects the consumers purchasing decision based on climate and other elements. Should there be a research that demonstrates the diference of Hispanics in the Midwest compare to the national data? Is there one already available?
It isn't clear how you define "midwest." Chicago, the top midwestern Hispanic market, is one of the top five U.S. Hispanic DMA's, but only contains 4% of all U.S. Hispanics.
If we consider the midwest to be these states:
then Chicago holds over half of the Midwest's Hispanics. Chicago is an available market in Hispanic Simmons, and other research, and might readily be used as an analog of the midwest Hispanic. The way marketing typically works, there will be little interest in the other individual DMA's from national advertisers.
Should there be research on the midwest's Hispanics? If you are selling a medium which covers this area or have a product which is distributed primarily in the midwest and has an opportunity in the HIspanic market, it would serve your interests to do so, but but the Guru recommneds you don't count on industry support.
where can i find information about prices of commercial tv spots in the world?
Dear Guru,I'm trying to set up a marketing strategy fosused on the hispanic market of Chicago and L.A. I got great national audience data for radio in "Arbitron" but "Nielsen" does not publishes any information about TV on the net (I'm in Mexico and mail can take 2 months), can you you give me an idea where can I get similar information related to TV, Nespapers and outdor advertising. As you can imagine I'm tryito identify what kind of programs and articles are popular among hispanics, the highest audience time for hispanics etc.
Thanks in advance, you already have been a great help.
The Guru is unclear about how you will use national radio ratings to plan Los Angeles and Chicago advertising.
Nevertheless, you need market-specifis HIspanic information, so you should begin by contacting the largest spot market reps for Hispanic TV and Radio. These are Univision and Telemundo TV and Katz Hispanic Media and Caballero for radio. The local Spanish language stations have their own sites as well, but tend to be aimed at listeners more than advertisers.
As a client not well versed in media and media
measurement tools I was asked some questions that I
don't quite know the meaning of or the terminoligy
in how it is used. These terms are specific and deal
with planning strategies. Please help where you can.
-A & U or segmentation studies (audience probably) A & U ?
-What does RDI, RPI stand for/mean (indexes for investment strategies?)
Thank you, Guru.
These are all consumer behavior measurements, not media measurements, but they are used in forming media strategies.
BDI is a comparison of the sales in a specific market versus the markets portion of national sales. So, a market where 3% of all product sales occur but only 2% of the target population lives has a BDI of 150 (3 ÷ 2). CDI is calculated the same way, but using the entire product category's sales.
We need to estimate traffic to our website which will launch in a few months. How can you factor in Public Relations activities, word of mouth traffic? Is there some type of industry standard for responses related to print advertising, and PR exposure?
There are too many variables. A broad, portal type site might expect much more trafiic from PR than a B to B site or one serving a narrow interest like antique 78 rpm records.
there are some partially relevan studies at Cahner's
What's a good benchmark for FSI (free standing insert) CPMs? I'm considering placement with a company that offers national coverage (three zones: east, central, west) in a variety of well-established newspapers.
Pricing varies by specification. The best way to benchmark is to get competitive pricing. Try NewsAmerica
Hello Guru!My question may fall outside only media planning. Neverthless I hope you can direct me to the correct info. sites. I am planning a promotion for an established FMCG-Women's product. The product is used for hygiene as well as cosmetic purposes. The promotion entails the consumer entering a contest along with a proof of purchase and a writeup on her experience with the brand. 1. Which media TV or Print would yeild the best response. The brand has high TOMA. The campaign has a duration of one month in the peak sales season. 2.Is there any model to predict the response in terms of no. of entries received and offtakes
3.How should I plan- for generating max. response, in terms of reach and frequency at a moderate budget? No previous data exsists for any such promo with me.4.Are there any rules of thumb in exsistence for a corelation between reach, frequency and responses? Thanking you in advance for your guidance.
As you imagine, your questions fall mostly outside of media, and your acronyms are not standard in the U.S., so the Guru is not clear on the background.
A good source for the sort of information you want is the Direct Marketing Association
Within the realm of pure media / direct response concepts, the Guru does not believe there is any rule of thumb for Reach / frequency / response relationships. The Gurru has seen small audiences produce much more response than large audiences in many cases.
looking for a source on planning cpps for network tv
SQAD can supply network planning costs.
outdoor advertising costs
Can you please refresh my memory and tell me how to
calculate multi-week reach and frequency across television
and radio? Thank you
If you mean combining these media, the formula has been addressed. Click here to see past Guru responses.
If you mean how to get multiweek reaches for either medium, you need reach curves or software, the extension formulae are tow complex for casual use.
The ad agency I work for has a theory that cable GRP's
and radio GRP's effectivenesss are significantly less
than network and spot television. On our flow charts
we only calculate 1/2 half of these points. I have
heard this theory before but I've never seen a plan
that cuts the GRP's in half. What do you think?
The Guru has been aware of theories that use effectiveness factors in comparing media. Sometimes GRP are adjusted on the flow chart, but since the flow chart often serves as the buying control document, more often the adjustments are shown in reach and frequency comparisons.
There can certainly be an argument that radio has less effectiveness than TV, commercial exposure versus commercial exposure, all else being equal. But, the argument doesn't seem to be rationale for cable TV. The commercial is the same, the presentation is the same. Unless there are objective measures of attentiveness or clutter or recall used, why is cable less effective? Individual commerical audience size is not relevent to message effectiveness of the medium; one consumer is not aware of how may others are watching the same program.
I'm stting a marketing strategy to sell houses located in Mexico to Americans (mostly mexican Americans and foreign born) I know where they are, what kind of media de you reccomend to be cost effective?
Thanks in advance
For the best cost effectiveness, the Guru would begin with Spanish languiage radio in the U.S. / Mexico border markets.
Where can I find a ranking of the top 50 internet sites ranked by amount of traffic
For a television campaign: Is there an industry standard that outlines the breakdown of dollars allocated for (1) the media buy and (2) production of the tv spot(s).
Thanks in advance for your help.
No real industry standard. Media costs and budgets are so much more variable than production costs for a given commercial quality.
Many major advertisers, for example, want the same quality look in their Hispanic advertising as in thier General market advertising, but media budgets are only 10% as rich.
Hi Guru!For maintainence level of advertising for an established brand, on TV why is an OTS of three considered to be a minimum ? Or does no such rule of thumb exsist?
The 3x rule-of-thumb is based on studies dating back over 100 years to a researcher named Ebbinghaus. He determined that it required 3 repetitions of a string of nonsense syllables for them to be retained by experimental subjects.
Advertising researchers extended the research to posit that only after three exposures to a message would a consumer understand, recall and be prepared to act on the information. Media planners then started using an average frequency (as in "Reach and Frequency") of 3 as a minimum.
More recently, the concept of effective reach has used the theory that only those exposed at least 3 times should be counted as "effectively reached." So, for example, a media plan with an average four week reach / frequency of 76 / 5.2 might reach 50% of the target 3 or more times.
Some planners will evaluate several issues surrounding the copy, competition and media options to decide what effective level is appropriate and set a level of 4 or 6, etc. Of course, this is meaningless without also setting a reach goal at the stated frequency level. A plan that delivers 50 reach at 3+ might also deliver 42 at 4+, 33 at 5+ etc, so there is an issue of the goal versus the level at which the plan is examined.
I have just started working on a Direct Response account, is there a software program or buying program that can merge station invoice times (input our buying system) versus the exact times calls are received? Thank you.
The software of this sort that the Guru has seen was proprietary to the agencies using it.
Perhaps Donovan Data Systems or its competitors now offer a commercial version.
We are a company marketing space for various national and international media.Though the Indian Press cannot be compared to the American press or the European press we do have number of publications in various languages .We need advice ondeveloping the classified sections in our news paapers.Please do advice us. Thanking you and wih warm regards, Bharath R Curam. Chief Executive. Media Matrix
Classified advertising is primarily placed by local readers and businesses. Marketing this ad space is likley best accomplished through dispaly advertising in the same papers or other local media.
information required on television advt. revenue & volume being generated from Bangladesh, the CTV/ B& W tv break-up in B'desh, total no. of TV House-holds, no. of h/holds connected to sat. TV, no. of H/Hs owning TV sets,
any ban on liqour/cigarette advts. in B'desh, no. of cable operators in B'desh - whether organised or not?
The Guru is not up to date on Bangladeshi media. Some of your questions would be answered by International Media Guide.
What are the current trends in marketing newspapers to thge college market?
If you mean marketing metropolitan newspapers to college students, the The Newspaper Advertising Association may have some insights.
If you mean marketing campus newspapers, the Guru doubts there are many uniform trends.
I just did a media buy for radio, cable, and related internet sites for a NJ based portal business that wants to attract consumers to their site. They asked me what number of people visiting their site constitutes a sucsessful ad campaign...50-100 week? Since visitors won't be buying anything, (no e-commerce)how do you judge what kind of response is successful? Is there any research on new "Dot Com" companies who have advertised, and what kind of results they got?
Any advertiser needs to define its own success. Portal sites are usually expected to deliver boxcar numbers, they are playing in a league with Yahoo, Netscape, Excite, etc, which have 20 million or more monthly visitors.
If your advertiser isn't doing e-commerce, presumably it wants to sell advertising based on the size of the audience it can deliver. If portals sell monthly banner ads at a $35 cpm, what is 100 visitors a weeks worth? If it's 100 per week, and they each view 3 pages that's 1200 impressions or $42 worth of traffic. The Guru is guessing you spent more than that on the campaign. If these people come back every week, it will be a long time before a campaign at this rate of response is "successful."
Using the actual cpm and page loads at the advertiser's site, you can estimate how many visitors and page views are needed for a return on investment.
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment) and Internet Advertising Bureau are most likely to have accessible research in this area.
I would like to know if there are any international learnings on the media usage for formal readymade garments category. Three issues require clarifications:
1. Is there any specific combination of media that differentiates media usage for readymade garments. for
2. Any kind of innovations that are unique to RMG category.
3. Are there any specific seasonality patters.
In the U.S., Simmons, MRI, and The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study will include various items of ready-made garments in their product and media usage studies. Their affiliates and analogues in other countries do so as well. "ready made garments seems overly broad as a category. Suits, pants, shirts and dresses for males and females are all distinct in therr patterns. Formalwear may be too small a category to track.
I am looking for software that figures "reach and frequency" for newspaper media plans. Do you know of any and if so, which has the most current, up-to-date data?
I am looking for a list of smaller sites (100K to 200K per month). I've seen Media Metrix top 500, but they are all way over my focus group. Any thoughts?
I am writing to you from the Middle East. First of all I am very excited to discover the AMIC site.
I have recently been exposed to various documentation on the recency theory. Alongwith the documentation I have seen something called reach curves. The reach curves I have seen are typically for 1+, 2+, and 3+ levels for all adults and all women audiences. I understand it is an easy way to translate Effective Reach goals into GRP goals e.g. X GRPs will get you Y% 3+ reach against the target. It also clearly depicts the point of diminishing return.
I am eager to know how I can develop reach curves for my market. Can this be done by us in the media department or do we need to approach some company which specializes in this area. What sort of data is required? Just to give you a background, we are not a metered market. TV audience measurement is conducted thrice a year using face-to-face interviews with a representative sample. Viewership is typically available by 15 minute time segments for all channels across various demos.
Thanks in advance.
Reach curves have been in use since long before computers were used in media departments and long before metered measurement.
Curves are created by using the reach of actual schedules. For example, in the U.S., Nielsen would report the actual reach of specific brands' schedules, based on examining the net unduplicated viewers in their reasearch data who viewed the program schedules used by the brand's commercials.
Once you have several schedules ( 8 or so will do) with actual reaches and frequencies for various GRP levels, you can use the regression analysis data function in a spreadsheet, like MS Excel or Lotus 1-2-3, to calculate a formula which describes the curve. This formula can literally draw the curve on a graph, or let you build a table of GRP / Reach pairs. By the way, it is the frequency and GRPs which are used in building this regression, because while reach is a curve, frequency is a straight line.
I want to know the list of Publication in Bangladesh. This for a 5 star hotel client who wants to tap the affluent people in Bangladesh. Judgementally, he should go for Dhaka city only, but I have no clue about the Newspapers to cater to this segment. So, can you help. I need it quite urgently. In fact, he wants to attract them in the forthcoming festive season.
Try the Asian edition of International Media Guide.
What is the protocol for adding print delivery to a
broadcast reach and frequency analysis? Does it skew
the analysis or can it be done accurately with media
Very simply, reach-based planning sets the reach / communications goal as the priamry focus of the plan. For example, rather than focus on CPM, the cost per person reached takes precedence over cost per person exposed (which is what CPM measures).
So, the first vehicle or medium in a plan might have the best CPM, but the second one is the one which, in combination with the first, produces the most overall net reach for the combined spending.
What can you tell me about reach-based planning?
Thank you in advance.
The usual assumption is that print and broadcast duplicate with random probability, there is no special, greater or lesser likelihood that persons in the audience of the print schedule will also be or not be in the audience of the broadcast schedule.
Mechanically. the combination may be calculated in a few equivalent ways. The Guru finds it easiest to consider the reaches as decimals (50% reach = 0.50).
Subtract the reach of print from 1 and multiply this by 1minus the reach of broadcast. Suppose print has a 40% reach and broadcast has 55%.
By subtracting 0.4 from 1 (1 - 0.4 = 0.6), you have the probabilty of the target not being exposed to print. Subtract 0.55 from 1 to get the probability of not being exposed to broadcast (1 - 0.55 = 0.45)
Multiply these two together (0.6 * 0.45 = 0.27) and you have determined there is a 27% probability of people not being exposed to either of the combined media, or a 73% reach.
This formula is typically used in media software to combine different media.
Certainly there are cases where there is a somewhat better than random probabilty of media duplication, such as TV Guide combining with a TV schedule, but that's the exception, calling for judgement.
For advertisers seeking page space in the magazine
world, when is a 'loyal' subscriber base better than
one that churns every year? Thanks in advance!
The concept of subscriber loyalty indicates the readers' "invlolvement" with the book, which is indicative of the influence ads will have.
Parts of the Media Plan
See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan.
How many commmercials does the average person watch in his/her lifetme? I need to know for a class I am taking in college. Please let me know by Mon. Sept.13 Thank you
The Guru has heard estimates from 600 to 3000 per day (which is ludicrous, of course).
Assume we're speaking of a person born during the TV era, who really starts watching at 2 years old.
Assume the person watches 3 hours of TV a day, on average.
Assume the frequency of TV commercials stays unchanged for the 75 years or so of the person's lifetime.
There are about 7 or 8 minutes of commercials (14-20 commerical units) per hour at the low end and twice as many at the high end, so lets take an average of 30 per hour.
30 per hour, 3 hours a day for 365 days a year for 73 years = 2,398,050.
Do you know of any nationally syndicated radio programs
relating to the Home Improvement/Do-It-Yourself/Handyman
National Public Radio's
"Car Talk" might be one.
What are the companies that do detailed tracking of competitive spending on a proprietary basis? I'm familiar with CompetitiTrack? Who else is out there?
What do you think the impact of the recent CBS Viacom merger
will be for advertisers and media planners/buyers ?
Generally, less competition means higher prices. On the other hand, more creative promotion packaging is also a possibility.
What is the rule of thumb for determining how standard broadcast months are broken out? I am trying to determine whether the year of 2000 contains 52 or 53 broadcast weeks. (Namely December 2000 - is that a 4 week or 5 week month???) Thanks much.
A broadcast month ends on its last Sunday. The subsequent month starts the next day. Therefore, the broadcast month of December 2000 begins on November 27 and ends on Sunday, December 31, and includes 5 weeks.
I am a college student and I work part time at an Ad Agency. I am currently taking International Mass. Comm. at St. Norbert College and my research paper has to deal with the media of a foreign country. I was hoping you could fill me in on how to find information about media and media relations for foreign countries, namely England and Canada.
Dear Media Guru:
I've been trying (unsuccessfully) to find out about a local radio audience survey for markets in Southern Texas that measures Hispanic listening called a "Star" Report. I checked with the 4A's, and with SRC who conducts market surveys for the Hispanic community. SRC told me they had conducted Spanish Television Audience Reports (STAR), but had nothing in that area for local radio. Are you familiar with any radio research of this kind? Thanks!
The Guru has not heard of STAR radio reports
Dear Guru I' m interested in any information about 'effectiveness measurement' on online advertising.What are the most important criteria measuring effectiveness of online advertising?Where can i found more about this subject?
"Effectiveness measures" are many and "most important criteria: depends upon your
goals. Some internet campaigns are solely on achieving click-thru, which
is easily measured. Others might be based on building awareness, recall,
or direct sales effects.
Good sources of on-line ad effectiveness research are C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment) and the Internet Advertising Bureau
As always, the most complete compilation of this research will be at the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Re: Ad rotation in business-to-business publication for first-time advertiser
What is the best rotation for two print ads in a business-to-business trade advertising campaign running during a one-year schedule? Ad #1 runs 3X, ad #2 runs 3X, and rotate the remainder of the year? Or rotate evenly? Or 2X each, etc.? What is most effective for building ad recall?
The Guru doesn't see any basis for 'rules of thumb' here. Considerations might include:
My client has asked me to provide him with a r/f on a Canadian TV/radio plan.
Our research vendors don't seem to have access to Canadian data. I've got the
Nielsen books, but need a resource to run the data. Any suggestions?
I have an in-flight magazine with a 46% ABC1 demographic and a readership over 6 million, what are the other important criteria that I need to provide to media buyers in order to make rate and do you have any suggestions as to particular types of brand who need that sort of audience
There are many 'upmarket' (or 'upscale" as we say in the U.S.) brands that seek this demographic group. 46% upmarket seems low to the Guru, for an inflight magazine, by the way.
Obvious choices are travel destination advertisers, financial, and certain automobiles.
Browse the pages of the competing inflights and use your syndicated product user research, like MRI
I am interested in placing radio advertising nationally.
Is there such a thing as a national radio rep that I can
What are the top advertising and marketing websites, with contents including media/marketing research/statistics, successful case histories, etc.? I access AdAge, BusinessWeek and AdWeek.
Are there others I could use to keep updated on
the advertising industry?
The Guru imagines you're taking AMIC as a given.
With these you have the key, general advertising sites. There are of course, others focused on niches and subsets of advertising, such as media, on-line, research etc
is there a industry giude to minimum TRP level during each week of a radio flight?
The minimum standard is twelve spots per week per station. Otherwise TRPs must relate to communications goals. It is likely that few buys of less than 50 TRP per week are made, except when something other than communications is the purpose, e.g. trade support, special promotions, etc.
This is not a strictly media question but I would really appreciate
I am interested in audience research and I am currently pursuing a
graduate degree in tv management etc.
Which are the places that I look for for employment-Audience Research firms,
Ad. agencies, TV channels..pl advice
I have a media budget of $140,000 and am looking to find the best media buyer to negotiate advertising costs and place our advertisments. We are focusing our marketing efforts in the NYC to Richmond, VA region. Do you know of any lists of media buyers that I can contact?
In the AMIC Web Sites area you will find a listing of media consultants.
What's the best way to find radio stations in the NYC to Washington DC region that have a high percentage of our target customers.
Thinking in straight-line terms, there are just a handful of defined radio markets in the region:
Most stations in these markets will have access to onor both resources for their market, and be prepared to rank stations according to your needs in the selling process. You can also contact the major radio sales representative firms, like the various divisions of Interep and Katz.
What exactly is the Ostrow Model ?
How useful is it to the clients ?
Is it the last word ?
The Ostrow Model with which the Guru is familiar is a grid used to set the correct level of effective frequency at which plans will be evaluated.
20+ factors relating to competitive climate, product involvement, clutter, commercial length, commercial pool, etc are each rated on a scale, say from 2 to 6, which is then averaged to set the frequency level.
Is it the last word? Is it useful to clients? There is always another theory about anything. The usefulness is in creating a reational, well thought-through basis for establishing communiations goals, so that planners can present a logical approach to clients. The approach makes good sense, for those who follow the effective reach style of planning.
We are in the process of completing an advertising campaign that is targeting the Retired Senior market. Unfortunetly our advertising budget will only allow for regionalized print, and limited national print. Although I am completely aware that frequency of insertion is dependant on numerous variables, I am curious to know if there is an industry standard for number of insertions that a "senior" typically needs to be exposed before becoming familar with a message or risking burn out? Your help is very much appreciated.
The Guru has never encountered any industry standard for wear-out in any medium or any target. Too much depends on the ad itself, the interest level of the category, novelty, etc.
I need to buy spot radio on stations throughout New York State, to run for one or two weeks at time, twice a year. Is there a way that I can coordinate a buy that consists of the same advertising schedule and the same demographic, but lots of different stations and owners, without bringing in a buyer?
The cost of a buyer will probably be well worth it, in time saved and money wasted on buying the wrong thing.
If you think you have a good reason to avoid using a buyer, the major radio rep firms, Katz and Interep will put together schedules for you market list and demographics. These schedules will involve competing stations and it would be the buyers function to determine the right stations fro your needs and negotiate the best rates. Note that reps typically do not sell stations to purchsers based in the stations' home market, the stations handle those clients directly.
Dear Guru - I have been attempting to write a business plan for a content based internet site. I have had an impossible time finding out about potential revenue generation through ads. Do you know of good (free or low cost) places that can give specifics or estimates on the revenue generated by specific sites through advertising? What about hit frequency for internal navigation buttons on specific sites? Or maybe you... well thanks anyway.
The Guru does think it very likely, but perhaps IAB (Internet Advertising Bureau) or C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment) have data.
Greetings Gurus! I am trying to impact enrollment in our university from a specific geographic. I know that the so-called "Generation Y" is a great consumer of the internet. How would you suggest I go about targeting my demographic (probably not a difficult task) combined with geographic to reach the target via the internet? Many thanks.
Relevant lifestyle sites and lifestyle sections of large, portal sites will attract your age target. There are city and state specific sites, though virtually anyone might visit them. Large sites can target impressions delivery so that your ad is exposed only to visitors from the selected geography.
The problem with that option is that such a high percentage of your age target will be using AOL or similar, national ISPs. All AOL users appear to be coming from AOL's Virginia headquarters. To get around that, you can place ads inside AOL (rather than on AOL.com).
Is there any source where I can find a whole and specific description of each of the media functions? (media buyer, media planner, media analyst, associate media director and/or media supervisor, media director, etc...)
The Guru will assume you know the basic job descriptions, in general. You will find that the meaning and responsibilities change to varying degrees from one agency to another. In one "Media Director" may be the top dog of the entire media department. In another, a media director is a group head, supervising only media planning, and with the buying group under other direction, both reporting to an "executive director of media and programming."
Media planner may be fairly junior in one agency, the title a new hire achieves after about a year as an assistant. In another agency it is may be a much more senior position, averaging 6-8 years of experience.
The most likely place to find a published - but not necessarily official - set of job descriptions is the American Association of Advertising Agencies.
Our client is asking questions about some research called "TV Span". What is it and how can I find out more about it?
The Guru has not heard of this research. It may be a report title from a better known company or may be from outside the U.S.
Is the random probability formula used to combine reach for different media also valid when looking at effective reach (i.e. 4+ level)?
If you mean, can you combine the 4+ reach of one medium with the 4+ reach of another medium to get the 4+ reach of the two combined media, the answer is no.
Among those who were reached 2 or 3 times by each medium, some will now be reached 4 or more times and some will not, yet these people are not considered by combining only the two four+ groups. There are also those reached only once by the first medium and three times by the other, etc. A new, overall calculation of the frequency distribution must be done, to determine the 4+ of the combination.
I would like to know, in big figures, which are the esxpenditures in advertising per countries (Europe, Asia and USA). Thnaks
Ad Age reports on these expenditures annually.
Aside from the Simmons Kids Study, are there any other resources which provide media usage habits among kids 6-11?
The only other U.S. syndicated study with this data to which the Guru can point is Nielsen, for TV.
Hi Guru! I'm in charge of the Media Department in a Latin America Food Company. We are in the middle of an AOR pitch. I was searching in the Web about Media Allocator Systems, but I can´t find anything. Can you help me with latest news about it?
The Guru does not believe there are any current allocator systems commercially available. Some major agencies and advertisers have had proprietary systems designed by consultants.
The Guru will arrange to have an AMIC-affiliated consultant contact you.
looking for a source re: international out-of-home opportunities ... have been able to piece together most but am really stuck on tokyo ... any ideas? ... thanks
How shell one evaluate an editorial where there is
sponsor mentioned several times? Is such article's
value same as the one of an adequate sized ad? What
if there is additional 4C photo with logo visible?
Is there any methodology on how to evaluate and
calculate the value of an PR editiorial? Are you
perhaps aware of any books or other sources on
this topic - sponsorship evaluation?
Thank you for your answers.
This is a public relations question more than a media question, however . . .
Typically, PR mentions are evaluated simply based on the value of the equivalent space purchsed as media. But an editorial mention really has more impact, seeming to be a disinterested, third party endorsement.
please e-mail me the latest information about effective
frequency as it relates to magazine advertising...
required # of insertions to break through, etc.
Guru answers are only received on this page.
Click here to see past Guru
responses about effective levels in print
or try the Magazine Publishers of America
Let me elaborate further on the question posed by Ajay (Question sent from India , which was answered on 8d August). In India, the data collection and hence reporting of the peoplemeter data is on a weekly basis, unlike the daily collection and reporting in most other markets. Since we follow a weekly collection, the sample is determined for each of the seven days. (after rejecting viewing which does not satisfy the threshold levels of various criteria that the viewing data is supposed to fulfill). As is obvious, this effective sample could be different across the days. Hence, we actually could end up having 7 different samples for each of the seven days. The question now arises as to which of these seven figures to use for projection to the universe. This is the part where the difference in the reach and rating calculations occur.
A rating figure is calculated based on the sample for each day. Hence , on Monday, if the effective sample is 95, then this 95 is projected to the universe figures. On Tuesday, the effective sample could be 96 - then this 96 is projected to the universe figures. And so on. Hence the actual weights attached to the sample could vary, though the universe figures remain the same. Once the sample figures have been projected, the ratings are calculated. These rating figures can then be averaged across days , if desired, since a rating figure can be averaged across time periods.
On the other hand, a reach figure cannot be averaged. Hence, if the sample is different across each of the days, the dilemma is as to which of the effective sample to use for the projection purpose. Hence they designate one day as REFERENCE DAY. The effective sample on the reference day is the one which is used for projection purposes and hence for all further calculations for reach figures. The reference day changes depending on the period chosen. In India, the research agency has fixed the reference day to be the last day of the period chosen. So, if I vary my period of analysis, the reference day changes and hence my reach figures change. This is where the confusion occurs ! Since a rating calculation does not have a reference day, the ratings don't change, irrespective of the period chosen.
So please let us know if this is the norm followed across countries ? Is the concept of reference day valid ? How do other countries deal with this ?
The Guru is not aware of this method in use elsewhere. It does not seem that it would have significant effect unless there are substantial daily variations .
I am involved in a campaign to develop a website for a shot at that advertising money thats out there. We are going to be able to financially promote our site which will be viewed as a premium site on nationwide televison through 30 second commercials aired during primetime hours. Yes its expensive but we are hoping the exposure will make us a household name. We are prepared financially to do a year of advertising in this manner. But the one thing we are nervous about is the advertisning. Who and how do we approach to fill the slots that are going to be available for our inception which will be before christmas? Do you beleive that our adspace will be considered valuable because of the exposure our ads will bring? All I can tell you is that our site will be a top not site involving promotions. But the buzz is that it will fly. I would love to hear your advice on how to make contact and with who. Thanks so much.
The Guru is not aware of this being done elsewhere. It seems that if sample variance is small, as it should be with a meter, there will not be any significant effect from this method.
Hello, Guru! What is media inflation and how is it calculated ? Thanks.
Like any other economic inflation, this simply refers to the price increase from one time to another.
Who sells the space for bus wraps in Houston?
Houston municipal buses do not carry advertising. However,
TDI does sell bus wraps on coach (tour) buses in Houston.
Guru, I am looking for the top web sites for children ages 6-12.
The Guru does not believe any of the web traffic measurers are reporting this demographic. You may consider major sites / site failies that logically would draw this audience, like Disney's.
What response should I expect from traditional advertising (TV and Newspapers)for my website? I am most interested in trying to anticipate how much new traffic will come to my site and what effect "branding" will have on my historical click thru.
Is there a syndicated source for competitive media spending on the internet?
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) has begun an internet service in addition to their other media reports.
I have been asked to learn more about advertising on the Internet, i.e., opportunities for clients, evaluating options, etc. Could you offers some ideas on resources or conferences that are avaiable to help educate those of us who are new to this medium?Thanks.
Dear Guru; following your answer on Aug 11 recency / chocolate snack bar, and since chocolate snacks are eaten on impulse and out of the house, should we use more long term outdoor than TV ? Thank you
If one continues to reduce "recency" to its most basic level, out-of-home media would always be the first and best option, since they are perfectly continuous. But, all the other elements of media consideration must still be applied to the equation.
Do you have a list of current MEDIA OPTIONS available?
I'm asking for non-traditional, new media vehicles that
reach a demographically and geographically targeted audience.
So the Guru assumes website banners are already on your list. There are several web-based enhancements and variations:
Interactive Banners with pull-down menus
Mini-sites (multipage, fully interactive, full motion ads/brochures)
Other multimedia web options.
