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Media Guru 1998

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Wednesday, December 30, 1998

where can I find demographic/psychographic profile of NPR listeners?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, December 30, 1998)

Try NPR. There is often a shortage of research on the audience of non-commercial media.

Tuesday, December 29, 1998

Dear Guru, How can i work for any US/UK-ad agenicies just through the net? and also please tell me the way to get the experience ( design the ads and making of the media plan} so that my work will be properly acknowledge and honoured.For more details-- i`m pussuing my MBA course in Pune(INDIA) and also worked in AD Agency (member of IP GROUP).

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, December 29, 1998)

This does not seem like a realistic plan. Why should an agency in the U.S. or U.K. want to take on the trouble of of working with an inexperienced person in a distant time zone? What do you offer that is not available to them locally, in person, in synch with their work hours and possibly with more experience? It is hard enough to work remotely, but training remotely is all the more difficult.

Also it is rare, if it occurs at all, for an agency person to work on creative as well as media at the same time.

The only possibility the Guru sees if you can find an agency, with no Indian office, that specifically needs an agent to plan/pace media in India or copy written in an Indian language in which you have native fluency.

Monday, December 28, 1998

Dear Guru,

I have been asked to compile compelling rational as to why a potential client should switch their currentl media buying from a freelance situation to our marketing communications firm. We will be handling all of their creative and their PR so beyound the obvious of streamlining the process and additional in-house resources that we have, could you please provide input. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, December 28, 1998)

The Guru cannot help you much without knowing the specific capabilities and resources your firm offers.

Good media buying is a function of experience, knowledge, information, and to a lesser extent, clout.

It is quite possible that the freelancer can deliver better media work than a full service marketing communications firm. On the other hand, if your firm is active in media buying and planning, perhaps you can present your capabilities in a way that makes you seem more able to meet the client's needs. If this will be your first or only media activity, what would make you more attractive than the freelancer?

Sunday, December 27, 1998

Dear Guru,

I am a successful businessman out of the Computer

industry and a recent perhaps "naive" entrant into the

Media field.

As a relative newcomer to the industry I don't

have the benefit of years of experience nor the

disadvantage of "old school thinking". I just have the

feeling that certain media is being entirely

overlooked by the "wise old owls" of the Advertising


With all the clutter clogging up the traditional

advertising "channels", one would think ad pro's

would jump at an opportunity to help their clients

stand out from the crowd.

I think we have something new and unique to offer in

this regard. Could you visit our web-site and perhaps

critique it for us? I would like to know what if

anything is wrong with our "picture".

Thanks in advance for your time and attention.

Rich Fagin, President

AdverTrailer Systems

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, December 27, 1998)

In the Guru's opinion, there is nothing "unique" about yet another truck-side billboard. And, as your own sample pictures show, it is a medium as cluttered as any.

Thursday, December 24, 1998

Dear Guru,
One of our clients is interested in "pricing guidelines"
in the media according to a designated sought reach; He wants to change the
pricing method he was working according to with the tv franchises, and seeks for a
way that media prices will derive from the reach defenition.
All his products are targeted to the same target audience so he believes
he can convince franchises to determine prices accordind to a basic monthly
reach he will undertake to accumulate every month.
Since this is totally new to us, we will be grateful if you can
help us. Are there any case studies we can learn from?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, December 24, 1998)

The Guru thinks this is simpler than it may seem. In television, generally reach is quite easy to estimate from GRPs when schedule parameters are known. Therefore, either the agency or the station can look at the reach goal, know the GRPs required, and use established cost per GRP to express cost for achieving the reach goal.

You should keep in mind that in cases where multiple stations are used, the overall reach is a matter of a combination of their schedules.

Wednesday, December 23, 1998

Do you have a U.S. name and contact for the optimizer program X*pert?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, December 24, 1998)

The Guru does not know of a U.S. contact for X*Pert.

However, AMIC 's sister company Telmar offers its own optimizer program, TRANSMIT, which adds competitive analysis features.

Tuesday, December 22, 1998

Dearest Guru,
I am in desperate need of your help. I have a hotel client that would like both a Corporate anylysis & indivdual property anylysis based on what was spent last year. I need to calculate total impressions by business unit (there are 4 units) & also what the cost per impressions were.
This is where it gets tricky, can I calculate this information without last years media plans? I am new here and the person before me kept, shall we say, no records of last year's activity. If I can get total dollar's spent by business unit for 98' how can I calculate the above impressions? (ie: last year's circulation per publication / by total cost per media buy) Please help!

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, December 22, 1998)

If the plan was all print, and you know the spending per title and the magazines' actual rates charged as well as the creative units used, you will be able to do your figuring. But. . .

this means you are using circulation for impressions while audience would tell a fuller story.

Someone in your financial area should have the bills for the schedule, which would tell you the number of insertions and eliminate all that calculation with questionable spending and rates.

Better yet, be a real media pro and contact the salesmen at the magazines to give you the impressions anaslysis you need, they'll probably be delighted to introduce themselves to the new media person this way.

Tuesday, December 22, 1998

We use a buying service for our media. I'm just
learning and was asked what seems a simple question,
but do I have all the elements and could you
help me to formulate the equation to learn.
We are running 125 TRP's weekly in radio flighted
thoughout the year. 3,000 total TRP's for the year.
$550,000 total budget. CPP ranges from $32 to $200,
average is $90.
Q. With 125 TRP's a week, approximately how many spots
a week will this schedule produce?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, December 23, 1998)

The Guru assumes you are running 125 GRP in each market.

Depending on market and demographic, average ratings run from about 1.0 - 2.0 on top stations. Divide GRP by the average rating you will buy to estimate number of spots. At an average rating of 1.0, 125 GRPs represents 125 spots.

And you didn't need any of that cost or cpp data.

Monday, December 21, 1998

I am currently analyzing a media schedule that includes consumer print, trade print and national cable. I have been
asked to pull a reach and frequency for the entire schedule. I realize that I am working with several differenct universes. I have added
the circulations and pulled the gross impressions for cable. I have added those together. Is there any formular to determan a reach and frequency?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, December 24, 1998)

In general, different media have different audience accumulation patterns when thinking about net unduplicated audience vs gross audience.

Calculating reach from a total multimedia impressions number is not practical unless the gross rating points (impressions divided by GRPs) is so many thousands that a 95+ reach can be assumed.

Some media, in particular broadcast media, allow general estimation of reach from a table of GRP levels. Print media are more complicated.

What you really need is standardized media software for reach and frequency calculation like that which is offered by AMIC 's sister company, Telmar.

Monday, December 21, 1998

Dear Guru
I am from South Africa and new to the online planning function.My question to you is as follows: Are there any sites or has any research been done on internet browsers, specificaly which "brand" and version is most common?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, December 23, 1998)

The Guru doesn't think this data will have much effect on your planning but Iconocast is one of many sites which keeps track of browser share. MSIE continues to close the gap vs Netscape. Here at AMIC for example, we serve virtually identical numbers of pages to MSIE and Netscape versions 3.X and 4.X. The version 3 vs version 4 splits of the two are comparable as well, at about 70 / 30 Ver4.x vs Ver3.x. The two represent over 90% of browser traffic.

Sunday, December 20, 1998

Dear guru,
i am a student of media planning and am currently pursuing my thesis on recency planning and its applicability in India. what are the sites on the net which give information on recency planning? how can i access various studies done on this subject?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, December 21, 1998)

There is considerable information here on AMIC . Use the search function in the Media Guru archives or in the Ad Talk and Chats area, where the Mediaplanning and Awards Papers list have all discussed recency extensively.

The Advertising Research Foundation also has all the published material.

Sunday, December 20, 1998

Dear Guru,
which one is the best thing to do for a begginner in ad field-- to do a job in big agency or to take the experience in small agency first before switching to a good one?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, December 20, 1998)

If you are interested in a specialist job, like media planning or buying, the training will be better in a big agency. If you want to learn the big picture of advertising as a whole, the opportunities are better at a small agency.

Please keep in mind that "big" does not necessarily equate to "good."

Friday, December 18, 1998

I recently read that the cost of customer acquisition for broadcast advertising is $100/customer, print is $80/customer, Search engine is $60,keyword search is $40, banner advertising is $30, direct mail is $20, PR is $10 and affiliate programs is $4. Think these are close to reality?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, December 20, 1998)

The question is whose reality? It is concievable that a given advertiser in a given category experiences these results. But these are not likely to be absolutes for advertising in general. The concept of "customer acquisition" in fact, only applies in certain categories where a repeating purchase or use of service is involved.

Friday, December 18, 1998

Dear Media Guru,
Do you know the breakdown of advertising $'s (US) spent
in upon the different media? Thanx...

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 18, 1998)

Ad Age publishes
these data annually.

Wednesday, December 16, 1998

dear guru-
what is the best way to analyze magazines once proposals come in? Obviosly we want to evaluate comp, cov, cpm, positioning, added value, etc. do you recommend an excel spreadsheet with weighted averages? Is there one already set up on the site to download? Just looking to do this the smartest possible way.

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, December 20, 1998)

All these factors, as well as some others, like added reach, and authoritative editorial are possible considerations. One can even consider the degree of the match of the magazines total impressions demographic distribution with the overall distribution of the purchaser.

It is extremely simple to build a spread sheet, making magazines the rows and making the specific factors the columns. Weighting ought to be set up as changeable so that it can be different from one advertiser's plan to the next, depending on goals. It will even be interesting to consider how magazine rankings change, when different factors get differing weightings within the same objectives. For example when reach is more important than frequency, is the magazine list very different than when these factors' importance is reversed?

Of course, the best approach is to independently compute the data
using a syndicated data base (such as MRI, SMRB, MMR, TGI, PMB, etc.) and
software such as Telmar's (AMIC's sister
company) which handles all of the above data as well as many additional
capabilities such as reach/frequency analysis and optimization.

Wednesday, December 16, 1998

Does the guru know if it is possible to buy air time
on SPECTRAVISION, the hotel-room movie channel?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, December 20, 1998)

The Spectravision site gives no indication that they are selling advertising, but they do offer means of contact, so you could ask them.

Monday, December 14, 1998

What is the value of adding TV to an all-print media plan?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, December 20, 1998)

Adding any medium to a single medium plan will add reach and equalize distribution of impressions among those reached.

TV of course has sound and motion to allow different kinds of messages.

For advantages of different media, see the Guru's "Advertising Media Strengths".

Monday, December 14, 1998

How do you "Nationalize" spot tv trp's? In other words, if I ran 100 trp's in 5% of the U.S., what would this translate to on a national basis?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 18, 1998)

TRPs nationalize by multiplying them by the % U.S.
So, 100 TRP in 5% of the U.S. = 5 national TRP

Monday, December 14, 1998

Dear Guru, How would you define the role of a media buyer? And what would you say are their principal tools and techniques?

Have you any suggestions as to where I can obtain information on media buying from a complete novice angle?
How closely are media planners and buyers related if at all?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, December 19, 1998)

Generally, a media buyer's role is to negotiate the purchase of broadcast time or print space in accordance with the goals established in the media plan. More often, people with the buyer's job are broadcast specialists and print is often negotiated by the planners. There are more and more print specialists. This differs from country to country and according to agency size. Smaller agencies in the U.S., for example, often use planner / buyers.

Tools are the research to evaluate the value and appropriateness to fulfilling goals of the media possibilities. The techniques use various calculations and evaluative processes to compare media and negotiating techniques applicable to any form of negotiation.

The media planner's job is to determine which media will meet the advertising goals of an advertiser, within stated marketing and creative parameters. This means selecting media, designating vehicles within the media, determining levels of media to use and timing.

For the basics, try one of the media planning texts from Amazon .com in the AMIC Bookstore.

Friday, December 11, 1998

Which would be the tips for a better media sales for a newspaper?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 11, 1998)

Try your question on the newspaper-research discussion list,

Friday, December 11, 1998

Dear guru-
we are trying to figure out how to combine impressions for radio and newspaper across 18 markets. should we combine each market separately? or should we combine all markets for each media vehicle? what is the best way to do this? thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 11, 1998)

It depends on what use you want to make of the data. Impressions may be added across media and across markets.

The tricks come when you want to turn them into GRPs. Then you must compare impressions against the population for the relevant geography to get GRPs for that geography.

Friday, December 11, 1998

I want to obtain some free media software.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 11, 1998)

And the Guru wants one million dollars. What kind of media software do you need; to do what task? It is rare that the specialized software for reach and frequency, cpm rankers, etc is available free unless a particular medium creates some to fill a need when there is no standard software that works for their media type.

The only free media software of which the Guru is aware is Reach and Frequency for U.S. Spanish language TV.

Univision has temporarily withdrawn their HispaniCume, and Telemundo has just released an update of their STRETCH2 sysytem.

Friday, December 11, 1998

Are there demographics on who is using individual web
search engines?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 11, 1998)

Yes. See the following answer about site demographics.

Thursday, December 10, 1998

Where can I find demographic information on web sites
and servers?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 11, 1998)

Demographics of web sites are provided by MediaMetrix, Nielsen and MRI among others.

"Servers" as the Guru uses the term, are the software that operates web sites and don't have "demographics."

Thursday, December 10, 1998

Media Guru. I'm currently trying to get in touch with the company or companies
that distribute the "Baby Bags" you get when you leave the hospital after having birth.
Can you point me in the right direction?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, December 10, 1998)

Best bet is to call your local hospital's maternity ward and ask for the name of the company that provides them with sample packs.

Thursday, December 10, 1998

where does one look for entry level media, advertising and pr vacancies

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, December 10, 1998)

The best place is in the classified employment ads in major advertising cities like New York, Los Angeles, Chicago. London, Hong Kong, etc.

But check AMIC's Ad Jobs area, too.

Wednesday, December 09, 1998

I need to provide some rationale for radio advertising for a local, full service nursing home (demo w50+.) Goals are to increase the number of people in the actual nursing home, as well as its independent living and assisted living facility.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, December 10, 1998)

If you want to justify radio for a target of 50+, you need to compare radio's audience and efficiency versus other media. And to focus on the various, highly 50+ skewed formats radio offers.

But the Guru thinks your target might need re-consideration. In the Guru's contact with nursing home admissions, it has been apparent that the decison is rarley made by the patient, but instead by family members, particularly their children. The overall decision that a nursing home is necessary may be made by a hospital, at discharge, as often as by family, but specific selection is usually by family.

Wednesday, December 09, 1998

A colleague of mine recently mentioned the Control
Circulation Bureau, which he said was an auditing
service for unpaid subscription publications. Our
nonprofit research organization publishes a monthly
newsletter that is distributed at no charge to
subscribers. We are interested in such a service.
Can you help me? Thanks for your attention!

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, December 09, 1998)

The closest thing with which the Guru is familiar is Certified Audit of Circulations which

"was established in 1956 as a not-for-profit circulation
audit and research organization serving publishers,
advertisers and advertising agencies."

Of course, for traditional "controlled circulation" publications, that is, those edited for a particular business segment and distributed to those who qualify and request a subscription, the main auditor is BPA, International.

Tuesday, December 08, 1998

Do you know of any research sources on marketing to UAW workers?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, December 09, 1998)

The Guru does not think there would be any research that narrow in the public domain.Perhaps a magazine written for that union or union members in general would have some in-house research.

A careful reading of the UAW's own site sill give you considerable marketing guidance.

Tuesday, December 08, 1998

dear guru - to compute a CPM for OOH, would you divide the monthly cost for the board by 30 (days in month) and then divide that by imps x 1000?
Please confirm. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, December 08, 1998)

The daily impressions, expressed in thousands (which means divided by 1000) are divided into the 1-day cost of the board.

Tuesday, December 08, 1998

Dear Media Guru,
I'm certain that these two topics are unrelated, but I was curious if anyone analyzed this.
Have you heard if there is a client rule of thumb as to how much the client is willing to put into production of a broadcast spot in relation to the media budget? For example if a client is going to spend $10MM in TV, will the client consider spending $1MM on the spot itself? Just curious, thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, December 08, 1998)

Yes, the Guru has heard of a 10% rule of thumb, but there are so many exceptions. At a certain point of media spending and weight, more than one commercial may be needed to combat wear-out. In some lower priced media, such as General market cable, African American Cable or Spanish language TV, fewer dollars may buy much more target weight and yet the advertiser wants the same standards of production quality as in other TV.

It's a case-by-case situation.

Monday, December 07, 1998

I work with network radio and have a client that only
wants to advertise 3 :30s a week (M-F / 6am-12midnite)
for 12 weeks. Would you recommend us scheduling
consecutive days each week using the same days every
week? Is there a model to follow with these type of


The Media Guru Answers (Monday, December 07, 1998)

In the Guru's opinion, such an insignificant schedule will not be much affected by any scheduling techniques. 3 spots per week for 12 weeks, or 36 total spots would be a erasonable 2 or three week schedule if you were buying three or four networks' similar schedules each week.

Assuming you are on some a very good network, averaging 2 target rating. Perhaps you'll get a 5% reach per week at 1.2 average frequency (and 25% over the 12 weeks, with an average frequency of 3).

With this minor weekly audience impact, scheduling alternate days, consecutive days, different days or same days in different weeks cannot have much effect.

Directionally, in theory, the more different element to your schedule, in day-of-week or time of day, the better reach you will achieve. BUt in your case, one or two reach points will be a big change.

If by some miracle, you have such an exciting product and impactful commercial that one exposure makes the sale every time, then do go for the most disperse possible schedule.

Monday, December 07, 1998

What publications would best serve a company wishing to publicize a new product to the metals manufacturing and fabricating industry?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, December 07, 1998)

You need to consult Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS)'s Business Publication Advertising Source

A limited amount of information is available from Netline's Tradepub.com search facility.

Friday, December 04, 1998

Dear guru, what is the Media Multiplier Effect and where could I find information on studies conducted on it? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, December 07, 1998)

The Media Multiplier Effect is a system originated by Magazines Canada to demonstrate the benefits of adding magazines to TV schedules. There are details and research summaries on their site.

Friday, December 04, 1998

Hello Guru,

Hello Guru. Generally speaking, what percent of magazine ad space remains unsold inventory that is then offered as remnant space? What kind of advertisers typically are most interested in buying ANY remnant space available, e.g. large clients vs. small, in-house agency vs. outside agency, certain industries?