Multi media cd-rom magazines seem to have had their day and passed
Essentially, "new media" are new ways to engage the senses and add new dimensions: Print engaged vision
only, then radio engaged hearing, then TV did vision and hearing plus motion. Cable merely fractionalized TV and the internet added activity to sight, sound and motion.
What might be next? Cinema advertising has been very big in Europe for years and seems to be growing here. Advertising delivered on the telephone, to pay for long distance calling is underway in at least two formats:
1: listen to some ads to build a credit of long distance minutes and
2: calls interupted by ads.
In the same vein, we see another new trend, free computers which continuously display ads in a part of the screen and free internet services (ISPs) which do the same.
Is there a difference in Reach for the same level of
GRPs if they are run in one week versus four weeks?
It seems like there should be, but most media planning
tools don't allow for a difference. They give the
same reach result regardless of the length of time the
GRPs are running. I'm interested in your perspective.
Yes, one week reach is higher than four week reach from the same number of GRPs, particularly in radio. The reason is that, while the weekly cume of stations or of the medium, does not vary much from the four week potential, your chances of capturing more of this potential is greater when GRPs are run, well dispersed, in a single week.
In TV the enormous dispersion of program options and audience fragmentation makes this less of an issue. In radio, where buys are typically on just a handful of top-ranked stations, based on the target demo, the difference can be felt.
Telmar's radio planning tools allow you to set the number of weeks in reach calculations and see the difference.
I've been asked to do a post-buy analysis for a business-to-business advertiser. What components should be included in the analysis?
Any specifications of the buying instructions should be included in the post. These might include:
Greetings, wise Guru! I am interested in children's influence in their parents' purchase decisions. While I know that the SMRB Kids Study measures children's purchases, there is no mention of kids' influence over their parents' purchasing behavior.
Do you know of any data source, journal or book that might provide some information on this topic? As children become more techno- and media-savvy, it seem ssafe to assume that they're more involved consumers. However, there doesn't seem to be much data on this topic. Any suggestions?
Dear Guru, in regards to broadcast, my company advertises on national cable networks only. Our media buying company submitted a post-buy analysis for 2Q, but did not include reach/frequency info. When I asked for this information, they said "it's not standard to give cable r/f" is this true and if so, why? Thank you.
The Guru agrees that it is not "standard" to include delivered R&F in a post analysis. It is probably not relevant, if the buy was built around a planned R&F and the post shows that the buy delivered as estimated.
However, what is standard, is for a service to respond to a client's question. If the buy delivered out of line with the estimate, the service should, at minimum recalculate the R&F. If the issue is running an actual R&F of the schedule, based on spot by spot use of the Nielsen cume system, significant expense might be involved, and this could be open to negotiation.
I'm interested in attention Rate in Print Media.
(Example effect of size,color,placement in newspaper)
Can you give me any data?
In addition, How do you measure and analysis of attention Rate?
The classic measurments in this area come from Starch.
Attantion rate can be used to index values of different ads units or publications. These indices can be applied to cpms or audiences to reevaluate media plans.
I am in charge of PR and Marketing Dept in a telecommunications company. I have 5 years of experience of working for a TV and radio ad placement agency in Europe. I recently got the assignment to set up a web ad agency for my current employer. What do you think my first steps should be to approach the issue professionally? Thanks a lot in advance.
Study the structure of traditional agencies, and think about what need to be differerent to deal with web advertising.
The Guru doesn't think the differences will be extensive; a different skills set for creative staff, different background for media people. If you are unfamiliar with web advertisng yourself, get a consultant who knows the game.
Do you know of any media planning courses/classes/
or bootcamps that a novice can attend?
The Guru doesn't believe that these courses are of much use to media professionals; they may be helpful for others involved in advertising. Media skills are best learned in entry level media positions. In any case, the Media School and the
Media Buying Academy, conduct such seminars, and advertise them in ad trade publications like Ad Age.
Are there any associations, etc. that offer good Internet Media Buying Seminars? If so, who are they and how do I get a hold of them? Thanks.
The Guru has not heard of any, but the most likley sources are IAB and C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
1- Please let me know SQARE model that SQAD use to calculate CPP for TV and Radio. Please let me know the detail or any link I can find more information or books...
2- Do you know any model for reach vs GRPs? Our client ask us to show the data like that. The problem that we try to find the suitable daypart mix, station mix, medium mix that is good for our advertising strategy but we don't have any optimiser programs. We have only ratings data like Telescope and Prinscope of ACNielsen. Do you know any example to solve this kind of problem?
3- Our client also want to have a model to set advertising budget to get for example 80+ reach but we can not know until it happen. How to solve this issue?
A general explanation of SQAD's model is available from SQAD. They will give you the same information they would give the Guru. But the essence is manipulating actual buying data in real situations, provided confidentially by actual media buyers.
GRP's and reach do not have any standard realtionship, except within given media and population parameters. You are writing from Viet Nam, where Televison audience cume patterns are likely to be quite different than in the U.S. Even within the U.S., Hispanic TV reach curves are very, very differerent than the General Market TV reach curves.
The way to build a model, to oversimplify, is to collect a great number of actual reaches of real schedules, and then plot their frequency against reach in a regresssion analysis, which gives you the formula for the "curve." Frequency is plotted, rather than reach, because frequency is a straight line while reach is a curve. The curve formula then allows you to create a model with a reach solution for any GRP input. The more variables you use to build different curves, the more sophisticated your model can be.
Can you tell me of a source where I can get broad, general cost and audience estimates for the major media forms? As an example, the average cost for a network TV 30-second unit by daypart and the average audience it might be expected to generate for each . . . similar cost estimate for a network radio 60-second unit by daypart . . . etc.? I guess what I'm looking for is sort of a broad strokes "cheat-sheet" on the major media forms. Thanks.
A great deal of this data can be found here in AMIC's Ad Data area.
The formula for calculating the reach of media vehicles is (a+b)-a*b.
Please tell me the "N" formula for it,
or you have a different formula for calculating reach?
Your formula is for " random probabilty," which is used to combine two different media, based on the assumption that their audience duplication is purely at random. This formula is not appropriate to combining different vehicles in the same medium, which typically have more than merely random duplication.
There are various, quite complex formulae for computing reach of various vehicles of the same medium, among them the Beta Binomial, Lamda function, and others. The Guru is not familiar with your reference to "the 'N' formula."
I buy a base level of 500 Ad 18-49 TRP's per week; a typical flight will run 4 weeks --- for a total of 2000 TRP's. From this base buy, we usually split the base buy in 1/2 trafficking in two different spots (1000 / 1000 TRP's). At what level do you think that wear out will occur? Thanks for your help.
What is your definition of wearout? A frequency level? A decline in ad awareness? A sales decline? There are may ways to set wearout.
One of the oldest, and easier to use because it is defined entirely by media measurement, is a certain frequency level in the next-to-highest quintile, perhaps a frequency of 20.
Depending on daypart mix, this might mean wearout at about 2000 GRPs for a spot.
How would I find out how many PBS affiliates a
specific PBS program is carried on and in what markets?
Why not just ask PBS?
Thanks for your service. I came across the following sentences in an article "The advent of broadband is also expected to help accelerate the migration of ad dollars away from the traditional means". What does the term "broadband" imply here?.
"Broadband" is equivalent to "high bandwidth." These refer to the new, much higher speed, home internet delivery systems, like DSL and cable modems, which are up to 200x as fast as the currently common 56K modems, and even faster than T1 lines. More speed means more data transmitted in "real time," so that full screen, full sound and motion video can be delivered.
Is there any source that shows the comparative cost of advertising media from market-to-market? Sort of a media cost index by market?
Media Market Guide and Snapshots from Media Market Resources.
How do you plan your media buy using the "recency" philosophy when advertising products with a long cycle re-purchase period such as an automobile?
The central concept of recency is that the message received closest to a purchase decision is the most effective message. Continuous advertising will reach more people at any given time and is best for products purchased all the time, no matter how long the purchase cycle. That is, no matter whether it's 4 weeks or four years. So the only question is whether there are always people in the market for cars. This doesn't mean you shouldn't vary levels at peak selling times.
While surfing the internet I came across a company caled "media bying academy" who offer a 4 days intence course with hands on information. They look good but before spending the high price they ask for + flying to the states for the course I wanted your opinion - are they good, are they credible? will their course contribute to someone working in the field of advertising? and any other remark would be mostly appreciated.
The Guru has never met anyone who attended this course.
Those selling web advertising cite recall statistics --- recall of web advertising versus television advertising. I personally do not think that you are able to make an apples to apples comparison between the two as the mediums are so very different.
Those who are surfing the world wide web are there for a reason and more inclined to tune out much advertising --- as opposed to television which is more a passive medium.
Are there any studies or statistics that speak to this subject?
The Guru agrees that web users more readily tune out ads than do TV viewers. But that is why recall is a useful measure. It lets you know what the person exposed retains from an ad exposure. If the tested exposures are "real-world" and not in a an artificial laboratory situation, the Guru believes recall is a valid metric.
Hi, Media Guru...
I got doubt from college(I know is a silly question), i just hope that you can answer for me, when i was in college ,a professor told us that there was a mega company that do once advertising in the moon, (he explain that you can see that brand (logo) in the moon with a spot light). With all your years of experience have hear something about it. Thanks
A myth stemming from someone's humorous thought.
This question pertains to banner / badge positioning on the web. Say there were 8 total badge positions to advertisers - The first five of the badge positions were sold to national advertisers, the remaining three to local advertisers.
The positions sold to national and local are on a first come first served basis --- with the first 5 positions being sold to national advertisers, the remaining 3 to local. The banners are positioned vertically down the web page.
As for local advertisers, they would receive the 6th, 7th, 8th position scrolling downward on the page. If you were a local advertiser, which would be the best position to maintain on the page --- first following the national advertiser (position #6) or the last (position #8).
Thanking you in advance for your help.
First, keep in mind that "national" and "local" are essentially meaningless on the internet, unless you mean that different ads will be shown to people based on where they are located. This, too, is a relatively empty concept; someone using AOL or Compuserve, for example, appears to be in Virginia, and similar locational oddities effect users of other large national ISPs.
Generally, the Guru believes the higher on the page, the better. There is more chance to be on the first screen the user sees arriving on the page, without scrolling. And there is little likliehood that the user will know whether an ad is national or local. One exception: if getting clicks is your sole goal, there was once some research showing a good click rate for right-hand, low-on-the-page positions, apparently because they were accidentally clicked by visitors intending to scroll down.
A client asked me a difficult question - is there a difference between advertising on the right side of a bus and the left side of a bus?
Is there any research on this question?
Asssuming you mean on the outside, aside from the obvious, that
there shouldn't be much difference. And the Guru never heard of a bus advertising company being willing to sell right versus left, anyway.
But, if there is any such research, the big transit advertising companies, like TDI would be most likley to have it.
Dear Media Guru:
I'm doing some research for a large grocery store chain. Do you know of research showing the effectivenss of weekly food circulars? Also, do you know of studies done on grocery store advertising or successful grocery store TV ad campaigns? Thanks!!
Best source would be the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I currently sell screen printing, p.o.s. signage, fabricated plastic and
Sheetmetal. I have been concentrating on the point of purchase display
Industry as it is what my background is in and my companies have a lot of
Experience with point of purchase houses. Recently I have been knocking on
The doors of advertising agencies. Should I be asking for the media buyer
When calling or should I be asking for someone else. I know ad agencies
Come across all types of promotion opportunities and I know I can help
It would be exceedingly rare for Media Planners to be invloved in POS materials. It's somewhat rare for agencies, except in the creative end. If you talk to agencies, see Print Producers, or Account execs. Some agencies may have a promotions department who deal with what you are selling.
Dear Media Guru,
THere is an optimiser being marketed by one Dutch company and is called "Lookie". Have you seen or heard of it? Can you please tell me what are its features and where can I find more information on optimisers in general and Lookie in particular?
Thanks in advance!
A planner seeking enlightenment....
The Guru does not know "Lookie." Telmar's optimizer is TRANSMIT. Most optimizer suppliers will have data on their web sites.
What's your take on roadblocking? A thing of the past due to the erosion of network tv to cable?
Click here to see past Guru responses on "roadblocking."
I work for a nonprofit organization and am interested
in learning more about the possibility of placing free
or reduced price public service ads on web sites.
Your best bet might be to work through the AdCouncil.
Where can I find information on-line regarding the top 20 cable networks in the country ranked by viewership? I have already searched the NCTA site and the CAB site...any other suggestions?
Go to UltimateTV.
I've been offered a Marketing Manager position in a
non commercial fm station in a top 30 market. Where do I get information related to this type of station?
Your question takes you outside the sphere of advertisng and hence outside the Guru's scope.
Perhaaps National Public Radio has resources which will be helpful.
Can you give me any data or modus operandi for forcasting the response to a redemption (price off) offer through Magazines or Dailies. For a category like say Ice creams or Personal care products
is there any different in how people watch tv on weekend comparing to weekday
is it right to say that on weekend the viewers are more relax, listening ect. and
please dont send me to the library i need a fast answer
Your assumption may be right or wrong. The Guru hasn't seen any such study. If you won't consult research resources, the Guru can't help any further.
Where can I find detailed information supporting the importance of local news? I have to argue in its favor, and I'm looking for statistical research to back me up. Any web sites or recent publications would be greatly appreciated....Thanxxx
It depends on your definition of "importance." Ratings/audience data come from one source, sales success or imagery transfer from another, PR value possibly another still. Try the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Do you have any information on companies that track TV and radio advertising creative? We are trying to get a copy of a radio ad that ran this spring to make sure the creative is different from our client's ads. Please let us know what resources you are familiar with. Thankyou!
I am a media planner for an advertising agency.
I am working on a media plan for the 1999-2000 winter season (November till April).
The product is a well-established brand chocolate snack bar.
The plan consists mainly of TV advertising.
I am thinking of applying the Recency strategy throughout the whole season.
My question to you -
how much of the weekly schedule should be in Prime Time?
What is the minimum required and what are the reasons?
Can you refer me to any literature on this subject?
Recency is about delivering reach with as much continuity as possible, so that your message is always reaching the most people as close to a purchase decison as possible.
Recency does not specify a daypart mix. Of course, in working on a recency based plan, you will explore various mixes to establish which works best to deliver continuous reach for you budget/ Thus the cost of building reach with prime is a key factor.
Do you have a precise definition for an "owned and
operated" television station?
It's a station which is owned by and run by the network with which it is affiliated.
Typically, when is the upfront selling period for network
radio? Is there a gereral time of year on the network
radio "calender" for this period?
Network Radio doesn't have an upfront season like network TV, when they preview new programs and sell a large percentage of their year's inventory over the span of a week or so.
The radio networks are always happy to make a good deal for a year's commitment at any time, of course, and do most of these deals on a calendar year basis, most often in the August-October period, with about 30-40% of inventory getting sold.
I want to know if exist (I believe that the answer is yes), a specific
soft based in the "clicktrus ", for e.g. if I have a banner in internet
how many people have been there "clicked"(in the banner) . Know how many
persons visited a specific place or banner in a web page, for my knowledge
or estadis tic.
The Guru understands your question to be whether there is any software that would allow you, as an advertiser to track clisk on your own banner or on the pages where the banner appears.
The Guru does not think there is such software.
There is software which does ad-serving, such as is used by DoubleClick, which tracks the data you refer to.
There is web server software which can track the information for a site you operate.
There is syndicated research, such as Nielsen//Netratings, which can report on a statistical projection basis on banner views.
Hi Media Guru,
Do you know what is the perfect level of prime time
in a new campaign or in maintenens.?
what is the relation betwin awerness and high/low prime time level ?
These are not issues which have answers apart form other aspects of plans.
Click here to see past Guru responses about levels.
I need your help. I'd like to know which are the magazine titles directed to Economy and Business that are more read and their circulation (all over the world).
Where can I get a list of media planning companies in US?
Where can i find research on the effectiveness levels of a :30 TV spot vs. a :60 TV spot (general and direct)?
I am in the business of selling banner inventory and it is like pulling teeth to get in touch with media planners and when i do make contact they blow me off.can you offer some advice on makeing contact and working with planners.
Try Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
can you give me some advice on makeing contact with ad
agency media planners.I sell online ad inventory.
Otherwise, like any media salesman, build a target account list, find out what agency handles it and call to find the planner. It is annoying to busy planners to have sales men call to say "I'm selling "X," so which of your clients can uses it?"
If you think your offereing is of general interest, you might talk to media directors to arrange a departmental presentation.
Have good materials ready to mail to planners who have some interest. Planners are legitimatley too busy to sit down for a meeting with every salesman who wants to. They have to judge before meeting whether there is potential use for what you are selling in their media plans.
Dear Media Guru,
Could you please explain what Tapscan is and how it is used by media planners & buyers? Thanks.
Tapscan is software which allows buyers to evaluate buys and media by manipulating data including the syndicated research, such as Nielsen, Arbitron and Scarborough.
I would like to know the following:
1) how to set the effective reach/frequency for various category of
Products viz fmcg, durable, etc.
2) what would be the ideal effective r&f for various categories
3) should the selection of program be based on cprp or do you have any
1) & 2) Effective reach does not depend on category, but on analysis of several factors:
Some of these factors will be generalizable for categories, but they will be narrow categories, like "imported sports cars priced from $50,000 to $75,000," and not as broad as "durables."
Click here to see past Guru
comments on effective reach
3) Program selection may be based on CPRP, but there are several other factors:
Where can I find TV CPM RATES for demos?
The most popular source is probably SQAD.
I am searching for a directory listing the top Yellow Page publications by market (for advertising purposes).
I looked on the SRDS web site, and they don't seem to have anything that would serve my needs.
Are you aware of anything out there that might help me?
It strikes the Guru that any Yellow Pages serving a specific geography will have the same coverage, since Yellow Pages are distributed door-to-door in the area covered.
Most likely the local telephone company is as good a source as any for information in a given location.
Otherwise, a Yellow Pages advertising specialist, like Wahlstrom or others found by a search engine are helpful, if your business premise doesn't rule out using such resources.
I am a media planner in India.
We have a research agency which provides us data on television viewership. The data is collected by a peoplemeter which has a picture matching technology. The problem I am facing is that the TRPs Or TVRs as they call them are calculated on the basis of the sample on that particular day, whereas Reach for a programme/ spot is calculated based on the sample on the sunday of the last week of your analysis. To give an example, if I have a spot on the 1st of June and I select my period of analysis as 31/5/99 (Monday) to 13/6/99 (Sunday)a period of 2 weeks. The TRP for my spot would be calculated based on the sample of the 1st of June, but reach would be calculated on the basis of the sample on the 13th of June.
This gives me two major problems. The 1st being that my TRP and Reach figures have little relation. The 2nd being that the reach figure given for the given spot on the 1st of June would vary depending on the last week of my analysis.
This is a problem that manifests itself when I try to plot reach curves. If I state that my brand has achieved 50% reach by June, I could be in trouble the next month where the reach figure might actually drop purely because of a change in sample size. I would like to ask you if you face the same problem in your country. Or is there a better system to report data. My research agency says that this is the best method, I refuse to agree. Please do enlighten me.
The system you describe does not make any sense to the Guru. Ratings and reach should be based on the projection to the population represented by the sample, so changes in daily sample size would not be a factor in the base. Usually, samples across days can be added to increas the sample for a period of time.
Do you know anything about the web-site www.adoutlet.com?
As the Guru understands it, Adoutlet is a site that sells ecxcess ad inventory for web sites. The transaction is a simple sale, not an "auction" as at some other sites.
What % of a budget should be allocated to on-line advertising vs. off-line (radio, billboards, events) for a Men 18-34 target. It is a retail store chain launching a web-site.
There are no simple answers here. If your budget is low, perhaps 0% or 100% for on-line.
Reaching a large portion of internet users can be incredibly expensive in on-line media. If you can find relevant and targeted sites, start with them, but the traditional media used to shop for the goods you web store will sell may be far more productive per dollar spent.
Dear Guru,We need viewership and viewership shares accross news channels vis a vis entertainment channels.
Only an indicative data of the curent scenario in the
USA and Europe.
For details, you would have to acquire the syndicated research, but you'll find some of the data at UltimateTV
Where could we find media cost inflation indicies for as far back as 1975. We have a client who wants to look at historical CMR spending data and use an inflation factor to adjust the spending and express it in 1999 dollars . Thanks so much for your help!
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) is the first place I would look, they certainly ought to have tracking on that. The common source for media inflation back in 1975 was a trade publication called Media Decisions, but the Guru doesn't know who might have inherited their archives. You might try MediaWeek . Some agencies have been tracking cost since 1975, and one, McCann, has had some of the data published every year by
Dear Guru, I have a Magazine analysis question, your early reply is appreciated.
Media Analysis in Magazines (it includes magazine’s position and readers analysis), We usually study it through three directions:
1. The quantification demographic analysis – including target’s sex?age?education?income,…
2.The quantification analysis – including the positioning of magazines?the connection between
product and target audience,… and anything else?
3.Media contact behavior – the influence of advertising positioning and page size,… and anything else?
Is there any important I didn’t notice or any researches for magazines I can read, and where to get the researches?
The big missing item, which may only be possible in regard to direct response, is ad response by magazine. Depending on your history, this may be trackable anyway.
what is considered the effective number of insertions over a year in 1.) daily newspapers, 2.) monthly magazines, 3.) bi-monthly magazines, 4.) weekly magazines. My client's campaign is business to business. We buy print such as WSJ, Forbes, etc and trade print. I can answer this on a common sense basis, keeping in mind the 3+ effective frequency theory, but is there research on what levels
are most effective/optimal?
First, review adjacent Query #2693 for comment on setting effective frequency.
Traditional planning has various theories about minimum levels in print media. It used to be common to set a minimum of one issue out of four in publications with frequencies ranging from weekly to monthly. Weekly frequency was more the norm in newspapers.
But this all has to be taken in a context of
Effective 4 week frequencies above 3 are difficult to acheive in the print media you list; effective reach like this is more the province of broadcast, while print is more often aimed at depth of message.
For research on print reach / frequency and effectiveness try Newsweek
Media Research Index and the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
what is grp
GRP stands for "Gross Rating Points:"
Every ad has a number of people or homes in its audience (impressions). This number, divided by the population base for the relevant demographic, is the advertisement's "rating." The sum of all the ratings in the schedule is the GRPs. Or, the sum of the schedule's impressions divided by the population base = GRPs.
our peoplemeter claim that we must weight commercial lenght according its duration for example: if the commercial lenght is 15 second and the rating of the commercial is 20% so the multiplie the rating 20% in 0.5 and the weighted 15" commercial is 10% (the ration between the commercial length to 30 second
i claim that it is wrong since they want to put an impact index and the rating is a quantity index which tells as how many people watch? and if the same people so 30" commercial and 15" second commercial it is means that the same amount of peolple so the commercial
besides, the meseaure unit on the meter is 60"
and last why the dont weight reach and frequency to commercial?
who is right?
Commercial length has no effect on reach unless your peoplemeter considers second-by-second turnover, so that some additional people might be reached in the latter 15 seconds of a :30. Even in this case, the ratio would not be 2:1.
For all practical purposes, any length commercial at the same time in the same program has the same reach.
Impact however, can differ by having a longer message. When fifteens were new, most studies fount they had about 75% of the impact of a :30, based on recall.
Hi. Are there any clear rules for calculating the level of spending increase needed to achieve an X% increase in brand awareness?
Certainly, no "clear" rules. For one thing, it changes depending on the current level. I.e. a 100% increase in awarenes, from 10% to 20% requires a different spending change than a 50% increase from 60% to 90%.
The choice of added media and base media are also key factors.
The Guru speculates that the closest you can get, to calculating a percent increase in awareness through advertising spending is to calculate the cost of making the same increase in reach, sustained over a time frame comaprable to the base period.
what's the definition of "sponsorship" in online-advertising
and why and when should an advertiser select this form
of advertising over banner- advertising
Sponsorship of a site is whatever the site decides it is. Typically, it can be having the only banners on a site, a special feature or page within a site, logos and other non-banner presence. On giant sites it may be sole presence in a specialized area.
It is selected when image building, branding, or awareness are more important than click-thru's.
I would like maximum information on comparisons of 15 and 30 seconds ads in the aspects of - consumer recall, efficiency and if using both 30 and 15 secon ads is effective?
Try Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Can you tell me about media conferences, really serious and proffesionel ones held in the US and Europe about media planning or other aspects of advertising. Again only the ones considered really worthwhile.
Thank you in advance,
When comparing the impact of differenct media I have
often used the base-line of a 30 second TV spot having
the equivalent impact or weight as a 1/4 page newspaper
ad or a full page magazine ad. Are there any
comparable measures for Radio and Outdoor?
Could you refer me to any studies on: 1) on-line usage
by demographic by time of day; and 2) on-line usage by
This level of detail would be available only from "user- centric" metered measurements like those from MediaMetrix.
1.Can I get 2nd Q SQAD CPP by narket rank?
2. Where can I find Supermarket information, such as end isle values, value of displays by foot traffic, etc.?
I am planning on an account that is promoting India as a destination in the US, UK and Germany. While the primary target audience are the people who would like to live within the comfort of 5 star/4 star luxury hotels while touring India, the secondary target group would be the travel and tour operators in those countries. I would appreciate any online and updated info regarding media (magazines, newspapers, TV channels)which can help me select the media vehicles for these markets. Any other info or suggestions that could help media strategy and planning would be a big help.
Audience measurements by services like Simmons , MRI and The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study have their parallels in UK and Germany. These data are sold for profit, but you can typically find magazines who have purchaed the data and are willing to do analyses comparing theselves to their competitors. Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) in the US, and International Media Guide in Europe list magazines by category.
What is the role and job definition of a media planner in a creative agency v/s that of an AOR agency ?
Does the creative agency media planner need to give detailed plan schedules which include channelwise grps in order to justify reach/freq objectives to the AOR agency?
"AOR," or Agency of Record is a buying function and there is no inherent reason for a planner's role to be different. The planner should not need to "justify" anything to an AOR, assuming plans are approved by the client before buying instructions are communicated to the AOR.
Of course, there can be situations where specific rules have been set up going beyond the typical AOR role.
What is book-ending, road blocking and stripping ?
These are descriptions of commercial or program scheduling techniques.
Bookending places the same commercial in the first and last positions of commercial pods.
Road blocking airs commercials at the same moment on multiple channels, to maximize reach by avoiding duplication. The idea goes back to the days when just three networks had virtually all the viewing audience at a point in time, and not only was duplication avoided, but virtually all viewers at the moment, a 90+ share of viewing were reached with just three commercials. Today, when most viewers have over 30 program choices at any time, road blocks are impractical and practically impossible.
Stripping refers to programs, typically of the sort broadcast in daytime or fringe time at the same time each day Monday-Friday. Buying a one-a-day commercial schedule in such a program is also sometimes called stripping.
I need to compare SQAD 2nd quarter 99 with 2nd quarter 98 for the Austin, Tx. market. Where can I find SQAD 2nd quarter 98 data (for free)??
Also - in your opinion - is SQAD accurate?
would have what you need, but currently we are displaying 2d quarter '99.
SQAD is in business to sell its data, so there should not be any legitimate free source of additional SQAD data.
The Guru finds SQAD data accurate, within its stated limitations.
How are weighted averages calculated?
Each value in a series is multiplied by its appropriate weight and the sum of the products is divided by the sum of the weights. Example:
I would like to have information about segmentation for an airline company. My e-mail address is: email@example.com
thank you for your help and I look forward to hear from you.
I'm doing research on radio advertising effectiveness.
The main question is: which factors influence,
in what way, the effectiveness of radiocommercials?
There is not much literature available on this subject,
so I want you to ask if you know some relevant books,
articles, websites or anything that can help me?
thanks a lot.
Jolanda van As,
There should be a wealth of information and guidance available from the The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB).
In addition try Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. and ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization.
Thanks a lot for this service. I would like to gain more information regarding the effectiveness of branding & sponsorship of high rated TV programme vs spot buy. Also would request to tell me ho effective if branding of high viewership prime time program [ 40% viewership] as against a branding of non-prime time program with a viewerhip of 25%
The Guru's opinion is that regular sponsorship of a specific program or program type (beauty pageant, auto racing, etc.) can contribute to branding.
On the other hand, rating size, per se, is not much of a factor. The consumer is little aware of how many other people are watching the same program as he or she is.
I believe that Starmedia.com is ahuge success in South america.Can you tell me what were the marketing inputs?What is their positioning? And what did they do differently?
Starmedia is a web Portal serving South America in Spanish and Portugese only.
Their greatest success may be financial, rather than as media. Other, similar, Spanish Portal sites, like Yupi make advertisng claims to be the most popular.
A Portal is a site generally combining search engine, information resources and features like shopping or chat. Portal refers to the overall concept that these sites want to be set as the "homepage" in your browser, and become your entryway to the internet. The difference the Guru sees in Starmedia versus other portals is a different language.
Dear Guru, could you pls tell me what is recency? How to use it?
This is propobably the Guru's most frequently discussed topic.
Click here to see over 3 dozen Guru responses about recency .
Dear Guru I work in an European Media Agency ( Media Planning and buying). I am Interested in Internet Advertising media. Where can I find Seminar´s, courses, etc (on-line and off-line) on this subject?
1) Watch the advertising and media trade publications in your country for event announcements.
3) Use a search engine.
I am doing my first on-line plan for one of our clients, and I have two questions: 1. Do you have a good comprehensive resource for on-line terms to educate our client? 2. Our client is asking "Why Internet Advertising?" Is there a good place to find data showing the decline in TV viewing vs. the increase of time spent online? Thank you.