Thanks very much.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 04, 1998)

The Guru is certain there is no "general rule." Unlike broadcast media, where time inventory is fixed and disappears if not sold promptly, space inventory only becomes "remnant" for a few reasons:

-An advertiser cancels well after the issue closing

-An advertiser runs less than nationally leaving a piece of geographic circulation to sell.

-An odd ad size leaves odd space and (not likely) no editorial content can be found to fill it.

-A gross overestimate of paper requirements for an issue may create the possibility of expensive waste.

Magazines "budget" editorial content around the amount of ad space sold, which pays for the carriage of the editorial matter. So there is usually some extra material available to fill odd space.

At a guess, the Guru imagines a magazine will experience remnant space in perhaps one issue out of four. This is more likley to be some odd geographic bit of circulation than a full national page. So if one assumes that a magazine has a half page available in one issue out of four and that an issue has an average of 50 pages of advertising, that's one quarter of one percent unsold inventory.

Friday, December 04, 1998

Hello GURU! Could you, please, put me into research achievements connected to joined diary+ people meter panels. I am interested in other countires experience, established differences at media weights determined by technical specifics of methods, specifics of data weighting due to proportions between diaries and peoplemeters installed in area, etc. I will appreciate your detailed answer.TE.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 04, 1998)

The Advertising Research Foundation library or ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization will be the best source.

Friday, December 04, 1998

Hi guru
Where can I find BDI/CDI info for the technology sector?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 04, 1998)

BDI (Brand Development Index), which is based on brand sales, is most likely to be proprietary and not publicly available.

Category Development may be inferred from data in such sources as SRDS' Lifestyle Market Analyst or in category sales data sets used with geodemographic mapping systems like those of CLARITAS.

Friday, December 04, 1998

Dear Guru, From your point of view, what would be the principal reasons why media planners would prefer to use one media rather than another? Taking into consideration TV, Radio, Press, Outdoor, Direct Mail, Cinema etc. What would you consider as being the attraction of each to the media planner?
Many thanks for your help

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 04, 1998)

The Guru hopes that professional planners are looking at these media for their contribution to achieving the objectives and strategies of the advertiser, not for individual appeal to the planner.

Sometimes a product needs a visual medium to illustrate product benefits or shelf appearance. Other times a better known or less differentiated product benefits most from the frequency of radio.

visit the Guru's Media Strengths page.

Friday, December 04, 1998

Dear Guru. Thank you for your answers - they are very
helpfull to me. My question is on "recency".
1.What groups of products best fit for "recency"
2."Recency" planning needs continuity. But it is
not evident what frequency level is needed at every
moment of such continious ad campaign. It seems
reasonable to set more frequency at the launch period
and then decrease frequency for mantainance. Also we
should take into consideration seasonality. Thus our
campaign becomes pulsing but not continious. What are
your comments? Thank you very much.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 04, 1998)

1- Recency seems to best fit common products that are bought regularly; in other words, a purchase is stimulated by running out of the current supply. This means food and HBA products, primarily. More "considered purchase" products, like automobiles, may not be a good fit.

Erwin Ephron, principal proponent of Recency, has commented to the Guru that about 30 reach on a weekly basis is a threshold level. This might mean 50-60 GRP depending on the media used amd target.

Part of recency theory, in relation to frequency levels and effective reach, is that after three exposures have been delivered, every subsequent exposure is supported by adequate frequency. Recency generally applies to brands with established awareness; when you raise the issue of product introductions, it is a different situation.

Seasonality is the principal exception to recency. There is no point in delivering the most recent ad exposure at a time when no purchase is likely. It is important to distinguish products with seasonal fluctuations, like deodorant, from products with very specific seasons, like barbecue charcoal.

Also consider that Recency does not mandate even levels in its continuity. The weight can be raised above the threshold when appropriate.

Thursday, December 03, 1998

Do you know of any third party services that identify remnant (last minute) print ad space opportunities for advertisers? What are their names and how do they work? I know your practice is to offer a web based service but I truly would appreciate a brief phone call at 215-(deleted).

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, December 03, 1998)

The Guru is not aware of any such services. Magazines generally seem to prefer to offer such remnants to current advertisers first, and often to other advertisers who initiate contact and offer to take any remnant space at any time.

The Guru never phones query submitters. The only direct, person-to-person contact is by email and that is only in cases where the Guru needs a clarification of some aspect of the query, or to reject queries not within the Guru's media-only scope.

Thursday, December 03, 1998

Dear Guru. I am interested in the "recency" theory
very much. But unfortunately it is too hard to get
the complete view of this theory just investigating
your previous answers and "Ad Talk & Chats". So
could you provide some main statements of the "recency"
theory. Thank you in advance.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, December 03, 1998)

The essence of the recency theory is

1- that the last ad exposure before a purchase is the most influential.

2-That this last exposure is more powerful than less recent, more frequent exposures.

3-Therefore, continuous advertising will outperform the same total weight delivered in flights, because it offers more opportunities to be present closest to a purchase.

Of course, there are many sub-points regarding seasonality, minimum threshhold levels, and spontaneity of purchases.

Wednesday, December 02, 1998

In radio terminology can you please explain a wired and
unwired network? Also, is a wired network the same as
a line network?

As always, thanks for your help!

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, December 02, 1998)

Wired and line are the same. The terms stem from the days when telephone lines were the primary connection for a network. Wired or line networks are sets of stations under affiliation ageements to carry a network's programming, typically on a common schedule or with stated exceptions.

"Unwired" is essentially a way for a spot rep to sell a long list of stations as a package. No programming is involved; just spots or GRPs.

Wednesday, December 02, 1998

Dear Guru, can you name any media analysis tools and media predictive tools that media planners use on a regular basis without being too technical, of course. Many thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, December 03, 1998)

Here are several:

  • Reach: the number of different target households or persons exposed to a campaign (most often expressed as a percentage of the target universe, and most often calculated over a 4-week period).
  • Frequency: The average number of exposures of the campaign to those reached.
  • Gross Rating Points (GRP) / Target Rating Points(TRP): Essentially interchangeable terms for the sum of the audiences of all the ad units in the campaign, expressed as a percentage of the target universe.
  • Gross Impressions: Same audience count as GRP/TRP but expressed in whole numbers rather than percents.
  • CPP / Cost per GRP and CPM / Cost per thousand impressions: should be self evident from the previous. These are referred to as the "efficiency."
  • Effective reach: Those in the "Reach" who experienced a specified minimum number of exposures (effective frequency)

All the above stem from the audience research tools and investment figures. So called "reach and frequency" systems typically generate all these figures.

Other tools, especially in print media are also occasionally used. These may include "time spent with" media vehicles, "page openings", attentiveness, etc.

Wednesday, December 02, 1998

Dear Guru!
We were asked to prepare a presentation for one of our clients about media planning,
since he works with several agencies and wants to concentrate
the media planning in one of the agencies' hands.
I visited the "parts of a Media Plan" which I found very helpful. Do you have some
other tips?
Specifically, we were asked to present a formula for a
benchmark acocrding to we recommend to define what reach
is needed for a campaign. Basically, we define it according to
various factors such as competitors' share of voice, share of
market goals etc. but we don't know any formula.
We should be grateful if you supply any guidelined in this matter.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, December 02, 1998)

You just need to formularize the thinking you are already doing.

For example, you could say that your formula to set reach for a campaign to equal competitor's share is:

Competitor's Reach times an index calculated by comparing the goal share to your current share. (i.e. to increase share 25%, exceed competitor's reach by 25%).

The Guru is not recommneding this particular formula, just illustrating how to turn philosophy into something apparently quantifiable.

Another approach is to build a matrix of your factors and set a 5 point scale for each; for example competitor's share: 0 point if it's equal to yours 1 point if it's 10% better, 5 points if it's 50% better, etc.
Suppose you have 8 factors based on the sort of considerations you mentioned. Suppose further that you set a minumum for all campaigns of 50 reach (reaching the majority of the target). Now add a reach point for every point in the matrix. You have a maximum of 40 added points (90 reach), and an apparently highly logical "formula" for getting there.

The cleverness will be in setting up each 5 point scale. Or perhaps youy will have fewer factore and more possible point on each scale.

Wednesday, December 02, 1998

Dear Guru. It is not still clear to me how to
measure or calculate Reach of the ad campaign
using media mix. For example, my ads on TV provided
90% reach, and ads in print reached 25% of the
target audience. What is the total reach, frequency
of the campaign? What other indexes can we find for
such campaign?
And my second question is about outdoor advertising.
It is essential to measure the effectiveness of the
ad campaign comparing awereness and sales before and
after the ads placing. But that is somehow the post-
campaign analisys and my client would like to see some
feagures before the campaign starts (pre-campaign).
What indexes (like reach, frequency, GRPs, OTS) can
we provide to the discription of the outdoor
ad. campaign? Thank You very much.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, December 02, 1998)

Reach of a medium in a plan is simply a statistical probability. Further, it is generally thought that each medium overlaps each other medium randomly.

So, in your example, if you consider the reach of each medium as a decimal, the probability of not being exposed to TV is 0.10 and of not being exposed to print is 0.75.

The probability of not being exposed to either one, is therefore 0.10 times 0.75 = 0.075.

Therefore, total reach of the mix is 92.5 (if 0.075 or 7.5% don't see it then 92.5% do see it).

Other basic "counts" for a campaign are impressions (OTS), cost per rating point and cost per thousand impressions.

All of these counts; reach, frequency, GRP, OTS, etc are possible for outdoor, if the research has been done, in your country, to count the audience of the locations used.

Tuesday, December 01, 1998

Can you please tell me who Achenbaum is? I think this regards "optimal range". What is that?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, December 02, 1998)

You probably mean Alvin Achenbaum, a long time industry figure, now one of the principals of Achenbaum Bogda Consulting, an agency search firm.

The term, "optimal range," is unfamiliar to the Guru.

Tuesday, December 01, 1998

Guru- Can you please explain Gross Weekly Reach Points (also refered to as levels)?
How are they determined? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, December 02, 1998)

The Guru believes you mean "Gross Weekly Rating Points," a term often used to mean "levels." "Reach" is a term referring to the net, or unduplicated, audience.

Gross Rating Points are the sum of all the ratings of all the announcements or insertions of the campaign, or the sum of all the impressions of the announcements, divided by the population for the relevant target demographic.

An "impression" is created every time an audience member is exposed to one advertisement.

Tuesday, December 01, 1998

Dear Guru. I've got several questions.
1. What is the difference between the following
three types of compensation for the ad agency
services: commission, fee and percentage?
Are there any other compensation systems used by the
ad agencies?
2. What is the right way to evaluate the efficiency
of the advertising campaign:
a) held in several cities at the same time
(each city has its' own media vehicles and
their ratings are measured for the target
audiences based in those cities);
b)using several medium at once (i. e. TV and print).
3. How can we measure the effectiveness of the
outdoor ad campaign?
Thank you in advance.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, December 01, 1998)
  1. Commission is based on a percentage of the agency's spending on the advertiser's behalf. The spending will primarily be media purchase and (in the U.S.) traditional commission, usually included in media rate cards, is 15% of the gross spending. Other expenditures, such as production, are marked up 17.65% of the net spending; this is exactly equivalent to 15% of the gross.

    Fees are flat amounts of compensation for performing agency tasks. On very small accounts, 15% commission may not cover the work required to create and place advertising. On very large accounts, 15% far exceeds what would compensate the effort.

    By Percentage the Guru imagines you mean an agreed commission other than the 15 / 17.65% structure.

  2. Efficiency is typically expressed in one of two ways: CPP - Cost Per gross rating Point or CPM - Cost Per thousand audience impressions (Roman numeral "M")

    In comparing markets, CPP is problematic because the universe number for calculating the Points - or percentage of universe - changes. However, CPM just uses impressions, which can be added and compared across markets. Other issues, about units and print versus broadcast can merit separate consideration, but these would be beyond efficiency.

  3. Effectiveness measures depend on a definition of the effect desired; is it awareness or sales or share? To best measure outdoor specifically, you need to set up your standard of effect and measure it with and without outdoor.

Monday, November 30, 1998

This is more of an office etiqette question but maybe you can help me out. My media planner is not dressing appropriately for the office. What is the politically correct way to tell her to dress more professionally? This really applies to her hair.
Thanks Guru.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, December 01, 1998)

This is certainly not a media question, but . . .

If you just have a personal objection to her hair style, you probably should ignore it. If the hair style is inherently disruptive or offensive to clients and vendors, to whom she is visible, then you should point out that particular aspect of the problem. There should be a written office policy about dress and grooming which is generally distributed and the hair issue discussed in the context of the policy, rather than taste.

Monday, November 30, 1998

where can i find information about advertising for news papers?
for e.g. advertising for ny tines or washington post.
also where can i find information about brand management of media brands?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 30, 1998)

The New York Tmes and The Washington Post websites first.

For rates of many papers go to Media Passage.

The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies and Advertisers would list brand managers for media brands in those cases where that function exists. The Guru beleves that the function is more likley to come under the control of a medium's marketing director or publisher.

Monday, November 30, 1998

Hi Guru - Regarding print, what does SIP stand for? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, December 02, 1998)

The Guru had to consult several print colleagues before anyone recognized the term. It seems to mean "special interest publication," in the sense of a one-shot special issue of a magazine, such as a home decorating ideas issue. It isn't part of a regular subscription, so it's sold on newstands only.

Monday, November 30, 1998

are there any websites that let you know what industry specific sites you can advertise on?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 30, 1998)

If you mean for free, the Guru thinks not.
AdKnowledge does this for a fee.

Monday, November 30, 1998

Where can I find video tape and or books regarding specific award winning advertising strategy campaigns?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 30, 1998)

The leading strategy awards - as in meeting marketing goals - are the Effies

Monday, November 30, 1998

Dear Guru,
My question regards putting a value on an ad within a faxed newsletter.

Our client is the head of the regional economic development council, and sends a weekly newsletter to 300 members. Membership encompasses a wide range of businesses: banks, contractors, developers, governmental entities, research groups, real estate brokers, financial planners...any individual or group interested in attracting business to the area. He wants to allow some space in the newsletter (about a 2" x 2" space on an 8 1/2 x 11 sheet) for advertisers. He's asked us (as a favor) to help him justify a cost. My initial feeling is that he should charge whatever advertisers would pay. Can you suggest any means of comparison?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 30, 1998)

The value has to be based on the concept, not the audience. Charging even $25 for an ad creates a cost per thousand audience of $83, which is quite high by ordinary media standards.

Assuming all recipients pay for or at least actively request the fax, and since you have good knowledge of the activities and interests of audience, it should be very valuable to the right advertiser. You might be able to get $100 - $200, by direct response standards.

Monday, November 30, 1998

Dear Guru. What does index SoS/SoM mean? What should
be the value of that index at various periods of the
ad campaign? Thank You, Zina.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 30, 1998)

The Guru gets a lot of queries asking what does this or that abbreviation mean. Many agencies make up their own terms for planning concepts. Many of these are based on the language of the country where they are invented (this query comes from Russia). The Guru needs to know the full terms to explain the meaning of an index of two terms. Preferably, the Guru likes the full context of the terms' usage, because similar abbreviations may have different meanings in planning versus marketing contexts.

Just guessing, the Guru thinks your index may refer to Share of Spending divided by Share of Market. There are no absolute rules. Theories typically are,"spend at 100 index to maintain share of market, spend at over 100 index to grow share of market."

Obviously this is an over-simplification, since various media types and units will have a bigger impact than simple money caluculations indicate.

Monday, November 30, 1998

Can you tell me the origins of media planning in the UK? i.e How and when it began, who instigated it etc.? Many thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 30, 1998)

Surely the answer is lost to antiquity. Media planning is not an invention it's a process which has been somewhat formalized.

Advertising in the media, (i.e. newspapers) has existed for hundreds of years. At some early time in this history, no doubt as soon as there was more than one medium to consider, advertising agents began to think that deciding on ad placement was a process worthy of some time. As choices expanded and agencies grew, specialists in this field arose.

Monday, November 30, 1998

Dear Guru, can you tell me about the tools and techniques that media planners use? or failing that, where can I get hold of information on the above? Thanks for your help

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 30, 1998)

This is the contents of an entire university course or two, or perhaps the learning of a year or two's work.

For some idea, see the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan.

Monday, November 30, 1998

How do you manually work out reach and frequency for TV campaigns. Is there a particular formula?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 30, 1998)

See the query of
Tuesday, November 10, 1998 #2144.

It is not feasible to do manual calcuations without tables, which are probably not being created any longer. Someone with the computer reach and frequency tool could develop the tables easily, but there would be little point.

Once reach has been determined for a range of possible schedules by various available means, there would be a fairly simple algebraic formula that describes the "curve." But, today, that's the long way around.

Sunday, November 29, 1998

Need to know urgently on Recency model. Please help

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, November 29, 1998)

Always the fastest way to get the Guru's thinking on specific issues is to go to the Guru Archives Search Engine. Use "recency" as your search term in this case and you will find several Guru responses about recency.

Friday, November 27, 1998

Dear Guru, I am about to begin a market profile on media planning in the UK. I've got hold of some books on advertising, but there appears to be a close synergy between account planning and media buying in the books I have. What actually is the difference in the specs of the two roles, is there a very fine line or just differing titles for essentially the same job? Many thanks in advance for your assistance.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 27, 1998)

An account planner is not a media planner, but is the liaison between media and the other key strategic disciplines, of research and account/marketing management. The responsibility is to assure that media planning, creative, etc. are all working from the same understanding of the consumer.

Media buying is an executional responsibility which is a partial fulfillment of the strategic process.

Friday, November 27, 1998

Which is London's largest circulated daily ?
Which is Germany's largest circulated daily ?
Which is Hong Kong's largest circulated daily ?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 27, 1998)

Friday, November 27, 1998

where can i get some information on magazine research
studies pertaining to reader profiles/clutter/advertising
recall ? any articles on websites ?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 27, 1998)

See Starch .

Tuesday, November 24, 1998

what is the standard response rate and should response be figured on GRPs or reach?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, November 24, 1998)

There isn't a "standard." The Guru has to guess that you are talking about TV infomercials. Obviously, price, product interest and quality of the infomercial can have great impact on response.