2) The supposed fall-off in TV due to the internet is not a good reason to use internet advertising. It is essentially a myth. The facts are more like among those who use the internet 30% report using less TV. But this is 30% of the 40% of the population who use the internet, or only 12% of everyone. Further, this 12% are each reporting something like 5% less TV viewing.
Your reasons should be that the internet has sites with strong appeal to the target you're seeking or the message is particulalry strongly presented in certain internet environments. Do you want to sell dog food on pet-oriented sites?
my client wishes to advertise for a sale of his plastic mould machinery for sale ad in the world's top 5 publications. i want to know the rates , frequency, circulation of leading newspapers / magazines which will be in my target audience. please help me. this is very urgent. thank you.
This kind of ad is completely inappropriate for the "world's top 5 publications."
For the top 5 publications read by people who might be interested in plastic mold machinery, try Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) business publication resource.
Other than from the NAA, are there any independent studies that measure ad noticeability or recall by ad size in newspapers.
Individual newspapers may have their own studies. When advertisers do them, they are generally not published. The best collection of published studies is the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Dear guru, can we use "cost per reach" to judge or evaluate 2 different TV bursts in a same on-air period. If yes, how to do?? And any restriction or consideration in this case?
The Guru has discussed cost per reach previously.
Lower cost per reach is better than higher cost per reach.
Guru, what resources are available who are quoting "click-thru rates" for advertising networks. Who is the most reliable resource to get this information? For instance, our competitors are quoting 1%+ click-thru rates, some analysts say click-thru rates are around .65% and falling. Who should I beleive?
There's a lot of latitiude for definition of terms. First of all understand that click rate is much more a function of the banners itself than the site it's on. Animation, provocative words, colors have all been proven to have a major effect.
Second, new banners do much better at first. And full banners do better than smaller ones. A site may quote its full banner, first week shown click rate, while an industry average would span more time and include more sizes.
At what point in spot market TV buying does it become more efficient to buy network?
It varies depending on demographic, daypart and whether you are buying simply based on market size or based on something particular to your advertiser like market sales rank. But, assuming a Primetime Houshold :30 CPP is about $14,000, you could add up market CPPs at our SQAD page until you hit that number.
In Prime the answer might be the top 20 markets; in Day, the top 65.
I was wondering what you would say the precise
difference is between Out-of-Home & Placed-based Media.
How would you categorize the two. Is it really OOH
Place based media can be more than in-store, such as stadium, airport, restaurant bathrooms, etc. Otherwise you have the essence, it's a specific type of out-of-home.
Could you please explain the formula for calculating median age for a TV Network based on AA(000). Also would looking at the Median age based on Reach(000), make sense.
The median of anything is the number that falls in the middle when everything is arranged in order. So to find median age, ideally you need to find out how many viewers are two years old, how many are three, etc up to 99+. If you can't get it by single year, get the smallest brackets possible. Then you find the age which has an equal number of people older than that agaand an equal number younger, this is the median age. If you are working with age goups instead of single years, you may have to assume that the median is the mid-point of the median age group, weighted according to the number older and younger.
For example, suppose there are 10 million viewers, and there are:
2 million age 2-11 years
2 million 12-17
3 million 18-24
1 million 25-34
1 million 35-49
1 million 50+.
With 10 million viewers you need to find the person who has 5 million people older than he or she in the audience and 5 million younger.
This person must be somewhere in the 18-24 group, because we can tell there are 4 million younger than this group and 3 million older.
Rather than just pick the mid-point of 18-24, you should interpolate according to the other numbers: the mid-point age should be 4/7 along the span 18-24, toward the younger end, or 20 years old.
What would the median age of the reach do for you? It's dependent on the viewing frequency of the network which may not correspond to the ad placements of your schedule.
Dear Media Guru,
What are the top 5 advertising agencies in the world ? In Asia?
An annual issue of Ad Age lists agency rankings.
"why" and "when" a company should advertise on the Web? Please inform me on any relative sites!
The process of deciding why and when for the web is the same as for any other medium, is the audience your target and does the medium deliver the message effectively. We shouldn't see the web as a big mystery beyond this. It has many unique features, but it must still pass basic media criteria.
Who is the audience? It's young, upscale and a bit male skewed, though there are older skewed and female skewed sites.
It's 100% computer users. It's international, but still mostly U.S.
What kind of messages can it deliver effectively? Not full sound and motion. Though this is possible, not nearly everyone has the capability. Technology and entertainment are definitely right for the web. Anything where interactivity is helpful.
how do you think internet media agencies should be organized? do you think that new media agencies should be organized differently than that of traditional agencies? reasons?
also, in your experience, what sort of structure have you seen as the most efficient for a media dept?
1) Media-only agencies whether they work in new media or traditional media are, of course, organized differently than full service agencies (no creative, or production staff, smaller account services staff, etc).
Otherwise, they need planners, buyers, researchers and accounting, like any media firm. What might be different is the need for strategists, or futurists or some such title, because the internet is making its own rules as it goes along. At one point the new-media firm that created revenue-based advertising placements for CD-Now made a big breakthrough. Now the press is talking about the passing of on-line advertising as we know it, in favor of e-commerce and other direct revenue business models.
2)When the Guru entered the ad business, media department structure was quite different. Beginners ideally started in media research, to learn the basics. Otherwise, the starting positions was assistant buyer, then buyer, Buyers were "promoted" to assistant planner, planner, supervisor and so on. Buying was the junior work, planning the heavy thinking. This all changed when media services began in 1969. To compete with specialized buying services, agencies made buying a separate, specialist group. Was this more efficient? Probably not, it was a response to competitive pressure. In the Guru's opinion, buying became better, from a standpoint of value, through buying services' appearance, though within agencies, buyers became less answerable to planners and therefore, further from advertising goals.
What's the most efficient organization of a media department? From a get-the-job-done perspective, a pyramidal, hierarchical structure, with as little top echelon as possible, and respect for the workers. Clear lines of responsibility and authority.
From a client service perspective, the opposite; all senior level staff in all tasks.
I have spent a couple of hours searching
through your archives and those of Newsweek's
Media Research Index and have yet to find a
direct answer to my query. Perhaps one does
I seek a minimum response rate for a full page
ad (or perhaps 3, 1/3 vertical ads) for a new
product. The ad contains an 800 number and the
product itself targets magazines subscribers. I
was thinking of using direct mail/marketing response
numbers at 1%-2% --- am I way off the mark? Any
insight would be most appreciated.
There are no absolutes. 2% would be a high response. Direct Marketing Association
(DMA) would have better information.
Preparing a long list of advertising agencies. Looking for a FREE (preferably online), brief overview of selection criteria, not including the AAAA's guide. I need it TODAY (Monday, 7/19). Thanks.
You should be able to come up with a list based on whatever is causing you to make the list. The biggest issue is avoiding unnecessary information.
Typical questions are billings size, category experience, years in business, media used, etc. Bad questions are billings by client - it ought to be confidential, and reasons for client departures - why would you get the truth?
One "free" on-line guide, in a way, is the criteria list at Adforum, under "Advanced search." This is an agency information lookup site, still under construction, but the search criteria used to select agencies is instructive.
By the way, please never count on getting same-day answers from the Guru, he's human, not a computer, and may take a few days to deal with a question requiring a data search.
Dear Guru! I've got the following question.
Our client has a product to advertise. He has set
advertising goals for the ad campaign. We defined
the level of effective frequency needed to reach
1. What is the range of effective reach? For example,
Media plan communications goals should specify a level of effective reach along with specifying the effective level of frequency.
Basic, as well as more advanced media software, calculates reach and frequency, frequency distribution and reach at various (effective) frequency levels. Input is typically GRPs.
Setting an effective reach goal can be based on gut, such as reaching the majority of the target at effective frequency levels in 4 weeks, or based on sales predictions. For example, this might be an estimate that 10% of those reached efectively will buy and X number of sales are the goal. Then 10 times X are the number who must be effectively reached.
My background is planning and buying "traditional"
media but I strongly feel that as an agency, we need to
be able to plan internet advertising and marketing and
be able to consult with our clients about the web.
Where is the best place to start to educate myself and other
on this ever-changing medium? I am interested in starting
with the very basics and building from there -
everything I've seen seems to cater to those
with considerable knowledge of the internet.
The Guru agrees that an agency should have mastery of internet media comparable to its knowledge of traditional media. Like direct response though, there are enough new twists that some specialists have taken the lead.
Learning about internet advertising can be done in many ways. There is good coverage by some of the adverttsing trade press, like Ad Age and Business Marketing's Net Marketing . Some specilaized business publications covering the internet are particularly digestible for advertising genralists; try The Industry Standard.
Here's a basic math question for you: I recently bought a media (TV) schedule that gave me a total A18-49 delivery (in 000's) of 45000, 89 spots, total cost = $1,300,000. Knowing that the total A18-49 universe is 61350 (000), how do I find the following?:
1) total GRPs delivered
2) total CPP
The GRP equation is 45,000,000 impressions divided by 61,350,000 universe, expressed as a percent, or 73 GRPs.
The CPP equation is $1,300,000 cost divided by 73 GRPs or $17,808 CPP
Guessing this is national cable, it seems high. to the Guru.
In recent years, more companies have been using Direct Response TV buys to maximize cost efficiencies. However, one drawback to this type of buying is the low clearance level of spots selected. Are there any statistics or research on predicting clearance levels for DRTV buys during the year (e.g., quantifiable factors for seasonality)? Thank you.
The inventory pressure logically follows the cpm indices, which are widely available, but in any given week, surprises may occur. Since, in theory, DR advertiing pays for itself, you merely need to find a level to order that is sure to be more than the clearance will be. Whatever runs, runs, If more runs than you anticipated, it should pay off in added orders.
what is the roll of a planner in broade sense
Broadly, to determine how to invest advertising funds in the way that best delivers advertising objectives.
Hi Guru. How can I go about recommending seasonality for a community relations campaign targeting opinion leaders in multiple leadership roles? The client wants a recommendation for what time of year is best for this effort. Thanks.
There is no real basis to make a decision from the information you have provided.
Is there a specific event from your client or of specific interest to the opinion leaders you want to target, which you can tie into?
What is the goal of the campaign? Any action which has a desired timing? Are there special issues of publications realting to your topic?
Is there any research that explores TV versus TV+Radio advertising? I would like to know if and when radio should be added to TV advertising. Any advice on analyzing this would be extremely helpful. Thanks.
Generally, assuming TV is your primary medium and your goal is to maximize reach, adding a new medium begins to be worth considering when the reach curve of TV flattens. Compare how much reach the "next" dollar ads when it's in TV to the amount of reach the dollar would add in radio (reasonable numbers of dollars must be examined).
For effectiveness research, go to the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I am looking to determine whether we should advertise on TV during Christmas/New Year's or not. Historically we have not advertised during that period, but we would like to reconsider. Are there any guidelines on this, particularly for an insurance product that is not seasonal? Is there a way of looking at costs/benefits to evaluate whether we should advertise during the holidays? Thank you.
First, look at the historical sales pattern your product experiences. If you can't afford to advertise continuously, focus on better sales periods.
The theory of avoiding Christmas because of more clutter doesn't stand up to examination, but at Christmas time, people's attention is on the holiday and more cheap, quicky commercials seem to air and create a cluttered feeling.
On the other hand, because of these theories, advertising prices are often down at and just after Christmas, so bargains abound if you can take advantage.
Is there a rule of thumb regarding how television costs vary by quarter?
Yes; In gneral, lower in 1st and 3rd quarters, higher in 2nd and 4th. For specifics, try SQAD
Are there any resources available that list pay per view distribution and/or other data?
Which data? The sellers of pay per view programs would have the data, but since this is an ad-free environment, it's not really a media issue unless you buy "Title" sponsorship or ring signage. In either of those cases, sellers must supply data and document sales.
What are GRP's and what do they stand for in a media buy? I am an Account Manager and don't have the Media background but need to explain the GRP levels to my Product Managers. Please help.
GRPs are gross rating points, the pounds and ounces of media buying and selling. The target audience of an advertisement divided by the population of the target group is the ad's rating. The sum of the ratings of the ads is the Gross Rating Points. Plans specify how many GRPs of each medium to buy. For print, specifications are more often numbers of insertions in specific titles, but the GRPs can be calculated the same way and one plan compared to another.
Allowance must be made for :15 versus :30 GRP or half page versus full page. A given program or magazine has the same rating (GRP) whatever the ad size/length, but obviously there is more benefit from 100 GRP of :30s or pages than from 100 GRPs of :15s or half pages.
While there are different parameters ( creative, media, marketing ) to set the effective frequency for a media plan there seems to be no parameter for setting reach. What are the different ways to arrive at reach objectives for a plan
There are many approaches.
There are numerous variations.
I am looking for research / answers to the question:
"How affective is Airport Advertising?"
In particular with reference to Business Class
The Guru doubts that effectiveness research has been done which segments the Airport advertisng audience according to the class of service used on the day of exposure. If ant exists it would probably be available from the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Othe possible sources are ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization or the airport advertising media mentioned in
past Guru responses
Could you please tell me what is "cost per reach"? Is it just to divide the spending by net reach? Do you have standard to evaluate "cost per reach"?? Thank you very much.
Cost per reach can be cost per Reach point which is like cost per point and is spending divided by percent reach OR c.p.m. reach, which is spending divided by thousands reached.
Like cost per point, it doesn't depend on a standard, but is used as a comparison in planning. It varies across media, media types and countries, of course.
For example, in the U.S., the scenario might be, Prime time evening television is the best generator of reach for X number of GRPs. But, daytime TV might deliver more reach per dollar invested at first, until the daytime reach curve flattens. Or the first 50 reach points in Prime might have X cost per reach and the next 10 reach points added in prime might have 2X cost per reach.
I know there has been some research conducted into the effect that share of voice can have on the share of market of new brands, established brands, brands in maintenance mode and brands in innovation mode. I heard either John Phillip Jones or Nigel Hollis referring to the subject recently but can't remember where to reference the information. Can you help? Thanks. Chris Maloney - South Africa.
Best bet is ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization or the
Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
How well are the newspaper advertisements remembered by readers vs. radio or television?
Other than the usual general research repositories the Guru often mentions, the The Newspaper Advertising Association would have the best information.
Are there any numbers compiled regarding television advertising spending or budgets for online companies? Thank you.
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) covers these companies in their reports.
Guru, where can I get a list of companies that do outdoor and transit advertising?
I own and run a small podiatrist clinic. I have a modest advertising budget of $3000-5000 a quarter. I have placed ads in free local newspapers, but my best returns are from referrals and from my ad in Yellow Pages. May be I am doing something wrong. What strategy would you suggest to increase the effectiveness of my advertising?
Keeping in mind that the Guru gives media advice, the first thing that occurs to the Guru is that location is likely the first consideration of anyone choosing a podiatrist from an ad. So keep your ad placements nearby. Many areas have more than one "Yellow Pages," a neighborhood one and a city or county one. At each geographic level ther may be one from the regional Bell operating company, another from a national publisher like Yellow Book and in some areas Hispanic Yellow pages, women's yellow pages, etc. Cover all the bases.
Free papers are often considered less effective in certain advertising categories, and medicine may be one. Try an ad in the daily paid paper.
Reciently I have read a couple of documents
that explain that you may estimate wearout using an
equation(applying quintyl analysis). I would like to
know if there is any equation to estimate hoe many
grp's per version you need to generate awareness.
As always thansk in advance.
Any number of GRPs generate some awareness. So the question is how much aweareness do you want to achieve. Reach may tie more closely to awareness generation, but GRPs are easier to work with.
Also, consider whether you really care about awarness of individual commercial versions as opposed to advertising overall.
Formulas the Guru has seen generally assume some beginning level of awareness and a fall-off in any week with less than100 GRP.
Dear Guru! Our client would like to spend $ 100000 on
advertising on one of the major TV channels. This
budget allows us to buy approximately 50 insertions.
The product is a tv set. The brand is not new at the
market. The advertising campaign goal is to increase
the brand awareness. We are doubtful whether to place
all insertions in a 4 week period, or to use fligts
and 1-week hiatus. Could you clear the problem.
Thanks in advance.
The Guru is not very familiar with TV in Russia (from where this question has been submitted).
But, assuming common ground:
If a national commercial costs $2000, the Guru imagines it has to have a very small audience. Perhaps 1.0 rating, so you are talking about 100 or so GRP.
Ad Awareness is primarily a function of reach, while brand awareness nay have many drivers. 100 GRP of low rated commercials will not be likely to produce much reach, whether in four weeks or flighted. If brand awareness is the only goal and there are no promotional periods involved, the Guru would choose to spread the advertising over more time, to sustain the limited awareness which will be built.
I am reserching information for a business development
class that I am in. We are currently working on a
business and marketing plan. However, I am having a
difficult time finding an estimated number of advertising
agencies in the state of Kentucky. I have learned that
there are only ten listed with the AAAA. Can you please
help me find that information or at least where to look
for it. Thank you
The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook') lists agencies by state.
Hello GURU ! I have 2 questions for you : 1. One of the media analysis we do in our agency,mainly for TV, consists in comparing a competitor's share of spending (calculated as his % of advertising expenditure within the total category) with his share of voice (calculated as the % of his 30 sec equivalent GRPs within the category). Is this correct in your opinion ? 2. How do you define SOV ? Is this the % of the GRPs one achieve within a category or is it the % of money invested by an advertiser within a category in a certain period ? Thanks.
1) What do you do with the results of this comparison? How does the ratio of SO$ to SOV help you make decisions? The :30 equivalent step is reasonable, but how do you do that effectively outside of broadcast?
2) Some use SOV to refer to share of spending, others use it to refer to share of weight. The Guru believes share of weight is more descriptive of the marketplace perceived by the consumer, but the person controlling the budget, that is, the client, more often cares about money. They can see the impact of money on the bottom line more easily than they can understand the differences in impact of their :30s versus a competitor's :15s or competitor's radio versus their own magazines.
Given some historic data on consumer awareness and media spends, how do i
go about in modelling the same so as to enable me to make decisions on
future media spends for a brand or new execution for a brand?
Like any model, the more data you can include, the better the result.
Obviously, it is too simplistic to assume a simple direct correlation of money spent to awareness.
Other factors could be unit ad/size/coloration; the same money spent in :60 TV would have a different effect than if spent in :15s. Reach and frequenccy, daypart mix in the broadcast media and media mix are key factors within media data, but other factors outside media measures may be more significant, such as copy quality, brand maturity, proir awareness, share of voice, etc.
Re: #2507. Do you think the planner may want to
consider evaluating the schedules based on the sum of
sequential reaches on a weekly, avg. 4-week, 13 week,
and cumulative basis.
No, the essence of recency is the weekly reach, not the cume. One of the principal foundation points of recency is that once three exposures are achieved (for those who go by 3+ reach) each added exposure is at 3+. Reaches can't be summed to any purpose, duplication must always be considered.
I am looking for internet research database/site for a specific query on the effectiveness of using celebrities in ad campaigns. I need research articles rather than examples of celebrity testimonial advertisments.
Hello Guru! I would like to ask you what is a 30 sec equivalent GRP and why is that calculated if the spot length (as per some of your previous answers) do not influence yhe level of reach&frequency ? Thanks
:30 equivalent is a buyer's convenience. Assuming the standard unit purchased is a :30, instead of dealing with different unit rates in the same program, a :15 is treated as if it had half the rating. It's strictly an efficiency/value issue and has no impact on reach or frequency. Remember that the ratings we have are actually the ratings of programs or time periods and not commercials; commercials are just assigned the rating of the time slot wherin they air, so commercial length is irrelevant to rating.
If a client gives me an advertising budget of $500,000, what percentage should be allocated to
the following: research, strategy, design, and media
placement? Thank you.
Keep in mind that the media amount is the money that works to communicate your message.
Research: Do you need research? Do you have issues that must be explored? Allocating research funds without having specific research issues is wasteful. If you have research issues, they will tell you how to budget? Do you need to ask a couple af basic quantitiative questions in a national telephone omnibus for under $5000, or do you need to do a dozen focus groups for $50,000?
Strategy and creative development also varies. At $500,000 you probably aren't doing television. Radio can be very inexpensive to produce, as can newspaper. Full color magazine can be more.
If you think that all this amounts to a lot of words which really amount to "It depends," you're correct.
I do the media planning for a targeted television
network, and currently, we are evaluating our spot
radio buys to answer the question: "Do these need to
be more dispersed (i.e., do we need to buy a deeper
station list vs. hi frequency on a few, targeted
stations) in line with the recency approach? Please
keep in mind that we essentially have a new brand
every day, as people tend to watch on a night-by-night,
as well as on, an episodic basis, rather than every
week by rote. I apologize, as I may have asked this
question previously, but I didn't realize I should
check back for the answer -- for some reason I thought
the answer would come via e-mail.
Recency values reach above frequency. Therefore, greater dispesion of you weight would be preferable under that theory.
But this theory is most typical for package goods, where there is less of an issue of whether or not to buy in the category. The Guru does not believe choosing whether to watch TV and what to watch on TV is strictly comparable.
Dear Guru, I'm trying to locate an article or research
that reflects consumer recall of a :15 bookend vs. a :30 spot. I've tried the 4As and all they have are articles of :15 stand alones vs. :30s. Please let me know where Ican find this. Thank you.
The best source is the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230, but the 4A's would have checked there for you, usually
We are in the process of putting together a 5-year plan for our Media Dept. and I am wondering if you have any sources to help us complete it. We are interested in profitablity levels, percentage of "billable" hours, dept. budget parameters for new resources and anything else necessary for this plan. I know this is a vague question, but we haven't found any references to assist us so far.
These questions imply you are putting together an ala carte, stand alone media service.
The American Association of Advertising Agencies and probably the other, smaller agency organizations have compiled media department cost averages.
Is there a published source(Internet or otherwise) where I can go to get the names and phone numbers for various billboard companies arounf the U.S.?
SRDS has a resource to answer your needs.
A question from Israel. We are new to people meter data and Tv optimizers. How to chose one? X*Pert or Super Midas and thoughts?
The best approach would be to imagine the types of analyses you will need from an optimizer and then meet with sales people for demonstrations.
We're starting to place advertising on the Web and have never done an insertion order for Web-related advertising.
Any suggestion or recommendation?
ilaria - Austin, TX.
Most web sites provide their own documents. But it's just like any other media:
Specify quantity (impressions, usually) per month or other time period, cost per quantity (CPM, usually), kind of unit (rotating banner, keyword banner, etc.) dates/duration of schedule, and payment/cancellation terms.
Our company is presently trying to locate a list of
kids aged roughly 12-19 for a direct mailing. Do you
know where we might find such a list? We are also
interested in knowing what the most popular magazines
are among kids in this segment (for advertising
purposes). Lastly, we would like to determine what it
costs to advertise (gross, not CPM) via the following
media: TV (specialty channel), radio, Internet (banner),
magazine (popular), billboard, and space. Any help you
could give us on these questions would be appreciated.
Thanks in advance for your assistance.
Market Research Associate
Most list brokers would have a teenage list available. Try American List Counsel for starters.
To discuss ad prices in the media you mention, you really must consider something other than simple gross. If the Guru tells you a :30 on a specialty channel cost $100 or $1000, how can you evaluate what you must spend to communiucate something?
Internet banners are sold in cpms and numbers of impressions, not flat gross dollars usually; major sites have more impression than you might buy so you buy a portion of the available impressions. You can get teen oriented sites' banners for $15-30 per thousand. But just putting a banner on all the teen pages of Yahoo could cost $1,000,000 per month.
or more. Billboards might cost $250 apiece, but you won't buy just one, you buy a quantity of daily effective circulation expressed as GRPs. A teen cpm might be $5-$10
Where could I find in Internet the collection of best media planning cases or cases for media awards?
Would it make sense to place the same ad in several competing local newspapers reaching the same target audience?
Yes, if your goal is to maximize reach within that target, and depending upon the duplication among the papers.
I am writing a paper and need to know the annual amount spent on :couponing both magazines and newspapers and total
amount spent on product sampling broken down by in store
and out of store expenditure. Is it increasing or decreasing and what studies can I reference
to attribute this?
INFORMATION ABOUT MAGAZINES
I'm coming from a traditional general market media background and am moving to a sophisticated direct response company. What are the primary criteria I should address in negotiating DR rates (on net cable or synd radio) vs. a fixed position schedule? CPP has become irrelevant. We just want the lowest unit rate that will clear. Any tips? (by the way, the DMA is no help here).
In DR, response is what matters, and it has little to do with CPP, or rating. You need to track response by station, daypart, program type, etc. and buy based on what delivers.
Any ideas on creative placement/positioning of :10 & :15 second TV & Cable spots? We have, of course, selected programs and networks that reach our target audience based on ratings and qualitative info; however, our challenge goes beyond that. We've reviewed book-ending, road blocking, double spotting, and stripping, but can't quit seem to get that "ooh-aah" factor going. Any thoughts???
"Ooh-aah" is a lot to expect from commercial position alone. First in pod is a favorite. Roadblocking is meaningless today. It was powerful when TV audience share was 90+% for the big 3 networks in Prime time, during the 60's and 70's.
The best ooh-aah, the Guru recalls, was use of the program star, in character, in setting, to pitch the product. A specific example was Phil Silvers as Sgt. Bilko telling his corporals about the wonders of Luck Strike cigarettes. But this was in the day of full program sponsorship, when the advertiser owned the program. It might be possible today with a fully- or half- sponsored special.
Such "product integration" is still available today on the Spanish language networks, at least.
But of course :10s and :15s offere less flexibility than :30s and integration is really long-form.
1.) X% of internet users reside in X cities?
2.) e-commerce companies will spend X billion in Q4 99(or all of 99)?
1) Someday we may know this. With about half, who use AOL or Compuserve appearing to come from Virginia, it's a thorny question. Some market-by-market research, like Scarborough tracks internet users, but has no national denominator. MediaMetrix could also report major cites, one supposes.
Caluculating SOV/SOM indices.
I understand that standard practice is to only include
advertised brands in the analysis. Thus SOV will add
up to 100 but SOM wont unless all brands that are read by Nielsen are also advertised. This very seldon occurs.
So, my question is: Should one re-profile the market
shares so that they add up to 100 like SOV or not?
It's a matter of what you're trying to evaluate and what the share of unadvertised brands adds up to.
For example, if advertised brands are 90% of the market, then the others may not matter much. If advertised brands have only 50% of the market, you would want to know that and consider what the other brands are doing to achieve their share.
Do you have any recommendations on how I can
find agencies in Dallas/Ft.Worth that buy
network radio? Besides the typical "cold call",
is there an easier way?
Assuming you can't ask the networks to whom they're selling,
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) tracks Network Radio and also agency activity to some extent. They may be able to generate a report.
Another option is the
The Standard Directories of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook'), which offers geographic sorting and includes media types used in agency descriptions.
is there a place to get share of market data for free?
what are the various media publications and/or advertising venues to reach military personel and veterans who are potential prospects for VA mortgage loans?
CASS Communications is a sales representative for most miltary publications aimed at active duty, reserve and families of these personnel.
What minimal circulation a free ethnic community newspaper should have to attract an ad agency's attention? For instance, there are 4 newspapers with a circulation of 5 000 each, serving a 50 000 people community in a 3 000 000 city. Would a combined space sale proposal in all four newspapers be of interest to an ad agency?
If the agency cares about reaching the specific ethnic group and the newspaper is one of the largest media reaching that group, the agency will care about the newspaper, whether its circulation is 5,000 or 25,000. If the newspaper is offering 5,000 circulation when other newspapers offer 25,000 or other media like tv or radio have far greater audience, then you have an uphill battle.
And if the ethnic group is very small and the newspaper is also very small, the agency may not care anyway, unless your reader can be presented as a highly desirable prospect for the agency's advertisers. And finally, free distribution just makes things harder. But in many cases such papers are very successful. The Hispanic newspapers of Essex and Hudson counties in New Jersey are an enlightening study.
Dear Mr. Guru:
I have been planning and placing advertising in the U.S. for over 20 years. I have had some experience with Canadian advertsing but have no experience in planning or placing other International media. Can you suggest a source to call or write about this subject. I looked at your topics and nothing seemed to answer these questions. My e-mail address is firstname.lastname@example.org
Click here to see about 50 past Guru responses about international media and planning.
How can I find the demographics, lifestyles and media
usage of people, particularly women, who shop for toys
on the internet?
In either of the above cases, the information would be about vistors rather than buyers. E toys itself might have buyer data, but might not want to share it.
Dear Media Guru!
I've been requested by a client to evaluate a possible product placement opportunity in a very "local" motion picture (nordic). There's no real cross promotion opportunities for the client since it's a pharmacutical company with distribution only through pharmacies (which are heavily regulated in this market). I've been searching the web but without any success!
Click here to see past Guru responses about in-film product placement
My company is considering developing a web sight for
our customers with links to other services. We would
like to earn some revenue from these links and are
considering different options. Things such as a
percent of the transactions that occur through our
links, advertising/sponsorship revenue, or
subscrpiption service revenue. Where can I find
information on what the standards are for these types
of revenues or what other similar sights charge?
The information on these topics which the Guru has found is mostly anecdotal; it comes from trade media reports and press releases. The Guru's favorite sites at which to find compilations of these are NUA Internet Surveys, CyberAtlas, and The Industry Standard .
Are there any specialised (market) research reports
on Classified Advertising, both on paper and online?
do you have coupon redemption rates by media (including fsi's) and by demographic segment?
Hi there. I work on a national automotive account. We are trying to pinpoint where our target skews geographically. The target is more of a mindset rather then a demo - traditional influentials/opinion leaders (Wall Street, CEO's, environmentally conscious, etc.). We have looked at MRI, and contacted Yankelovich. Are there any other sources that you would suggest? Thanks!
Is there any where on-line that I can get information regarding response rates in relation to 1st Class vs. 3rd Class postage. Thanks.
Hi Guru. The client has requested that we provide overall delivery in a single market. There are about 7 different campaigns that ran or are running, encompassing local and/or national multiple media vechicles, all with different targets per campaign and per medium. What is the best way to show overall reach in this one single market? Thanks.
When different targets are in use, your choices are Housholds (if it's all TV), or the smallest, all encompassing age range such as Persons 2+, Persons 12+ or Adults 18+.
I have a client who is a major Trade Show and Exhibition Planner /Organizer.
We are looking to target individuals travelling to and from tradeshows in major airports and on the airplanes themselves, if possible. We are looking to create a :60 second TV spot and be able to place it within the airport kiosks as well as on the airplanes themselves.
Is this something I am going to have to go to each of the Airports individually? I realize with the airlines, I am going to have inquire directly, but wasnt sure if there was some sort of cable loop designed specially for airports??
any help or insight would be appreciated..
As far as the Guru is aware these locations are dispersed among numerous operators.
I'll launch a new 20" copy with a minimum Grp's level (70 Reach A4W) during 13 weeks. The creative team is recommending a 10" lift for the fifth week. This, of course will give us more weight or more weeks on air (I must pay 15" instead of 10" because of the TV Network policies).
In cuantitative basis I will win using shorter copies but I would like to know how to evaluate the qualitative part to make the best recommendation.
Thanks in advance.
If 10" costs the same as 15", why use 10's instead of 15's? 15's must have advantages over 10's.
The important factor is the relationship to the cost of a 20". Years ago, when 30's had become the accepted U.S. standard, 15's were introduced and extensively evaluated. The general finding was that 15's had roughly 75% of the value of a 30' at half the cost, so they were a very good buy
Defining "value" is the trick; is it recall, consumer motivation, sales effect? The archives of that old U.S. research will be available in the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
However, since you are writing from Mexico, it must be kept in mind that consumer reactions might differ, depending on what typical advertising units and exposure are for your consumers.
Hi Guru.... I am a student studying in South Africa, and I have a huge interest in advertising and advertising media. I need help on something though. What I would like to know is how media companies price their space? How do television stations price their advertising space? Are there any sites which could help me price ad space?
Also, how would one price an audience of 11 million people per month, being reached through video's/televisions? And 11 million people per month being reached through posters?
Thanks for your time.
The elements of pricing include:
So in essence it's the competitive climate and how space/time much you are selling that determines price
What are the standard 'age ranges' that correlate w/ advertisor-targeted demographic groups? for example <12, 12-17, 18-25, 26-30,31-40, etc. thanks
In the U.S. the common standard is
a frequent alternate for the ages between 35 and 65 is
Depending on purpose, adjacent groupings are often combined
I am in the planning stages of a branding campaign and i need specialized advice relating to homeowner direct items and launching national campaign to become a outsource infomediary to the new home builder/owners field, was recently in a national industry magaizine and I just don't know how to launch a focused campaign that will reach my audience? sorry for being so wordy.
Cutting through all the words you seem to want to find a list of new home builders/owners. The Direct Marketing Association
(DMA) should be able to guide you.
Is there any way to equate GRP levels to a brand attribute awareness? Everything I have researched tells me that a planner can translate GRPs into a desired awareness level, but I don't know how to take it to the next step. And aren't there many other factors that contribute to the brand attribute awareness that aren't advertisind-related? Help!
Yes, consumer experience, word of mouth, in store exposure all contribute to attribute awareness. And GRP to awareness translation is far from perfect.
where can i get pan regional competitive spending data?
It depends on the region. In the U.S., it's
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) and can probably direct you to their opposite numbers around the world.
how do you figure out net impressions for newspaper. also, how do you show that you are delivering proportionate impressions to the populations of the different markets? would you show the population as a % of impressions?
If you mean "net" literally, this is the reach of your plan expressed in numbers of consumers instead of percent. There are various newspaper reach methodologies. If you mean total impressions, newspapers you are buying should have detailed audience data, from resources such as Scarborough.
If by "proportionate" you mean to deliver impression in the same distibution of age and gender as the population, one wouldn't expect to deliver impressions proportionate to the market: different population segments have greatly different newspaper reading habits.
If you mean the total impressions distribution across a market list should parallel the population distribution between markets, then simply calculate the market-by-market population percent distribution and buy newspaper schedules to that proportion.
For information about newspaper planning and research tools, visit the newspaper media software page of AMIC's sister company, Telmar or for readers-per-copy averages and other research sources, see the The Newspaper Advertising Association site.
Where can I find information regarding the use of traffic and pedestrian counts for measuring outdoor advertising effectiveness? I am also interested in the methodology for gathering this data in a reliable way.
The Outdoor Advertising Association of America will have the information you need, as will major outdoor vendors.
What media are most effective to reach the 65+ market?
This is a local/regional campaign, so national media
aren't a consideration. I'm looking for any research
that shows 65+ audience media usage habits. Thanks.
When you eliminate the national media like Modern Maturity ,
it's difficult. Of course, Modern Maturity, the world's largest circulation magazine, does offer regional editions.
Locally, you are more likely to want to look at radio formats and TV programs with an appeal to your target. Start by identifying one staion in each medium which you are likley to use and requesting research help. Try a talk radio station and ask for Scarborough data.
Advertising expenditure data on US
Do you know of any studies that compare direct response television advertising to general rate/fixed position advertising? Specifically, the differences in the GRPs across the board? Thanks for your help.
Assuming you are talking about the comparison of spots sold on a pre-emptable, ROS basis for direct response (often sold at 50% of "list price") versus ordinary "regular" priced spots in specific program or dayparts, why would there be a GRP difference? One can buy 100 GRPs either way; the price of a spot doesn't influence its rating.
If you are looking for the differences in GRPs purchased by typical campaigns of either style, the Guru isn't aware of any such compilation -- one can estimate dollars spent, but estimating GRPs requires and additiona source for ratings data and knowledge of the advertisers' targets.
One consideration worth noting is that direct response is often just bought as numbers of spots, with little regard for GRP delivery.
What are the best buying and selling tools available to media buyers and sellers? How much do the systems cost and how easy are they to implement?
Click here to see past Guru responses about selling and buying software.
I have an outdoor question. If showing size refers to the reach per day, i.e. 25# reaches 25% of a market per day, why aren't the estimated TRPs per month simply 25 x 28 = 700. Most studies I see quote a lower TRP level for a 25 showing. What gives?
The Guru has come across this problem and found the answers.
There are two answers, one sensible, one nonsense, but both real.
Sensible: The "25 showing" is a standard number of panels, based on 25% of adult population. So if your target is Women 18-34, there may be a different number of women 18-34 GRPs in a showing actually bought as 25 Adult 18% GRPs. This is perfectly sensible, and happens ain all media, but the sellers and buyers of other media are fully conversant with these facts.
Now for the nonsense answer, which is most likely the basis of the number you were given. Various research companies, such as MRI have measured outdoor as part of multimedia reports and these generalized reports are being used to estimate target reach for a marketpace showing. Often a completely different source for average frequency is used and these two factors are multiplied to calculate GRPs. It seems invariably to be much lower than the GRPs you would get by the realistic method first described, and so makes outdoor seem less efficient than it should.
The misused sources could, instead be used to provide relative exposure indices between demographics, allowing a simple conversion of GRPs. The Guru hopes the Outdoor industry improves in this area.
I am trying to locate a service that compiles magazine
editorial calendars and could in turn identify magazines
with editorial of a specific topic for our clients to
advertise in the future. I've contacted reps
in Chicago, Atlanta and New York as well as the Magazine
Publishers of America. These sources are not aware of a
company that provides this service. I've also tried the
SRDS online database with little success. Do you know of
any company that could help?
Dear Guru - I am trying to find out what dollar amount particular companies are spending in online marketing. Can you point me in a direction to look for specific details rather than percentages and trends for online advertising? Thanks!
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) now has an on-line specialist company.
Can you tell me who the top offline advertisers are and how much they are spending on an annual basis? Where they are spending (ie: TV, Print, Radio, Internet, etc.)Can you also tell me what the top categories are? Do you have any projections?
Dear Sir, regarding effective frequency there are some tools like Ostrow's grid. But I could not find any explanation about how to set effective reach level. Using a grid one can find a frequency level like 4+ but what the effective reach should be set at this freguency level? What are the considerations?
There is a lot of judgment here, plus the realities of budget. When setting an effective reach, saying only those reached at least "x" times count. So first, how high a reach can you afford? Of course with flighting this answer can vary, too.
The Guru basic rule of thumb is to start by effectively reaching most of the target; 50 reach or better.
Guru - What percentage of the US Population watches TV
in the average week? How much time do they spend watching?
How about magazines? Newspaper? Thanks! This question
seemed simple, but I can't find the answers anywhere.
in newspaper terminology, what is the meaning of an agate line?
An agate line is the standard line size used in measuring ads and pages. Newspapers describe a page in agate lines of depth and inches of width. There are 14 agate lines per inch of depth. A one-column-inch ad is one column wide by one inch (14 lines) deep. Any reference to "lines" means agate lines.
If a newspaper describes their page as 21 inches deep and six columns wide, then a page is made up of 1764 lines
(21 x 14 x 6).
I am attempting to establish an equitable % of target penetration for newspaper, for a group of retailers. Any advice on an acceptable % of penetration%
The Guru isn't clear on what you mean by "equitable," but it used to be standard to buy to 60% coverage. The real issue is that "X%" coverage will deliver "Y%" reach for a given insertion frequency.
Thank you a ton for your service. Can you inform me the effective web advertisement management software used by popular sites (like yahoo, altavista, wall street journal etc..).
dear guru, are there any sites that could give me info on retail advtg esp where newspapers are involved? i have visited NAA already. also could you give me the URLs of ceratin successful online newspapers ie papers which have their own sites apart from being in print.
MediaPassage has some very useful tools for newspaper planning.
The classic example of great newspaper sites is The San Jose Mercury. NY Times On-line is another. But these days, just abnout every major newspaper has a good site. In the Guru's thinking, the big distinctions are in how easily a vistor can access the paper's archives.
I have some questions about preparing for the upcoming Olympics/Election Year for local spot TV buying and planning:
1) Should you buy early? How early?
2) Is it important to stress to clients that they should pay for Olympic programming? Should not? Why?
3) Where can I find research on effectively using hiatuses during election periods?
4) Where can I find research on programs that traditionally do well despite Olympics rating skews and election clutter?
5) Find research showing types of programming to avoid?
6) Tips on Planning during these years? Adequate anticipation of rate increases?
Thank you very much!
1. Buy Early. If you are buying significant volume, move before the network upfronts move. To a great extent it's the impact of Olympics / Elections on network inventory that makes spot tighten excessively. For sure, ther won't be any firesales at the last minute and buying as late as usual will mean facing higher costs.
2. Any plan should be recommending programming options according to how they serve marketing and communications goals. It isn't a buying issue, it's a planning issue. The Olympics are just another programming option during a few weeks of the year.
3 - 6. As always the best source of all the types of research you list is the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230. But the Guru will offer some comments.
3. Most plans have hiatuses anyway. If you can plan them at the worst time of Olymcis / elections' effects, so much the better.
4. So much has changed since the last Olympics / elections tear that history may not be useful. Cable has about 30% of Prime time viewing these days, much more than last cycle. There is only one Olympics season during this election year instead of the historical two.
hi, just a query on tv scheduling. are there any
specific examples of advertisers consciously taking
into account the phenomenon of channel surfing when
scheduling ads? or is it still too nascent for
The concept of "roadblocking," that is buying all channels at the same time goes back about 40 years, to when there were only three networks and the trick could assure reaching virtually everyone, but it wasn't really a reaction to channel switching.
But channel surfing as we now know it goes back a long way to the big surge in cable pepentration and networks. 30 channels or more have been the rule in most homes for at least 10 years.
Not that scheduling tricks to overcome surfing are really feasible, but it isn't nascent either.
The best trick would be to buy something with a big audience disinclined to surf, like the SuperBowl, but of course there are a lot of other considerations in making that media buy.
what is the meaning of ROP in the context of a newspaper? also please tell me whether newspapers by themselves offer free standing colour inserts and if they do how exactly is it done i mean do they do it region wise etc?
ROP means "run of press" and refers to ads ordered to be positioned anywhere in the normal pages of a newspaper.
Newspapers will individually run free standing inserts, usually on the basis that the advertiser prints them and supplies them to the newpaper according to certain production and delivery specifications ("preprint').
The advertiser can usually specify the portion of circulation to carry the insert by zone or even within a set radius of a retail location.
How do you determine reach and frequency for a site?
Reach is the number of different people exposed to a message or media vehicle and Frequency is the average number of times the person reached is exposed in the stated period. On the web, unique visitors is the term used for "different people," and the period of time usually considered for average frequency is one month.
If your site has server log analysis software, like HitList , for example, it can tell you the number of unique vistors per month, and also the total number of page impressions served. Monthly page impressions, divided by unique visitors = Frequency .
Also, syndicated, user-centric, web ratings services like MediaMetrix report on these audiences independently. Hoever, only the top few sites, less than1% of all sites, are big enough to be reported.
Traditional media planners are used to expressing reach as a percentage of a target audience. However, for most sites, this percentage would be vanishingly small. Only the top few sites among MediaMetrix's sites reach even 1% of active web users: the 50th ranked of the 15,000 they measure reaches about 3 million unique vistors. This would be about 3% of the perhaps 100 million people on-line in the U.S. and Canada.
The number of doctor sites in the www.
Numbers of sites or numbers of sites in a category is always a statistic which changes too fast to pin down. You can go to a categorical search engine, like Yahoo, and try to determine how many are in your category.
How do I list my agency in your list of agencies?
Client has asked on how to advertise on their extranet.
What does that involve? Should they use a third-party like NetGravity? How do I get started?
The Guru assumes you mean the client wishes to sell banner advertisng on their web site. Generally,the web representative firms are not interested in site getting less than 1 million impressions or 50,000 visitors per month. Deals for samller sites offer few advantages to the sites, so self-selling is the best option.
Your client should document, as well as possible, its site traffic and then approach a sales rep if the numbers are big enough or otherwise approach firms with which they do business who could benfit from reaching the same audience as those who would visit your client's site.
I'm trying to find several statistics regarding advertising both in the United States and Globally. I'm hoping you can either tell me where I can find these figures, or perhaps even provide me with the figures themeselves if you have access to that information. The following is the information I'm trying to find out:
1. An estimate of how many advertising companies exist in the US? in the World?
2. How much money advertisers spend on Radio and TV advertising each year for the past 5 years. Once again both in the US specifically, and globaly.
3. Of the amounts from question 2, how much money goes towards music licensing. Again both US and global.
Thank you for your time
The number of advertising agencies, U.S. and world wide, can most likely be found in the archives of Ad Age. These articles may well not be in the on-line archive, but most good libraries have archival search facilities, like Info-Trak or Lexus-Nexus, which will lead you to a microfilm copy of full articles. References like
The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers ('The Redbook') should have counts of companies listed. Since there is no licensing requirement, only such a directory compiler is likely to be compiling numbers. The redbook sells database searches, so they could tell you how many agencies list tv and radio billings.
There are specific annual issues of Ad Age addressing spending by media type.
Regarding music licensing, this relatively tiny percentage of all TV and Radio investment less likely to be tracked by the forgoing resources. A better resource would be the licensing organizations, like the excellent site of ASCAP (The American Society of Composers, Authors and Publishers) which has an extensive Guide to Resources in the Music Business. Worldwide, you will find a hodgepodge of different rules and organizations.
dear guru, i have a few qs regarding print advertising
what is the meaning of the term 'far forward positioning'? the fps or the front page solus position of a newspaper is supposed to have very high OTS, is there some solid research evidence backing this claim? like the fps are there any other postions in newspapers that pull best? if there are once again what evidence is there in this regard?
Far forward positioning very simply means a postion in the first few pages of the issue, at least first third. It is assumed there is a better chance of exposure in these pages. It's a common U.S. usage, but the Guru is concerned about semantics, since you are writing from India and most of the terms you are using appear to be U.K. media jargon.
Covers, opposite back cover, opposite table of contents and opposite first editorial feature, are all considered good magazine positions.
In newspapers, section front pages and section back pages are considered valuable. For research, visit The Newspaper Advertising Association and Newsweek
Media Research Index or their equvalents in India.
I have a client that is in the sausage business. He cannot afford television and wants ideas on branding with radio. Can you help me?
"Branding" is more a creative and promotional challenge than a media issue outside of sponsorship issues.
The classic success story in this arena is probably the Blue Nun wine commercials of the '70's, done by Jerry DellaFemina with Stiller and Meara. Stan Freeberg for LaChoy was another classic. You should find information about these award winning radio campaigns in several creative books and probably at the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Greetings, Guru. An advertising agency is interested in buying space in our magazine, but says it will depend on our "microzoning". What is "microzoning"?
This seems to be the term more familiar with newspspers, referring to selling a portion of the circulation in a very small or on an otherwise very selective basis.
Visit the The Newspaper Advertising Association site.
What is the average CPP for local radio?
See AMIC's Ad Data area
I am working on a document regarding global recruitment and best recruitment media Do you know any internet site that gives information on the different recruitment markets, the media channels used and the latest trends, e.g. new, unconventional channels (other than the internet)
Thanks for your help
If such data exists, it is either
So go to your favorite web site and search for the publisher. At worst you can converse with a salesperson from one of the media you need.
how much efective frequency in TV I need in case that
Launching for a month
Promotions for a moth
The Guru has probably discussed effective frequency questions more than any other topic. Setting the "right" level depends on assessing several factors.
Click here to see past
I am new to the media arean and was curious if you had
a basic outline for a media plan? Any kind of start
would be helpful. Thanks a bunch!!!
See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan
dear guru, i am working for a newspaper and am in charge of a supplement targeted at women. it is a newly started supplement and thence we are in the process of approaching advertisers. the point is that although the cpt for this supplement is very high it offers advertorials and other such options. what are the specific benefits that tailored editorials can offer the advertiser. please give me certain points that i can present to the client.
The key advantages of advertorials are the implied endorsement of the product by the publication and the appearent authoritativeness of the publication in the product category.
Dear Media Guru
I am working in india where the Viewership data is provided by ACNielsen & IMRB which is the indian affiliate of BMRB.
Previously peoplemeter data provided by IMRB alone used the concept of TRP while today the combine uses the concept of TVR
Is there any difference between the 2 concepts or is it more a case of semantics ?
I do remember someboday saying that TRPs were used for dairy data while TVRs is a peoplemeter related viewership figure.
Confusingly, sometimes the same terms are used with different meanings in different countries. Even by the same vendor. The Guru does not relate the difference to diary vs meter, and has discussed TVR before.
Click here to see the past Guru response.
Does anyone know of any information to access the number of online/in home users in california?
I am looking for information on how companies are
utilizing their annual reports as a marketing tool. Do
you know where I can get this kind of information from?
You might find some help at Public Register's Annual Reports Service site.
Can you tell me where I can find research showing how internet usage is effecting prime time viewinglevels especially with the Adult 18-49 demo?
which section of the industry spends more money on web advertising?.( say computer, travel etc). what are its objectives?. what is the aim of the companies like P&G, unilever to advertise in web ( they form the major spenders on the net ).
According to Nielsen//NetRatings the top 10 web advertisers for the week of May 16,1999, based on impresions, were
CDNow, Bonzi Software, Lowestfare and
SexSwap. Looking at the top 10 for entire month of April adds Next Card,
Barnes and Noble,
and First USA
Is there imminent policy guidelines by u.s govt. to streamline e-commerce transactions. It appears south korea is the first country in asia to enact legislation for e-commerce.
The Guru isn't aware of any pending regulations except the one against unsolicited commercial e-mail.
There has been great leniency regarding sales tax, which is a state-by-state issue in the U.S.
The Guru wonders what policy you believe would "streamline e-commerce"?
Is there data available on what is the percentage of chinese american, indian american among the total net audience in u.s.a( for that matter in any country).
what sort of contents most web audience look in for in a site?( What is in a site that appeals most web audience?).Is there any search done on it?.
Thanks for your service. our website attracts 0.9 million hits a day and we intend to measure our audience profile both demographic as well as psychographic.Pl. enlighten me as to how to go about doing it (like, designing the questions, making the readers respond the questions etc). Does any site offer tips on this?.
Advertising associations, like the U.S. American Association of Advertising Agencies publish guidelines describing the basic demographics that media should report. One can also review the psychographics reported by syndicated media audience studies lie the U.S.' Simmons, MRI and The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study. Some will be more appropriate to your site's audience than others.
Ways to encourage vistors to answer questionnaires include offering raffle prizes or offering access to password protected sections of the site -- do you remember that you filled out such a questionnaire to get access to this section of AMIC?
A questionnaire needs to offer more inducement, the longer it gets.
I am looking for a print planning software that has the ability
to sort business to business publications by SIC's. I know it is available but I am unsure
of its name or how I can find out more information. Can you help me?
I have a 13 year old son that wants to learn about the marketing business and the vocabulary used. Example: Definitions of CPP, Quintile etc... Where or what is the best resource for marketing/advertising terminology?
You can buy text books- see AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com)
You can look up many terms in the Media Guru's Media Guru's Encyclopedia of Media Terms.
Finally, most common media and marketing terms have been discussed here, by the Guru, in a context of practical application. Go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use whatever word you want explained as your search term.
Which are the main criterias to evaluate the impact of newspaper ads? We are suggesting to have different sizes and positions (all at the same cost), but we don't know exactly how to measure their impact. I remember that there is a study about the visual process of the eye when reading. That study includes informtation about the parts of the page that are the most visual.
Thanks in advance.
Ad impact is typically measured in terms of recall, awareness, and sales results. Awareness and sales are usually measured by custom studies of awareness and panel or scanner studies of sales. Starch is well known for recall studies of print.
Iwould like to know where could I find examples of printed ads about hushiery & panty hose category. And also I need to find out information about the main femenine magazine titles all around the world.
Could you please help me?
Thanks in advance.
Years ago, a broadcast buyer gave me a rule of thumb on comparing quarterly CPPs. I know there are changes by market and by media (radio/TV) but it seemed that the following indices were applied to a avg. year CPP: Q1: 85, Q2: 106, Q3: 97, Q4: 112. Do you know if these are accurate?
These are roughly -- directionally -- correct, with the exceptions you note.
I'm trying to learn the basics of media research. How does one calculate ROI on media effectiveness and where can I get information on how/ why to conduct
market research? Thanks.
I want to know about the procedure involved in doing the advertising on internet. Which are the factors that has to be considered by a client or a agency to go for internet advertisng? Also how effective is this mode of communication? Don't you think it is more of personal selling ?The another thing is that how adevrtising has changed in the last decade interms of creativity and new ideas with the advent of internet?
The factors involved in selecting the internet as a medium ar e the same as any other medium:
The effectiveness depends on the goal. Brand building may be less effective than in other media, direct reponse more so. Computer-related products may be more successful than those whose relevance is less universal among the internet user.
What is the use of the "quintiles measure"?
Quintiles are used in many ways in media. Click here to see Guru responses about "quintiles."
What is the average salary for a Director of Marketing?
This is not a media question, but the Guru will try to help. Average is probably not a usefull concept here. The Director of Marketing at Procter and Gamble or General Motors probably has a very different salary than the Director of Marketing at your nearest major shopping mall.
Read and analyze the classified ads in the New York Times as well as in your own area to get a useful range of salaries.
We want to educate marketers on the importance of Reach AND frequency in business to business pubs, specifically in lawyer publications. They seem to think reach is enough. I remember using reach and frequency tables for broadcast schedules. Do you have anything similar for b to b pubs? I need this rather quickly. Thanks for your help.
Most people understand that a single exposure is not enough to memorably communicate a message. The Guru has often encountered advertisers and account execs who felt that their message was so important, such a breakthrough and so exciting that only one exposure was enough. They didn't consider that most messages don't penetrate or catch one's attention on the first exposure.
Of course most messages aren't that stimulating, in and of themselves, on multiple exposures, either.
Tables come from analyzing several actual schedules of real data. If your publication is measured and you have access to the research, you can prepare schedules and tables. Multiple insertions in one publication build reach slower and frequency faster than a schedule dispersed among multiple publications. If you know duplication factors between two issues of your publication and between your publication and others in the field, you could do crude estimates of reach. If not, there are not likely to be other valid ways of building tables.
Click here to see past Guru responses about "frequency."
We are doing a study on ad recall involving dailies. An analysis of results half way show that recall is abysmal.
Is it because while sampling, we did not use the filter of "Intention to Purchase". Would our recall scores have been higher if we had asked the respondents of their intention to purchase any of the top 10 categopries advertised in press before asking them questions ?
It is typical that "interest" plays a big role in recall, and purchase intent would be a good indicator of interest.
Could yu give me some insights regarding pricing ad space on the net on the basis of fixed number of impressions? How are the slab rates decided upon? What is the minimum number of impressions one can sell for, 5000, 10000 etc.?
Most larger, commercial general audience sites are selling at cpm's in the $15 - $30 range, barring special deals or unusual volume. This would make $5000 worth 167,000 to 333,000 impressions.
Media Guru -
I just read your responce to question #2507. Numerically, your answer may be correct that turning 200 pulsed TRP's into 100 continous TRP's may be more effective. (recency theory) It may not however be realistically the best course of action. Recency assumes that your advertising is ongoing reminder advertising and that your brand is well established. Also, purchase patterns and frequency are important. In terms of media, you have to consider what will 100 TRP's afford you? If you are in 2 or 3 dayparts in TV you will have a handful of spots, that the prospect will be lucky to see. I think that recency has to be balanced out with other marketing and media factors, including impact.
As the Guru said in that response, the concept applied "particularly if your product is something people are buying continuously or regularly."
Recency does not make assumptions about product establishment -- though some practicioners may. In fact the original statement of the thesis emphasized the point, for effective frequency adherents, that after the third exposure, every exposure was at "three plus" and looking at abstractions like three plus in a set time frame was not necessary. About 60 GRP per week has been identified as a workable threshold of effectiveness.
Regarding dayparts, any mix of daypart is likely to deliver an average rating in the 5 to 8 range. Unless you have frequency goals by daypart (why?), 100 vs 200 seems a moot issue.
The net effect on consumers, at the end of four weeks, whether you have run 100 GRP per week or 200 GRP in weeks #1 and #3 only, will be about the same, in accumulated reach and average frequency.
The biggest difference will be in average reach per week (or per day). Your point makes a big issue of a time frame called a week, which is just an abstraction and a common convenience in looking at schedules.
Thinking of the schedule you would select to run 200 GRP in 7 days, why must it differ if spread over 14 days?
Where can I find media ideas for 5 star hotel advertising: cases, approach, etc.?
A search of Advertising trade media and possibly Hotel trade media archives may be helpful.
For several years, I have bought my
client's spring and fall campaigns
on an alternating schedule i.e., one
week on and one week off @ 200 TRPs
per week. Historically, we take a four
month hiatus between campaigns.
Recently, someone told the client that
it would be more effective to buy
three weeks consecutively at lower
TRP levels. Either plan would be
restrained by a stated budget amount.
Do you have an opinion about each of
these strategies or your ownpreference in
television buying strategy when trying
to stretch the time on-air?
You haven't stated how many weeks of 200 on and off you run.
But, assuming you take a one-week-on / one-week-off schedule of 200 and change it to 100/week continuous, this will probably be more effective, particularly if your product is something people are buying continuously or regularly. Since reach can only go just so high, the average reach per week of 100 GRPs continuous will be higher than the average weekly reach of one week at 200 and one week at 0 GRP. So the continuous schedule has a better chance or reaching someone just as they are about to make a purchase decision.
This is the essence of the "recency theory."
Click here to see past Guru responses about recency
We have a client who always hears our radio spots (I believe that is a good thing) but thinks they are worn out due to the high exposure. We do not agree as we
are running 200 GRPs/wk. for 40 weeks with five spots with a 20% rotation for each spot. We believe that wear out is difficult as frequency is one of the goals of radio and due to listening habits. Is there an industry standard to determine when a radio commercial is worn out? For example, I know packaged goods advertisers who use TV look at the reach at the heaviest viewing quintile. If reach exceeds 25% they considering replacing or resting the spot. Thank you.
2. Variable depending on the quality and memorability of the copy.
Rules of thumb the Guru has seen include
what is effective reach?
The Guru has discused this often. Click here to see past
Guru responses about effective reach
We will be hiring a number of new media planning and buying positions at our company, and we want to offer competitive packages -ARE there any resources I can check to get information on competitive salaries for media planning and buying positions, by years of experience,job title, company type, etc?
Along the same lines, any information on health or other benfits that can be expected based on compnay type, position, etc?
THanks in Advance
The executive search firms who recruit such people are best informed on this. But, it seems you don't intend to use these firms. The next best option would be a careful analysis of classified ads in your marketplace, including the national trade publications
I've always looked at communication goals in terms of effective reach. Determining effective reach goals can be different agency to agency. That is fine.
My issue has to do with combining broadcast media with print media. Can there be an effective reach goal when these media types are combined? In a discussion with
my Media Director, they felt that there can only be a 1+ goal. That the concept of effective reach curves were developed on a broadcast model and that print cannot be
combined. If not why? I would love your opinion and insight. Thanks.