One or two percent is probably a very high response. The Guru would use reach as the base, because GRP will progressively accumulate fewer and fewer exposures among those who might buy but have not yet.

Contact the Direct Marketing Association
for more information.

Monday, November 23, 1998

I have a client that will not commit media dollars for
more than a calendar quarter at a time. It will be my
job to explain why he would want to purchase media for
at least 6 months or the entire year for reasons of
efficiencies. Obviously I will let him know the
savings in dollar value. It is a known fact that he
will spend the money. He just needs to be sold/told
why. Like I said, other than rate efficiency, better
value-add/merchandise, the promise of long term
relationships with media reps and how that will
ultimately benefit the client, what else can I tell
him that will convince him to commit long term?
Sounds like a question for Cosmo instead of the
Media Guru.) Research/facts are what work best for
this client.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 23, 1998)

You have covered all the reasons, the issue is either convincing the client to believe you or getting the advantages without his commitment After all, if he has no interest in the more-for-the-money advantages you are offering why would should he even consider making a longer commitment?

Since you say it is "a known fact" that he will spend the money anyway, why don't you buy for the whole year anyway, negotiating no-penalty, full cancellation rights after the one quarter for which you have a commitment?

Monday, November 23, 1998

Dear Guru!
Since there are several media planning softwares in the market
I wanted to ask: are there any guidelines for measuring the
gap between the prediction and the actual results. What I mean is:
Is there a "normal" gap, for example: 20% gap between the predicted
reachGrps (pre campaign)to the results (post campaign).
Thank you!Irene Kol.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 23, 1998)

This is a two part question:

1- The "gap" in GRPs will not be due to the software, it is based on your buyers' estimating ability and the accuracy of post analysis as well as the reliability of your audience research.

2- Since reach is derived from models based on averages, there can be variance. Variance will also depend on the medium you are considering and how it is measured.

For example, if your magazine audience research is conducted once a year when you plan a quarter's campaaign of 1 insertion in each of 5 magazines and then buy exactly that, how will you ever know if the reach was different than you planned?

On the other hand, suppose you plan radio based on a specific number of GRP on a specific number of stations, in a specific daypart mix, and you buy exactly that. How would you judge that the reach goal wasn't met, unless the buy did not deliver as planned, whether because of poor estimating, station failing to schedule properly or a new ratings book?

In no case are you dealing with the accuracy of the planning software.

Many agencies and clients agree to a +/- 10% range in delivery of broadcast GRPs. Other standards are often agreed as well.

Saturday, November 21, 1998

I am looking for an example of a marketing plan, especially one that a non-profit organization might use.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, November 21, 1998)

The Guru is building a media plan and research library, but it will probably not include marketing plans. You should try asking our non-profit organization marketing discussion list, org-marketing@amic.com. To subscribe, send an email to listserv@amic.com. The message should only say

subscribe org-marketing

A return email will confirm your subscription and explain how to ask your question. There is a link to the archive of previous org-marketing discussion on AMIC's Ad Talk and Chats page.

Friday, November 20, 1998

For a national radio campaign, can media be bought by format only if I wanted to reach Generation X only?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 20, 1998)

Like other age demographics, there is no one format that covers everyone. You will need to examine the appeal of several formats and, if reach is an issue, buy something of a spectrum.

Friday, November 20, 1998

I am a college student doing an independent study for media planning. Where can I find a map that indicates where the Claritas groups are located? Also, where can I find the costs for stadium advertising?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 20, 1998)

Claritas (PRIZM, CLUSTER PLUS and others) groups are based on a complex lifestyle segmentation. Maps show concentrations more than location. You may find Claritas willing to supply a map. Mapping systems like COMPASS and CONQUEST which use PRIZM clusters are in the hands of many media.

Stadium advertising is likely to be sold directly by individual stadiums' promotion departments.

Friday, November 20, 1998

I have to do a media plan for a gourmet mustadrd of the
New England poblation with $20,000. What should I

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 20, 1998)

New England has a population of over 13 million and is made up of 9 media markets, including the very large Boston and Hartford / New Haven. The Prime Time spot TV cost per point for Boston alone is in the range of $1000.

Even small space newspaper or late night tv ads across the area will cost a few hundred dollars each in the larger markets.

The budget does not seem realistic for anything you could call a campaign.

Thursday, November 19, 1998

Is there an internet resource that reports duplication among web sites? Thanks, KMG

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 20, 1998)

MediaMetrix / Relevant Knowledge is one source that can report duplication between sites.

Thursday, November 19, 1998

Dear Guru!
Where can I find as much information as possible about the globalization
in the advertising agencies world; Specifically, I need some case studies
about the process of affiliations and partnerships between
local agencies and international advertising groups.
Are there any predictions about the advertising agencies map
in the future - especially in local regions and countries.
Thank you very much!

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 20, 1998)

Information like this might be available from American Association of Advertising Agencies or The American Advertising Federation.

There is an excellent, international list of advertising associations at the University of Texas' Advertisng Department site.

Thursday, November 19, 1998

I'm an independant video editor making a commercial for
a client's (expensive coastal) house. He wants it
advertised nationally to appropriate audiences. How do
I go about buying time for him? Do I have to go through
some type of middleman? Thanks in anticipation...

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, November 19, 1998)

You can simply call the media you want to use and make a deal. You are not very likely to pick the right media or get good prices without the help of someone experienced in these skills. A media service is the kind of "middleman" which might help you.

Wednesday, November 18, 1998

Hello,I work at a health care organization and we utilize a lot of advertising (i.e., print, t.v., radio).
We are interested in secondary research which includes how health care consumers (health care consumers specifically) decision making process
is altered or effected by advertising mediums. I am interested in both branding campaigns as well as product line specific campaigns (i.e., heart).
Is there a place I could start to obtain this information? Does ARF have any research on this topic?
Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 20, 1998)

Yes, the Advertising Research Foundation is a good place to check.

Wednesday, November 18, 1998

Dear Guru,
I'm a Portuguese student and I'm doing an essay about Media planning.
I intend to explain everything about media planning: history, concepts, applications and examples and maybe to do one comparison between what is done here, in Portugal, and around the world.
So, what I'm asking you is one suggestion of index to my work: topics, recommended sequence of subjects and which kind of persons it will be nice to talk to.
This will also help me to specify my search of information, because I've already too much material and I'm a little bit lost.
Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 20, 1998)

See the Guru's Parts of a Media Plan as a starting point.

Tuesday, November 17, 1998

Where can I get data on what publications the Indian community in USA, UK, Canada and HongKong read as well as TV programs viewed

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, November 17, 1998)

The Guru does not believe there is any published data resource for your needs. Contact some of the major media of which you may already be aware like India Abroad and chat with a salesperson there to expand your knowledge.

Monday, November 16, 1998

Dear Guru
Where I can find information about advertising at supermarkets and supermarkets bussines.
thank you for your help...
Yuri_Chile Nov 16,1998

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, November 17, 1998)

The Point of Purchase Advertising Institute would be a good starting point.

Saturday, November 14, 1998

Can you please tell me about media readership studies
in the SAARC countries - India, Pakistan, Bangladesh,
Nepal and Sri Lanka . It would be great if apart from
the normal number by demographics, cross tabs,
other info like product linkage, duplication,
across media / vehicles etc. is also available.

Also, if you could let me know about a source that
would give me information on the legislation in
each of these countries regarding media.

Awaiting your reply eagerly. Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, November 17, 1998)

Perhaps one of the national or international research oversight organizations, like Advertising Research Foundation or ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization can help you.

Friday, November 13, 1998

Thanks for your quick response, but re: my last question #2154, PERQs measures physicians and medical professionals - this drug is targeting the consumer. Any additional help is greatly appreciated.

Thanks again!

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, November 17, 1998)

For consumer targets, Simmons, MRI or The Mendelsohn Media Research Affluent Study are the best consumer behavior / media use resources.

Friday, November 13, 1998

I am working on a pharmaceutical drug and need to make a media recommendation. I have the marketing goals, targets, etc. Other than the traditional quantitative resources (runs, quintile analysis, comp/cov, etc) what qualitative resources can I evaluate to determine media mix and title/program selection? For this industry are there any unique studies or obscure methods of researching and media planning? Thanks Guru - your help is invaluable

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 13, 1998)

See Query Number 2093, of October 13

Friday, November 13, 1998

In terms of government regulations (or independant broadcasting Authority) what is the definition of advertising - does it include sponsorships, self-promotion, direct response vis-a-vis classical advertising? Help me oh great one...

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 13, 1998)

The Guru is not a lawyer, but . . .

Regulations in the U.S. will differ from your country (South Africa). The government definitions of advertising are generally only in the context of prohibited activity, such as advertising tobacco products in broadcast media. A cigarette could not sponsor television coverage of a baseball game. But it is unclear to what extent cigarette signage in the ballpark may be incidently shown during game broadcasts.

Other, non-governmental regulations are mostly concerned with non-program material connected to an advertiser. When a program is "sponsored" the "billboards" announcing the sponsor's involvement are advertising. Direct response is certainly advertising. "Self-promotion" is unclear.If public relations efforts result in an advertiser's activities receiving news or other in-program coverage, that is clearly not advertising.

Generally the identifier of advertising is: a message about a product, service or company for which the media outlet has been paid.

Friday, November 13, 1998

Please supply us with a very detailed definition of advertising as pertaining to TV advertising

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 13, 1998)

Advertising is a paid message or an unpaid public service (e.g. charitable, non profit or governmental) message intended to influence consumer behavior including purchase of products and services, voting, attitude toward a person or company, etc. It is executed in standard units such as 15 seconds, 30 seconds, 60 seconds. It can include infomercials, which are 30 minute selling exercises.

There are grey areas, such as underwriting of Public Broadcasting System programs and the limited-sell "commericals" run on those stations.

Thursday, November 12, 1998

Yearly advertising budgets for amusement parks/attractions, museums ie: Air & Space Museum, Knoxberry Farms, Busch Gardens, etc.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 13, 1998)

CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
is the standard source.

Thursday, November 12, 1998

We have a client who is planning to run about 450 GRPs in cable TV. The timeframe for the spots
is from 6pm - 1am and the campaign length is 10 weeks. We have 2 :30 spots in rotation (new copy for the client). If
frequency is important, what would be a good level to shoot for and what would be overkill?


The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 13, 1998)

The Guru is not sure whether you mean average frequency of exposure, as in "Reach and Frequency" or the frequency per cable channel per week in your buy.

At 450 GRP over 10 weeks, you will probably run about 75 - 200 spots per week, depending on the networks used and target. 15 to 20 per network wouldn't be a bad level.

The Guru believes that some cable schedules get so heavy that the repeated commercials quickly become an annoyance to loyal viewers of content specific networks.

Four week Reach / Frequency would probably be in the 30 / 6.0 range.

Thursday, November 12, 1998

If you were launching a consumer product, what is a reasonable response of recognition (in terms of percentage)for aided and unaided recall after 30 days, 90 days and six months.
Is there any research available on response rate or is this an unanswerable question because of all the variables? Thank you for your help.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, November 12, 1998)

As you surmise, he variables, in type and amount of marketing communications of all kinds are too great to offer general rules. The big research compilations, such as Advertising Research Foundation and Newsweek
Media Research Index
probably have several casae studies to offer.

Wednesday, November 11, 1998

I am looking for a third-party listing of the top 100 or
so websites, ranked by total traffic counts. I don't want
to have to pay for the report. It seems I've seen countless
articles in the trades with top 100 lists but don't have any
handy for websites. Ideally, the source of the traffic would
be either @Plan, Relevant Knowledge, or Media Metrix.
Do you know if I can get this online somewhere?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, November 11, 1998)

and MediaMetrix,
which have now merged, both used to openly post top sites lists. But not as deep
as 100. Since their data is protected by copyright and contract, it is not likely to be on-line anywhere (legally). If you are planning an on-line media buy, one of your potential vendor sites will probably share the data they subscribe to from one of these sources.

Wednesday, November 11, 1998

Suppose I wanted to break into advertising, media buying and/or
consulting for what is, to me, a new product line -- autos, musical instruments,
whatever. Is there a simple guide of compendium which lists the ad agencies of
record for various product lines -- or does one have to go through the tdious
process of calling a long list of advertisers to see who
might have their account?


The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, November 11, 1998)

Tuesday, November 10, 1998

I need to find out more information on how to figure
reach and frequency, especially four week averages as
it applies to print, radio and television.
What is the best source to use for finding R/F analysis
including some work samples.

Help me Guru, I want to be like you!

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, November 10, 1998)

When the Guru started out, Reach and Frequency was calculated manually with the aid of tables and factors. Since then media have become more complex and measurement more detailed. Complicated, multi-step algorithms such as numerous iterations of the Beta-binomial function must be calculated.
Now, the computer is virtually the only way Reach and Frequency is analyzed.

Some of the measurers such as Simmons, and MRI have systems for R&F on the media they measure. A few, rare, media such as Telemundo Spanish TV Network, offer sytems (STRETCH2) for their medium.

Most common is the specialized, all-medium software system, such as the one provided by AMIC's sister company, Telmar.

Monday, November 09, 1998

On an interview I was recently asked the following question: "If I were a client and I told you I had a budget of $3MM, what would you tell me to do?"
I find this question extremely broad, esp. considering I do not have all of the factors required in advance before making a recommendation (i.e.,marketing objectives, targets, etc.) What is the best way to answer this on an interview without giving too much information?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 09, 1998)

Assuming that the specific job gave no clues (i.e. you weren't interviewing for a job selling a specific medium), and you were just interviewing for a job at some level in media planning at a general agency, the Guru thinks you were on the right track; your answer should have been:

"That's an extremely broad question. I would tell the client that we need to know marketing goals, advertising targets, geographic concentrations, etc, before making any recommendations regarding media investment.And then I would offer help in collecting and analyzing the information."

Of course, the danger in such a response is that the interviewer will realize you're smarter than the interviewer.

Monday, November 09, 1998

I just wondering if you can help me with this quetion:
Advertising is the most important factors in determining the existence of particular forms of media....discuss...
i just wondering what is that mean as i have to find some resources to do an essay (1000-2000words) could you please kindly help me find a way?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 09, 1998)

This sounds like a school assignment. The thinking expressed seems to be that advertising provides the revenues that pay for the operation of media. Therefore the media types which succeed are the ones which attract advertising money.

On the other hand, an alternate line of thought is that media must first attract audience in order to attract advertisers' money.

Saturday, November 07, 1998

Dear Guru:

Could you please tell me where I can find resources, information or research paper done on the relationship between advertising spend and brand awareness building?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, November 08, 1998)

There are so many factors in biuilding awareness that a study focusing purely on ad spend seems pointless. A dollar spent on billboards wiil do a different job than a dollar divided between tv and magazines. A dollar spent on 2-page spreads in magazines will do a different job than a dollar spent on web banners.

However, what research exists on relationships between amounts of advertising and awareness can probably be found at the Advertising Research Foundation, the Newsweek
Media Research Index
or ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization

Friday, November 06, 1998

Could be please give me some popular sites catering to The European countries.Is there a search engine exclusively for European countries?.

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, November 08, 1998)

Sites on the internet are inherently open to all visitors. There are several sites about Europe and in the local language which may therefore meet your specifications. Media sites like Germany's Der Spiegel or
France's Le Figaro are examples. European tourism sites may be in many languages.

Your best bet is to think of a European topic about which you want to find a site and search for that specific topic in a major search engine.

Friday, November 06, 1998

what are the parameters taken into account, when a site claims to be making profit.Some write that even newyork times online edition incurring loss.what do they mean by that?.

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, November 08, 1998)

Profit = revenues minus costs. A site like the New York Times' has substantial costs, in part because it has extensive daily updates as well as a vast data base to maintain. If advertising revenue plus the number of "premium service" subscriptions don't balance the costs, the site loses money.

The site may be worth its cost for the image building or public relations value but this some abstract value doesn't figure in the accountants' profit equation.

The Guru believes there are very few sites making a profit unless they are actively selling merchandise or services, such as Amazon, CD-Now, Music Blvd, and pay-for-smut sites.

There are also some computer hardware and software sites which are said to take such a great customer service burden off the human service techs that they supplement that they more than pay for themselves.

Friday, November 06, 1998

Where to find advertisement tariff of popular portal and content sites,instead of visiting respective site to know its advt.rate.

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, November 08, 1998)

Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) has an interactive advertising source, which is not 100% complete but should have the majors.

A a service called AdKnowledge maintains audience and cost data, but has a significant cost.

Friday, November 06, 1998

Where to find excerpts from good research papers on online media from advertisement point of view?.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 06, 1998)

C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
regularly publishes excellent compilations of web and interactive media research

Also, the
Advertising Research Foundation library and the conference procedings from the various organizations like the recent workshop week of the ARF.

Friday, November 06, 1998

What are the methods generally adopted by the sites to increase
a).Traffic and
b).Advertising revenue to the site

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 06, 1998)

This is a good question to research at Business Marketing's Net Marketing

Friday, November 06, 1998

Is there any site which offers answer to the questions on technical and marketing aspects of online medium(like guru answers questions anything related to media and advertising)

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 06, 1998)

The Guru does not know of another Guru with the specialty you need. However, Business Marketing's Net Marketing is a site with an archive of the great information they have published on internet marketing and technical issues.

Friday, November 06, 1998

Are Rotating banners and Animation banners imply the same or is it different?.Please clarify.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 06, 1998)

Rotating banners is the system used here on AMIC. Everytime you load a new page or reload the same page, the 3 banners you see change; a new set is drawn form the pool of current advertisers.

Animation banners have movement within the banner. It may be one element of the banner or complete changes of the image. At the moment this answer is posted, the Forbes, CBS Marketwatch and CMMS China Research banners on AMIC are animated.

Friday, November 06, 1998

Dear Guru,
Thanks for your service.What are the terms associated with online media and its defination(like CPM,CTR etc).What are the factors Media Planners consider when they plan for Online campaign.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 06, 1998)

For terms visit
the Guru's web glossary


Net or gross audience.


Cost per net or gross audience, cost per response, cost per sale, cost per dollar revenue.


These are mostly the same as a traditional media planners considerations, but measurements and terms are different

Thursday, November 05, 1998

I would like a sample of the rates for tv in Milwaukee. For all the networks.
I'm writing a proposal for that includes how mush tv rates are in Milwaukee as compared to
local access. could you e- mail me the answer- just the cost of the production?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, November 05, 1998)

You'll find some recent Milwaukee TV rates in AMIC's Rates, Dates and Data area under "SQAD"

Thursday, November 05, 1998

I would like to know of a good source to gather general information on cost, availability, mechanical sspecs., etc., regarding business-to-business and/or trade publications internationally. In a broader sense, is there a source to which one can go to gather information regarding European trade magazines . . . by industry? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, November 05, 1998)

The Guru has addressed this question more than once. Please back up to the Guru search engine and enter "international."

Thursday, November 05, 1998

Dear Media Guru, You directed me to the Direct Marketing Association for additional research information. When I hot-link to that site I can not seem to find a way to access their research information? Do I have to become a member to do so? And if so, will I be able to access all of their information from the Internet? I have the same question in regard to the Advertising Research Foundation site. Thanks......

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, November 05, 1998)

The Guru often offers a hotlink merely as a way leading inquirers to more information about a suggested reosurce, even if actual studies are not on line. You may call the DMA's phone number to inquire further. The Guru is confident that the Direct Marketing Association
offers a lot of background information about Direct Marketing at no charge.

The Advertising Research Foundation is a membership organization. Access to its best-anywhere research library is a key member benefit.

However, a lot of the ARF's best material is published in conference procedings and in the
Journal of Advertising Research. Copies of these with relevnt articles are available at nominal cost.

Thursday, November 05, 1998

Dear Guru, we work with a medical-device company. Our primary target audiences are physicians. We have been utilizing b-b pubs as our primary form of marketing communications but are looking for other means to communicate our messages. One consideration has been direct mail. I have been unable to locate any usable reseach that would indicate that direct mail is a successful means to communicate with physicians? Are there any research studies, that you are aware of, that would help to answer the question is direct mail effective when targeting a physician audience and if it is an effective means do standard frequecy rules apply? My current belief is that direct mail is not an effective means, for this audience, if the message content is image. Possibly something to consider if the message content is that of direct response. Thanks in advance....

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, November 05, 1998)

The Direct Marketing Association
ought to have some infromation for you.

Other media to consider are physicians radio networks and video tape releases.

Wednesday, November 04, 1998

1) Guru, Could you please explain what is meant by implementation planning ? Where does it fit into the media planning process?

This is with reference to my question on Implementation planning.

Implementation Planning as I came across it was unexplained and there
wasn't any context to it. I came across it in a curriculum vitae of a
media planner. I haven't met this person whose CV it was and neither are
there any chances of me seeing him.

I do understand, as you clarified that this may be a proprietary term,
etc. but what does it mean in media jargon ? U see, I think it'd have to
do with plans for implementing (on a monthly basis)a business plan made
for the year and evolving buying strategies ? please do answer my query
since I'm quite anxious to hear from you.

2) Also, When is the library of media plans that AMIC is to have, coming

3) Guru, one last question. The books that you reccomend from the
AMIC-Amazon bookstore are for new or relatively new planners. what
books would you reccomend for planners at a middle level ? Please, no
Amazon - my searches on online bookstores have proved fruitless. can you
reccomend a few titles, maybe I can scour a second hand bookshop,

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, November 05, 1998)

1) As the Guru commented in his private request for clarification, Implementation planning is notstandard
media jargon. (many agencies develop their own terminology
for proprietary processes or approaches to common tasks).

It could describe what some call "buying platform" which compiles
all the considerations for choosing and negotiating media
during the "implementation" of an approved plan.

Or it could mean the work flow / critical path for
implementing an approved plan; an intermediary step between planning and buying.

Or it could be referring to a philosophical approach to
creating a plan, like "recency planning."

2) The call for submissions to the Guru's AMIC Media Plans and Research Library is expected to be announced this week. (AMIC's media Guru is often asked where one might find a sample plan or research analysis to serve as a model for one's own project. As a service to our advertising professional members, AMIC is collecting a library of AMIC users' media plans and research analyses which can serve as models or starting points for your own projects.)

Registered AMIC users can expect to get details in their AMIC-News November e-mail. Have you picked out one of your own plans to submit?

3) Media planning texts are inherently basic. Beyond that, more advanced learning is best derived from

  • experience - learning from those with whom you work
  • trade publications and conferences - the two latest big issues in advanced planning: recency planning and buy optimization, have principally been documented in these forums, and
  • information, whether texts or otherwise, from related areas such as marketing.

Tuesday, November 03, 1998

I have been asked to write a report on media planning and buying in the UK, such as what it involves, what the drivers are, and how it fits in within the advertising industry as a whole. What can you possibly recommend as some good sources to use in order to gain a good understanding of this sector of the industry?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, November 03, 1998)

What you propose requires a great depth of understanding of a professional field. Reading a few issues of Campaign or some other trade publication won't be enough. Your best bet is to talk with some experienced U.K. media planners and buyers at a firm like Zenith Media or M&C Saatchi

Monday, November 02, 1998

Our agency has little direct response TV (DRTV) buying
experience yet a client has asked us to buy for a DR creative
unit. Is there any rule of thumb on how many spots to
purchase per week? I know it depends on results expectations and
clearance rates but am wondering where to start.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, November 06, 1998)


Make sure you have enough telephone answering capacity to handle the calls you will generate. For safety, consider 2% of the impressions you will buy as call volume.

Consider spacing spots to manage response flow.

Track responses closely to understand

  • clearance
  • which spots work best
  • and actual response rate

Sunday, November 01, 1998

Is there any recent evidence that gender, age or income influence advertising recognition scores. Historically, has recognition been considered equavilent across these dimensions? Do the Starch or other "norms" data provide information on this topic?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, November 05, 1998)

Generally, the variables of the ad size and placement are the key issues in recognition scores.

But consult the Advertising Research Foundation library and visit the Starch site

Friday, October 30, 1998

This is a two part question:

Attendant to the:
(1) clutter in primetime television and
(2) the erosion of the 4 network's share of audience,

are there any current studies out that addresses the effectiveness of advertising on network TV in prime?

If the effectiveness of advertising in prime on the net is being affected, then how much less effective does advertising in spot tv (in prime) become?

Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 02, 1998)

Answer to Part1:

The Guru has not seen studies of the specific factors and chain of causation you desire to examine. It seems most likely that the two causes you cite would work entirely separately to erode the effectiveness of prime time.

The two key benefits of prime were generally taken to be

  • attentiveness, which is likely to be hurt by clutter and

  • high ratings, not important in themselves, but leading to what is often cited as a planning goal, -- high reach. This becomes less avialable with the decline in network share.

The diligent planner will seek various combinations of vehicles to deliver the desired reach within budget, and put the supposed "prestige" of prime time in perspective. (Do viewers of E.R. accept the commercial more readily because they know they are part of a larger than ususal viewing audience?)

Answer to part 2:

Spot prime will or will not be effected to the extent it suffers from the same clutter and erosion. (See the adjacent query about clutter and attentiveness for related information). Your definition of spot prime will effect your answer, too. If you define spot prime as only that which runs on the 4 networks affiliates, that means the effect are more similar. But if spot prime on "independent" stations counts that changes the picture. After all, a good portion of the 4 networks' erosion is due to the WB and UPN shows like Buffy, Felicity, Dawson's Creek, Charmed, etc.

Friday, October 30, 1998

I have a client that would like to do an image radio
schedule for the first time. An 8 week schedule was
proposed - he wants to cut it to 6 weeks for budget
reasons. The reach and frequency for both schedules are
similar. Is there research to show him as to why the
longer schedule will have more impact and long
term effectiveness?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, October 30, 1998)

There seems to be a missing factor. If you were running 100 GRP per week for 8 weeks and cut back to 100 GRP per week for 6 weeks, GRP would be reduced by 25%. Therefore, reach or frequency would have to change significantly, if not both.

I.e: suppose your 8 week plan had a reach and frequency of 60 / 13.3 with 800 GRP. If you reduced the plan to 6 weeks / 600 GRP and the reach did not go down, frequency would drop to 10 -- a 25% change. If the frequency did not go down then the reach would have to decline to 45, again a 25% decline. Realistically both reach and frequency should exhibit obvious drops.

Perhaps someone is mistakenly comparing average 4-week reach in the two plan. That comparison would be irrelevant, but be "similar" if not identical.

If you mean that the 8 weeks schedule is compressed into 6 weeks, then there would be an avergae 4 week difference but no budget reduction.

In this case, however "recency" theory would prefer the 8 week version becasue it provides more chances to deliver advertising to the consumer at a time of decision making. This theory may not be appropriate for "image" campaigns.

Thursday, October 29, 1998

Dear Guru,
I am the Media Relations Coordibnator in Indian Institute
Of Management, Lucknow, India. On request of some
students, I have to deliver a lecture on quality
parameters of media planning.

Could you enlighten me with inputs about some research
which has been made in this area or some other resources.


The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 02, 1998)

Quality is in the eye of the beholder. To some (but not the Guru) quality is simply a large audience. Others look to measures such as attentiveness, audience involvement, time-spent-with, etc.

Still others will look for supportive environment, authoritative content, positioning or other factors. Each concept has its adherents and valid arguments to be offered in support of the standards.

In still other cases, nothing matters but tonnage, or reach, or other statistical / arithmetic factors.

Your presentation would best cover all these issues.

Tuesday, October 27, 1998

Not a question, but Guru you were misleading when you referred to GenX as "children of the Baby Boomers". Most Boomers are 40-41 years old, the youngest of GenX are 17-18. As a cohort, boomers were late to propagate; the "children of the boomers" are really the Boom-echo, that peaked in about 1989 (they're now 8-10 years-old at its peak). Why is this so important? Because, we should try to stop misleading advertisers into thinking Boomers are soon to become empty-nesters. The most common age in America is 41 -- boomers have booming families. The 50-somethings we hear about, the parents of the younger Xers, were the War Babies and just the leading edge of the Boom. (Of course the kids get all mixed up as first-time parents are of different ages.)

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 28, 1998)

There are a few problems in the facts, thus challenging your theories.

  1. The "Baby Boom," by definition is the children of those returning from World War II. Thus, the oldest Baby Boomers are now about age 52.
  2. Looking at 5 year age cohorts, there is little size difference among 47-52, 42-46, 37-42, 32-36; most are about 20 million persons, ranging from about 18 to 22 million
  3. The smallest 5 year cohort is 22-26 years with 17 million.

The oldest Boomers' children are now in their thirties and the youngest no doubt 8-10. But the core of Gen X is of an age to be kids of Baby Boomers.

And Baby Boomers are indeed beginning to be empty-nesters. The Guru trusts advertisers look a bit further than a single one of the Guru's answers, wherein one of 5 or 6 possible definitions of Gen X was "children of the Baby Boomers."

The Official Guide to the Generations
by Susan Mitchell

describes"The demographics and spending patterns of adult consumers-Generation X, born 1965-76; the Baby Boom, born 1946-64"
(ISBN 0-9628092-8-4; May 1995)

Note: the Guru is 52, his youngest child is 18.

Monday, October 26, 1998

Are there any current studies out that addresses clutter / attentiveness / dial switching due to expansion of commercial tv breaks? I.e. Threshold in number of minutes whereby at XXX break length viewer attentiveness / retention of commercial ads drops off?

While I know that program content, channel availability (cable versus non-cable) remote control, demographics, and time of day affect overall attentiveness, I'd like to see if a white paper was available to address this issue.

Your help is much appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, November 01, 1998)

Since all the independent variables you cite are responses to many of the other driving forces you mention other than clutter, it is difficult to concieve research that would correlate attentivenss to growing clutter. On the one hand "clutter" might be defined as expansion of commercial breaks. On the other, it is almost assured that commercials within longer breaks are more likely to suffer form lowered attentiveness and channel swithching. Nielsen audience flow studies are available to correlate channel switching with timing within break. TVB or
CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
reports should track trends in length and number of breaks

Generally, the Advertising Research Foundation library is the best source for published research on your broader topic. Their Journal of Advertising Research is the most prolific source.
One such article is by
Rober J.Kent:
Competitive Clutter in Network Television Advertising: Current Levels and Advertiser Responses. .


    Large differences in competitive CLUTTER exist across product 
categories, markets, dayparts, and program types. This suggests several alternative strategies are necessary to deal with growing CLUTTER.

No. 1, pp. 49-57. 1995 [351049J]

Sunday, October 25, 1998

what is the history of television as an advertising media

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, October 26, 1998)

To the best of the Guru's recollection, commercial Television began in 1947 in NY and the first commercial network program was also in 1947, sponsored by Kraft.

Friday, October 23, 1998

Dear Guru,

I am currently working as a media planner . I would like to graduate to media planning on the Net.
How do I go about it ? Are there any specific schools offering courses that can help ?

Thank You

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, October 26, 1998)

The Guru is not aware of any schools offering interent media planning courses on an a la carte basis.

In the Guru's opinion, internet planning is based on three elements

  • An understanding of media planning in general
  • An understanding of the differences in how some of the basics apply in the internet arena
  • Knowledge regarding types of sites, techniques and tools used in working with internet media

Perhaps you can add the missing elements by getting involved with interent work being done at your current agency. Perhaps you can find an online specialist agency looking to hire someone with your background (how else do you suppose internet planners get the first of the three elements?)

The Guru hardly considers this process to be graduating to internet planning. Specializing in one medium rather than working with all media is a narrowing of expertise.

Thursday, October 22, 1998

Dear Media Guru,

Can you please tell me about media readership surveys for different countries? It would be great if apart from the normal numbers by demographics, cross tabs, other info like product-linkage, duplication across media/ vehicles etc. is also available. What more info has been atempted as an add-on with the readership surveys, anywhere in the world ?
- Planner in dark

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, October 23, 1998)

As far back as the Guru can recall -- 30 years or so-- U.S. and Eurpoean readership studies have commonly included "other info like product-linkage, duplication
across media/ vehicles etc."

See Simmons, MRI or U.K.'s TGI.

Thursday, October 22, 1998

Let's say I am live in a country where television
technology is in a relatively primitive state but is
expected,in a few years time, to graduate to most of
the technological choices available to veiwers in the
West. Could you refer me to a discussion of how
technological advances, taken to mean more than a
simple proliferation of channels, affects media
planning ?



The Media Guru Answers (Friday, October 23, 1998)

The Guru would say that technological advances in media do not themselves change media plannning. The planning process, i.e. making the best choices among media to answer marketing goals, just becomes more complicated when there are different media choices. Often this complication is answered by technology, that is, computerized planning tools.

In the case of a "primitive country," new technology that exists elsewhere can simply be imported, rather than the evolutionary entry it may have undergone in its home country. making planners suffer throough more rapid learning curves.

Thursday, October 22, 1998

Can you refer me to any marketing examples
which involve marketing companies using / branding
software as a media to intensify their brands ? Is
there any forum which facilitates a contact between
software developers and marketing / media professionals
so as to help them identify mutually profitable
opportunities ?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, October 23, 1998)

Perhaps brand name encyclopedias on CD-ROM fit your description. Or topical CD's from magazines and cable networks. Of course, these would be media themsleves creating line extensions.

Unless the software related to the original brand, like a computer maker or content supplier, it isn't likley to "intensify" a brand, in the Guru's opinion.

Rather than forums like you suggest, it would seem that a simple selling process is needed.

The Guru believes that your software idea is more likley to be categorized as a promotional item than media by most marketers.

Thursday, October 22, 1998


The Media Guru Answers (Friday, October 23, 1998)

First, please do not send queries in all-upper-case.

Second, in regard to channel bundling, the Guru doesn't recognize this as a standard term. It may refer to buying/selling several cable networks under one ownership or representation.

Since cable ratings of individual channels are typically low, channel bundling can give a semblance of a bigger medium. As an nattempt at old-fashioned "roadblocking" it will fall short.

Wednesday, October 21, 1998

Dear Guru,

Can you recommend good sources for learning more about banner media advertising. I'm looking for sources that explain the media concepts/terms related to web media buying (page views, CPC, CPM, impressions and that will educate on how to make the most of web banner campaigns. Please help!!!


The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 21, 1998)

See the Guru's web glossary, AMIC's publisher's article, Pricing Web Site Advertising; A Media Buyer's View

several of the Guru's friends' Think Pieces,

and check the books in the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com) on the "internet" shelf.

Wednesday, October 21, 1998

Dear Guru:

I'm a media planner with a media independent company. One of the most often requested assignment by my clients is media budget setting. I know there's gotta be either books or resources where I can look for budget setting model (eg., advertising:sales ratio; SOV:SOM; etc.) Could you please help me out on this topic? Thank you very much.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, October 23, 1998)

The Guru's recommneded books for media planning are listed in the AMIC Bookstore (in association with Amazon.com). The Advertising Research Foundation library will offer articles on this topic.

In either case, you will find out how to apply these models and what kind of result you will get, but probably not much basis for choosing between them. This is usually a marketing decision, supplied to a plannner as direction. So if you merely need to determine a budget within one of these marketing allocation models, you're all set.

Monday, October 19, 1998

Dear Guru,
What is the best internet sales book that would help me put together a strategy to create revenue within a niche site?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, October 19, 1998)

Advertising on the Internet (How to Get Your Message
Across on the World Wide Web)

and The Internet Advertising Report are two relevant titles we feature in the AMIC Bookstore, operated in association with Amazon.com.

Thursday, October 15, 1998

How do you find out about the entry level creative jobs in advertising? I have tried classifieds but there is nothing. What are some good resources to find out about the industry? I have looked at every bookstore, newstand etc. for industry magazines like advertising age but no one sells tham and I can't afford to subscribe.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, October 16, 1998)

The newspapers are a good source. The Sunday New York Times, for example, usually lists more entry level ad jobs than Ad Age and AdWeek combined. The leading newspapers of other major advertising centers like Chicago, Los Angeles, Atlanta, etc. will also have such ads. Not knowing where you live, the Guru also would point out that many larger libraries, even suburban ones, get Ad Age, AdWeek and the NY Times.