First, the 3+ concept goes back 115 years, to a researcher named Ebbinghaus, who found three repetitions of a series of nonsense syllables was needed for "learning" or memorization.
Combining media to achieve 3+ goals depends on a variety of philosophical judgements:
It seems to the Guru that the issue is not whether to look at 1+ versus 3+ but whether to consider effectiveness medium-by-medium or in total.
The bottom line would depend on whether the communication focus is on the specific message, which leads to medium-by-medium evaluation, or more on brand or ad awareness, which leads to combined media evaluation.
I am a recruiter at a major ad agency in New York. Finding media professionals is definitely the most challenging type of recruitment I've done in six years, including sourcing Management Consultants. Are there any resources that you know of, like a directory of Media or Advertising Executives, that can be used? I'm not at liberty to use search firms (and pay their exorbitant fees all the time) and would like to try to save my employer some money by sourcing these folks directly. I frequently ask for referrals, but wonder if there is not a Register or Directory of some sort to utilize.
The only listing of agency media executives of which the Guru is aware is the media directors listings in the
The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers.
You might consider establishing a web page within your agency's site that lists current openings and place banner ads linked to that page on sites, like AMIC, which draw a media executive audience.
Would like research/tables on law publications or business to business pubs reach and frequency research to support our claims that frequency is just as important as reach
Try the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
How do you calculate reach "in-market", and are you to combine that with the national numbers? How is this done? Thanks. We are trying to show total "in-market" delivery. Also, back to the average 4 week dilemma, is it only relevant when looking at sustaining levels of a continuity plan? Or would you show average four week even in a launch, retail, or promotional type heavy-up situation? Thanks as always.
Suppose you had national media with a reach of 40% and a local media plan delivering 50%.
You would combine the national reach of 40% with the local 50%. If you care to go the extra step, you could analyze local variation in delivery of the national plan and adjust the local delivery of the national media before combining with the local. Or if you run only national media you can look at the locally delivered weight to caculate the in-market reach resulting from national media, as if it were local spot media.
Four weeks is a traditional standard measurement period. This standard goes back to the days of the dominance of monthly magazines as an advertising medium. There are numerous ways this rule of thumb is used. Some look at "4-weeks-when-in" and examine four weeks worth of average activity no matter ho many active weeks a plan has. This focuses on the rate of advertising rather than the quantity. Other focus on cume of whatever number of weeks. One has to make a judgement of what tells the story best. The judgement can be made differently when you are comparing possible plans and when you are trying to quantify potential effects on awareness, sales, etc.
What would the average annual pay package of a media
planner (Post Grad, 1-2 yrs experience) in an agency
amongst the top 10 be, in the USA ?
There can be a big difference between 1 and 2 years, and another big difference by making job changes.
The Guru believes at 2 years, with two job changes, the range is $25-$30,000.
what are the various terminology used in electronic media & their various formulas?
There are far too many terms to decribe here. See the Media Guru's Encyclopedia of Media Terms.
Formulas for most have been provided in Guru answers from time to time. When you find one for which you need the formula, go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use the media term plus the word "formula" as your search terms.
How is measure theathers on the states? Because in Puerto Rico theres no sources.
Do you have an example of a media plan available?
I have to produce one, and I am not sure how the format
is. I checked your site "parts of a media plan", which
is very helpful. However, I would like to see a "real
one" to get an idea how the layout and format looks
like. If you don't have one available, maybe you know
a webpage where I can find one.
The Guru is planning to archive some media plans, but hasn't yet. He doesn't know of any on-line, but styles are infinite. Almost anything that clearly provides the "parts of a media plan," typically accompanied by a media "flow chart" is acceptable.
I am trying to find research about the recall
effects of ad size & position.
Where could I find it? It doesn´t matter if the
research is not new. Thanks in advance
This is the sort of information provided by Starch
We recently completed a 12 week radio campaign in a test
market (79.2% reach & 12.5 frequency) for a client that
sells a food product in grocery stores. The client
experienced a 90% sales increase in this market at a time
that other markets maintained only single-digit increases.
The dilemma is that the post campaign research that was
done showed only a 9% recall (aided 3%, unaided 6%) of the
radio advertising. Do you have any information that will
help us to support the case tht although the radio ads
had a huge influence on sales, radio advertising is not
generally recalled easily by consumers? Another concern
is that these ads were tagged with grocery store names.
Could this have caused the respondents to be confused as
to who the advertiser was and in turn result in poor
recall? We realize this is a long question, but wanted
to give you all of the details. Thank you for your help!
It is an interesting problem. More often you need to prove that a good recall result is good news, but here you have amazing sales results, and the Guru presumes that you can demonstrate the radio was the only variable.
Of course, it is possible that 9% recall in itself is such a big improvement that it can account for a 90% sales increase, especially if previous market share or penetration was very low.
It is also true that tagging the spots is likely to confuse the listener.
Great advertising generally only gets 25% or so day after recall. Did you have a pre test on recall to compare?
Generally, the best repository of useful researc in this topic is the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Can you suggest some test markets for a sports drink product skewed toward men 18-44?
There are test market evaluation resources from Nielsen and Standard Rate and Data Service's (SRDS)Lifestyle Market Analyst.
You will want to consider the strenght of the media you will test in the market you choose relative to national averages, lifestyle issues, economic issues and more.
My partner and I are suggesting our cleint some TV specials as part of our recommendation in which we want to include creative media. Our client concern is that she does not think specials are good enough, since her product have TV presence throughot the entire year. Our recommendation is based not on frequency but on reach and the opportunity to sponsor events in which the target population will be effectively reached. Do you have any other theoretical explanation we can give to support our plan?
The appeal of specials is certainly that they add excitement and may focus on a particular target. If they are truly unusual, you hope to get a gratitude factor from the audience.
In the Guru's opinion, relying on a few specials rather than more continuous advertising is not as likely to be "effective." When a product is sold year round, on a regular basis, there is a need for continuous advertising presence. Effectiveness of reach comes from either frequency or recency in relation to sales opportunities.
I am trying to reach college students (at schools with enrollments of at least 15,000 to 20,000 students) via local cable television. How can I find out which campuses are wired for cable tv, and if they are, how may students subscribe? I am talking about students on campus in dorms, and i am primarily interested in colleges located in DMA outside of the top 25.
Contact a cable sales rep, like National Cable Communications. They should be able to tell you which colleges are covered by cable systems.
Matching this list to colleges ranked by enrollment will probably be left up to you.
The Guru offers the following observations:
What company measured radio audiences before Arbitron?
Pulse, Hooper, Birch and Nielsen are among the radio ratings services of the past, though not necessarily earlier than Arbitron.
Is there any research on the response of listeners to a commercial with a male vs. a female voiceover?
Probably. Try the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
Please can you help me to find information/research on
wearout of magazine adverts. ie At what stage should
the creative be changed and does duplication of
readership play a role and if so, how?
Wear out will differ according to the power, memorabilty, etc, of each piece of copy, of course.
Naturally, duplication plays a role. It is frequency which causes wear out. Higher duplication is another way of saying quicker building of frequency among those reached.
Where can I find VPVH numbers
These are provided by Nielsen. If you mean for details for free on the web, it's not likely.
What is the minimum weekly threshold level of Reach & Frequency to be set for a print campaign [ Full page colour] ? How different would be the same for a television campaign [ 30 secs TVC]?
There is no absolute standard. Recency theory calls for about 30 reach as the weekly threshold. The Guru believes virtually any reach is worth something, but careful analysis of the sales or consumer response needed to support a level of spending can always be done.
To the Guru's thinking, the only reason to have a different threshold for TV vs print is that typically, the frequency levels accompanying a given reach in magazines will be lower than the frequency for the same reach in TV, assuming your reach is at more than a minimum level. (A reach of 10% in either, achieved through one advertisement will have a frequency of 1.0).
Is there any way to calculate duplication across a media plan using several media (e.g. print and radio and TV), or can I only get a duplication analysis within a media (radio duplicaton and then another duplication factor for print, etc , etc)
I use telmar for research with simmons and arbitron access and we also use JDS for buys.
The standard assumption in media planning is that duplication between different media is purely at random. Therefore, the random probability formula is used:
So, if you have a 40% reach in TV and a 55% reach in Print, multiply
0.4 x 0.55 to get 0.22
subtract 0.22 from 0.4+.55 and get 0.73 or
73% reach of the combined media.
There are a variety of ways to do the calculation. The Guru actually prefers to use the probablilty of not seeing each medium (reach as a decimal subtracted from 1.0) When these are multiplied they give the net probability of not seeing any of the media. When this result is subtracted from 1, the final result is net reach. This style is particulary useful for combining several media at once.The example would combine this way:
Telmar's "Media Mix" program uses these assumptions.
What would you advise as an effective plan on determning an efficient ROI on the net
If the question is "how does one measure ROI for intertnet advertising?" the key to the answer is in how you set your goals.
In the simplest scenario, your goal is to sell a product or service. If your advertising is web banners, and the banners click through to a page where the product is sold and there is no other source of the product, obviously sales dollars ÷ ad dollars is the calculation you need.
In any other case, it's the same as determining ROI in all marketing scenarios. Did you advertise to biuld image or awareness? Do pre/post research on the change in awarenss or perception and comapre against $ spent.
Yes, Guru, baffling is an understatement, and the bafflement
is attributable to the lack of clarity in my previous query.
The "station/network branded" products I was referring to are
the hand held digital and analog tuners and adapters that
drivers can use to access TV station signals and direct them
through their vehicles' sound systems. In other words, commuters
would have the CBS Eye or NBC Peacock, etc., in the palm of
The "affiliate-marketing model" makes reference to network and
station website hyperlinks that both provide information about
this new TV accessibility and generate a shared revenue stream
from the sale of the latest hand held tuners.
Initially, the increased audience and promotions would be
a value-added to advertisers. Eventually market penetration
will be large enough to quantify, perhaps by Nielson
local diaries. Millions of people already have simple solutions
that they can use but are unaware of. We'll tell them how how.
Ahh, the light dawns. Your query is now quite sensible. But if a "branded" receiver only tunes that one station, as your statemnent implies, it wouldn't be too popular. And if the idea catches on, wouldn't radio makers just build in the capability?
Our client has requested that we run Network TV R/F/Eff 3+ against two targets; African Americans 18-49; and African Americans 18-49, 35K+ income and grad college. Network TV was purchased against A18-49 only. Do you know of a conversion factor used to translate the A18-49 rating points to the new targets? We need to compare the delivery. Thanks.
The Nielsen network audience data includes Household Income and Head of HH education as well as race. Therefore you can get the actual ratings of your schedule for African Americans 18-49, $35K income, college educated HOH. Or get daypart average numbers with which to develop conversion factors.
Every motor vehicle can be EASILY adapted to hear free
over-the-air broadcast television programming through
its EXISTING in-dash sound system. We want to work
with stations/networks to promote this niche as a
whole and distribute "station/network branded" products
through an affiliate-marketing model. What would be
the best way to quantify this usage for the benefit of
TV broadcasters and their advertisers?
Allen Mostow, President
The benefit to broadcasters and advertisers is obviously the audience increase. So the way to quantify it is to have either the TV or radio ratings services report its audience.
Since the stations own the signal content, and would probably have legal, technical and business problems by plugging in different content replacing purchased commercial time it is baffling to the Guru to understand what you are thinking when you say "distribute 'station/network branded' products
through an affiliate-marketing model. "
I am new to the newspaper world and need some help. I have my cost per inch and my circulation. I need to compare CPM newspapere to radio and tv. I have my radio and tv cpm but not sure what to use on newspaper
my audience is a 25-54 and i buy 28" ads... is their a quick way to convert circulation to audience and do I use cost per inch or cost per 28"... My tv cpm is around $15.00 and my radio is around $8.00 any help would be appreciated.....
Compare the cpm of the ad you would use, if you are using a tv :30 then compare the cpm for a 30 second unit with your 28" newspaper cpm.
Circulation does not "convert" to audience. Each newspaper, theoretically, has a different audience in relation to its circulation. But, in reality, the differences have a fairly narrow range and you can use average readership figures from The Newspaper Advertising Association site.
To what source should I go to find the circulation history (year-by-year for the last 10 to 20 years) for major metropolitian daily newspapers?
Over the one year that I have been following the queries and discussions on this web sites, what strikes me is that while discussing a Media Plan,there is no mention of involvement as a factor when the consumer is watching television.
Do media planners not take into account the involvement levels of the audiences while planning ? Why is it that we talk of Reach/Frequencies etc and not about Involvement?
Are there any publicly available studies on the same ? If not, is it legitimate to assume that agencies..
1. Do not look at Involvement while planning
2. If they do, they do so based on certain assumptions and not on hard data.
In the early '80's, a service called TAA (Target Audience Assessment?) offered audience involvment ratings. The service didn't last long.
Long before that and since then, factors like audience attentiveness have been used to judgementally adjust media audiences in media planning.
The new "Optimizers" allow easy overlaying of these factors and other involvement indicators like audience loyalty, in planning and buying.
However, the Guru imagines that more plans (though perhaps not more money) ignore these factors than use them. They are abstractions of unproven value in judging the sales power of media.
The most likely publicly available source of such data would be Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the InfoCenter, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
AMIC's Rates, Dates and Data area provides some of these attentivenss factors.
Is it possible to know that which particular segment is using the internet most-- age wise, profession ,sex etc? Which are the means to find out those things and is there any software available to know the hits for a particular site ?
Please also avoid using the term "hits" which refers to server log entries and might count a dozen or more file items as "hits" in loading a single page of a site. Page loads equates to media impressions which is most likely to be useful in media planning.
Do you know of a good book detailing the process in
developing the Media Plan. I am beginning a job as an
asst Media Planner soon and would like to get a better
knowledge of what a REALISTIC plan looks like and what
goes into creating one. I am already familiar with the
basic terms, etc and would like a book that not only
describes what terms mean, but how to actually develop
the Media Plan. Thanks.
You can review the titles offered in the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com). The Guru does not believe that any text book gives a "realistic" plan. They are all reather idealized and don't reflect what one is exposed to in real world work situations.
WHAT PERCENTAGE OF YOUG SINGLES & OLDER ADULTS IN THE UPPER INCOME BRACKET ARE TV HOMES?
99% of just about every population segment are TV homes.
Where can I find information related to media campaigns done by Direct TV (any launches and sustaining efforts)?
what are the ad rates for adweek?
See AdWeek Rate Card
What is the most succesful media plan for launching new product on a very competitive market?
This question is so broad it's silly. So here is the answer it merits:
The most succesful media plan for launching new product
in a very competitive market is the one with the biggest budget.
I am puzzled and maybe I should know the answer to this question, but I don.t
We are competing with another agency to win an account. We were given the assignment
to put together a television buy. The objective was to put the same buy together, but
improve on the rates. Bottom line is that the buy starts in two weeks and the market is very
tight. We improved in some areas and some ares came in higher. We were able to secure some overnight
spots at no charge. This was the only difference. The ratings were .1 and .2 for overnights. We ran a
reach and frequency. The following are the results:
Ours results: 69.5 reach 4.4 frequency 309.1 GRP's
There results: 46.6 reach 6.6 frequency 309.2 GRP's
Why the difference? We use MM+ and they sue TAP SCAN. Could the diffence
software programs be so difference in calculating R&F?
I hope I have supplied you with enough info.
Two systems can legitimately have very different results, but this case does seem extreme. The detail level taken into account can vary and be quite important; for example, repeated use of the same stripped program or weekly program may be something one R&F model takes into account while the other just considers a more general GRP by daypart.
You haven't said whether the schedules were very nearly identical, either. If your 309 GRP was made up of 60 spots and their 309 was made up of 300 spots there would be substantial difference in R&F. Yours would then be preferable to most advertisers.
Bottom line, it doesn't make any sense to compete based on R&F results unless the same model is used on both schedules.
We are about to place our first order for banner advertising on the web. With print we require tearsheets and broadcast we require affidavits as proof of performance before we pay the invoice. Is there any standard proof used for web advertising? Thanks in advance for your advice.
No, there is no "standard proof." It would be easy for a web site to send you a "screen capture" showing the banner on the site as equivalent to a tear sheet, or to have their invoice notarized so that it becomes an affidavit.
The Guru can think of two reasons why these haven't become standard procedures:
Where can I find the results of the survey on which medium people "trust" to get their news? I think it was a Gallup or Roper survey. Any ideas? Thanks
What research is available that addresses wear-out for print ads? We're interested in idientifying the maximum "threshold" for frequency for a business-to-business trade publication campagin.
Are there any statistics on Internet advertising?
What is an average cost per thousand to advertise on a website?
The range is enormous, from $5 to more than $100, depending on the narrowness of targeting of an audience.
Banner advertising on major, commercial consumer web sites probably averages $20-$25 gross cpm.
I am working on my thesis progect and gathering the information about internet bookselling. I was wondering if there is any way I can get the actual media plans of those booksellers. Would you tell me where I can get those info.
Don't you imagine these would be considered trade secrets? One of the first things you will learn when you enter the real world is that information about advertising is treated as highly confidential.
Competitive spending tracking services, like
CMR (Competitive Media Reports) can report media choices an advertiser has made, but that is far form seeing the whole picture of a media plan. Especially on the internet, many media investments will be below the "radar" of tracking services.
Also, particularly for the booksellers, transactional deals are prevalent and distort the picture. That is, sites have banners and links to booksellers and are compensated when a visitor sent by the link on the site makes a purchase from the bookseller.
There has been extensive trade media coverage of these deals for years.
I was wondering, if you could give a source where I can find media terminology or the frequent variables that are used. This could also be a book. Thanks in advance.
Can you please suggest where I can purchase a directory that lists US manufacturers who provide co-op dollars to their dealers? I would appreciate any help you may offer. Thank you.
The Amazon.com on-line bookstore has the standard resource,
Co-op Advertising Programs Sourcebook Spring 1997 : The Comprehensive Guide to Programs For: Media
Companies, Ad Agencies, Manufacturers & Retailers , Published 1997.
What is the difference between ROS(Run on Schedule) and RODP(Run on Day Parts)?
Our Client Servicing friends use it without inhibitions. Is there actaully any technical difference between ROS & RODP?
You appear to be writng from the U.K., where terminology differs from the U.S., with which the Guru is most familiar. But the Guru believes this is analogous to the U.S. usage of ROS and (Daypart)ROS.
ROS means a spot is purchased to run anytime within the station's schedule. But a buyer can buy Daytime ROS, which runs anytime with the schedule of the daypart defined as "Daytime," which might be 10am to 4 pm. Or Prime ROS, Weekend ROS, etc.
We are to compare several advertising strategies as an
independent expert. We are going to start with setting
some criteria for comparison. For instance, such
criteria could be: whether the strategy proposed fits
the clients brief, whether it reaches the goals set
by the client, whether efficiency evaluation is
correct, whether information is presented in convenient
form and so on. But at the same time we reckon that
some weighting factors shold be applied to each criteria
because their importance seems to be of different
The question is: are there any standard criteria known
and what are their weights? Probably, there is some
literature on this subject.
Many thanks, in advance.
The Guru is wondering what expertise you are offering, in order to help you maintain this positioning.
The Guru has been known to say things like "media are not good or bad except in relation to how they answer the specific
The criteria suugest you are judging an academic excercise, in which case strategy meeting criteria of the brief and clarity of presentaton would be of greatest importance. If you are a real consultant helping an advertiser evaluate pitches, then accurate efficiency estimates rise in importance. In either case, considering whether the plan actually fits its own stated strategy is another consideration too often overlooked.
In any case, the Guru has not seen any standard weighting of the factors, and believes they should vary according to the specific situation.
What would you say are the three keys to determing timing and selecting geography, when developing a media plan?
Build up the coverage area geography from the top of your opportunity list down, as far as you can afford the media weight you have set, within the timing you have set.
do you have any articles/opinions on advertising attention/retention...packed goods
Try Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the library, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I have a client who is debating the use of :60 TV spots
vs. :30's. Clearly there are budget implications, so
I want to demonstrate the relative difference in cost
vs. impact for the two unit lengths. Any suggestions
for studies that measure the impact of various
broadcast commercial lengths?
Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the library, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
thanks for your answer about the reach per point from the 14/4/99 but how can i calculate it it it write to devide reach in trp for example if the reach is 50 and the trp is 100 so the reach per point will be 0.5
Yes, divide reach by TRP to get reach per point.
I am looking for a survey on utilizing animals mascots in advertising.
We are launching a new product for a large manufacturing firm our client
doesnt believe we should use an animal as a mascot for the product.
even though it is a perfect fit.
Can you point me to any research papers or surveys that
will help me prove otherwise.
It's not a media question, of course, but the Guru would refer you to the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the library, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
which are the television channels in USA targeting the South asian Population. which cable network are they vailable on and what is their respective reach interms of number of households that subscribe to them.
In this context, the words "channel" and "network" are synonymous. Though many cable networks use the word channel as part of their name, "Channel" is just a number on a tuner where the local cable sytem choses to deliver a network's programming.
That said, the major cable network carrying Asian language programming in the U.S. is I Channel.
I was wondering, is it possible for channels Reach% to go down on a house hold base but have it increase in demographics of 2-11?
Certainly. Imagine that a channel changes programming from movies, which appeal to many demographic groups and draw a certain HH audience, to pure kids programming. The HH reach would shrink, (to only those HH with kids) and the Kid reach would be likley to grow.
Can you provide a list of newspapers and magazines that are for the St. Louis,MO market?
i read an article about the optimizer program and they use there on the phrase REACH PER POINT (RPP)
what does it mean and how can i use it . (and i am not mean to cost per reach point)
thanks a lot
Without seeing the article, the Guru is only speculating, but he believes this refers to the varying reach accumulation rates of different media elements, programs and dayparts.
For example, a given demographic may generate 30 reach for a typical schedule of 100 Gross Rating Points in daytime and 50 reach for 100 GRP of Prime. They have a different reach per point (GRP). When coupled with the cost, it's the essence of optimizers.
Could you please tell me how to find the median age who views a certain channel? And does this differ when the sample is weighted on individuals or as in cell matrix form.
Depending upon the research you are using, the median age of various channels should be directly reported. The weighting procedure can influence results, the coarser the cell definition, the greater the potential difference, but it is also possible that the result will not vary significantly.
The definition of median is key: i.e. the mid-point when all elements are arrayed in order. Obviously, if only cells are available your result will be a range rather than a specific number.
Ok, I'm doing a study on how Advertisement companies present commercials differently to adults than they do to children. I want to show such differences as the difference in the frame change rate/speed of the commercial, and things like the type of actors/actresses they use for the two groups, and
why they are presented this way to each group. Basically, if a commercial was directed towards an adult(ex.car commercial) how is it different than a commercial directed towards a child(ex.toy commercial)?? And also, where would I find information about things similar to this?
This is not a media question, but our old standby, the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter, would have materials on this topic. For details about the library, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
I am frantically tring to locate a phone number for Revolution Outdoor. I don't know what city or state they are located in, but I need to find out quick. Can you help me? Thanks so much!!!
The Guru suggests you call the Outdoor Advertisng Association of America
Washington, D.C. Headquarters
1850 M Street, N.W., Suite 1040
Washington, D.C. 20036
WHile I do have the numbers and quantitative arguements on the Net and its popularity ,,,is there any way I can get to know on why the Net is so popular and is the fastest growing medium ?
What I am specifically looking at is the psychology behind the success of the Web ? Why do so many
people get hooked on ? What is the reason for their interaction with the Net ?
I know this is not a 'media' quesiton but this kind of information will really help me get a grip on the medium .
Allow the Guru to take a cynical approach here.
The "net" is the fastest growing because it is smaller than other media. . .it has room to grow. At some early point in the lifecycle of all media, they are the fastest growing. Radio in the 20's, TV in the 50's, Cable in the 80's, etc.
There is a lot more hype than reality in the net's popularity. It's popular with the people who are in favored target groups, media people and advertising people. New applications are being created constantly so there is a lot of press.
The Guru believes the net is leveling off in the U.S. while the less developed remainder of the world grows on.
The Guru believes the "hook" of the net is interactivity and the enormous wealth of
Are there general guidelines or benchmarks for percentages of advetising budgets devoted to alternative media like the Internet relative to print media? If so, what are the usual ranges?
The Guru does not think there are such benchmarks nor does he believe there should be.
When such guidelines arise, they are ususally based on audience missing from a traditionally strong medium. Guidelines for investment in cable versus broadcast tv which arose 15 years ago are such an example. So are recent guidelines in use for investment in Hispanic media.
But there is no evidence that the web is taking audience from magazines. One such study put forward bu an agency has been pretty much debunked by the Magazine Publishers of America.
So, to create such a percentage guideline for yourself, you would need to estimate the portion of your target no longer available through print.
Otherwise, if your target group uses the web heavily and you believe the web can add reach more efficiently than more traditional media at some point of the budget, or that it can deliver a required, differnt message, then justify it plan by plan, not with an abstract "guideline."
Where can I find a list of the top business websites. A client is looking to reach business executives through web advertising. Do you have any suggestions?
MediaMetrix, one of the leading web usage measurers, offers a list of the top sites visited from work.
Defining "business websites" and "top" are different issues. "Top" may not really be relevant. The web is different than any other medium. In TV or magazines, we credit the entire audeince of the vehicle to an ad run in it. But on the web, we usually buy the number of impressions or clicks we want. It is no easier to buy 1,000,000 impressions/month out of 300,000,000 availably on www.yahoo.com as from another site that only has 5,000,000/month in its inventory. Reach and frequency might be better buying 5,000,000 from 5 different sites than just one.
What are some informative internet advertising sites that discuss the field but aren't sites that sell internet advertising?
The IAB (Internet Advertising Bureau), the association of advertising supported web site operators and C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment), the advertiser's / agency's counterpart are excellent sources. Also see Business Marketing's Net Marketing
We are looking for information/resources to find a guest speaker
for our upcoming summer convention. We are an ad agency specializing
in legal and medical clients. Any help would be greatly appreciated.
To keep this a media question, the Guru suggests you contact the media you use for these clients and ask their editors to speak. If they don't care to speak, they should be well equipped to suggest other speakers.
We are preparing a plan for our client that is meant to be a corporate imaging/community relaitons campaign. The client is looking to run the plan over 2 months, 4 months or 6 months, at out recomendation. Seeing as how the objective is to create a presence for the company in the marketplace, rather than drive a retail product, we're thinking the plan should run over the longer period of time, with a slight heavy-up in the beginning. Can you provide any insight here? Thanks.
The question is unclear: will you spend the same dollars per month for 2, 4 or 6 months or will you spread a given total over 2, 4 or 6 months?
Building a relationship seems to call for longer term advertising. A heavy-up is typically used to jump start awareness and get the first couple of exposures established early in a promotion or during the building of distribution. Those needs don't seem relevant here.
My client was told from a previous agency that 100 points a week is a standard guideline for television advertising, for sustaining levels. I know there are tons of factors that would really go into developing point levels, but other than showing r/f and eff 3+ numbers is there any way to source this or provide rationale? The client is looking for it. Thanks as always.
As a regular correspondent of the Guru's you certainly knew that an agency saying 100 GRP / week is "standard" is a sign of ignorance, at best, and you've come to the Guru for help in debunking this nonsense.
Looking at the 4 week reach of 100 GRP / week might show a 100% variation in reach, frequency or reach at 3+ based on daypart choice, for Adult 18-49. So ignoring whether daytime or prime is used is foolish. Will 50 GRP/week of Prime do the same communication job as 100/week in day?
When GRPs are seen as just weight, with no consideration of programming content, reach potential, frequency, etc, one suspects media planners have not even gotten into the game.
Factors such as how high is the introductory weight, how high is the competitors' weight how long are flights vs hiatuses, should all influence a choice of sustaining weight.
The simplest way to rationalize for your client is to show how different the reach and frequency of 100/week can be and what the competition
Are there sites for demographics on medical oriented web sites?
What do you recommend for tracking medical web sites?
The Guru doubts any such sites exist, but click here to see past Guru responses about medical media information. Some of the same sources may help you.
Can you provide a definition of "quintile?"
Literally, "quintile" means one fifth. In media terms, quintle analysis is a technique where either the population or users of a particular medium or the audeince of a specific schedule is arrayed into five equal groups, according to their frequency of viewing/reading. These are ususally referred to as something like "Heavy, next heaviest, medium, next lightest and lightest."
Then we might use these analyses to draw conclusions like
"the lightest viewers of daytime TV are skewed to the higher quintiles of magazine reading."
"My commercial is worn out when the average frequency of the next heaviest quintile is over 20."
I have a question regarding %US coverage with spot radio. An old boss of mine who has recently left the company had used DMA %ages rather than metro %ages when reflecting total US penetration on a spot radio buy we did. I am unsure as to why this was done. Can you provide a rationale for using DMA numbers here? Thanks.
To some extent it represents TV thinking and to another, it's more realistic.
DMA's are really a TV-defined area. Every U.S.county is assigned to one DMA or another -- except for some oddities in Alaska. So the sum of all DMAs is 100% of the U.S. with no duplication. The definition is based on which TV market gets the bulk of a county's viewing. In each market, the central city VHF stations generally reach the whole DMA. Spot TV buys are usually planned on a DMA rating/GRP basis.
Radio, on the other hand, is usally planned on a metro point basis. Even the strongest radio stations, audience-wise, rarely reach the outer areas of DMA's. In each DMA there are one or more Metros. Because the population of the DMAs concentrates in the metros, buys in the metros are treated as if they covered whole DMAs, and indeed, radio coverage is gernerally wider than the metro.