Thursday, October 15, 1998

I'm back again for advice and direction. I just read about a new advertising vehicle called "ad sticks". It's the bar that separates your groceries at the supermarket...and I think a great place to put an advertisers message that wants a specific geographic area and wants to reach women. The only problem is that the article didn't mention an outlet who handles this business. Do you know of any? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, October 16, 1998)

The Guru remembers seeing ads on these things years ago. He would guess that the advertisers (often cigarettes) had them made and distributed them to the supermarket chains. If someone is making a medium of these it is probably the people who do "shelf talkers" like LinPak or shelf couponers and shopping cart advertising, like ActMedia <(203) 845-6000> or the cash register couponing folks.

Wednesday, October 14, 1998

Where can I find information regarding channel switching by program type or daypart? In other words, are people more likely to surf at certain times of the day? Or between certain types of programming?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 15, 1998)

Nielsen has studied channel switching and published reports.

Wednesday, October 14, 1998

Dear Guru,
Could you advise me any sources about memorization indices for different media (eg. outdoor, radio, daily newspapers etc.)
Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 15, 1998)

The Guru has not seen indices comparing recall (if that's what you mean) across media. If any exist, the Advertising Research Foundation library is most likely to have the data.

Wednesday, October 14, 1998

Dear Guru!
Could you explain the speciality of billboard advertising, focusing on the time length of the campaign.
I suppose there is an optimal length of a campaign, and after that the reach is not growing (or just a little).
In the European market we can find 1 week 2 week and 1 month long campaign too. Are there any available research on this topic?


The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 15, 1998)

In the U.S., an outdoor campaign is usually bought as a 25, 50 or 100 "showing". "Showing" means GRP's per day, based on camparing DEC (daily effective circulation) to the population universe.

A "50 showing" outdoor campaign will achieve 85% or better reach in one month, so obviously there cannot be much reach growth from there. A 25 showing isn't much lower and a 100 showing isn't much higher.

Campaigns usually run 3 or more months. The cost of production typically works against less than 30 day postings.

Even though outdoor delivers very high reach at low cpm, in the Guru's experience it is rarely employed just for this reach building, because it offers limited message length and detail.

Harris Donovan of Canada has an Outdoor Reach and Frequency system.

Tuesday, October 13, 1998

I am a novice at media planning. Recently I acquired a
job as a media planner due to my overall advertising
experience. I've been assigned a medical account with
a focus on orthopedic surgeons and the media type is
print. I've been instructed to base my analysis
for publication recomendation on CPM. The number of
orthopedic publications is limited but I feel there
should be more to my analysis than CPM. Can you
tell me what other types of analysis I can do and how to
accomplish them?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 15, 1998)

If you have titles that are not purely for orthopedists, then you can compare their compostion -- the percentage of audience who are orthopedists. This indicates their focus on your target.

If you have the specialized physician audience studies, i.e. PERQ's FOCUS, you can compare audience duplication between titles and develop reach and frequency for various schedules of the publications you might use.

The same study might tell you which titles have more audience members who purchase what you are advertising.

An editorial analysis might show that some titles have more coverage of the category of the product or service which you are advertising.

An advertising analysis might show which books get more of your competitors' business.

Tuesday, October 13, 1998

dear guru,
Where to find articles which show the ways to increase advertisement revenues to a site.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, October 13, 1998)

One of the best sources for information about marketing a web site is Ad Age's Business Marketing's Net Marketing

Tuesday, October 13, 1998

dear guru,
Thanks for your service.In a broader term,what is Internet marketing?.What are the elements involved in it?.Does it include generating traffic as well as findiing avenues to generate advertisement revenue to a site?.pl clarify

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, October 13, 1998)

Internet marketing may be defined from various perspectives. It could mean using the internet as a channel of marketing communications for a product or service, or it could mean marketing a web site. You seem to be thinking of the latter.

In this latter case, genrating traffic, ad revenues, order taking are all part of the marketing.

Monday, October 12, 1998

Dear Guru,

We are intending to shift to Awareness led planning where we set media weights according to the Awareness benchmarks .

I would like to know if there re any clear cut guidelines to foollow. Are there any experiences that can be shared ..

Thank You

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, October 12, 1998)

The Guru's only sure guidelines are that ad awareness will never be greater than reach, and that awareness declines during any advertising hiatus.

Otherwise, the best resource for published research, as always, is the library of the Advertising Research Foundation.

Saturday, October 10, 1998

A complete definition of Generation X

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, October 12, 1998)

Since this is a trendoid catch phrase from pop sociology, the definition is somewhat loose. It refers to any of the following, according to various sources:

  • 18-34s
  • Young Adults
  • Postmoderns
  • People born from 1965 to 1976
  • People born from 1965 to 1981
  • People born from 1961 to 1981
  • . . .and the Guru's own favorite, "children of the Baby Boomers"

The key aspect which is generally established, is that "Generation X" is the next population cohort with a catchy name after the "Baby Boom"

Saturday, October 10, 1998

what is DTH( direct to home) & what are the chances that this revolution would emerge in a country like India which has predominantly a cable carriage medium

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, October 10, 1998)

The Guru supposes that DTH is a reference to satellite dish antenna systems. Such a system requires an expensive infrastructure - several satellites in geosynchronous orbit over the owners of receivers. To launch the system, investors would need to believe that money could be made or a government would need to build a new means of communication. A well distributed cable infrastructure may be the key impediment to this development. In the U.S., dish TV is growing, even though it's only at about 1% coverage. If India's cable system relies on geosynchronous satellites as the U.S.' does, then the same transponders could possibly be used for the new system.

Today the Asian economic system seems to be unattractive to new investment.

Friday, October 09, 1998

Can you give an insight on the latest analysis going on sales response function and its relationship with discrete frequency distribution?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, October 10, 1998)

Anything happening in this arena is most likely to appear first at an Advertising Research Foundation workshop or in the Advertising Research Foundation's Journal of Advertisng Research.

Friday, October 09, 1998

Dear guru,
A publication charges a 25% premium on bleed ads over
non-bleed ads. How I do I find out if the premium is
justified ? Thanks. Nagarjun, softcheries@hotmail.com

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, October 10, 1998)

The only way to "justify" the bleed charge is by comparison to competing publications. In the Guru's experience, bleed charges range from no charge to a high of 15%.

However, if you are dealing in some specific trade publication category or one in which the publications face some unusual production issues, perhaps all are charging 25%.

On the other hand, it seems unlikely to the Guru that you can support a bleed ad having 25% greater selling power, memorability or other aspect justifying the premium, even if it is common to a set of candidate publications.

Thursday, October 08, 1998

How do you explain the following media terms "composition" and "coverage" to a client who can't seem to grasp the concept!

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, October 10, 1998)

There are two ways to evaluate the "appeal" or "power" of a medium with your target audience


  1. What portion of the target group choose to be in the audience - This is "coverage." If only 0.5% of the target watches / listens to / reads the medium, its coverage is 0.5% and it's power with that target group is small. If the number is 25%, then this medium is a powerful means of communication in that target group.

    In some media categories, like radio, the range from high to low is fairly small so comparing within the medium is important. In others like magazines, the range can be quite broad.

  2. Some media, by virtue of their overall size, will "cover" large numbers of your target. Yet at the same time, only a small proportion of that medium's audience is within the target group.

    This is low "composition." It indicates the degree to which a medium is aimed at your target.

Thursday, October 08, 1998

I have been asked to estimate the value of a one hour
special on the TV Food Network. Our client was the
"host" property for the filming and is trying to do
an ROI evaluation. A PR firm involved put the value
at $3.3 million (!) Seems kinda high - any thoughts
are appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 08, 1998)

The Guru's most generous estimate would be 60 minutes times the average minute rate for advertising at the time the special will air. At $3.3 million total, that would put an average minute price at $55,000 -- the Guru finds that high for the Food Channel, quite high. A more realistic, yet generous, pricing structure might be $1000 per minute, making the special's maximum advertising value $60,000.

Of course even if your client is a restaurant which was used as the "set" for a Food Network show, you probably shouldn't count every single minute of the special as if it had the weight of a commercial, but if there are 16 commercial minutes in the program and you have all of them, they probably should be given some premium value for the way you are featured in the program, perhaps 50-100% premium (again being generous).

This would make the value $24,000 to $32,000 (16 minutes times $1000 plus 50% or 100% premium.)

On the other hand, if other advertisers will have some of the commercial time, that should lead to deductions from your value.

Finally, if the special will be repeated, you can take whatever value you have determined above and add it again.

All the above ignore production cost, which are not usually considered in media value, and for which you, yourself may be paying, anyway.

Thursday, October 08, 1998

Why is advertising important

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, October 10, 1998)

As the Guru sees it, advertising is the channel of marketing communication with the greatest consumer impact per dollar.

Wednesday, October 07, 1998

Are Television Rating Points really effective in measuring viewership? If not, is/arre there any other method/s of measuring the same?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 07, 1998)

Combining "rating points," "measuring" and "effective" in the question confuses the issue.

Let us define viewership simply as the number of people watching programs. "Rating points" isn't the measurement, it's merely the system of quantities used to describe the results of measurement, as "pounds" describes the result of the measurement made by the butcher's scale.

The various ratings measurement systems; i.e. meters and diaries, have their pluses and minuses in accuracy and reliability, but rating points is a simple and well understood way to describe the audience measured: The number of viewers expressed as a percentage of the possible viewers, or population.

Wednesday, October 07, 1998

One more question please. Apart from Internet
advertising, I would also like some info on Convergence
How far away is a scenario, in a country like America,
where instead of television channels, you have
programmes digitised and stored on servers and viewers
accessing them, as and when they like, through the
Internet. Realistically speaking, by when can we expect
infrastructure capable of such high speed data transfers
to be in place. Is it too early for television
companies to start planning for obsolesce due to the Net


The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 07, 1998)

It is still too early for television companies even to forsee obsolescence due to cable. The Guru sees convergence merely as a meatter of degree. If all entertainment is delivered over the internet, the broadcast networks will merely change from transmitters to large scale web servers.They will still be primarily content providers.

Will bandwidth for the net ever be greater than various broadcast means?

Will the net ever be the preferred means of delivery?

Will "convergence" merely mean that one appliance is the display facility for multiple sources of content?

Wednesday, October 07, 1998

I am very curious about Internet advertising.
I have the following questions to ask :

Are there any studies that explore which variables
determine effectiveness (defined as the ability to
generate click-ons)in Internet advertising ?

Can you refer me to any case studies or examples
of outstanding Internet advertising ?

Were I to plan for an Internet-based campaign,can you
provide me with a check list of issues to keep in mind?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 07, 1998)


Wednesday, October 07, 1998

What is the Recency Factor Theory & how is it different from the contemprory theories ?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 07, 1998)

There has been considerable discussion of recency here. See the query of October 6, below.

Wednesday, October 07, 1998

please provide with detailed information on the theory of STAS(short term Advertising strengths)

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 07, 1998)

In addition to numerous references in the Advertising Research Foundation's Journal of Advertising Research, JP Jones, the creator of STAS has updated the concept in a paper written for Telmar's 30th Anniversary.

Tuesday, October 06, 1998

I am looking for services such as 24/7 Media to assist in the selling of our impression inventory. Our inventory is growing rapidly being at about 100,000 for the month. Can you make any recommendations for me.

Thanks in advance,

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 07, 1998)

All such reps of which the Guru is aware require about 250,000 minimum impressions inventory.

Tuesday, October 06, 1998

I do the planning for a brand of milk food, meant for
children's consumption. My Target Audience is young

Could you please suggest an innovative ad. medium,
leaving aside the regular TV, radio, print, outdoor

Nagarjun softcheries@hotmail.com

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, October 06, 1998)

Leaving all these aside doesn't leave room for much except the new electronic media (E.g. in the U.S., Parents' Magazine web site) or store / product related advertising.

It isn't clear from your query whether you product is a milk substitute, milk additive, or ?

You might consider "shelf talker" or other POP materials. Best of all, if feasible, you might even consider ads on milk cartons.

Tuesday, October 06, 1998

Dear Media Guru,

Please refer me to articles on media models to arrive
at optimum desirable frequency / OTS / # exposures.



The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, October 06, 1998)

Tuesday, October 06, 1998

In media jargon, what does recency planning mean?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, October 06, 1998)

Most simply, it's the idea that the message heard closest to the time of purchase decision is most effective. This leads to plans that optimize continuity instead of focusing on achieving a minimum level of GRP's or minimum effective reach for some affordable number of weeks.

The Guru has addressed recency often; try searching the term in the Guru Archives Search Engine.

Recency has also been a hot topic on our MediaPlanning and Award-papers e-mail discussions.

Tuesday, October 06, 1998

Can you reccomend media management software for mac users. Also, what is the best research source for print media?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, October 06, 1998)

AMIC's sister company Telmar, the leader in media management software, offers a Mac version.

Simmons and MRI are each percieved as "best" by some researchers, depending on which techniques and categories of data they value most.

For some purposes, Mendelsohn Media Research (affluent readers) or other studies specific to computer buyers, car buyers, etc may be preferable.

Monday, October 05, 1998

I am trying to find statistics on time spent reading of Sunday newspapers vs. daily newspapers. Do you have access to that information, or suggest a place I might find it. I have searched through the NAA's website to no avail.
Adam B. Colby
Media Manager

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, October 06, 1998)

The Guru would offer the comment that time spent reading a Sunday paper that is 5 or 10 times as large as an average daily paper isn't very useful without some index of time to number of pages. That said, the Guru's two most reliable resources for such information are the Advertising Research Foundation library and Newsweek
Media Research Index

Sunday, October 04, 1998

My client is a large medical-surgical products
manufacturer. Their audience is nurses and sometimes
physicians. Their budgets are small, they advertise
several products with separate b-to-b campaigns.
They are urging me to recommend online instead of
or in addition to business print. This does not seem
effective to me given their small budgets. Do you
have any info on how I could recommend an effective
online ad effort instead of using print?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, October 04, 1998)

Is the goal of adding on-line to add reach or to reduce costs?

In either case, the first step is to identify media which draw an audience of "nurses and sometimes physicians."

Then, the efficiency in audience impressions per dollar can be evaluated as can the total audience which is reachable.

Your first step may well be to locate the websites of the print media you use (and if you find these, they may offer free on-line ads as merchandising for your print schedule). Other possiblities are the sites of non-competitive advertisers who share your target.

Once you have explored these possibilities, you can decide whether you can make an effective recommendation or can support a decision against on-line.

Sunday, October 04, 1998

Dear Media Guru,

I have recently got an exciting job offer in Media Planning/buying from Mccann Erickson in Romania. Despite my best efforts i have not been able to get any information about the advertising industry, basic salary offered, ranking of agencies etc. Could you let me know of any site or get this information ?

Many thanks


The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, October 04, 1998)

For the U.S. and Worldwide, Ad Age and possibly some other trade media publish the information annually. The Guru has never encountered such information specific to Romania. ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research Organization might have a resource for you.

Friday, October 02, 1998

Hi Guru! We have a client who has $80-100,000 extra
budget to spend this year. The budget has to be spread
out nationally (in over 150 markets). We were offered
a full page ad with a magazine (that reaches our demo)
with a circulation of 7.6 mill. for 90M. We were also
considering running a cable schedule on only one
station since that's all we could afford. Which do you
think is the better option? In addition, we are looking
to run the first 2 weeks in December.Thanks for your

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, October 02, 1998)

There really isn't enough information here to make an informed decision. For instance, a lot would depend on what media are in the base level of the plan, what your base reach and frequency are already, and what are your goals.

But let's play with it anyway: Suppose your magazine is Better Homes and Gardens, which reaches 26% of Adult Women. You would be achieving 26 Reach, a frequency of 1.0 and, of course. 26 Women GRPs.

Let's suppose your cable network is Lifetime. Does your money buy 26 GRPs there? More ? Less? It might get you 13 reach and a frequency of 2.0. Which is more important to you, reach or frequency? Does the magazine or does cable offer better content as an environment for what you are selling?

You need to reduce the question to specific factors which you can evaluate.

Wednesday, September 30, 1998

Dear Guru,
Are you familiar with any studies that explore when creative "wear-out" occurs for online banner ads? I have read that frequently changing creative will help the click-through rate, but what defines "frequently"? Every week? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, October 02, 1998)

There have been some studies.

C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
probably has the best compilation of research on these issues.

You will also find some in the archives of the NY Times Online or AdAge's Business Marketing.

It seems to be acccepted that after three exposures, banners no longer attract clicks. "Frequently," therefore, is based on when you believe X portion of your target has been exposed three or more times to the banner.

Wednesday, September 30, 1998

Dear Media Guru,

I am getting increased request from client wanting
competitive spending information. Is there a source
aside from CMR that provides this information?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 30, 1998)

The Guru does not believe there is any other full service source.

Wednesday, September 30, 1998

Dear Guru,
in our country there are many agencies that buy raw data of television audiences and use it in their software, that have different methods for coverage and ots calculation from the ones that are generally used in the remaining agencies in the marktet, putting themselves in a priviligiate situation in newbusiness. In you country do you have a commitee that analyses this calculations, or what are the rules applied?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 30, 1998)

It is considered good business in the U.S. to develop proprietary data applications and thereby become "smarter" than the competition.

When an agency does this, it then has the burden of convincing prospective clents that the application is valid.

In the U.S. there are committees of the American Association of Advertising Agencies, Association of National Advertisers and Advertising Research Foundation that examine publicly available data analysis systems.

Wednesday, September 30, 1998

Dear Guru,
another question for television audiences measurement: in an holyday period should this homes be considered zero audience or simply be excluded of the panel at this time? Do you run in your country specific holydays studies for television audiences and for press and radio?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 30, 1998)

Surely advertisers would want to know how much audience they miss due to a holyday, and the universe should be held constant.

The Guru is not aware of any syndicated studies specific to holydays in the U.S.

Wednesday, September 30, 1998

Dear Guru,
do you think that an establisment survey for audimetrie should be done using face to face interviews or using a c.a.p.i. system? An establisment survey should be continuous or once a year?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 30, 1998)

If by "establishment survey" you mean a parallel piece of research meant to validate the meter, this is best done as a "coincidental" study. That is, respondents are interrupted during viewing to be asked what they are viewing. This eliminates some of the issues that would be in question about a meter's validity.

In the U.S. this is typically done by phone, in part for economic reasons, and in part to get enough sample during single program time periods.

The Guru sees these surveys as validators of a meter measurment system, hence they need only be done when a system is put in place or is changed and neither continuously nor annually.