In the U.S. there are roughly 10 times as many radio stations as TV sations, many surviving because they cover out-of-the way areas, but others simply because we will buy small, select audiences. Consider the New York DMA. Largest in population, one of the smallest in geography, but with about 50 reportable commercial radio stations and about 9 commercial TV stations.
What is the best interactive web site to find out demographic information?
n example of what I mean by "demographic information":
I would like to know how many males ages 35-50 are watching Dateline NBC
on Sunday night? Which programs are most watched by adults ages 35-50?
What Kind of Seminars/Short term Courses are out
there to acquire more knowledge in Ad Agency
management related issues??
Anything in NY in the next 2-3 months???
What is the media profile of Amazon.com advertising,
mediums and relative volume?
This sort of data can be found through
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
My AE has asked me to determine how much of the
clients budget should be allocated to media spending.
I believe this should be the AE's decision. How can I
determine what should be spent on media and/or how can
I help the AE to decide?
If you've been given communication goals, like "100 GRP per week for 26 weeks", or "60 reach at 3+ frequency when in, for 26 weeks of activity" then it is fair to ask you to determine a budget, but the Guru imagines your AE's question has been asked in total information vacuum.
You're quite right then, that this is a decision that should be made before media planning comes into play.
Regardless of who makes the decision, considerations must first allocate budget to PR vs Promotion vs Advertising, in the broadest strokes.
Within advertising there's production vs research vs media.
You need to ask for the client's overall marketing plan, as your AE should have, if it wasn't the AE's responsibilty to create one from client information.
Of course, you can look at this as an opportunity to demonstrate that you can do the AE's job, since you've been asked to.
What are the appropriate rating point levels for introducing a new grocery product into the New York Metro?
The Guru has discussed this kind of question frequently.
Click here to see past Guru
responses about advertising levels
Is there a rule of thumb for advertisers as to the % of the advertising budget allocated to retail coop ?
The Guru would say no. It naturally depends on the manufacturer's retail situation. For example, a parity grocery item has a different dependence on the retailer than a prestige name-brand watch sold only through fine jewelers.
Click here to see past
Guru responses aboout co-op advertising.
One of the counter claims that clients come up with when we recommend the Web for banners is that they do not yet have a web site .
Is it necessary for someone to have a web site before putting up a banner ? If not, what are the alternatives ?
Since banner exposures work far more effectively than do click throughs (IAB Survey ) , shouldn't there be some way of getting out of this "Banner-click-web site " syndrome ?
People's experience as consumers on the web has taught them that banners click through to web sites.
The same people's experience as media professionals has mostly not exposed them to the research that shows banners build awareness better than the ½ percent clickthrough builds anything else.
Some sites, like AMIC , will create a page for a banner advertiser so that a click has a target. The page can be the equivalent of a full-page magazine ad. Other advertisers might do the same with a multimedia interstitial.
Is there any literature on Advertising Decay... more specifically - on the wearout of TVCs - and when is an 'optimal' time to replace them.
I would assume that the above is a function of a host of subjective parameters - copy, message, audience profile, etc... but are there any studies / models you could suggest as a starting point ?
Try Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter For details about the library, call 212-751-5656, extension 230; Newsweek
Media Research Index and ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization.
I am looking for a way to factor 'page exposure' data
into mainstream media metrics such as CPM or GRP. MRI
tracks and calculates page exposure using the following:
#_issues_read * %_of_pages_read)= avg_page_exposure
I believe such data would not only provide a more
accurate picture of a readers exposure to the ad pages
but could alter CPM & GRP rates.
CPM=(ad_rate/audience); audience=(circ * readers);
'readers' is thenumber of different set of eyes per
issue (single exposure). This number does not take
into account how long or to what extent the reader
looked at the publication -- it could be the mailman
delivering the magazine who remebers the cover or it
could denote a subscriber who reads the issue cover
to cover. Enter the issue of page exposure. Suppose
I am considering a magazine with a CPM of .01851 =
40,400/(704,000 * 3.1). However, if this same
magazine provided me with a page exposure rate of .99
= (3 * 1 * .33) -- which says that the audience takes
3 days to read the issue and reads about 33% of the
issue a day (which I know is unrealistic, but hear me
out). Now suppose I take the .99 exposure rate and
add it to the 'reader' and recalculate CPM ---
40,400/(704,000 * (3.1 +.99))= .01404 -- I get a much
Why can't I make this type of calculation with
page exposure data -- where is the break down in my
logic or math? Any insights would be GREATLY
appreciated. Thanks in advance!
First, overall, yes it is a reasonable and not unusual concept to adjust CPM according to additional measured factors reported for magazines. However, there are some minor and some major issues with your process in terms of labels and decimal places, etc.
Yes, CPM is ad rate ÷ readers. Readers is circulation times readers per copy (refer to the explanation of MRI information which the Guru did for you in query #2403).
So the basic CPM -- cost per thousand impressions -- in your example is actually $18.51, assuming you mean $40,400 is your ad csot, 704,000 is circulation and 3.1 is readers per copy.
The exposure rate is a factor, not an add on. So the adjustment would be 3.1 times 0.99 or 3.069 or virtually no change. The cpm is now $18.70. If there was a very different page exposure factor it would make a difference. It is a valid way to reaxamine CPMs.
where can i find more information abbout the aperture teorty
maybe it has another name (i am not mean the recency teory)
See query numbers 2323 and 2419.
always on your answers you advise to look at the advertising research fundation LIBRARY
how can i get acess to this library? i did not find any library on their web site
The site gives contact information for the ARF. The library is one of the most valuable aspects of ARF membership; it is the finest compilation of advertising and marketing research information the Guru knows. For details about the library, call 212-751-5656, extension 230.
i would like to know where can i find information about
convention, workshop and conference about media research
advertising research but not in USA, i am looking for somthing in europe, i prefer london
thanks a lot
What are some names and/or URLs for companies that
sell advertising space in toilets?
Is there a database available, via the internet,
which will allow me to find the highest concentration
of specifically selected SIC's by market? In
otherwords, where could I find/access what market has
the highest concentration of say...pharmaceutical
companies? Thank you in advance.
The Guru's rule of thumb is that valuable data, compiled to be sold, will not be offered free on the web. However association sites like International Society for Pharmaceutical Engineering (ISPE) or on-line communities like Pharmaceuticals Online probably have the data you need. You can also easily find similar sites for other industries in a good search engine.
The target audience for my schedule is "Own a dog or cat and took your pet to the vet at least once in the last 12 months". I have done the Xtab in Telmar and know which states this audience lives. I am trying to get more specific and find out what DMA the target lives in.
What is the best way to find this information? I do have information from the Lifestyle Analyst book provided by SRDS but I am not that comfortable with it since I was told the data is compiled from warranties people send in. Please help.
Why are you troubled by data from warranty cards? Of course, this data will not be from as random a sample as Simmons, MRI or The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study. However, its skews are probably based on income more than anything else and data should be fairly useful in terms of finding the geographic dispersion of behavior like vet visits.
Another approach is this: the survey data listed above does report separately on several major DMA's. Beyond that, the mapping/modeling software offered by suppliers like CLARITAS can extrapolate the survey data into regional or market by market data. Of course, this may be as removed from validity as the warranty data.
I am working on a cable buy. What network is abbreviated by MSC?
The Guru is not familiar with this one. Some cable systems or listings with a three character limit might abbreviate MSNBC this way. One of the Guru's references for cable networks is Ultimate TV, which doesn't seem to include anything fitting this abbreviation except possibly The Music Zone. Another, smaller, regional network possibility is Mas Musica TV the Latin music video channel.
Most likely, MSC is a very local or system-owned channel in your area.
1) Are the terms OTS, impressions, hits and exposures
2) Are there media industry norms (or even studies)
that indicate a correlation between a number of OTS
or exposures and audience (reader) behavior. I
understand there were a number of Politz studies
conducted in the 60s which suggested that one exposure
produced a dicernible response and two exposures
produced about double that response. Also there are
European reports stating that a magazine ad should
provide at least 5 OTS in order for the reader to
digest or understand the ad message -- is '5' the
number? Are there industry norms, and if so, do
they differ by media vehicle? Thanks in advance!
1) Other than "hits," you may generally consider those terms interchangeable. "Hits" is a much abused term peculiar to the internet. Some people do use it when the mean impressions, but technically "hit" is defined as "an entry in a server log."
Whenever a visitor requests a page on a site, as by clicking on a link, the server log records a "hit" for the text of the page, and hits for each frame and hits for each little bullet or other icon and a hit for each ad. A single page on one of today's commercial sites may consist of several dozen items which would all create "hits" in a server log when only one page impression is happening. The internet is also unique in its ability to serve content with a different ad each time a new user arrives at a page. So page impressions and ad impressions will not agree as they do in magazines or broadcast.
"Hits" originated in the early days of the world wide web, when browsers read text only, like the venerable "Lynx," and a page was just one block of text, so "hit" then equalled "impression," more or less. Hits include server log error messages as well, which are of no value to anyone.
The study of effective numbers of exposures goes back at least as far as the scientist Ebbinghaus (1883) who tested how many repetitions of nonsense syllables were required to achieve learning. This was the origin of 3 as a magic media number there have been infinite numbers of other studies, more advertisng and sales focused since.
Note that European media and Europe's media environment are different than the U.S. It is a common trap to assume that media perform the same tasks with the same effectiveness when used in different cultures. The U.S. Hispanic market is a good exanple, with TV, radio and print all delivering very different reach / frequncy, reach potetial and overlap than do the parallel general market media.
The best source of studies on the topic are:
Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter, Newsweek
Media Research Index and ESOMAR, the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization.
The Guru has discussed this frequently.
Click here to see past Guru
responses about "effective frequency"
In dealing with consumer magazines, what does the term
advertising rate base mean?
This is the circulation on which the pricing is based. Typically, this circulation is guaranteed to be delivered in the issues where you buy ads or a proportional rebate is due you.
Dear Guru -
This may seem like a vague question, but what is meant by "adjusted GRPs?"
I am looking at a combined TV and print plan that delivers 425 avg. 4-week GRPs
against W25-54, and under "adjusted GRPs" it says 336. These are 52-week plans, and
there are only :30 units (no copy split). Your help is much appreciated.
Your question isn't vague, but "adjusted" is. Somone has done you a disservice by presenting something labeled "adjusted" with no explanation. There are numerous bases used to adjust GRPs including:
. Various advertisers have set policies on these matters and planners trained on those advertisers' business report Reach/Frequency/GRP including these adjustments almost without thinking about it. But the first time someone sees such data, they deserve an explanation.
There are no universal standards for "adjusted GRP."
How did the industry standard of requiring television stations to post at 90%
of the estimated TRPs on local spot buys originate?
Just because your agency and many others use this figure, it doesn't mean it's an "industry standard." But it is probably most common. The practice began in recognition of the statisical instability of the audience research, due to sampling issues. Two people, negotitating in good faith, and agreeing that a schedule should deliver 100 GRP, can find that, without anyone doing anything wrong, the schedule is reported to underdeliver because of "bounce" in the ratings. So to avoid arguements over probably half of all the schedules bought and sold, it became common to agree that if the schedule posted at least 90% of what was bought, it was "no harm / no foul." In fact, in most cases, schedules estimated in good faith should, statistically do better than 90%. And if a buyer finds that every schedule bought from a specific station came in near 90%, then there's something wrong; schedules should post over as often as under if statistical bounce is the culprit. Of course a buyer doesn't want all schedules to post 110% or bigger either, that would imply bad estimationg and overspending.
The 90% figure shouyld be a negotiating point. Don't automatically expect a station to honor it unless it's your stated policy or by agreement. Many schedules are bought without guarantees.
The Guru recalls his own buying experience when one salesman would offer 90% guarantee and the next 95%. It made it too hard to compare proposals. So the said to all the sellers. Give me only numbers which are 100% guaranteed. Raise the cpm you are offering, if you must, to compensate, but all sales must be on the same basis.
I have read MRI's Top Line circulation report and am concerned to see that the average CPM value is much lower than our own magazine (105,000 senior readers). The publications on MRI's report have a huge circulation. Where might I find CPM values for smaller audience magazines? Am I correct in assuming that CPM increases for publications of small circulation?
First, you need to be clear on the distinction between circulation and readership (see query #2403, below).
If you are comparing other magazine's readership cpm to your circulation cpm you place yourself at a disadvantage.
Of course, economies of scale do make it possible for larger circulation titles to gain pricing advantages.
Also, magazines distributed by associations, where the magazine subscription may be a membership benefit but not ordered for itself, tend to have very low readers per copy, perhaps even less than 1.0. Note Modern Maturity (AARP), Amrican Legion Magazine and VFW magazine on that MRI list reference in Query #2403. Using that list and Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) Consumer Magazine Source you can compare circulation cpms for various sizes of publication.
I am doing research on television advertising. I was wondering
the method for companies to verify that the ads they paid for were
at the proper time. Is there currently a system for verifying the level
of accuracy in terms of broadcast quality as compared to the original
Most typically, advertisers rely on affadavits of performance. Stations render an invoice for a schedule which specifies which commercial ran at what day and time. An "affidavit" is simply an invoice which has been signed by a designated person at the station to swear to the content and then notarized.
However, some advertisers also want verification by a third party, whether regarding how the spots were scheduled or whether they had technical (broadcast quality) difficulties or ran too close to competing advertising. Services like CMR's BVS (Broadcast Verification Service) perform this kind of verification.
Dear Guru, Everyone in the cable industry is bragging
about the large increases in cable ratings and spending.
It appears that the large cable interconnects want to
play in the same field as the broadcast networks in
their respective markets. My question.... Is there a
"reliable" way to post cable ratings on a local
interconnect? If so, would you please explain how to
do it and how it would be reliable? Thanks in advance.
Without examining the specific rating report you would use, the Guru cannot answer specifically. Cable interconnect sellers can extract anudience numbers specific to their system line-ups from the standard Nielsen NSI (local market spot TV reports) to make proposals. Obviously, a buyer can post on the same basis.
"Reliable" is a statistical term, meaning that if the same research was done again with the same size sample, the same result would be found within a given tolerance. The key variable is sample size. Because cable intereconnect
network ratings are typically tiny (less than 1.0 in most cases), these ratings are projections from smaller numbers of sample respondents and therefore are less "reliable" than typical ratings from local broadcast outlets. However, it is in the nature of reliability that while individual spot's ratings may be very unstable, entire schedules are far more stable as sampling errors cancel out.
Click here to see past Guru responses regarding reliability in research data.
I have been researching these questions for a number
of days now and have been unsatisfied with the
answers I have been receiving. I am a new member
and new to this field, any direction would be most
helpful. Thank you in advance...
1) What is the difference between Rate Base (a number
guaranteed by publishers and audited by ABC) and
Readership (a number provided by, say, MRI) levels
for magazine publications?
2) Which number (above) is most often used to
calculate CPM (I believe this calculation is
3) Is 'readership' really a composite number (perhaps
a result of some other formula)? If so, does
Page Exposure Rates factor into 'readership'?
If you went to AMIC's Rates, Dates and Data area and clicked the link
"Audience data from MRI is available for
Fall 1998 for Total Audience, Circulation and Readers Per Copy " you would see the table from which this image is taken:
The following discussion will use this table as a visual aid.
"Rate base" refers to circulation, the actual number of copies of a publication printed and sold for the average issue over a specified period of time. In the table, "Circulation" is the middle column of data.
"Readership" is the number of readers of the average issue. It includes "passalong" readers, who may not be the buyers / subscribers but read some else's copy. In almost every case, total readership will be greater than circulation. The first three columns of the MRI table we are looking at are readership numbers.
CPM can be calculated based on either circulation or readership. The circulation CPM (Cost Per Thousand) calculation is: divide ad cost by the number of copies in circulation.
The readership cpm calculation is: Divide ad cost by number of readers of an average issue. Often readers within a specified demographic the advertiser is targeting are the divisor in this second calculation. As a planning tool, the readership CPM is more common than the circulation CPM, especially for categories of print that use readership research, such as MRI.
Many people misinterpret the common reporting of "readers per copy." The last three columns of the MRI data are readers per copy figures. What audience research actually measures is readership. A random sample of consumers is interviewed and asked about their magazine reading to determine how many readers there are for an average issue of a magazine. Readers per copy is a calculation done after the fact, dividing the readers measured by the circulation. It is a handy factor used to compare magazine pass-alongs or to calculate other audience elements.
Dear Guru, while we know that for certain categories Multi-media advertising is better than single media, could you tell mewhere i could find research data on this. IN addition, i would like some qualitative comments from you on the issue. Thanks.
Research for such questions are best found at Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter, Newsweek
Media Research Index and possibly The Newspaper Advertising Association or MPA (Magazine Publishers of America) where there is a recent study "The Advertising Impact of Magazines in Conjunction with Television."
As for the Guru's comments on the concept:
It is easy to oversimplify and say that when budget is adequate, multimedia advertising is always better.
The Guru doesn't think multimedia is a category issue. Mixing media might be done to broaden reach, manipulate frequency distribution or because of what specific media can contribute when the primary job is done by a single medium.
For example, magazines plus TV will deliver a broader reach than all TV, typically. But a plan might be 90% TV all year and have a brief print wave to distribute coupons, publish contest rules in detail or deliver other detail oriented messages.
Without going into great depth of analysis, the situation seems more brand specific or marketing situatiuon specific than category related.
In some categories, like soft drinks and beer, budgets are so large and camaigns so multi-dimensional that it takes more than one medium to cope.
Dear Media Guru,
I was wondering if you are aware of any recent purchase
influence studies specifically geared towards packaged
goods. E.g. Assuming women do most of the grocery
shopping and are therefore the primary decision maker
how and to what extent are they influenced by others
(children, husbands, etc.). Any ideas on where to find
this info are much appreciated.
I need to know the calculation to work out margin of error for TV reach and frequency results. E.g. what is the margin of error of 40% @ 2+ depending on the size of the sample, penetration etc.
Assuming you are using a model to calculate reach and frequency, your error is no longer an aspect of sample size but of the reliability of the model.
For instance, suppose your schedule consisted of 20 advertisements with an average rating of 10. And, based on sample size, the 10 rating was +/- 2 rating points (or 20% relative error). But your total schedule of 200 GRP is not going to be +/- 40 points. Because error is plus or minus, there is an equal chance that one 10 rating is really PLUS 2 and the next 10 rating is really MINUS 2. So, in a schedule, most of the error cancels out. This is one reason why ratings minima for buying are often short-sighted.
When it comes to reach analysis, someone might have built a model by compiling several actual schedules measured by the original research and finding a formula for the straight line formed by the average frequency of each. Since the actual schedules came from the orignal research, the sampling error of each (minimized by the plus or minus aspect of the schedule elements, as above) could have been calculated. But now the "curve" coming out of the model is only judged by its ability to match back to actual schedules.
We are currently working with a sit-down restaurant
client who has asked us to investigate a market-by-
market media mix "optimization" using spot TV and Spot
radio. Because the cost of radio is about half of what
we are paying in TV, the optimizer continually picks
radio as the dominant medium. We know, however, through
experience that once we turn on the TV program, results
usually happen. Is there any guidance you can provide
that would help us in quanitfying this mix outside the
realm of what the pure numbers tell us?
Optimizers, at least worthwhile ones, can be set to "optimize" to any of several criteria. It sounds like you are optimizing only for net audience (reach) efficiency, so radio has an advantage.
The Guru doesn't quite understand what "once we turn on the TV program, results
usually happen" means. Has radio not been tried?
Apparently, the client believes reach is the key driver of success, while you believe there is an effectiveness issue inherent in the media types. You need to quantify this difference (is a radio reach point only 75% as sales effective as a TV reach point?) and get the client to accept the quantification, then include the factor in your optimization. Consider also the effects of mix on frequency.
Is it statistically correct to merge television Reach and
frequency and Reach and Freq. delivered by Print vehicle?
is so how, what is the rationale behind the process as
the basic samples for readership and viewership
studies are usually very different.
do readership studies in the west capture product ownership
and usage data ? and if so, do planners use such data to
redefine their TG definitions for eg. the ideal TG for the
replacement market for TVs could well be owners of Television
sets over 4-5 years old !!
Combining TV and Print reach and frequency is a philosophical issue not a statistical one.
Though the original research used different samples, both were designed to project the behavior of the same population. By the time you're dealing with reach and frequency, things are quite removed from the ratings research; you're working with models, not respondent data.
Objections to combining Print and TV are usually based on the difference in message qualities.
How do I get information on websites that reach principle officers in technology, healthcare, and energy (oil and petroleum) industries whose companies have recently gone public?
Ther Guru believes that your specification is too narrow for there to be any website aimed specifically at the audience you mention. Depending on your definitons of "principal" (Chairman / CEO / COO / President?) and "recent" (past 3 months?), the Guru wonders if there 1000 such people in the world. There is also not likely to be any standardized audience tracking that addresses so narrow a defintion of an audience member (industry / position / date of change of company structure). Even the detail of a print business publication's BPA statement wouldn't go this deep.
The best bet would be to look for sites which address issues relevant to the position-holder you want or industries you want and see if they can offer any insight as to visits from the specific, newly-public companies you can list.
What is your opinion of running different messages for different brands for the same client in the same issue of a magazine? Will the consumer be confused or will the messages get lost? Or is there an overall benefit? What do you think? The client is currently against this, but we are trying to make an arguement for it. Thanks Guru.
The Guru may be misinterpreting the question, but this seems like a non-issue on the surface of it.
If the client is one which never associates the name of the client company with consumer communication of Brand messages and the Brands are in unrelated categories, like Procter & Gamble's Tide Laundry Detergent and Jif Peanut Butter, what difference does it make that the Brands are seen in the same magazine?
If you mean same-category brands from the same client, like P&G's Tide and Cheer, perhaps each loses a bit appearing in close proximity in the same issue, and gains nothing. But in any such magazine, there are likely to be other manufacturers' competing brands, so at least the competing message might be weakened
If you mean same-category Brands where the consumer would be well aware that the manufacturer is the same, like Miller Beer and Miller Genuine Draft, the copy must be clear on different Brand positions and benefits to avoid consumer confusion.
Assuming there is a price benefit that makes the question worth considering, weigh the benefit against potential negatives in the situations that seem to have them, i.e. same-category Brands.
Dear Guru, What is the status on (Real)Buying for Mass Media on the Internet Worldwide? How is the Security handled ? - Shripad Kulkarni,India
The Guru is not aware of any site selling mass media in e-commerce on the World Wide Web. If it was happening, the Guru expects that the same "secure server" used by major e-retailers like Amazon, etc. would be adequate for security needs.
Hello Media Guru,
I am a consultant advising a sales team that sells airtime on in-store radio services in the UK. The recency model seems to lend itself to this particular media format. Are there any details available on US examples of this type of medium, and case studies etc they may have?
Certainly in-store radio ties in with the idea that the most effective advertising is the last exposure prior to the purchase. Yet, in-store radio has never been a great success in the U.S.
The best source of case studies may be POPAI, The Point-of-Purchase Advertising Institute.
Also visit Music Technologies International.
Dear Guru -
How do you nationalize GRPs? Is there a shortcut?
Assuming you mean that you have GRPs for a spot market area to start with:
simply multiply the GRP by the % U.S. to "nationalize".
For example, if your coverage area is 25% U.S. and you have 400 GRPs. then 400 times 0.25 = 100 "national" GRP.
What do you know about radio effectiveness? I know my question is a kind of broad but please help me with whatever you know.
The Guru loves queries which invite him to write a textbook (overnight).
i want to do a research about the connection between the loyalty to a particular series to there willing to buy the product or service that is advertised
or the connection between the viewer attention to the programm to the campaign effectiveness
i am lookung for literary stuff, article and web site about this subject and also research that already been done
thanks a lot
I am going to begin a carrer in Media planning and buying. could you tell me names of some sites where i could get basic information about these areas.
Dear Guru: My company has recently launched our web-site and I need to format a site demo, I am wonrdering what length of demo it should be? with reel audio? or? and if there is any research on site demos. We are a niche business in the new home construction arena and are ahead (so far) of the competition, so I have nothing to compare with? What an opportunity! Thanks Kellee
What would be the application of a "site demo?" Is this something to use to sell ads on your site to advertisers or media buyers? Is it a brief site overview shown on the site to encourage full exploration by visitors?
In either case, brevity is better, though in the former, if you are presenting on your own computer, five minutes might be tolerable, in the latter, probably only 30 seconds of attention is feasible on the web itself.
Your question about "Real Audio" seem to imply you mean to offer this demo on the web site. And Real Audio can delay loading and display as well as being uneven or unusable for visitors who don't have pretty good equipment and connections. The Guru would imagine that your vistors, interested in home contruction, are not as likely to have fast links and higher level equipment as are people in the ad or computer industries, for example.
But the Guru isn't really sure what you have in mind, and why a home construction business needs a site demo.
The best source for web research is C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment), and the Advertising Research Foundation InfoCenter is good, too.
Where can I find a media list of pubications or
journals targeted to Government and various
municipalities in addition to Secondary Education
Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) has this resource.
What is your opinion of non-traditional media - namely disposable coffee cups. We recommended coffee cups to the client (it definately makes sense from an objectives standpoint), but one of the clients responded that he thought they were "cheesy." We disagree, and I am writing a recommendation to sell this idea. I greatly value your opinion. What do you think? Some big ticket advertisers have used this medium multiple times. Thanks Guru.
It could make good sense for some advertisers who would find coffee cups a very supportive environment, e.g. coffee, milk, sugar, sugar substitute, donuts, pastry advertisers, etc.
It might also seem "cheesy" for some big ticket advertisers like Mercedes Benz, Cadillac, or the Waldorf Astoria.
The Guru does not believe every action taken by "big ticket" advertisers is a good model. A great deal of their spending is based on a strategy of not knowing how to get all the enormous ad budget spent. Non-traditional media is most effective when it finds a strong fit with product message or target. Consider which advertisers use skywriting, blimps and airplane-towed banners: it's usually the ones relating to outdoor/beach fun and entertainment like film, bber, soda, beach front bars and nearby, open air concerts.
Will you explain to me how one ad size is
better or worse than another? For example:
1/4 pg bw @ $830 with a $36.09 CPM - vs 1/8 pg bw @
$520 with a $22.61 CPM (within the same publication).
I am working on a mediaplan and I am not certain which
one would benefit my client more and/or how to justify
It is very straightforward to compare cost or cpm of two ad units. Creatives usually like a bigger ad (and will judge executions from across the room).
The question for a media planner is "if ½ page costs 60% more than ¼" does the larger ad give 60% better results?
"Results" might mean sales, copy recall, awareness or many things. And the percentage differential in question is key. Rarely if ever does a spread do twice as well as a page, though it cost twice as much. Cost must be balanced against impact. One of the common research bases of results comparisons, when past sales results are not an available standard, is Starch .
Dear Media Guru
Suddenly without my Strata software...what was the formula I learned so long ago for calculating Gross Rating Points?
The Guru has discussed this frequently.
Click here to see past Guru responses on
GRP and calculations.
What are the main and more important media changes that you see in Europe for the next 10 years ?In termes of social, structural and economy. And what are the conditions to reach those evolutions ?
(i.e : Mass media in an one to one way of consumption
,internet, push media vs pull media, dominant media vs media dominated by the viewers or readers, need to receive more information without using most of them,...)
One could spend a year thinking this through and hundreds of pages giving just a top line answer, but the Guru will venture a few thoughts:
It is too soon to tell how much the currently floundering Euro and European Union will do to truly unify Europe and lead to pan-European media which could have a really big consumer impact. Such a development could lead to shaking out of weak, single nation brands. However , the trends seem to be toward media fragmentation, so perhaps multinational, low-reach media shape the future.
The Guru believes that the "push / pull" debate is over. What little push media will survive will be very narrow-cast, serving very specific interests.
Though the internet is a growing consumer information souorce, its penetration, as currently structured, might never reach 60% of population. The limits won't be merely socio-economic.
However, the world wide web having shown the way, some other, similar communication technology, probably based on convergence (a la Web TV), may become the dominant shopping / communications infrastructure.
RE: My earlier question #2379, my boss responded this way: Pre-launch was a 2-week period, so an average 4-week number would have been
a misrepresentation of reality. If you do not have a 4-wk period for comparison than you should not do a
4-week r/f. Do you agree with this? How should I handle this disagreement with my supervisor?
The Guru disagrees. The phrase "average four week" in the context of Reach & Frequency refers to a rate of accumulation, not really the period of time other than the time periods actually measured in the original establishment of reach calculations. Four weeks was originally chosen as the basis for the actual measurements that built the formulae when monthly media (magazines) were the predominant national advertising media. One does not really care how much time is involved.
For marketing purposes, what is important is that you communicated an advertising message to X% of consumers an average of Y times. It is easy enough to say that "over two weeks, we reached 60% of the target an average of 3.9 times." No one is misled, nothing is invalid. You just happened to use a four week formula to determine the results. As the Guru said earlier. only in some 1-week cases will there be any real differerence. (As there would for long term cumes, like 13 week).
If your supervisor's only alternative is to report nothing, as if there was no way to measure the schedule, that doesn't seem productive.
We are getting requests from Account Management to find out what the international consumer reaction has been to a new product we just launched. I am only handling US media. How can we find out this information? Thanks Guru.
This question goes outside media. But, what do you mean by "consumer reaction to a new product?" Sales? Intent to purchase? Brand Image?
How do you determine these answers in the U.S.? Presumably by commissioning custom research. Perhaps an omnibus supplier in Europe can do an inexpensive topline report.
Try contacting ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization or AEMRI, the Association of European Market Research Institutes for potential suppliers.
Is there a third party source that gives average cost
per point or ad spot for network television (cable too)?
I know that this is available on a market basis with
SQAD, but is there anything nationally?
Your help will be much appreciated.
Ephron, Papzian, Ephron, in New York, have a resource called "NetCosts" for this data.
My supervisor said it is impossible to figure an average 4 week r/f if the flight is shorter than four weeks, but i remember doing it on another account. Can you please confirm who is correct, and how to figure it out if I am? Thanks.
You're correct. There are a few workable approaches to this.
How do you figure out average four week r/fs without software?
Thanks for your help.
Before software, there were tables to get reach from broadcast GRP, and books of factors and formulae for print.
Those old tables are probably no longer valid, perhaps someone has done some new ones. The Guru has discussed this frequently.
Click here to see past Guru responses on
reach and frequency
Hi. I am trying to locate a newspaper in Dusseldorf Germany and am having a heck of a time figuring out where to find such information. Can you help me to find an online resource for international publications? Thanks! email@example.com
For The Guru has discussed this frequently.
Click here to see past Guru responses on
Regarding internet terms used, do you know what a "bot", "passport", "wallet", or "aggregators" are? I checked your on'line terminology page and they were not listed. Also, do you know what ADSL and DSL transmission is (not to mention what is the difference.) Thanks much.
It is interesting to the Guru that, in the context of the internet, media people are discussing technical terms that have no more to do with the media elements than an understanding of ink chemistry or printing press machinery has to do with print media planning. Of all the terms you mention, only "Aggregator" really relates to media, but the Guru will take a crack at all of them.
Dear Media Guru:
Where could I find information regarding marketing/advertising expendures as a percent of company revenues by industry? Thanks Guru!
Ad Age regularly reports on this.
I was talking to someone about advertising onthe Web and mentioned how it was aboon for tobacco cimoanies. He then told me that tobacco advertising is banned from the Net !!!
Is it true ? Are tobacco companies really not allowed to advertise on the Net ?
The situation is unclear. The wording of the cigarette broadcast advertising ban is taken to prohibit cigarette advertising on any medium regulated by the F.C.C.( reference to transmission by of internet content, at some point in the pipleine, by telephone ). Drafts of the recent cigarette consent agreement more specifically precluded web ads. However, these are U.S. issues. An interesting thing about the internet is that it is inherently international. And there is no international law-making authority. If content is illegal in one country, a web site can be based elsewhere.
Perhaps because of these less than 100% clear U.S. regulations and agreements, perhaps for public relations reasons or because of the web's perceived young skew or fear of legal action, there do not seem to be any cigarette manufacturer advertising or web sites on the web.
But there is plenty of cigar manufacturer and dealer advertising, e.g. Cigar World, and there are numerous retail cigarette stores.
Dear Media Guru,
Can you help me find case studies that support the
argument that, with the right creative, increased
spend levels may lead to increased share when launching
a new product in a parity category?
Best source would be Advertising Research Foundation library.
I have been asked to research a computer program called
Clip Scan. Have you ever heard of it?
If so how do I get in touch with them to get information?
Thanks for your help.
The Guru hasn't heard of this progam. It doesn't sound like it's a media program.
Could you give me a percentage wise break up of the purpose for which the internet is used, worldwide?
Much data of this sort is found at
NUA Internet Surveys.For instance, theres a report on
what interent users themselves believe will be the uses of the internet.
Do you think the growth of the internet is posing a threat to print media?
Yes, but so is every other form of media. The Guru believes that readers are less likely to switch time to the net than are broadcast addicts.
Guru - How do Arbitron ratings for commercial radio stations differ from those of public broadcast stations? Our local PBS station is claiming that they're the 4th most listened to station in the 25-45 demo, which doesn't seem realistic. Thanks!
Arbitron does not publish ratings for non-commercial stations in the printed reports. These stations ratings are in the respondent level data, e.g. Maximiser runs.
The reporting standards are otherwise the same. It seems unusual for a non-commercial station to be so highly ranked, but it isn't impossible. If they are Arbitron subscribers they should be able to document the claim. If not, a competing station with which you do business would probably be happy to do the necessary Maximiser analysis.
I am working for a local doctors office and my client would like to purchase some OOH space in a prime location right outside his office. THe space is owned by the restaurant owner on the corner of the street, and usually uses the space for menus, etc. THis is awkward becuase normally the OOH company is trying to sell space to me, but now i am trying to convince the ooh seller to let me buy the space. How do I position this as a good opportunity for him? I already have a budget set becase i researched the value of the space through a traditional OOH vendor who sells comparable space. Thanks!
This seems to be a money issue. Can you make it worth the owners while to let you use the space? You found out the going rate for such boards in the area, for starters. And apparently the location is worth some premium to your client; 25%? 50%? 100%?
How about a long term commitment; at least a year?
I am looking for a seminar/course/program which teaches "internet/web/on-line media planning & buying." Please e-mail me at your earliest convenience: firstname.lastname@example.org Thanks!
The Media Buying Academy is one of several traveling media schools which might include a course in internet media. There are others, as well. And watch the trade press, like MediaWeek and Ad Age for announcements of workshops.
The Guru doesn't believe one can really learn effective internet buying and planning without a basic understanding of general media planning.
Our little website uses two software packages to track user sessions, impressions, etc. Web Trends gives us daily, weekly and monthly reports, while AdJuggler administers and tracks banner impressions, and reports same to our banner advertisers. Our problem: Web Trends reported total 2/99 page views as approx.144,500; while totalling the AdJuggler reports for each banner yielded 68,500 total banner impressions. What's going on? Our Webmaster claims this huge discrepancy is a function of the way browsers cache pages vis-a-vis ads; our sales manager is awfully frustrated with that answer, and unsure how to explain this situation to prospective and current advertisers. (If we give them the WebTrends total, they'll wonder why their banner is not delivering its fair share of impressions; if we give them the more conservative AdJuggler numbers, our stats are nowhere near as compelling.) Can you shed any light on this situation, or point us in the direction of someone who might be able to?
Thanks Very Much,
Please understand that the Guru cannot possibly be familiar with the workings of every piece of web site utility software.
With that understood, here are a few possibilities; all of these have caused the same problem here at AMIC until they were understood and corrected:
We found a formula that is supposed to calculate newspaper impressions. (insertion X circulation*2.28*0.58)/1000) We thought that this was calculated simply by multiplying the circ by the # of insertions. Do you know what this formula could be doing? Thanks
The Guru believes this formula is meant to estimate persons impressions. "Circulation" represents just copies, not readers.
The 2.28 factor looks like the Sunday average adult readers per copy. The 0.58 then would seem to be the composition for some demographic group, perhaps 18-49. The "/1000" seem to be meant to set the decimal for the particular context in which you found the formula, it will cause the result to be expressed in thousands. Perhaps the number of impressions derived from this formula was going to be used to calculate cpm.
See The Newspaper Advertising Association research databank. for other readers-per-copy and demographic composition data
We are web development company based in the middle east have just launch a real audio
site for a local popular radio station. The radio station has asked us to market
the banners on the site as well. Radio spots are sold on a 30sec basis and they have several packages
for spot sales. We on the other hand have banners and require to sell them to potentaial advertisers. We cannot
charge radio rates as they are too high and need to know how to set up the rates for the banners
Smaller sites without very specific targets are probably charging US$20 - US$35 cpms. You should begin by examining the rates of sites you consider comparable to yours.
Dear Media Guru,
I am looking for ABC circulation figures. Is there any on-line site
where I can find these?
Dear guru , what is is the difference between oSCAR and POSTAR (outdoor evaluation models) and where can I find more information on them?
Recent references include
What are the new unconventional media used in the recent past?
Putting advertising on anything makes it unconventional media the first time. Now that the internet is well established, the Guru hasn't seen much in the way of new and useful unconventional media recently.
Laser projection onto clouds and the moon are on the horizon.
I am looking for information, if available, about cars'
media strategies. Since a lots of cars campaigns are
focused on image establishment and brand equity, I wonder
is there any information or examples of its media srtategies?
(though every case is specific, I guess there are some general characteristics)
It seems to the Guru that rarely is anything published about companies media strategies unless they do something very experimental or extraordinary, in other words, not something readily useable as a model.
I am a student and am currently working on a campaign for a car company. My team and I would very much like to use the internet as a major media vehicle, but do not have enough information to give
an accurate recommendation. Can you please give me any information or websites on: cost, who's on the net, CPM, what kind of advertising can be used, and why it would be an ideal vehicle(or how I can find out).
Can you please send this information to my E-mail address: AiWare@. . .
It must be remembered that the Guru does not provide personal answers, only what is posted on this page.
The Guru wonders why you would "very much like to use the internet" if you lack information about cost, audience, advertising possibilities and benefits.
Companies like Nielsen, MediaMetrix, MRI and Simmons can give a broad strokes picture of which sites appeal to your target and to what extent your target uses the web. Major web sales rep sites like DoubleClick, 24/7,and 2Can, can give you an idea of pricing and other aspects of advertising.
The Advertising Research Foundation library and C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment) have research regarding web effectiveness.
I am currently planning a campaign for a yoghurt brand.
Client is obssessed with going outdoor, but my
recommendation would be print - environment being key.
His primary objective is TO SELL MORE!! Surely outdoor
is not the best medium for this and how should I go
about proving this to him. We have very little research
available on outdoor.
Your problem seems to be in proving to the client that in fact "environment is key." Magazines provide environment and outdoor rarely has a controllable environment.
Outdoor will deliver more reach and more frequency than magazines can, albeit with much shorter messages and message exposure although greater visual impact is possible.
On the other hand, "environmentally" it is possible to select outdoor locations close to supermarkets and other retail yogurt outlets; this might have a powerful sales effect, too.
How to read a crosstab
The Guru has just posted a detailed, graphic explanation of how to read a crosstab. It's just down the page at Query # 2346, from Feb. 17. Or
Click here to see past Guru responses on "crosstab"
I am a student working on a media plan for a new
product in the fast food industry. The restaurant is
well established and my target is 18-34 males. I am in
the Lexington, KY market and wondering what would be a
good reach estimate.
This question lacks most of the necessary information. First, the Guru must assume that you want to know what would be a suitable reach Goal.
Establishing communication goals in a scenario like the one you describe will depend mostly on the competitive climate: what levels are being acheived by the other advertisers seeking the same target for similar products?
At times the standard can be based upon levels that the same advertiser has found to be successful in prior launches, but that too should depend on judging whether the competitive climate this launch faces is comparable to what was faced by the prior successful launch.
Is there a standard frequency distribution chart? If so where could i find it or how can it be calculated without a computer program?
Frequency distribution varies depending on the medium (media) used as well as the elements within those media. There are several standard statistical algorithms which can be manually calculated, such as "Beta Bimodal," "Lambda" and others, which can be found in statistics texts. Some are more appropriate to one medium or another.
How can you determine the corresponding county and DMA
for a zip code?
Nielsen has a reference volume for this purpose. By the way, zip codes are not necessarily within one county. For example on, to consider just one sample county line within the NY DMA, there are 5 zipcodes which straddle the Nassau / Suffolk county border.
Do you have any research or results of studies done that compare "consumer recall" by radio format (i.e. AM Talk formats might produce X% better recall than advertising aired on FM Music stations...)?
The Advertising Research Foundation library will be the most likely source.
Guru: I am conducting research for establishing the value of a real niche segment for advertising-scoreboard advertising in major college venues. Any thoughts on how to compare the value from campus to campus, this versus other media, size and location of panels. Please advise. Wacky44
Scoreboard advertising is hardly new. The essential value discriminator of different locations of the same medium is the audience size. So arena / stadium capacity, number of games and attendance are the keys. Otherwise, demographic differences among students may have varying appeal to advertisers.
With limited "real estate," sign size will be a factor, too. There is typically some discounting. If there is a size A location. and size B is twice as large, the cost of B might be only 90% greater than A.
How are the effects of advertising in a magazine different from that of television ?
Ignoring whatever differences might be due to the copy itself; generally speaking:
Is ADS -Alternate delivery systems the same as satellite TV?
"ADS" is not a standard term. Some might think of satellite as an alternative delivery system for television. The Guru has encountered the term in conjunction with non-postal delivery of magazines.
As a buyer I have always been given the necessary
information needed to put together a buy. I am
currently in a new position, and I am being asked to
provide information that I've never concerned myself
with before, or gotten involved with the how's or
why's of the decision. I'm in dire need of help.
I have been asked to determine the number of GRP's that
should be used in a proposal for a new client. I have
not received any budget information. The schedule will
run 6-8 months, my demo is A 25-35 and the GRP's
should be spiked during the 1st & final week of each
month. Also, I am to include TV, Cable, and Radio.
My question is:
Do I simply request avails from the various TV & radio
and cable stations within the market, put together a
proposed schedule based on the avail information I
receive, and add up the number of GRP's accordingly?
Congratulations, today you are a media planner. But apparently you are working with people lacking professional advertising experience or perhaps a retail client.
You either need some marketing goals input or you need to suggest some goals and get agreement before proceeding. You have been presented with a question equivalent to "how many pounds of nails are needed to build a building?"
You need to know how big a building, what materials it will be made of, how many nails in a pound, to what use will it be put and how big must it be?
To recommend schedule weights you need either a budget or a communications goal to deliver. In media / marketing terms you need to establish -- whether you are given direction or someone accepts your suggestions:
Knowing all this, you could examine reach frequency and continuity impact of various levels and combinations of your media choices. In other words, you somehow need to establish what must be accomplished by the GRPs, before you can decide how many to use.
It is puzzling, in this great information vacuum, that someone has decided to "spike" certain weeks. Apparently there is some information around which you haven't yet been given.
Could you please provide the basics on how to read a crosstab? Also, the definitions of the terms %col, row, composition, coverage, index - what do all of these mean? This would be very help to folks who are new to media planning and research, so that they could explain crosstab results to others. Thank you!
Crosstabs, those typical computer analyses of data from MRI, Simmons, The Mendelsohn
Media Research Affluent Study and other respondent databases, are an essential tool of
media planning, used for target selection, media selection, etc.
Here is a section of a typical "crosstab," taken from The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study Reflecting Households with Income of $70,000 plus . It
concerns Cosmetics users, persons who visited the Caribbean and Vodka
To the left, first the description of each row appears. The top "row," which consists of five
lines of data, describes the total population. The next "row" of five lines of data describes
readers of Money Magazine, etc.
The next sets of text to the right describe the data content of each of the five lines making up the data
rows. "Projection" is the total number of persons the research estimates to be in each
category (in thousands, in the total adult universe, which is specified at the top left of the
table. This is sometimes labeled ""). Often the term "Audience" appears instead of Projection, especially, though not exclusively, when magazine audience is being analyzed).
The column headings, such as "Total," "Cosmetics," " Drink Vodkas" etc,
describe the data in the columns below each heading.
So, at the #1 mark, we learn that 24,855,000 Total affluent adults used Cosmetics in the past year.
At the #2 mark, we see that the number of respondents (persons in the sample) whose
educational level is college graduate or better and who use Cosmetics is 3469. In
other words, the overall study found 3467 members of its sample who fit both descriptions as
to education and cosmetics use. It is important to note this is a whole number and not in thousands. The number 12295 above this indicates that, from this
sample, the study projects there are 12,295,000 college (or better) educated cosmetics users.
At the #3 mark we see 12.4 on the %Column line. This means that 12.4% of the column
definition (Vodka Drinkers) also fit the row description (Money Magazine readers), that is,
12.4% of Vodka Drinkers read Money. Another way we refer to this is to say that Money's coverage
of Vodka Drinkers is 12.4%
At the #4 mark, "%Row" is 16.0, so we learn that 16.0% of the Row definiton (Money
readers) drink Vodka. Or, we can say that Money's Vodka Drinker composition is 16.0%
Finally, at the #5 mark, we have an index of 131.3. This is also called "index of selectivity," indicating how much more likely, as compared to the average affluent adult, the persons in the row are to also be in the column. (Traditionally indices are used with no decimal places, so, in application, one would refer to this in future use as a "131 index.")
In this case, the index tells us that a
person in a Household which has $100,000 or higher income is 31.3% more likely to have
taken a Caribbean trip than the average affluent adult. The index can be calculated either dividing the
%Column under Caribbean visit by the %Column under total:
in the Caribbean visit column, dividing the %Row in HHI $100,000+ by the %Row in the
How do you calculate the average radio or
TV CPP for a specific market?
It depends on what data you have to work with and how you want to describe your result.
The general rule is to add up all the GRPS delivered and all the costs. Then divide total cost by total GRP.
But this assumes you are working with some real numbers, either a past buy or proposed schedules. Averaging CPPs directly is usually wrong. If you have only CPP's to work with, you will need to get either their associated costs or associated ratings to work back into the numbers you need for accurate averaging.
Could you tell me approximate advertising rates on prime time network TV for a 30 second spot to be shown 10 times between the months of June and August?
Depending on many, many factors, the range would be about $80,000 to $500,000.
what are the outdoor tracking and site evaluation measures that are currently being employed in the US, Canada and UK? Also can you tell me something about OASIS?
Outdoor is essentially measured by sporadic checks of traffic past posting sites. One company with expertise in outdoor media analysis, and which serves all three countries is Harris Media Systems (a sister company of AMIC's)
The only "OASIS" relevant to media, of which the Guru is aware, is a technology which "allows almost any web page to be delivered to a variety of non-PC environments"
I've visited SRDS.com and I've also looked through their
books. I'm still unable to locate the countries that publish
different publications such as Advertising Focus, Adwork
and Ekerstae News. That's just a few of what I'm looking
for. What is the easiest way to find this information
ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization could probably help.
Hello! I'm a student at Bournemouth University in UK and I'm studying Advertising and Marketing Communications. I have to decide my dissertation's subject and the truth is I find really difficult to decide among the following areas: advertising on the Internet, integrated marketing communications, interactivity and new means of communications and relationship marketing or a combination of some of these. I know its a bit strange and unusual question but I would really appreciate it if you could give some more specific ideas; for example, current concerns. Thank you in advance!
The Guru believes that all these "hot" topics are rather over-examined these days.
A more interesting piece of work might be done on the changes in traditional media as they react to these trendy newcomers.
As a media planner wanting to integrate ambient
media into a campaign, where can I find
information about the various ambient media
contractors in the UK and international?
The Guru does not believe the term "Ambient Advertising" has become common industry usage as yet. A Yahoo "advanced search" for "outdoor advertising UK" will return web sites of several vendors of the sort you are seeking.
Ambient media is defined as the "rapidly expanding
sector of non-traditional out-of-home opportunities
that surround us."(Concord Ambient Media Report 1998)
My dissetation topic is concerned with measuring and
improving the accountability of this sector, what is
the best way to get started?
The Guru would recommend that you begin with a review of the literature concerning the move by 30-sheet and 8-sheet outdoor from arbitrary sales of "showings" to a GRP system, in the late '70's and 80's.
I have specialised in Account Management.But have got a job with Business Standard(newspaper in India).What media fundamentals do you think are important for me to learn before i join the firm in their 'Special Projects Marketing Department'
It's a bit difficult to judge without knowing your job responsibilities, but basically. . .
Learn all media terms relevant to print sales, e.g.
Learn the meanings and the application of the concepts.
How are effective frequency and reach levels determined for new product categories?
The Guru has discussed this frequently.
Click here to see past Guru responses on effective reach
wanted to find out what is the role of BDI and CDI in market prioritisation. How do you arrive at BDI and CDI and is there a point of saturation on CDI
BDI is Brand Development Index
CDI is Category Development Index.
In either case the index is calculated by dividing the percentage of sales in a local market by the percentage of the population which is in that market. It is done based on a Brand's sales or the whole category's sales respectively. This index then reflects the per capita sales in the market and is used to indicate sales potential.
Some marketing philosophies allocate advertising dollars or advertising impressions delivery according to such an index.
Since the usage ia an index, "saturation" would not be a factor unless sales were bizarrely skewed geographically. For instance, a new product in test market might have 90% of sales in a market accounting ofr just 1% of the population. In such as case it would be ridiculous to use BDi to determine allocation.
The Guru has discussed this frequently.
Click here to see past Guru responses on BDI and CDI
what are the various measurement techniques for ourdoor media?
Outdoor is measured by counting traffic passing the location and applying factors for the age/gender of those passing and an average number per vehicle.
Harris Media Systems offers software for outdoor media planning.
what is the recent work being done on the recency theory--beyond erwin ephron?
The advertising trades such as the U.S.' Ad Age publish regarding this topic from time to time.
The Advertising Research Foundation library will compile published information from many sources as developments are reported.
Walter Reichel and Leslie Wood of A:S Link worked on the concept as early as 1989. A forthcoming book by Simon Broadbent will cover recency extensively. Another recent volume,
How Advertising Works, by J.P. Jones, also examines the history of recency.
What is the role played by media independents ?
Media Independents fulfill the role of agency media departments on a stand-alone basis, providing buying, planning, research and stewardship services.
How can i measure and incorporate the effectiveness of outdoor mediai(hoarding,transit etc)in a conventional media plan?
Do you actually incorporate the "effectivenss" of other media in your plans?
Outdoor is measured, and you should be buying outdoor by audience size as you do other media. 30-sheet and 8-sheet outdoor, for example, sell in "showings." The current standards of "Showings" call for expressing showing in GRP-per-day. In other words, a "50 showing" of outdoor means that the locations you buy have a combined "daily effective circulation (DEC)" -- or number of daily impressions -- equal to 50% of the population.
Some people may discount the passive, short copy outdoor medium by a certain percentage, say 50%, when combining with or comparing to other media such as broadcast and page-dominant print.
What are the various media planning software available on the net
If you mean free media planning software which can be used on the net, there is very little, perhaps only the Telmar Flighting Calculator and University of Texas at Austin's "AdMedium" which requires the planner to supply all data.
There are details regarding professional media software, which is not free at such sites as Telmar.
I am trying to find information pertaining to cost per click through ad rates on the internet. Do you have any information pertaining to average cost? As well as CPM's on the web.
The Research Monitor section of your website provides Pricing Web Site Advertising (The Media Buyers View) white paper, but it is dated a few years back. Is it still relevant? Thanking you in advance.
The excellent compilation of internet news and research at NUA includes price data.
The pricing article's theories and concepts are still relevant, though specific prices mentioned may be out of date.
Our agency has had some recent difficulty in posting about 90% is some spot markets. We are looking for research and/or articles that say whether other agencies are having trouble as well. We have read some research that talks about network erosion -- but nothing that mentions how this relates to post buys. Any thoughts?
The Advertising Research Foundation library will have information published on the topic.
The Guru doubts that network erosion is a part of your problem, unless you are buying mostly day and prime on affiliates and doing buys and estimates a couple of years ahead of posts.
The ability to post within 90% depends on two factors
Network erosion is small but steady and easy to allow for in projections. Buyers' estimates are usually primarily based on historical usage trends and most recent share performance plus some intelligence about programming changes. Unless there are very volatile schedules, estimates should be within +/- 10%. Some will be over by more and some will be under by more, but these should balance. Some buyers may be overly optimistic, so that buys appear to come in on goals, but this practice causes just the sort of post-buy problems you seem to be facing.
I know I've seen this info before, but can't remember where.
I'm looking for a simple report that roughly stated how consumers
find websites. For example X% of respondents went to a website when they
saw the URL in a print ad, Y% from a TV ad, etc.
Have you seen something similar? Thank you for your help.
Various trade publications may have mentioned these findings.
The best archives of such data are at NUA
I have specialised in client servicing and as yet have nil aptitude for media fundas. where should i start ? do i need to master any software ?
The Guru interprets your question to be " where can you acquire the knowledge media fudamentals needed by a client service person?"
You could read a basic text, such as the ones listed in the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com).
You could participate in an online media discussion such as our "MediaPlanning discussion" in Ad Talk and Chats .
You could browse through the Guru's answers to queries.
You could attend a two or three day beginners' workshop.
Knowledge of software is not very useful without knowledge of the fundamentals. A client service person might never need to know about the software.
What is the main difference between recency theory and
Both theories agree that advertising delivered nearest to a purchase decision is most effective.
Recency empahsizes the idea that purchases are happening all the time and continuity gives more chances to get an exposure close to a purchase.
Aperture theory says that there are particular best times for an advertising message to be delivered, whether because there is an identifieable time when a purchase decision is being made or a time when a specific message type is more effective. E.g. the cleaning characteistics of windshield washer fluid are most important in summer and the antifreeze characteristics are moe so in winter.
Ephron(1993)suggests that the more a planner goes for
frequency on television, the less effective he will
progressively be, because the extra GRPs will fall
increasingly into the "black hole" of the heavy
viewers' viewing times, when they already have more
In the context of "Effectiv Frequency", do you think
concentrated frequency with a low reach is usually
"better" than a lower frequency with a higher reach?
In the context of effective frequency, yes, more frequency with less reach is better than less frequenct with more reach, but that isn't the point of effective frequency. Effective frequency is the concept of focusing on the reach which is delivered at enough frequency.
Effective frequency is one basis of Ephron's theories. The key point he adds in movimg to recency planning is that frequency is additive over time; once a message has passed the effective threshold, each additional exposure is with effective frequency, especially when advertising is continuous. There is no need to consider only four week
I have been trying to understand Plan Optimisers for quite
some time now.I still am unable to understand.
Especially in a complex media scenario like India
where languages differ from region to region and
different cities have to be covered and a lot of non-
quantitative factors like regional sensitivity have to
be considered , how can we effectively use
Optimisers that are predominantly manufactured in the
Quite possibly, you cannot. Optimisers are meant to deal with quantitative issues of media selection, getting the most reach or effective reach or quintiles-of-frequency balance for the money.
Many seemingly subjective elements of the media possibilities, like the effects of regional sensitivity, can be judgmentally quantified and processed by an optimizer.
When languages differ, it is comparable to geographic differences: they are different universes and call for separate plans.
What are the marketing techniques adopted by television channels in order to differentiate between them?Can we really refer to them as"brands"?
Terminology and marketing situations differ across media segments and countries. In the US, for instance, what does "channel" mean? It is just a number on a TV or cable tuner, often used to refer to a specific local station; that is, in New York, "Channel 4" means WNBC, the local affiliate owned and operated by the NBC network.
In another colloquial usage, many US cable networks call themselves something like "The Movie Channel."
Marketers more or less agree that a "Brand is a Promise" to the consumer, encompassing certain product qualities and attributes.
In this context, a station or broadcast network can't be a brand. Their content varies wildly, sports at one moment, news at another, comedy reruns at one time, new dramas the next.
On the other hand, cable channels can be brands. The Comedy Channel, Food TV, or CNN offer more uniform content with a certain style.
Yet because the purchase decisions involved are not really even short term preferences or commitments, the Guru does not think the parallel to Brands is valid. The marketing techniques focus more on specific viewing events than regular commitment. It as if a restaurant chain advertised that next Tuesday from noon to 2pm, they would serve baked fish and the next week they promoted a spaghetti kid's meal. It doesn't help "brand" the restaurant.
How is Media Branding different from Branding in Fast Moving Consumer Goods?
The Guru has discussed this recently.
Click here to see past a Guru response on media brands
We are looking for "big ideas" to increase awareness and drive traffic to a new website. The target is an upscale art enthusiast. We are looking at traditional media and considering other vechicles such as post cards, blimps, etc. We will have on online campaign, but that is separate. Do you have any other good ideas for this type of objective?
Thanks for your input! You are great.
The Guru would look for opportunities in conjunction with Art Museums and Galleries. Ads/mentions in programs and/or catalogues, positions in newsletters/mailings announcing new exhibits.
I am currently doing some research into available
packages for Airtime Sales Systems for broadcast.
I have some information on UK packages such as
Enterprise but as many of these seem to rely on
outdated technology, I wondered if you could provide
Do you have an opinion on the media weight required to revitalize an ailing brand (a former success story which has been performing poorly of late). Should we stick to conventional weights, or heavier weight to try to make more powerful impact?
Questions like this come up so often, and lead the Guru to ask more questions:
A simple answer, when you believe advertising weight or exposure of a new message is the core issue, is that you must deliver more impressions than the competition, by a noticable margin, say 20%.
Thank you for such a great information source. My concerns were suddenly raised this morning when I read an article regarding global advertising on the internet and the possible regulation implications regarding products (such as downloadable products). There has been a case of an internet seller in one country being sued by a government in another country. As I have compiled global internet plans, I am concerned - how do I find out more in this regard, and protect my client from any legal action?
There is a maxim which says anybody can sue anybody else for anything; winning is another matter.
The Guru does not give legal advice. Suits like this go back to at least 1995 when Germany sued Compuserve over obscene material in a bulletin board or forum accessible through Compuserve, but not maintained by compuserve, if the Guru's memory serves.
It is not likely, in the Guru's non-legal opinion, that a suit can get anywhere unless the defendant has a presence in the complaining country. It is also likely that anything you can think of is illegal somewhere, any anything on the internet is available everywhere unless there is specific scripting on the site controlling what is available to which domains.
Information and "protection" must come from an attorney with expertise in international commercial law.
I have launched a newsletter for educators who administer a very specific type of program.
It's an audience of great interest to sellers of curriculum materials aimed at that very niche.
Unlike most subscription newsletters, I'm interested in accepting advertising, but have no idea how high to set my rates.