If you had a methodology you considered equal or better than the meter, and could afford to run it continuosly, whty would you have a meter system at all?

Wednesday, September 30, 1998

Do you knowof any sites where i can find articles on
Recency Planning ?
Would you be able to provide me with Mr. Erwin Ephron's
E-Mail address and/or FAX number ?
I have tried searching the Web but have not succeeded so
Rahul Thappa
Account Planning
Indian Express Newspapers, Bombay

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 30, 1998)

There has been considerable and heated recent discussion of recency on AMIC's mediaplanning e-mail discussion list. Telmar's Awards Papers discussion list, created to discuss the papers presented by Erwin, J.P. Jones and Erik Duplessis at the Telmar 30th Anniversary celebration has also discussed recency.

Both of these forums' archives and subscription links are accesible from our Ad Talk and Chats page.

The Guru does not reveal personal contact information for associates. He can tell you that Erwin's company is Ephron Papazian Ephron, in NY City.

Tuesday, September 29, 1998

I'm back again for guidance. What is your advice regarding print advertising for an auto dealer. I know it's imperative to have a presence in newspaper, but what can we do to set our client apart amongst all the clutter? Also, is there a trend in lessening amount of print and putting money in web or cable?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, September 29, 1998)

Within newspaper, there are two options:

  • Sections which have car advertising


  • sections which do not have car advertising

The Guru feels that newspaper car advertising is mostly retail oriented and therefore prospects "shop" the car ads. In this scenario, it is best to be where the car ads are. If the ad is aimed at brand image building, other positioning may be appropriate, but you are interested in dealer ads. The Guru has seen such ads made to stand out in creative ways. Many years ago, at a presentation by the old Newspaper Advertising Bureau, the Guru was quite impressed by how a small space car dealer ad seemed to jump off the page merely by using a lot of white space. Most other dealer ads where full of junky-looking star bursts and balloons plus reverse type.

Depending on your time frame, of course newspaper money would be seen to have moved to cable. The move to the web will probably happen more slowly, due to the web sites' lower reach in any local area.

Why not see what help the The Newspaper Advertising Association can offer today?

Monday, September 28, 1998

Hi Guru, we 'meet' again. What is the best choice of media to be used while advertising for a major shopping
mall? Are there any case studies or previous campaigns I can refer to?. Thanks for your replies Guru.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, September 28, 1998)

"Best media" is always relative to the marketing goals.
You will probably want to focus on media which closely cover the trading circle of your mall.

Newpapers, radio and out-of-home are the ones most often thought of on a smaller local basis.

Your target and whether you are doing image advertising or promoting a sales event will also be a factor.

AMIC is about to establish a library of model media plans including the retail category, but it isn't there yet.

Monday, September 28, 1998

Hi Guru, What are the top 5 Newspapers and Magazines (All languages) that I can use to advertise in South Korea?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, September 28, 1998)

Sunday, September 27, 1998

Can The Guru provide a source (or sources) for securing multi-market Yellow Page advertising rates?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, September 27, 1998)

There are only a few publishers, but often they distribute sales responsibility to individual cities, area codes, etc. Your best bet might be to work through one of the major yellow pages specialist agencies like Wahlstrom or Berry Network

Thursday, September 24, 1998

First of all, thank you...I enjoy and use your site often. Question...We are looking for innovative ways to reach a local market for the purposes of branding and image for a client. Someone asked if cash machines in convenience stores and other locations accept advertising. I didn't know but said I could ask the guru. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, September 24, 1998)

The Guru is not familiar with specific ATM advertising programs. With so many non-bank ATMs around there may be a company prepared to offer advertising positions.

The Guru's first thought is coupons or ads on the back of the ATM receipt. Why not contact one of the cash register tape couponing companies, such as Seven Oaks

A Guru fan has suggested "Barry Caylor
at EFT Promotions, 800-981-0404". The Guru himself is not familiar with this company .

Tuesday, September 22, 1998

I am working on a national cable buy. First question, please explain VPH. I have been asked to provide the following information:
-How many households will my schedule reach and how many times. Of course, I have to have all this information by tomorrow at noon.
I have selected my networks and have asked for proposals from each network. The networks inform me that it will take
several days to pull a reach and frequency. So my question to you is, can I take the HH's thousands and add them? It this the right way to
approach this project.

How will I calulate for a frequency. I can give the client the total number of spots, but is there a way to calculate frequency?

Please Help?


The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, September 22, 1998)

VPH is "viewers per Household" and is used as a simple way to express persons audience in relation to housholds. In other words, if a network has a measured average quarter hour (aqh) audience of 1000 Households and a measured aqh among women 18-49 of 550, then its VPH for women 18-49 would be .55

Estimates of reach are based on modeling from actual past schedules and are typically calculated with computers. These calculations take only minutes, but you are probably facing a backlog in your vendors' research departments or, typically, a turnaround time policy which can be overriden if you apply the right charm or pressure to your sales reps.

Because these models reflect varying audience duplication between one spot and the next and between one network and another, adding household impression would be wrong. Such a calculation would produce "gross impressions" which is much greater than reach.

Frequency is calculated by dividing reach into gross impressions (or percent reach into gross rating points), so you need reach to calculate frequency.

If you have any media planning software at all, such as Telmar's AdPlus or Maestro, you would find that these system usually have a general calculator of cable reach built in.

Tuesday, September 22, 1998

Dear Guru, I have 5+ years experience on Senior Media
positions in Europe and now I'm thinking about moving
to the USA. Are there any training centers/schools/
courses for me to better understand US media
environment? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 23, 1998)

Of course, there are several universities that teach advertising media, if you are prepared to spend that kind of time learning. Otherwise, send email to TheMediaSchool for their travelling schedule and curriculum.

Friday, September 18, 1998

Dear Guru,
I am curious if you know of a website that is a good resource for finding case studies (maybe old media plans)? I checked the Newsweek site and had little success.
I am interested to find information on targeting computer retailers.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 23, 1998)

Other than the Newsweek
Media Research Index
site, the Guru relies on the library of the Advertising Research Foundation. AMIC itself is planning to add a library of model plans in the near future.

Friday, September 18, 1998

How do rates for spot tv compare with that of local cable tv? Is there any trend?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 23, 1998)

While local cable cost-per-announcement may be less,
in general, local cable is less efficient than spot broadcast tv, but there are a lot of "it depends" factors. The general rule applies most strongly when you desire full DMA coverage. You (or the cable rep firm) may need to assemble several cable systems to achieve this (or to get the 70% or so cable coverage possible).

The Guru has seen instances where local cable cost per spot to cover 20% of cable subscribers in a market required a greater cost per spot than local broadcast. The Guru has also seen a local system, again about 20% of a DMA's coverage, asking higher costs for local spots in a specific cable network than the national cost of that same network's spots.

The problem is in part a loss of economies of scale when too many individual local systems have to throw switches and do paperworks in airing what could be "one" spot.

Thursday, September 17, 1998

We have a client who is interested in utilizing Network
Radio over a two-month period (January and February) to
help maximize the awareness of a new brand. Is there
any research that correlates radio TRP levels with
brand awareness levels to give us some direction on
how many points we should buy for the period without
generating too much wearout?
we should buy?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 23, 1998)

Awareness is more likely to correlate with reach/frequency than TRP's. Only those reached can be aware. The same level of TRPs might reach 40% of a target or 60% depending on the schedule.

The Guru has seen research that shows that any level below 100 TRP a week in TV allows awareness to decay.

Most research on wearout which the Guru has seen ties wearout to frequency i.e. a commerical is worn out (loses sales effectiveness) after "X" exposures. This may be expressed as the frequency in the next-to-highest quintile. I.e. the 40% most exposed to the commercial would have "X" or more exposures. 25 exposures might be the threshold level you choose. This level would occur at about 200 TRP/week for 8 weeks, which is more than the Guru would guess you would buy.

By the way, one Adult 18-49 plan with those quintiles would have a 66 reach. Another plan with the same TRP's and different schedule could have an 85 reach and just 22 exposures in the next-to-highest quintile.

Thursday, September 17, 1998

what is crr?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, September 17, 1998)

The Guru is not familiar with this term. At a guess, it refers to cost per _____ rating. It may be a non-U.S. term the Guru has not encountered or it may be one companies own invented term from a system or formula of their own invention, similar to "persuasion rating point," which is discussed below.

Wednesday, September 16, 1998

Do you know of a company that brokers remanant radio
time? We currently buy print advertising through two
different remnant brokers, but have not found the
same for radio. We need very competitive,
DR rates. I'm concerned that just letting
reps know of our interest will not generate
enough inventory. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, September 22, 1998)

The Guru is not aware of any such brokers. In radio, the standard rep contract gives the rep a commission on any sales through any other rep, so this sort of brokering would not be financially feasible. The regular reps, however, may be a source for you.

The nature of broadcast "mechandise" which is perishable makes the situation quite different than print where last minute cancellations or less-than-national buys create space that will carry a cost unless sold. Often, broadcasters will give away unsold time as bonuses to paying advertisers.

There has been a history of buyers who are open to remnant time making themselves known to radio networks as ready to buy any remnants. The same technique might work with spot if you can identify enough stations that you are willing to buy on this basis.

Wednesday, September 16, 1998

what is persuasion rating points?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 16, 1998)

Persuasion rating point is not a standard term. It would seem to imply an adjusted rating point based on testing of the effectiveness of specific media in specific situations. For example, the Roslow Study, for Univision, summarized in the Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator area of AMIC, measured effectiveness of English language advertising among Hispanics, using persuasion as one of three metrics.

Based on theis study and other data, many advertisers use an effectiveness adjustment when planning Spanish language media.


If I (the advertiser) want to have 100 GRP per week among my Hispanic target, before buying Spanish media, I wish to account for the fact that Hispanics watch some of the English language media in which I advertise. From Nielsen's NHTI I can see that for every 100 general market media rating points I buy in English language media, I get (for example) 60 Hispanic rating points.

But I know from the aforementioned studies that the GRPs Hispanics receive in English are less persuasive that GRPs of Spanish media. So I apply an effectiveness adjustment to calculate effective Hispanic rating points to which I might refers as "persuasion rating points".

Now the 60 GRPs among Hispanics might become only 33 persuasion rating points. So instead of buying only 40 Spanish language media rating points (100 Goal minus 60 delivered), I should buy 67 (100 Goal minus 33 delivered), to have an effective (persuasive) media plan.

Tuesday, September 15, 1998

Where can I get hispanic population data by market and county?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, September 15, 1998)

The U.S Census site has this data, if you mean "metro" for market. County level data may be only for 1990, not updated. Updated projections at D.M.A. and counrty level are in books available from Nielsen or Strategy Research

Monday, September 14, 1998

Is the upfront selling period for network radio the same
as it is for network television? I realize that this
period for network television focuses on commercial time
for the upcoming fall shows. Does network radio differ?


The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, September 15, 1998)

The TV "upfront" concept is based on two facts:

  • For a price advantage, advertisers will make commitments to a year's worth of Network TV, on which they spend enormous amounts of money, and

  • New TV programming introduced in September changes the buying landcsape and creates a logical starting point for a year of commitment.

Neither of these applies to network radio, which gets less than 5% of network TV's dollars and has no particular new programming season.

There isn't any Network Radio "upfront."

Monday, September 14, 1998

I have been asked by a potential client about CPP's for demos in Netherlands, Belgium, and Austria. I own an ad agency in Atlanta, GA USA. Can you tell me where to find this information?

Robert Davis

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, September 15, 1998)

The biggest international agencies, like Cordiant or Y&R, publish country-by-country media fact books which can be purchased. Otherwise, International Media Guide will provide rates, but probably not audience figures.

Sunday, September 13, 1998

We're about to take our science-fiction website commercial with it's own domain. We have
started having inquiries about advertising and sponsorship of different sections. My question is
how do I know what a fair price would be to charge for these? Right now we average 8,000 hits per month
with little advertising. Once we launch the new domain, we are also launching an aggressive ad campaign
so expect that number to multiply rapidly.

Our plans for our site can be viewed at www.ao.net/~tachycon/scifispace.html. We plan to
launch the end of Sept.

Thanks for the help.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 16, 1998)

The Guru trusts that you mean 8000 "page views" and not literally 8000 hits, which are server log entries and may overstate pages (impressions) by a factor of 10 or more.

Cost per thousand impressions on the web can run from $5.00 to $ 75.00 depending on how targeted the audience is. The lowest cpms are ususally found on the biggest audience. least targeted sites, such as the major search engines. The higher prices will be on very targeted business-to-business site.

This would price your advertising at $40 to $600 per month with 8000 page loads. You would most likely not be valued - for targetting - at better than $30 cpm, and at 8000 impressions, not be very interesting to most major advertisers. On the other hand, the sort of vendor who would attend your conventions might be quite interested.

Saturday, September 12, 1998

hi guru
the 16.5% commission, exactly what does this finance
from an advertising agency point of view... thankyou

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, September 12, 1998)

Because you are writing from South Africa, the Guru must acknowledge that the standards may be different than in the U.S., but here are his thoughts:

  • Traditionally, in the U.S., "standard" agency commission is 15% of the gross media cost or 17.65% of the Net
  • The only time when 16.5% applied, and this may no longe be true at all, was in outdoor, because there was considered to be some additional agency expense in "riding the boards" (evaluating the actual posted locations)
  • In any case, media commission (whatever the normal rate) typically finances media planning and buying, marketing and creative strategy development, in other words, all the service and advisory activities of an agency.
  • Some other agency work, such as costs of production, research and events management are charged for separately on a cost-plus basis, when there is a commission deal in place.

Today, however, the Guru believes there are few "straight commission" deals and many varied and original financial agreements between agency and advertiser exist.

Thursday, September 10, 1998

Dear Guru...I would like to get information on placing products on
game shows for prizes. Is there one place to go or does each show
have a person who gets their prizes lined up? Thanks for your help!

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, September 10, 1998)

There are three or more firms specialized in placing products as prizes as well as in movies and prime time programs.Purely for game shows, contact Game-Show Placements. Also try Showcase Placements or Hollywood International Placements

Wednesday, September 09, 1998

Dear Media Guru,

I am sorry, but I have got not ordinary question.
Could you help me to find e-mail or any other information about person who has sent following message to you

"Sunday, March 15, 1998 #1828
Two Questions: 1) I've been asked to prepare a presentation covering "Alternative Lifestyles Marketing".
When I was given the assignment I asked for a definition of "Alternative Lifestyles", but didn't get a good
answer. How might you interpret this "target"?
2) I'm seeking information on the "Optimizer" programs that have become newsworthy (in media circles) as a
esult of the recent mega-million P&G AOR assignment. I've heard there are two. Who are they, and can you
describe briefly what they do (strengths & limitations)? thanks!

Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 09, 1998)

The Guru does not reveal the identity of submitters of queries. We will notify the person of your interest in making contact.

Wednesday, September 09, 1998

I am looking for a method of calculating reach and frequency for national syndication radio vignettes.
A. Does the amount of time of the vignette matter ie, 90seconds, 120seconds etc.
B. Is there a method of adding multiple radio station figures together and averaging out these calculations accurately.
C. Is there an inexpensive source for this information on a national level.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 09, 1998)

A) Length doesn't matter in reach and frequency (unless you are dealing with a commercial long enough to experience audience turn-over during its air time).

B) In syndication, usually stations are exclusive with a given geography, so the audiences are additive nationally, or may be mean-averaged across markets.

C) Arbitron and RADAR provide such data. "Inexpensive" is a matter of opinion.

Wednesday, September 09, 1998

I need to know the various optimiser packages that are available in the industry and where can I access information regarding them.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 09, 1998)

One of the best is the one offered by AMIC'c sister company, Telmar. Others have been extensively discussed in trade media such as Ad Age and MediaWeek.

Wednesday, September 09, 1998

Hi! We are at that stage where the Diary system is being scrapped to be replaced with Peoplemeter. I need to know a)International experiences in different countries when peoplemeter was introduced in terms of fall/increase in ratings, non prime time vs. prime time choices etc. etc. b)how to set reach and frequency objectives post the transition. Thanx.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 09, 1998)

a) The Advertising Research Foundation and ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research organization libraries will have several articles about these conversions.

b) The transition itself should not affect your objectives. If "X" reach and "Y" frequency were right before, then they still are, even though the schedule which produces them may be different. But, if you have calibrated r&f against actual sales in the past, then you merely need to analyze those old schedules against the cumes of the new system.

Wednesday, September 09, 1998

is e-commerce likely to be a significantly more important determinant of profitability of a site than advertising? in other words, will internet better serve those who have something to sell directly online than those who wish to use the net to promote goods and services sold through conventional channels?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 09, 1998)

Some of the best known e-commerce sites are said to lose money, or did for a long time: Amazon, CD-Now, etc.

Other's which make money from advertising alone, such as search engines, are often profitable.


  • It depends,


  • Traffic can be more profitable than merchandise if you have a lot of the former and can't price the latter profitably

Wednesday, September 09, 1998

what is the projected total advertising revenue for internet sites in each of the next 3 fiscal years? which sites are currently profitable? which sites generate the most revenue? who are the major advertisers on internet?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 09, 1998)

These questions are regularly addressed by Ad Age and Ad Age's Business Marketing.

Wednesday, September 09, 1998

where can I find a media plan example?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 09, 1998)

Try the Media Guru's "Parts of a Media Plan". Though not an actual plan, it is a detailed description of a plan's contents.

If the idea is to see how a plan is documented at an Ad Agency, your best bet would be to find a friend in a media department.

Otherwise, you can look up trade magazine archives of media planning contests or analyses, but these are likely to be topline summaries at best.

Tuesday, September 08, 1998

Dear Guru,

I'm new in the Advertising field. I would like to know
how to calculate the Target Market Reach1+, Reach2+,
abd the Average Frequency.


-- SKY

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 09, 1998)

The answer depends upon what data you are starting with. At its most simple,
"1+" reach is the same as just saying "reach". If you know the GRPs, and the reach, then the average frequency is calculated by dividing reach into GRPs.

At bottom however, in each medium, TV, radio, print, etc. reach was actually measured at some point, rather than calculated . That is, using respondent level measurement, such as Nielsen or MRI or Simmons, actual schedules advertiser were evaluated for gross audience accumulated and the net reach accumulated, as well as how many people saw exactly one advertisement in the schedule, how many saw 2, how many saw three, and so on. As the Guru stated above, reach is defined as those who saw one or more (1+) advertisements. 2+ or 3+, etc, is determined by adding those exposed to each discreet number of ads.

Taking the results of many of these schedules as a scatter graph, a classic reach curve may be plotted. Or, by arraying GRPs and frequencies in a table, a formula equivalent to the curve can be determined statistically. This formula then becomes a "model" for calculating reaches of other schedules in similar media. Formulae for 2+, 3+ frequencies can also be calculated. There are no simple formulas for doing this. "Beta Bimodal" is one statistical function frquently used. These functions and models are usually built into large computer media planning systems like Telmar's.

Tuesday, September 08, 1998

Sorry It may not the quesion to ask here but still woulb be great if you have some answer. I would like to get some traning on tv programming and scheduling What is better way to find how it could be done Thank you

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, September 08, 1998)

In the Guru's opinion, the best training for this would be in an entry level position in a advertising major agency's Network TV buying department.

Friday, September 04, 1998

What is the average response rate to national cable tv
advertising (with a direct response mechanism).

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, September 05, 1998)

The Direct Marketing Association (DMA) may have some data for you. The Guru believes that averages in such matters are probably fairly meaningless, as each pitch and each product are unique.

Friday, September 04, 1998

I am currently pulling together information for one of
my clients on national cable advertising. I have spoken
with different network reps and have been told that they
can not provide reach, frequency, or TRP's. They have
said that they are not measured this way. Is this true?

The network reps have provided gross impressions (in
thousands). Is there a minimum threshold for this

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, September 05, 1998)

Everything which has its impressions measured in national tv has TRPs, which is merely a calculation: the division of impressions by the relevant population base, either in the cable network's coverage area or the total U.S.

Any metered measurement can produce the data for calculation of reach of schedules or the production of formulae which will allow estimation of reach.

The Guru would guess you are dealing with smaller networks whose ratings and reach would be unimpressive and therefore are not a part of the sales effort.

A 0.1 rating is the usual threshold for reporting in a printed report. There may be a requirement to earn this rating over a specified time span before even this level is reported. On the other hand, networks with ratings normally below this level are likely to be bought strictly for their content/environment, not their audience delivery.

Friday, September 04, 1998

Dear Guru,
When prospecting a new client,
is there a resource that can do
the following:
-Give me a list of the company's
past three years of media
placement (e.g. what
magazines, how often, size, etc)
-Do the same for this company's
competitors? Thanks for your

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, September 04, 1998)

CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
provides this information.

Thursday, September 03, 1998

Both we and our client agree to the recency theory. The
problem is that given the retraints of the budget,
we are only able to schedule "weekly" advertising for
about half the schedule while still achieving minimal
weekly TRP threshold levels. Right now we are wrestling
with the dilemma of how to schedule these weeks for the
first half of the year while still following the
principals of the recency theory: (1)12 weeks straight through
then a 14-week hiatus (2)6 weeks on, 14 weeks off, 6
weeks on or (3)an alternating schedule of 4 weeks on
and 4 weeks off, etc. throughout the period. Do you
have any theory on what might be the best approach to
maximize return?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, September 03, 1998)

Thinking about a "threshold level" of GRP's is instinctive, but at odds with the essence of recency theory. Review other Guru answers below about recency. Please also see a very interesting discussion of recency on our MediaPlanning e-mail list. The list archives are at Ad Talk and Chats . Why not subscribe to the list and bring your question there as well?

Wednesday, September 02, 1998

Media Guru: I work at an agency in Richmond, VA. I am looking for a 2 or 3 day broadcast media "101" type of seminar. Any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 02, 1998)

Send email to The MediaSchool for their travelling schedule and curriculum.

Tuesday, September 01, 1998

What are the guidelines I should follow when creating
an advertising campaign that will focus on investment
strategies and other similar topics that relate to the
stock market? What are the FCC's restrictions?


The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 02, 1998)

FCC restrictions are more likely to apply to copy than media issues. Only media is discussed here, for the other you should consult a competent attorney.

Beyond that, it should be simple to identify media which attract potential investors, whether by demographic analysis or simple evaluation of content. Those with the right content, i.e. Wall Street Journal, The Financial Times, Wall Street Week, etc. will generally attract the right demographic as well.

Tuesday, September 01, 1998

Hi! I'm not sure if your the right person to ask, but I'm looking for a study which breaks out salaries by job titles in advertising agencies. DO you know if any exist? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, September 01, 1998)

Ad Age and other advertising trade magazines do this study annually.

Monday, August 31, 1998

Is this forum appropriate for discussing advantages and
problems of different metering techniques, specifically
concerning metering the new digital television (satellite/cable/terrestrial) signals,or is any other similar forum more appropriate for this specific task?

Pardon me, I just subscribed, but I couldn't find any such discussion in the archives. Am I in the wrong forum?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, August 31, 1998)

This is not a "forum for discussion," it is merely the place where only the Guru posts answers to submitted questions. Nor are there subscriptions. Any registered AMIC user can post questions and read the answers here.

AMIC does offer discussion forums which are listed on the Ad Talk and Chats page. MediaPlanning is the one where media research issues are discussed.

2- Specifically with regard to your question, it is important to consider that meters do not monitor program sources; they monitor TV tuners. When a meter is installed, the research company logs the programming which will come though on each channel and then can convert tuning to program audience.

Monday, August 31, 1998

Dear Guru, what can you tell me about people meter usage on children? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 02, 1998)

The Nielsen People Meter reports children's audience for kids 2 years old or more. Nielsen can provide extensive data on test of children's response and parental response on behalf of children.

Monday, August 31, 1998

Dear Guru, can you please give me some guidelines about the following subject: Children and television (meaning theory and measuring audiencies). Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 02, 1998)

Nielsen will have several documents available. There have been conferences on the topic held by the Advertising Research Foundation. The ARF's library will have several relevant articles as well as the conference procedings.

Saturday, August 29, 1998

CPM's for various mediums

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 02, 1998)

There are many sources for such comparisons. Visit AMIC's Rates, Dates and Data

Saturday, August 29, 1998

Dear Guru
Can you recommend a few recent books on the fundamentals of media planning?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, August 29, 1998)

Please visit the Guru's Media Planning shelf at the AMIC Bookstore.

There are several recommended books of the type you need.

Friday, August 28, 1998

Hello! Can You give me some good information i must know
when i want to sell advertising in newspaper's internet edition.
Is it different from other internet media or it is same? Which are highligts
advertising in internet newspaper?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, August 31, 1998)

The appeal of internet advertising is in its audience:

  • how many?


  • what kind?

"How many" works pretty much the same for all sites, whether the number is great or small. "What kind" differs depending on content. If your site is measured by one of the user-centric services, you will have a good idea of what kind of audience you will get. If not, you will need to estimate who you get based on your content. One newspaper site probably gets the same kind of people as the next.

Also some advertisers will be interested in the "newsy" environment of a newspaper site and others will care most about the inherent geographic focus of a site connected to a particular city's newspaper.

Wednesday, August 26, 1998

I've been asked to apply "impact factors" to my media schedules. These factors might include weighting TV as higher on the impact scale than radio. Or factoring the impact of a spread versus a single page. Or the impact of a :60 on TV vs. a :30. Has anything been published in the area of media impact factors?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, August 31, 1998)

Quite a lot has been published on the topic. Comparisons between TV dayparts often are based on attentiveness scores from resources like Simmons. In magazine page/coloration units, Starch scores are typically used. Between different media a lot of judgment comes in, unless the advertiser has done extensive testing, on its own.

The two great media research collections, the library of the Advertising Research Foundation and the Newsweek
Media Research Index
will be the best source of published work on the topic.

Tuesday, August 25, 1998

Hi, I would like to know anything regarding setting the minimun level of TRP's, or minimun reach goal. We know how to set the optimun level, but there is a minimun? One point where is better not to advertise at all. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, August 31, 1998)

Any GRPs generate some reach and frequency.

Any reach generates some consumer impact. Setting minima is a matter of judgment and logic.

If you are an adherent of the effective reach theory, you will determine what is your effective level (3+ or more) and what portion of your target you need to reach at that level, to make advertising worthwhile. This determination will tell you either how much time you can be active in advertising or across how much geography. The Guru favors 50% as the portion of target to set as minimum to reach effectively.

If you believe totally in the recency theory, any is a reasonable minimum, because each impression has its greatest chance to produce a sale this way, as it is more likely to produce unduplicated reach at any point in time. Yet, few planners can avoid feeling there should be a minimum, probably because they want to see measured sales movement for some period of time.

In either case, seasonality and purchase cycles will inform the decision.

Tuesday, August 25, 1998

What are the limitations of John Phillip Jones' STAS
theory ?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, August 25, 1998)

This question is impossibly broad, as stated. Limitations in what context? However, you will find some discussion in AMIC's Telmar 30th Anniversary area in the Awards Papers section, where Jones himself discusses whether STAS works only with TV.

Monday, August 24, 1998

We are in the process of planning for a major TV client
where we have been applying the recency theory for
the past year. Because of the size of the budget we
have been limited to around 70TRPs weekly essentially
for the entire year. In Year II our client has asked
us to consider temporarily abondoning the recency
theory and to move dollars (and TRPs) out of the more
expensive buying months (April, May) to the relatively more
more inexpensive months (January, Feb)and to increase
our TRP levels accordingly. Do you have any input on
which strategy should/could have more effect on brand
performance assuming all other factors are equal
(pricing, distribution etc.)?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, August 24, 1998)

First we have to assume that the basis of recency theory is accepted.

Recency theory calls for reaching as many people as possible as close to the sale as possible. Thats's why continuity is emphasized for products with little seasonality and regular purchase cycles.

One of the essential elements of recency theory is that not all impressions or GRPs are equal, even in the same programming. You are focusing on cost per point. As you are probably aware, reach developed per GRP decreases with every added GRP in a schedule. There is therefore, a declining return on investment in reach at any point in time, which is why spreading out prospects reached produces the optimal return. The first 10 GRPs bought in a week generate more reach than the last 10 GRPs.

Hence, the added impressions bought when they are cheap produce less sales than the impressions lost from the more expensive times.

So now you have to evaluate what might be produced. Assuming you are lowering -- not eliminating --activity in higher priced periods how many more impressions, and how much more reach can you achieve in low priced times. If you cut back 10 reach points per week in July but buy 20 added reach points per week in March, perhaps the added reach can sell more than the lost reach, or perhaps not. The Guru would look for a 50% minimum trade up in added vs lost reach points to justify the change; i.e. if the plan goes down 10 reach points per week in one period, then it need to go up 15 reach points per week in the other.

Monday, August 24, 1998

Thanks for this great service.

I represent a radio syndication operation that has a
unique opportunity to provide a media buying service
for an advertising rep firm. This firm would like us to
create a network of stations that provides a 1.4 AQH
Rating for A18-49 at $1,425.00 CPP. We can easily create
this network of stations and get $570.00 CPP.

How do we charge this rep firm for our service?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, August 24, 1998)

Somewhere between $671 ($570 "grossed-up") which is what a rep might get with commission, and $1425, which is the price your client offered to pay. From there the decision will be based on your relationship and what you hope to do in the future

Friday, August 21, 1998

I'm having a difficult time trying to find any material
that will teach me how to use CPP when buying network and
spot radio. My contacts in the advertsing field tell me
that they learned how to use this formula through
experience. I know the formula for CPP. However, is there
any resource that will show me how to implement CPP when
buying network and spot radio? Something that will show
me some shortcuts or maybe some examples?

Thanks again for your help.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, August 21, 1998)

Once you know how to calculate CPP, its uses are pretty straightforward.

  • CPP is an efficiency indicator. Media proposals you are considering can be ranked from lowest CPP to highest if efficency is a goal
  • CPP can be a goal you give to sales people, e.g. "I'm buying a $100 Women 18-49 CPP, what avails do you have at that pricing?"
  • CPP can be weighted with other factors like rating size or cume
  • CPP can be used to caluculate cpm when the universe is known: CPP divided by 1% of the universe expressed in thousands yields cpm
    (this is only valid when rating and audience in thousands come from the same geography as they do in Network. In spot, where you may use a metro rating but TSA thousands , the formula is imprecise at best)
  • CPP can be used as a bottom line number to compare possible schedules you are putting together

Remember - never average CPPs themselves; total the costs and total the ratings of schedules and calculate the bottom line CPP from the totals.

Thursday, August 20, 1998

Dear Guru,
Would like to know the sources to get the publication listings for Hong Kong market?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, August 20, 1998)

Wednesday, August 19, 1998

Do you know of any company that tracks television ad placements by company or product?
(i.e. ABC Company placed a certain 30 second spot 42 times in the month of May.)
I'm especially looking for national network data, but local would also be OK.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, August 19, 1998)

Video Monitoring Services does this sort of tracking.

CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
, another VNU company, does similar tracking, but does not specifically distinguish different copy for the same product, focusing instead on spending.

Wednesday, August 19, 1998

When reviewing syndicated research (SRDS, Simmons, MRI)for media planning purposes, I generally use the index. When comparing two or three columns of data using an index, how can I determine if a finding is important or significant? Is there a rough rule I can use to determine this? I have heard that an index difference of +/- 10 is significant.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, August 19, 1998)

"Significant" is a statistical term relating to sample size, etc. You can't judge significance by the index alone.

+/- 10 is a reasonable level at which to begin paying attention for importance, but first, scan the whole array of indices.

When there are several at 200+ or under 50 index, and these have reasonable sample sizes behind them, the 110's and 90's no longer seem important. In short, it's all relative.

Tuesday, August 18, 1998

I have been using Simmons as a resource for consumer research information, my contract is up for renewal and I am evaluating Simmons vs. MRI. I have been hearing that many companies have been moving to MRI.
What is the share each has of the market (simmons vs. MRI)? What are the key differences/benefits now that Simmons has changed their research methodology to the same approach as MRI with regard to magazine readership? I thought that was the key differentiator between the two.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, August 20, 1998)

The differences have indeed lessened. A detailed analysis will discern small technical differences remaining in methodology. Brand lists and other aspects of measurement other than media will have differences.

Otherwise, if you have no special comfort level with your service people, or the Choices software, it will come down to which vendor offers you the better deal.

Monday, August 17, 1998

Dear Guru,
I am investigating the use of online advertising for my client. Can you direct me to some published research or, perhaps, an online planning tool that will identify which sites would be best to communicate with information systems/information technologies personel (you know, computer "techy's"). There is so much out there on the WWW that I need some sort of vehichle to narrow the scope. Thanks-

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, August 20, 1998)

MarketMatch Planner may be the most complete tool for your purposes.

You can also get information through the major, multi-site ad reps like DoubleClick or WWWebrep

Monday, August 17, 1998

I'm looking for return on a web site investments data, statistics and any related topics.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, August 20, 1998)


Sunday, August 16, 1998

i am just learning how to prepare a print media
schedule, is there a standard formatt that you could
supply me with.

kind regards


The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, August 16, 1998)

It isn't clear to the Guru whether you are referring to a presentation format or a decision making procedure.

But the simplest way to thisnk about the whole process is to present the plan in a way that shows how the decision making process produced the recommended schedule.

For example, your plan may call for

  • using magazines that are most authoritative in the topical area relevant to your product category
  • achieving a particular reach each month or in total
  • selecting magazines to accomplish the above based on greatest target audience coverage or
  • audience compostion or
  • audience efficency

You would then select candidate magizines to consider under each of the above and list them based on how well they ranked on these criteria. Finally, the schedule is assembled by trying various numbers of insertions in various numbers of titles to evaluate for overall reach or impressions delivery.

The schedule is presented by stating each of the above rules pertaining to selection, the ranking of the titles on each criterion and a comparison of the recommended schedule with others considered.

Thursday, August 13, 1998

I am looking for an advertising media management course that can be completed by correspondence. I am based in Australia. I would appreciate any information you may have. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, August 13, 1998)

First, the Guru would recommend that you study this with a university in the country where you intend to work, whether it's Australia or elsewhere.

Having decided on the country, visit university web sites to determine if correspondence courses are available. The Guru is not aware of any.

Friday, August 07, 1998

What is the difference between a vertical and a horizontal television roadblock? And could a "heavy" cable schedule on on several targeted cable networks on a given day be "technically" considered a roadblock?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, August 08, 1998)

"Technically" a roadblock is a concept that goes back to the days when the 3 big broadcast networks owned 95% of the TV audience (20 or so years ago).

The idea was that by scheduling your commercial to run at the same moment on all three, e.g. first commercial in the first pod of the 9:00 program, you reached the entire viewing audience, unduplicated, as if you had bought a single program with a rating as big as the three put together.

With half the audience now spread over numerous independents and cable networks, some without advertising, roadblocks are no longer realistic goals.

The "vertical roadblock" concept doesn't seem to make any sense in this context.

Friday, August 07, 1998

Hi media GURU, I have a question for you:

What is the best way to evaluate an sponsorhip activity against a normal 30 second commercial?

For sponsorship I mean, billboard on the stadium and/or on screen advertising during the games (sport), etc.

Thank you for your advice.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, August 08, 1998)

The simplest comparison is time and audience. If your :30 commercial reaches 1 million people for :30 seconds and a stadium sign reaches an average of (for example) 20,000 people for an average of 90 minutes for 100 games. . . well, "you do the math."

In addition there's the chance of tv exposure of a stadium sign, which can be factored in the same way.

The premium value of sponsorship involvement with the team and sport is a judgement call.

Friday, August 07, 1998

what is recency planning?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, August 07, 1998)

The Guru has discussed Recency many times.

  • Go to the Guru Archives and use the search engine there to find past Guru answers about Recency
  • or

  • Go to the Ad Talk and Chats area and search the archives of the Award Papers discussion, much of which has been about Recency planning.

Thursday, August 06, 1998

What are the reasons for making a media investment in a Sunday daily newspaper? Is there any current research available to justify purchasing a Sunday daily vs. other days of the week?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, August 08, 1998)

The Guru sees three key differences for the Sunday paper.