I've got 90 subscribers as of this morning, and it's growing by 10-20/week. I expect that at least 150 people, maybe 200, will see my next issue.
How do I determine a reasonable rate?
I've also got a website where I post news updates. I'm getting about 20 hits per day, and expect it to dgrow dramatically as poeple find out about it.
What's a reasonable rate to charge an advertiser to put his logo at the bottom of my home page with a link to an ad page?
Website banner cpms range from $5 to $100 or more, with an average around $30, depending on the number and uniqueness of the visitors or their perceived value to the advertiser.
Newsletter advertising might be in the same range, making an ad worth $1 to $20, but the competitive rates of other newsletters and direct mail costs in your target arena should be considered. In either case an audience of 200 will not justify much of an ad price.
What would be the best steps to take in getting an in-house produced commercial for a website on spot/cable tv? Agency, media buyer, direct with the station, something else? Thanks.
Righly or wrongly, you have already produced the commercial and decided on which media to use, so you have little use for agency services.
A media buyer can help you choose the best media outlets and programs and negotiate price better than your in-house people are likely to.
In the unlikely event that you are so narrowly focused that you will only ever place the commercial on one local cable system, then in-house may be adequate.
Hi, with reference to your answer #2293 regarding DTH vs cable delivered internet, you said you cannot find, speaking from the end-consumer's viewpoint anything special DTH has to offer vis-a-vis web-TV/cable-delivered internet. Let me now ask a basic question. As a television company, should I or should I not invest the millions of dollars required to set up a DTH service.
First, understand that the Guru does not give investment advice.
With that understood, the Guru's non-professional opinion is that new forms of cable and digital TV will soon outpace the offerings of satellite, leaving such systems to fight over geography not served by cable or broadcast.
I was wondering if you could tell the average CPP for
women 18+ for 100 GRP's in the top 20 markets.
dear guru, i've been trying to find information on the brand management of newspapers & media vehicles.
let me make it a little clear, nytimes, iht, wsj all fo them advertise at a huge opportunity cost in their own media vehicles. why do they do it and what kind of returns do they expect?
The Guru believes you may be misinterpreting. These newspapers probably would not place the ads you see if there were real out of pocket cost. The ads ar most likley used a filler material to make the best use of odd bits of unsold space unused by editorial material.
Of course, there will be some planned campaign advertising to convert occasional newsstand purchasers to subscribers or to sell added merchandise from the same publisher such as books or other periodicals.
i am a great fan of ur site and u have in the past cleared a number of my doubts. i am currently pursuing a thesis on in film advertising. where on the net can i find information related to the topic'in film advertising'or 'stealth advertising' or 'in theatre advertising'? i would be glad if u could direct me regarding this topic
Do you know of any research that demonstrates the link between increased SOV and increased SOM (Value or Volume), if there really is one?
The best research library resource is Advertising Research Foundation
What are the average demo. brackets for television's
guarantee C.P.R.P. or CPM? For example, whether
advertisers and media will use the fixed demo. brackets,
such as women 18-39, or male and female 25-35 etc.,
to negotiate the guarantee C.P.R.P. or CPM. The demo.
bracket will influence how many commercial spots are
needed to fulfill the guarantee C.P.R.P.
The standard brackets which are published in the ratings reports, such as men or women 18-49, are used. Obviously, a guarantee could not be based on a number which is not available.
Guarantees on very small standard brackets such as Men 18-24 may not be available due to the greater instabiltiy of their measurement.
other than cmr and competitrack, where can i get competitive spending for the tech industry?
I am working on a BPA/ABC circ analysis for 2 trade publications. One is BPA audited and the other ABC audited.
On an apples to apples basis, how would I go about calculating a renewal analysis of average qualified subs for the BPA audited pub?
I.E. The ABC audited pub calculates the renewal rate accordingly:
Total Qualified Circ 1000
One Yr Total Subs Deleted* 200
Annual % not Renewed 200/1000 = 20%
Annual % Renewed 800/1000 = 80%
*Can this formula be applied to calculate renewal % for a BPA audited pub? I question whether we can integrate the "one year total subs deleted" figure as part of the equation.
If the same data is reported on the same basis, comparison is fair. If comparable data is not reported, perhaps this is not a crucial analysis. The Guru believes this sort of analysis is likley to be a last-chance tie-breaker at best.
Our web site is an educational application delivered over the web. The user spend most of the time interacting with a Java applet that refreshes the educational content. I want to sell advertising on the page but am not sure how to measure CPM since the user stays on one page. I intend to dynamically refresh the advertising while the user is on the page. It would seem to make sense to sell the spots by the number of seconds the banner runs. Is there a standard for how long an ad should run to count as an impression?
The TV standards are generally :15, :30, :60. These standards are not usually used on the internet except for full animation ads like those on the Pointcast service. Web cpms are based on exposures of the ad to visitors, and counting repeats, if delivered on different pages, is considered fair game.
Logically, your user is focused on the site's content, therefore pricing ads based on duration will be a tough sell, in the Guru's opinion.
is there a way to advertise swiftly and effectively on the web, for free?
To paraphrase the old saying, you can have it fast, you can have it good and you can have it free, pick any two.
There are many sites that allow free, instantly posted advertising within certain areas, like AMIC's Ad Jobs. But traffic in that area is far less than a paid banner's general rotation, for example.
Targeted sites like AMIC can also post banners in their most effective areas, but charge for advertising.
Why would anything with all the values you specify be free, unless you are in a position to trade reciprocal links or banners?
Hi! Guru (sorry for my poor english) I would like to know which are
the most important universities and masters in advertising studing. Which is
the best way to know all the colleges, and places where the students can improving
their knwoledges and get a grand for working abroad. Thanks a lot
A site like U.S. News & World Report is a good way to find colleges offering specific areas of study.
The Guru has never found that any particular University stands out in this arena. For media carreers in particular, the Guru believes a good general education is more valuable than an advertising "major."
I have read many of the questions and answers relating to the subject of Recency on your pages and note that you consider that Recency planning is more appropriate for frequently purchased goods than more
considered purchases on longer purchase cycles.
Why do you deem considered purchases less appropriate for Recency? It was my understanding that as long as there are purchases every week it doesn't matter at what frequency that product is purchased by the average consumer.
The issue is more one of seaonality than purchase cycle. See the Guru response of Thursday, January 14, 1999, #2261, for clarification.
I'm having a hard time finding media related
information on the increase in direct marketing.
Where could I find media spending, how is it affecting
allocation of dollars, etc.
Consult the Direct Marketing Association
I need to do research and media planning to target VERY BUSY upscale professionals in urban areas.
(Men 25-45, HHI $75K+). Beside the usual methods, do you have any bright strategies/ideas for how to identify and reach very busy people?
Really the busy lifestyle is what differentiates this target audience. Thanks!
Assuming you mean people who are busy with more than just their jobs, think whether their other demands have some common ground. Do they research investments? Do they go to the gym? Something in your definition of "very busy" ought to suggest media or locations where adverting might reach these folks.
I'd like to obtain a contact who can assist me in finding a company, for my client, that places brochures on college campuses (ie. kiosk)
One such company is American Passage
How soon will web-TV/cable delivered internet become a reality for the masses?
In the U.S. at present, Web-TV is a reality now, for anyone who wants it. It has not appealed to many.
Cable-delivered internet has about 500,000 homes connected and is probably available to at least 20 times that number.
The AT&T / TCI / At Home deal will greatly broaden the potential. The pricing is not much higher than standard internet connection. But keep in mind that this is merely a faster connection, not greatly different content.
While trying to decide the future potential of DTH as a medium/entertainment option, I came across this view that the USP of DTH being the abundance of choice it offers to the consumer, it will face obsolescence at the hands of cable-delivered internet/web TV. How likely do you think this is? What are the possible ways in which DTH can hold its own ?
There is another important DTH advantage: it can reach homes not "passed" by cable, though these are relatively few.
True, cable should soon be able to deliver as many choices as satellite, making the competition essentially price-based. A big disadvantage to satellite is the failure of the systems which the Guru has seen to offer any savings for connecting additional sets in the home, while cable typically discounts added hook-ups.
Adding commercial-free channels might help DTH penetration, but that doesn't help the media planner.
Thanks for your service.Can you inform me the popular internet marketing magazines published in u.s.a and their site addresses.
Is there any research out there regarding the effectivness
(or non-effectiveness) of :15 TV ads compared to :30's?
I am also trying to find out when does it make sense to
run a :15.
If you could answer these questions or point me in the
right direction, I would appreciate it.
Most research on the :15 vs :30 issue dates back several years to the rise of the :15.
The Guru has discussed this frequently.
Click here to see past guru responses on :15's
I have a new advertising venue I'd like to jump-start (March air date)and looking for suggestions. I have 1 minute spots available on a major airline in-flight programming for International flights only featuring "The Best of the Web". Looking for a few quick sponsors to jump start this. As an alternative to having our salesperson call all over
the place, because of the near term of the air date, I'm looking for the
best direct way to expose the inflight venue.
The answer will have to be advertising, of course. To reach media decision makers quickly, one option would be a web site devoted to media professionals, like AMIC. Otherwise, if you have a list of potential advertisers (in-flight magazine advertisers, perhaps?) and their agencies and can get e-mail addresses of the relevant media people, that would be a quick approach, but might get a negative reaction as "Spam."
Since you have ruled out telemarketing, the only other option would seem to be the advertising news section of newspapers in major ad markets like NY, LA, Chicago, Atlanta, etc., or the weekly ad trade press like Advertising Age and AdWeek. Of course, these last few are less focused on media planners and buyers.
Is there a formula that radio stations use to determine
the rate an advertising agency or buying service must
pay for advertising?
Also, would you know what the Total HH Universe
for Radio in America is , or where can I find
In setting rates, of course a station must cover its costs of operation. But radio is a negotiable medium and the station has to consider what the marketplace pricing (cost per point) is for the demographics in which they have strength or wish to sell.
The U.S. Household universe for radio is the total household universe, or roughly 100 million. But, because radio is a highly personal medium, and audiences are based on individual listening, households are not considered relevant for radio. Radio ratings for households haven't been provided in standard research for 30 years or more.
Under the new measurement system in India, we do not get Ratings. We get TVRs
(about which I mailed you earlier) which are not equal to reach . To find
reach, I have to do a separate analysis.
My original query was that why is TVR being used at all in the first
phase. What advantage does a TVR have over the Ratings that it has
replaced as a system of measurement ?
What you call "TVR," a time specific audience, is equivalent to the U.S. term "Rating."
What you call "Rating" is equivalent to a little-used U.S. term, "Total Audience Rating, or the accumulated net audience over the duration of a program episode, or the "Reach" of that episode.
The advantage of TVR is that it gives an audience that relates to the commercial aired in the time period. U.S. reach systems are keyed to working from TVR style commercial audiences.
The total audience of a program (your "Rating") does not relate to commercials' audience, which is what a media planner is focused on.
Except in the (rare) case of full program sponsorship, the Guru sees little use to a media planner in what you term "Rating."
Is there a directory for companies who offer co-op media advertising.
The Amazon.com on-line bookstore has the standard resource,
Co-Op Advertising Programs Sourcebook Spring 1997 : The Comprehensive Guide to Programs For: Media
Companies, Ad Agencies, Manufacturers & Retailers , Published 1997.
Another good how-to reference is
Co-op Advertising : The Authoritative Guide to Promotional Allowance Marketing for Advertisers, Retailers,
and Distributors , Bob Houk, 1995
Is there a research source from which i can gather audience coverage and composition information on how well and to what degree ABC audited business publications are read by CEO's, CFO's and CIO's and/or senior company management?
This is a bit of a theoritical problem.I am currently
working on a shaving cream brand which has been on
decline for a few years now. Currently it has a market
share of 3.9% and is ranked 7th.The markets where it is
doing relatively better are actually the smallest markets,
but here too, it is not better than 5th on market shares.
It has a media budget which is about 1/5th of the biggest
spender, which incidentally is not the market leader.
My dilemma is - in the given scenario, for a relaunch,
where should media focus be - on the overall smaller
markets but where the brand is but marginally stronger
or on the bigger markets for the category, where a greater
potential lies ? The distribution strength is the same in
all markets and no directions have been provided by
the marketing team on priority markets.
Thank you Guru. My name is Abu Huzaifa and i am media planner
in Bombay, India.
Firstly, these are really marketing issues, not media issues, but to try to look at it from a purely media perspective, consider:
Think beyond the "bigger opportunity of the larger markets," because the impact you can deliver in a market is important. In other words, do you get more consumer response to 100 GRPs against 2 million people or 200 GRPs against 1 million people?
1. Assume that every impression delivered, no matter the market size, has the same potential to generate sales and / or share growth - where will your budget buy the greatest number of impressions?
2. Assume that the ability of the impressions to generate sales growth is influenced by current share of market. Estimate the value of this effect, plus or minus. Apply this weighting to the impressions you can buy and recalculate sales potential, according to paragraph 1.
3. Or assume that every exposure after the third one (or a level of your choosing) is some degree more effective. How many "effective impressions" can you deliver to each market set?
Is there a source where I can find how to create standard ISCI codes for TV Dubs?
Your dupe house can probably help you, or the American Association of Advertising Agencies will have a pamphlet on the topic.
Hi, I'm building a site linking to several Italian and International news sites, and I would like to earn by linking to sites that should pay me a % for the each time a person linked to them from my sote buys something.
Well, I'm in Italy and I would now if I've to constitute a company and if I've to pay taxes for this; and if yes, should I pay taxes to the Italian government or to the U.S. one? Do I have to open a "partita I.V.A.", thank you in advance,
Then Guru has no information about Italian business law or taxes.
Dear Mr. Guru:
We publish monthly magazines that contain advertisements. The average length of all advertising contract is 8 months. Each month, commissions are paid to the sales rep who closed the deal. I am designing an employment contract for the hiring of sales staff. I need to know: what is the standard industry practice when a salesperson's employment is terminated, but the contracts that they brought in will run on for months? Do commission payments cease on the last day of employment or continue for any period of time?
Thanks for your time,
It varies. Payment can be keyed to collections as of termination, bills rendered as of termination, or deals signed during employment, and paid as collected.
For a national product launch, what are "typical"
TRP weight levels for network tv, say for a launch
that is scheduled for 8 weeks?
No such thing. It's a classic case of "it depends".
With a new product, you want to drive reach as high as possible with adequate supporting frequency. As a rule of thumb, few would start lower than 100 TRP / week.
Can you help me with the following?
I am creating a custom magazine for the education market
which spotlights highly successful educational programs
that use technology effectively. My audience is decision
makers who use or buy technology in educational systems.
My advertisers will be technology companies. How do I
determine advertising rates, or probably more to the point,
how do I find someone to hire who can do this for me? (and
do it right?)
Thank you in advance. I have been doing research for
days and coming up with nothing credible.
The rates can be determined at first by comparing to magazines of the same size and content / target audience.
There are independent magazine representatives who could help you. You will find lists in the front of the appropriate Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) resource.
I cuurently work in the Media and Audience Research of a big advertising agency . I ultimately want to work/run a TV Channel
My question is whether I should stick on to my current job for about 5/6 years (I am currently a year into the agency ) and then switch over to a TV Channel or do I switch right away and grow in the TV Channel ?
Awaiting your response...
It really depends on what job you want at the channel and what jobs become available at TV channels.
If opportunities are rare, then you should take any that come along. If there is something valuable you will learn at the agency towards your job goal, and you won't learn it at the TV channel, the stay at the agency.
I have my own Saturday morning 3-hour talk radio program on a 50,000 watt station in San Diego. Although I have been hosting the program for 2 years now, I have no experience in obtaining sponsors/advertisers. I don't know who to approach nor what to say that will attract advertisers. The station doesn't have ad sales people. The owners won't invest in the station because they want to sell it. How can I get advertisers? MGreen1170@aol.com
Is it audience numbers, audience quality (the kind of people in your audience), or the specific content of your program?
The audience data can be quantified by research, like Arbitron so be sure you have that data at hand when you try to sell.
To what advertisers would what you have to sell appeal? Start with clients of local agencies. Visit the buyers who handle these clients and give them the facts about your program and why it is right for their client.
What you can tell me about GRP and CPT? How to explain the formulas of them?
The Guru assumes that by CPT, you mean "Cost per Thousand," which is abbreviated "CPM" in the U.S., (using the Roman numeral "M" for one thousand)>
GRP stands for "Gross Rating Points." It is the sum of all the ratings of all the advertisements of a schedule. Or it is the sum of all the impressions of a schedule divided by the population of the geographic market under consideration. "Impressions" and "Population" must be in the same demographic category within the same geography when applying this formula.
CPT, or cost per thousand, is simple a matter of dividing the cost of media by the number of impressions delivered expressed in thousands.
Dear Media Guru:
How would I go about analyzing
the benefits of advertising on national cable TV vs.
spot TV? For example: a retail store has locations
in only 8 DMAs and therefore only buys local time in
those markets. Is it feasible to compare the out-of-
pocket costs of a local buy vs. a national buy? Would
the wasted exposure outside of the 8 DMAs outweigh
the cost efficiencies of a national buy? Are there
any - simple - models that do this? Thanks for your
This should be very simple. According to your question, only impressions delivered within your 8 DMAs have any value.
So, for a given amount of money invested in national cable and the same money invested in local cable, which will put more impressions into your 8 markets?
If the 8 markets are fairly large, it could be easy for the national buy to be less costly.
It also depends on the system structure of the markets. Some markets are served by just one or two systems and can be purchsed more efficiently than markets, like NY, for example, which has dozens of systems. By the same token, it can be more expensive, out-of-pocket, to buy just a segment of the NY market, like northern New Jersey, than to buy all of the DMA, because of price structure oddities.
At any rate, "waste" isn't your issue, the issue is what value do you get for your investment.
Click the following to visit the web sites of each company, with more information than the Guru can provide on this page:
Generally, the best way to find out about a firm, especially a web advertising firm, is to visit its web site. Also, as a general rule, the address will be in the form http://www.COMPANY NAME.com. On the rare occasion when that doesn't work, a visit to a basic search engine like Yahoo or Excite! will quickly find the needed site.
Many agencies are listed in AMIC's "Web Sites" area.
I have 3 general questions, please:
1) Advertising on the Web: a) how much money is spent on internet advertisng today, and what are the projections for the next 2 years?; b) what percentage of total advertising spending does internet advertsing represent today, and what is the growth rate/trends for internet advertising; c) current rates for internet advertising vary widely from $20-$80 CPM; do you see these rates ranges holding, narrowing (and if so what would be the range?), or will rates increase?
2) Advertiser Value Proposition: a)why are firms advertising on the web, and what type of firms are inclined to advertise there; b) what are advertisers looking for, or what criteria do they use, in choosing one sit over another?
3) Internet Media Buying: a) who is doing the media buying for firms interested in internet advertising?
Re 1b: trends are too variable to project, Ad Age makes some effort to put it all in perspective.
1c. The range is even greater than you state. More competition in the mass audience sites may bring the low end down, but the high end, which is based on target selectivity and special opportunities is probably stable.
Regarding 2a, advertisers on the web are of all types. It makes most sense for advertisers with computer and communications targets or those targeting the demographics known to be web users.
2b: As with all other advertising, some advertisers prefer raw tonnage and others are looking for tight targeting or supportive content.
3: There are dozens of firms placing online advertising. Some are specialists and some are part of traditional ad agencies. Note the adjacent query inquiring about several of them.
Is there anyone offering a facility for offering advertising on car transporters in the USA. If not, I can offer information that may be of use from the UK.
The Guru doesn't know of any such. The Guru believes that U.S. car transporters tend to belong to the car manufacturers, so the Guru wonders what the issues might be.
Are there any trade magazines and/or trade newspapers that are editorially devoted to serving MIS professionals who are in the e-commerce business? This (e-commerce) is a very new industry and it wouldn't surprise me to much if none existed. Thanks.
Is there a company that buys mass classified advertising space
and then sells it in bulk to advertisers who are looking to
buy in various markets? Classified, not display.
The Guru has not encountered a company doing exactly what you specify. An advertiser willing to buy bulk might not need such a firm anyway.
On the other hand, in essence, the freestanding insert companies operate very much like this.
I am looking for a statistic that states what number of
advertisements the average Amercian is exposed to in
an average day. Can you help?
The Guru has seen figures from 1500 to 20,000. These are all used to enflame someone and sell some specific approach to advertising. Often, these statistics include exposure to product labels. Also the experience of someone walking city streets for a large part of their day is quite different than somone indoors in an office or out in a rural environment.
Let's try to give this some perspective.
If a person sleeps 8 hours and is awake 16 hours, then there are only 960 (16x60) minutes of the day when the person can be exposed to advertising. If one assumes that an average ad exposure consumes :30 seconds (allowing for radio :60's and 10 second promos) then, even if the person spent every waking minute doing nothing but looking at ads, the maximum exposure would be 1920. But no one's day is 100% advertisng. If you involve yourself in watching tv or listening to radio or reading magazines, ehich are probably the most ad-rich experiences of a person's day, then not more than one-third of your time would be spent being exposed to ads, so the maximum count drops to 640. Now try to imagine how much time of your day is ad-free, while you are in a business meeting, writing a report, digging a hole, etc. How much ad exposure time is left?
Sources like the Advertising Research Foundation will have articels with some of the claims, but remeber to consider them in the light of reality.
The Media Guru response of Dec. 4/98 was that "common
products . . . bought recently" are best candidates
for recency planning, as opposed to products involving
"considered purchase," such as automobiles. Not every-
body buys even "considered purchase" items on the same
day, so does it not make sense to spread impressions
over entire year, perhaps on basis of % sales by month?
My experience in grocery packaged goods designing Test
vs. Control experiments on different ways to execute
"recency" supports Erwin Ephron's work. Same approach
should apply to even automobiles, it seems to me --
unless someone has conducted experiments proving the
contrary. Have you seen such evidence, or are you
speculating. There are many myths about recency. My
experience is in Canada, where I am a consultant
specializing in recency.
That Guru response combined readings of Erwin's published work on recency, conversations with Erwin, and some of the Guru's own thinking.
Your excerpt is inaccurate, however. The Guru referred there to "common products bought regularly."
In that response, the Guru also stated that recency does not require even levels of continuity, but that seasonal sales peaks can certainly be reflected in plan levels. This would likely fit the automotive situation.
Could your tell me if there is any internet research data available?
Yes, masses thereof, with C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment), Cyberatlas and NUA holding some of the largest collections.
Does the Guru know of any international brokers with whom to deal when booking internet advertsing for international sites?
The Guru answered this question on January 7, below.
I am a media planner in India. Need some information on latest effective frequency models. The Ostrow model as described in the Scissors and Bumba is the only one I have seen. Are there any other models developed? Also it would nice if you could pass on some info on recency planning theory.
The Advertising Research Foundation library would be the best source for alternative models.
The Guru has often discussed recency.
Click here to see past guru responses on recency planning
What techniques do exist to get someone click on a banner ?
example: trick banner, hot price offer, about new product, etc.
Are there categories of the mostly used techniques ?
Categories probably would be banner appearance (color, words vs photos vs drawings) , animation and copy content. See "How To Screw Up Banner Advertising" on the Guru's Think Pieces page.
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
Entertainment) compiles web advertiseing research with extensive focus on this topic.
Has any research been conducted on Internet in SA (apart from ABIS)?
What is the reasoning that the CPM for terrestrial TV is higher than that of cable channel? Theoreticallay, the cost to reach 1000 people via TV media should be the same.
The Guru wonders what theory you believe you are using? There can be no such theory or else all TV everywhere through all means other than cable would have the same cpm.
Differences which account for cpm variance include audience size, mechanical and manhour effort to deliver the programming, commercial load, commercial inventory, supply and demand and perceived program quality.
Obviously all but possibly the last one mentioned are vastly different for various forms of terrestrial (broadcast) TV and cable.
And, of course there are cases where cable has a lower cpm than some broadcast choices.
How can I use Spot Quotations and Data (SQAD) quarterly TV Cost Per Rating Point Report (HH Ratings)to calculate CPM? Whether SQAD has info. of CPM for each DMA?
There is a small difficulty in that the total audience usually used to calculate cpm extends beyond the DMA. But for your purposes this can probably be ignored.
"Cost per Rating Point" means the cost of buying audience impressions equal to one percent of the population. Therefore, dividing DMA CPP by 1 percent of the DMA population yields DMA cpm.
Does the guru have any information on female teen
media habits arranged by quintiles compared to the
I am a media planner from India and would like to clarify the method of calculating BDI & CDI for a country like ours where population dispersion is not uniform across the SocioEconomic Class (the parameter used for setting the target audience. Iit is a cross tab of education and profession of the chief wage earner of the household) in different markets
In such a situation is it advisable to use the total population of the country rather than Target Group Population.
Sissors and Bumba advise using the Total Population but i guess thats more applicable to developed countries where TG dispersions are uniform
Thanks a lot
The concept of BDI and CDI is based on different sales rates (units or Dollars of sales ratio to units of population) within specific marketing regions.
Logically, the same demographic should be used locally and nationally. If each person in demographic "X" consumes 10 units of "y" nationally, than the national rate is Y ÷ X.
In each market, the demographic population is also compared to consumption and a similar ratio calculated.
Then the market's ratio ÷ the national ratio becomes the BDI or CDI, depending on whether Brand or Category data, respectively, was used. If the total national population is the base but you use the target pop. in markets, then each market's CDI is inflated by the same percentage. That is, if the target was selected because its members, nationally, have a 150 index of consumption of the product, then each market's BDI would be inflated by 50% if the National population was used as the BDI base.
On the other hand, there may be not difference in effect, because in either case, whatever the national base used, the realtionship between markets will be the same.
However, since it is really sales, not people with which you are dealing, it is cleaner to use total, not target population in each case. Otherwise you assume that in every market, target members consume the same, which obviates the BDI excercise. Suppose someone other than the target is a major consumer in some geographic are, why mask that in planning market allocation? After all the whole idea of BDI/CDI is based on the concept that a product's consumers are not evenly distributed demographically, even in countries where some demographics may be.
I am currently working on an international online campaign. Are there any records of international brokers, as I am finding it a mammoth task to contact the owners / administrators of international sites. In addition to the obvious exchange rate concern, and the logisitcal nightmare involved with dealing with possibly 30 different people, a broker scenario would make life that more simple. I have not been able to find a source of any international brokers, such as the brokers in SA who represent SA'n sites.
Your best bet is to check with one of the major web reps who do some international business, like 2Can Media. They probably have connections for other international representation, filling the gaps in their own list.
Are there any references or research done which support
a recommendation for 2+ reach when tv advertising
strategy is focused on frequency? (I happened to find
only such that support a 3+ reach recommendation).
Thank you for your help.
In the Guru's opinion, 3+ became a popular base level because of classic research from 1883 by a physiologist examing learning of nonsense syllables. He found 3 repetitions to be the crucial level.
Many people have come to use 3+ as a rule of thumb and others using various analyses of competition, clutter, product interest, etc have judgementally justified levels from 2+ to 9+. It is essentially a judgment and selling excercise.
I have been successful producing and placing radio and television campaign spots. Now, I would like to learn how to market campaign merchandise and political candidates on the internet. Where should my first stop be?
This is not a media question, but the Guru would warn you that there are all too many players claiming expertise in marketing on the internet. The true experts are doing it, not teaching it.
For some insights, visit The List of Marketing Lists and subscribe to a couple of the internet marketing and advertisng discussions.
What is the current penetration of web/internet useage
by adults 18+?
It might be 60 million in the U.S. Or less. Or more. The definition of user and use as well as technical differences between measurers are highly variable. For a good discussion of the estimates and discrepancies, see this article at NUA Surveys.
Is there a web site for the Newspaper Standard Rate & Data information?
What is the meaning for those acronym on Spot Quotations and Data (SQAD) quarterly TV Cost Per 1OOO diagram? such as POP, EM, DAY, EN, PA, PR, and LN.
POP = number of households in the DMA (Nielsen's Designated Market Area)
EM= Early Morning or 7-10 am EST
Day= Daytime or 10am -4pm EST
PA= Prime Access or 7:30-8:00pm EST
PR= Prime Time or 8:00=11:00pm Mon-Sat and 7:00 - 11:00pm Sun
As these are all Spot costs, the actual times sold as spot in the local markets may vary somewhat from these general definitions. Prime Time hours on non-network affiliate stations may be treated as fringe time.
Here is a question from your fan in Taiwan. Can you briefly introduce how the guaranteed CPM, the upfront and scatter market systems work in the U.S.TV market?
Can you also recommend some web sites related to the preceding issues? Thanks a lot!
Briefly "guaranteed CPM" means that if the schedule purchased does not deliver the audience promised, additional announcements will be provided until the added audience delivery brings the CPM down to the guaranteed number.
The upfront system primarily sells to larger advertisers, who will spread their buy over all four quarters of the selling year (fourth through third quarters), with scaled ability to cancel portions of the successive quarters. CPM guarantees are included.
Scatter buys are smaller, as needed throughout the year, and may still include cpm guarantees, but the pricing structure will be higher than upfront. When upfront has sold well, inventory for scatter will be more restricted.
Advertisng industry news sites such as Ad Age will report on the upfront and scatter marketplaces as develoments occur.
Do you have the latest ave. CPM for the four Networks as well as major cable channels in the U.S. (Prime Time CPM Rate)? Also, do you have the latest ave. CPM figures for the TV media in U.K. and Japan?
Here in AMIC's Rates, Dates and Data area you will find useful CPM data for these U.S. media. The Guru is not aware of similar sites for the U.K. or Japan.