  • Different, usually larger circulation, plus the other side, more zoned editions available
  • Possibly different demographics
  • Different editorial content, such as special, Sunday-only sections which may offer better environmental opportunities
  • and a different sort of advertising mix, including inserts which may mean readers "shop" the Sunday paper more than other days'

For the best possible discussion of the topic, try AMIC's MediaPlanning discussion list, by sending the message


listserv@amic.com or

the The Newspaper Advertising Association's Newspaper Research Discussion list by sending the message

subscribe newspaper-research to


Wednesday, August 05, 1998

If an agency buys newspaper through a national rep firm, how do they (the rep firm) get compensated?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, August 06, 1998)

Commission. Probably 15-20% of the "net".

Tuesday, August 04, 1998

Dear Guru! What could you say about STAS ( Short Term Ad Strength)model usage in media planning istead of effective frequency approach.How could you estimate STAS advantages, limitations and forecast its delevopment in the future for the different countries.
Thanks. TE.


The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, August 04, 1998)

For the latest on STAS, see the Telmar Awards Paper by J.P. Jones, creator of STAS. Other articles explaining STAS have been published in the Journal of Advertising Research from the Advertising Research Foundation.

Tuesday, August 04, 1998

Hello, Guru. How could we estimate TV sponsorship effectiveness for different types of sponsorship- promo mentions, billboards, tags, logo in corner, brand in corner,product placement, presents, branded dressing, etc. In relation to ratings estimation for promo mentions, billboards I found out that is would be 25% value of '30 sec. spot per item. Could you, please, introduce me into current methodologies used, research institutes conducted this kind of investigations and ,that is more important for me, findings in audience estimation per '30 sec. spot base ( or other bases).
Thanks in advance. TE

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, August 05, 1998)

Apparently, you are looking for a value rather than literally "effectiveness." The 25% of a :30 value of a billboard would seem to be based on time equivalence. The same calculation could work for the other items that have an amount of time associated. Of course items that are pure visuals, like logos need to be devalued versus complete sight/sound/action items.

Judgement is your best tool.

Monday, August 03, 1998

Is there a televison network where I can reach single people.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, August 04, 1998)

Nielsen doesn't report
marital status. Simmons and MRI do. Off hand, the Guru would expect a network with a young adult skew like MTV to have a high proportion of single viewers.

If you can't get access to Simmons or MRI, but are a potential buyer of MTV, they would probably be happy to provide you with a singles compostion analysis of various networks and programs.

Monday, August 03, 1998

Dear Guru
Thanks for answering my last question on major media planning changes over the next five
years, however I am based in London England where we have had
three terestrial commercial stations and around fifty cable
and satalite stations. Over the next few years that number is expected to increase to
around 150 - 200 Terestrial stations and who knows how many
satalite and cable stations. We expect a lot of changes in the way we operate. Any comments greatfully recieved


The Media Guru Answers (Monday, August 03, 1998)

If you accept the idea that Television is Television, you will find only two issues relating to this growth:

  • The variety of types of programs available will increase.
  • The average audience available to each programming source will decrease.

In the U.S., as broadcast stations increased from 3 or so available in in each market area to 6 or 10 or more, programming quality stayed with the 3 which were network affiliates. Little changed, in Prime Time (evening), at least.

As cable networks increased from a handful to 50 or 100 with 30-50 available in most places, and quality programming was delivered by cable, audiences shifted from the broadcast networks to cable, until today where cable's share is often greater than broadcast networks, although it is divided among many outlets.

Still, this does not change the questions faced or techniques used by planners. More detail oriented research tools are needed (some of which is already more typical of UK vs US research) and it is only the answers which become different. But the planners' job is not much changed. Certainly not as much as is the buyers'.

Monday, August 03, 1998

Dear Guru, I am new to media planning and have been
asked to predict the major changes for media planners
over the next five years. can you give me any starters?

Thanks in advance

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, August 03, 1998)

Since this must be a training exercise for new planners, isn't asking the Guru cheating? But since this sort of exercise is silly anyway, the Guru will go along; after all nobody would have predicted the media planners' involvement in on-line, five years ago.

Come to think of it, on-line may have been the only major change of the past five years.

For example,the incremental importance of cable and the slow decline of broadcast ratings is not a major change for planners. They face the same questions, but the answers have changed somewhat.

The new millennium, whether one considers the "popular" start date of January 1, 2000, or the actual date of 1/1/2001 will, no doubt, be a time to look for new approaches and focus more on the future. Marketers will finally recognize that the various major ethnic markets: Hispanics -- newly the largest ethnic group -- plus African American, Asian American and smaller minorities will encompass most Americans in the first decade of the new century. This will mean planners must pay far more attention to assessing the importance of and covering these market segments.

Also in the next five years the Guru sees the debate between advocates of "Recency" plannning and those backing "effective reach" being settled. Categories of marketing or rules on which to base application of one or the other will be clearly defined and two distinct styles of planning will emerge.

Finally, coming back to online, the internet's amazing growth will max out. No more than 50% of the population is likely to be on-line. The internet universe and internet ratings, on a U.S. basis, will be readily available, so that on-line media will become just another element of media plans. Specialist agencies will fold into general agencies and internet media will have no more mystique than out-of-home.

Sunday, August 02, 1998

I’m looking to compare average household cpms across the following television segments:

Broadcast Network
Broadcast National Spot
Broadcast Local
Cable Network
Cable National Spot
Local Cable

Can you help me with these figures or point me in he right direction on where I can find this data?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, August 02, 1998)

AdWeek's Marketer's Guide to Media might have all of these media but probably not local or spot cable.

These latter two are

  1. Sold in too many ways to average sensibly and
  2. Too often priced based on costs of selling and or integration, rather than audience.

To explain:

Local spot cable can be bought as part of a regional buy, in a DMA interconnect or system by system within a DMA. Often, buying one quarter of a DMA on a given network is more costly than the interconnect because too many individual systems need to individually load and swith your commercial.

Saturday, August 01, 1998

i want to lnow about the sites where i can look for job
opportuniities about advertising

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, August 01, 1998)

Select the "Ad Jobs" link on the AMIC home page

Saturday, August 01, 1998

i want to know about the places where profesional tranning of advertising software & hardware are given

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, August 01, 1998)

Advertisng software runs on standard Mac and Windows or minicomputer / mainframe hardware.

Software training is provided by the sotware licensing companies, like Telmar, to the staff of the agencies and media which use the software.

Saturday, August 01, 1998

well i want to know about proffesional advertising
hardware & software

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, August 01, 1998)

Telmar, AMIC's sister company, is the world's leading provider of advertising media and management software.

Friday, July 31, 1998

Is there a formula that would indicate increases in
effectiveness if a direct mail campaign is supported
by other media? Example: TV and radio campaign to
increase awareness of a product followed by a targeted
mailing with a call to action.

Thanks, Guru

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, July 31, 1998)

Direct Marketing Association
would be the best source for such information.

Thursday, July 30, 1998

Do you know of sellers of on-door advertising? I have a contact in the Chicago area but have not located other sellers outside that market (except Advo, only in limited areas of Boston and Philadelphia, not really their thing). Any opinions on the pros/cons of this method? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 30, 1998)

The Guru usually thinks first of ADVO in this category. The other companies which come to mind are ethnic specialists.

You might try a leading door hanger bag maker like PPC who would know companies distributing by this method.

Thursday, July 30, 1998

I need to plan and buy newspapers in all markets of the
U.S. (30 to 40 at a time) to drive traffic to various
events. Locations change often and targeting by zip
is important (e.g., people won't drive more than an hour usually). I have MapInfo Pro for planning direct mail and would like to add a database of newspaper circualation data so I can identify the most appropriate NPP for each buy (major dailies and local/community papers). I'd like circulation penetration by zip so I can determine coverage for each paper. Do you know of a database of newspaper circulation with that level of detail? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 30, 1998)

The Newspaper Advertising Association's National Newspaper Network division is set up for just the sort of analysis you need.

Wednesday, July 29, 1998

If I'd like to compare cost-efficiency of certain radiostation and certain TV station, would it be correct to apply some coefficient for radio GRP's (like 0,3 radio grp's vs 1 TV's)? Is there any reliable research findings concerning the question of comparable value of, say, the same kind of units but for different media? Thankful for your answer, Elena, Moscow

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 29, 1998)

Cost efficiency is typically used to compare media while intentionally ignoring "qualitative" differences. Of course, planners like to assign values to represent the differing value of communication power or whatever.

What is your measurement standard in a media plan? Reach, effective reach, sales per grp?

It is quite unlikely that a TV grp has 3 times as much of anything - recall / sales motivation / etc. And one must keep in mind that GRPs have their effects as part of schedules, not one at a time. Even if one radio announcement was 30% as strong on some basis as one tv annoouncement, the accumulation of effect over the course of a schedule would become much less, especially if radio's lower cost per GRP allowed a bigger schedule for the same money, which is why efficiency is compared in the first place.

Short answer - develop comparisons of efficiency and effectiveness separately. Then use effectiveness as an index on efficiency if you must.

ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research organization or the Advertising Research Foundation may have studies on the relative effectiveness question.

Tuesday, July 28, 1998

My question concerns recency planning and how it may or may not be
best applied to different business categories. The research and
planning models that I have come across regarding recency typically
focuses on packaged goods type products. I cannot recall any examples
of recency being applied in a retail or QSR planning environment.

Do you feel that recency holds any value as a planning approach for
a retail and/or QSR account where scheduling typically
emphasizes short term flighted promotional windows with a high
to low cascading of broadcast weight?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 29, 1998)

Recency is most particularly relevant for packages goods which have regular, short purchase cycles.

(When an advertiser relies on promotions, the Guru always looks to see whether the advertising is supporting the brand/product or just the promotion).

The best discussion the Guru has seen about applications and exceptions for recency theory occurs in AMIC's Awards Papers e-mail discussion group. Particpants include "Mr. Recency," Irwin Ephron, as well as John Philip Jones, Eric DuPlessis, AMIC Publisher Abbott Wool. The archive of the AwardPapers discussion is at Ad Talk/ Chat .

Click here to subscribe to AwardsPapers

Tuesday, July 28, 1998

I have a weekend talk radio program on a 50K watt
station covering most of southern california (AM1170).
I am on Saturdays 3-6pm and have been for more than a year. I have to obtain my own sponsors and am not very successful at doing that. My show is growing but the advertisers aren't there. Help! I have no experience at this and all that I've tried has failed.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, July 28, 1998)

The Guru is not familiar with the station. It isn't the norm for a
show to be sold by the talent; are you buying the time for
the show from the station? Does the station / your show
have any measured audience? Audience is usually an
advertiser's first question and lack of it is usually the
worst obstacle. If no audience counts, what do you know about the
kind of person who is listening or would be listening if
your intended type of listener was in fact the listener?

Tuesday, July 28, 1998

Is there an accurate and reliable way to post spot
radio? We have looked at two book averages(latest
book and sweep book) as well as using only the
latest book. In addition, is it possible to post
based on specific times or are we limited to hourly
data? Any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 29, 1998)

1) The most accurate way to post is always using the measurement closest to the actual airing of the schedule. Of course one may have to take special programming into account, For instance if you buy the World Series, relying on data in the O-N-D book would be silly.

In ordinary cases, averaging books, when the schedule falls entirely into just one, is pointless.

2) Nothing finer than hourly is reported.

Sunday, July 26, 1998

Dear Guru!
I have cilent that wants to know the accumulated reach of a 5 months campaign.
The campaign was based on a recency strategy; 4 "flights", each flight - 3 weeks, and a break of
about 2 weeks between one flight to another.
It seems to me not right to sum up the reach of all 4 flights as a total, but to show each flight by its own results
Can you please give your professional advice in this issue?
Thanks a lot, Irene, Israel.

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, July 26, 1998)

A "recency" strategy generally calls for continuous advertising, not flighting. However this is neither here nor there in responding to your question.

A four-week reach has long been the basic standard of evaluation of a campaign, most likely based on the one time dominance of monthly national magazines in the plans of major consumer goods advertisers -- in the U.S., at least.

"Recency" argues for concentrating on the reach
at the point in time closest to the purchase decision, so average reach during the typical purchase cycle is a reasonable way to focus on a recency plan. Of course, in reality, despite an average purchase cycle, in most cases, decisions are made every day. You may end your four-week purchase cycle of laundry detergent tomorrow while your neighbor's four week cycle ends a week from Tuesday. Equally, there may be a day of the week of more opportunity than others, when the product is purchased during a main grocery shopping trip.

A five month cume reach can be calculated. Its usefulness is questionable when recency is the guiding principal, but for other issues, like awareness, it may be relevant.

Friday, July 24, 1998

I need help! I need to know the forumla (or formulas) for figuring the reach and frequency on a television schedule. I need it to be demo / and have the following information: universe, impressions and grps. What else do I need and what is the magic FORUMLA! At this point we are using the cumulative impressions into the universe to figure the reach - but could that be right? I don't think so - but the reach is what I need to figure (already have grp and freq is easy if I have reach!).

Please help - and thanks tons.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, July 24, 1998)

When you divide the accumulated impressions by the universe, your result is GRPs. There is no simple reach formula unless you already know GRPs and frequency. There are various very complicated algorithms for calculating reach for a given average rating size, known average duplication between programs used, etc. "Beta Bimodal" is one of the best known.

But today, Reach calculations are done by computer, using models built from Nielsen's actual measurements of net audience reach from meter-measured schedules.

Telmar, AMIC's sister company, is the leading provider of software for such analyses.

Before computers were commonplace, media planners had tables which gave reach for various GRP levels depending on demos, dayparts and duplication. These, too, were based on average Nielsen audience accumulation reports.

Friday, July 24, 1998

As an agency, we believe that we have made a smart and cost-effective media buy for 1998. We would like to show our client how smart the buy is in what really matters to them: dollars. Our media buy was not made to copy another so we have no base of comparison. As "an account guy" I don't have the total media knowledge of how to show savings. I have suggested building a model that shows a client that would make a buy within the market paying "average CPPs." With these average CPPs we could turn around and compare the CPPs we paid per daypart and show a savings. Is there a better way, in your mind, to show dollar or percentage savings?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, July 24, 1998)

SQAD is the leading purveyor of market average CPPs for General market TV and Radio, Hispanic and other broadcast elements. Recent, sample SQAD costs are available in AMIC's Rates, Dates and Data area.

Thursday, July 23, 1998

I have a client who is in the movie and home video sales and rental business. We are looking to gain a more comprehensive understanding of these two industies from the audience/consumer's perspective not the trade.
I am aware of sources to get historical Box Office data (MPAA, Exhibitor Relations) and video sales and rental data (VSDA, Vidtrac). I also have access to Simmons data. Do yo know of other sources of research that would provide information or trend data for regarding audience behavior, demographics, psychographics for either or both of these industries?
Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 23, 1998)

MRI is comparable to Simmons.

Industry magazines, like Hachette's Video or TWICE (This Week in Consumer Electronics) may have their own research to offer.

Thursday, July 23, 1998

I'm looking for a statistic that demonstrates the increase in ad recall for 2c newspaper ads versus b&w newspaper ads. Can you help?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 23, 1998)

Three possible resources:

Advertising Research Foundation

Media Research Index

The Newspaper Advertising Association.

Or subscribe to -- and ask your question in -- the newspaper research e-mail discussion: Send e-mail to Majordomo@infi.net with a message that says only:

Subscribe Newspaper-Research

Wednesday, July 22, 1998

What other resources are there
for finding and evaluating
trade journals besides the
SRDS? Are there web sites or
other places to call? Thanks!!

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 22, 1998)

Gale Research has some useful titles.
These are also available from Amazon.com logo

In Gale's

Publisher's Directory
virtually everything is listed. Professional journals are listed by type, by geographic locations There is far less information than SRDS, generally just circ, a basic rate and contact information. Your local library probably has it. The

World Directory of Trade and Business Journals

may have better trade journal data.

Wednesday, July 22, 1998

I am trying to study the factors related to unaided recall of TVCs. In your experience, is the prevalence of potential buyers connected to recall? In particular I have in mind several campaigns to baby products. Providing that all have the same reach and GRP, and that X% of mothers intend to buy Y product and 2X% intent to buy product Z. How should this effect the results?

Irene Kol

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 22, 1998)

The Guru would expect consumers in the market for the product to have better commercial recall. Also that people with specific brand intentions might recall that brand's commecial better.

But the actual content of the commercial should be the major factor. If intenders of product Y see a product Z commercial with important information about that product it may greatly enhance their recall, especially over a schedule as you posit the question.

Surely at least part of a commercial's intent is to convert users from one brand to another. At any point in time, those still intending to buy Y will probably have better recall of Y, and vice versa.

Wednesday, July 22, 1998

Is there a web site or
information source that lists
industrial organizations
and the publications associated
with each? How can I obtain
this information? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 23, 1998)

There's a list of member associations of The Federation of International Trade Associations.

You will have to follow member links or use the e-mail and phone information provided to get each trade association's publication information.

Tuesday, July 21, 1998

Sports radio networks rarely, if ever, give CPMs and
TRPs for the proposals presented. When asked to
provide this info, they cop-out saying "well, other
agencies (i.e., JWT, Bozell, BBDO) buy our network."
I understand there is a premium to associate yourself
with a high profile sports team, but at what cost?
Without having resources to evaluate each and every
radio station in the network, how can I accurately
present these proposals to my clients? Currently, I
figure: total market CPP x average rating x number of
spots x number of games scheduled + added value
= total package value. Am I accurate?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 22, 1998)

When the Guru buys sports neworks, he gets audience and efficiency data. If you are saying that the networks give national data but not individual market rating, that's a somewhat different issue.If you are buying a team, its value is probably in its home market. If a network is only sold in total, what will you gain by identifying a weak station?

If you have all the data to execute your formula, you should do fine.

Monday, July 20, 1998

What is the bare minimum frequency you think is necessary to create an impact in a monthly? Bi-monthly? And a weekly? I am in planning for a client that has done all consumer advertising in the past, and they just informed us that our next FY budget is going to be half AND they want to start doing trade advertising. Obviously, either books have to be cut or insertions. What are your thought?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 22, 1998)

"Impact" is the most abused term in media.

First, you must decide the importance of reach versus frequency in your plan. More titles means more reach and more insertions per title means more frequency. It is common to find "rules of thumb" that dictate a minimum of 4 times in a monthly, 12 times in a weekly, etc. The Guru believes these are mostly the theories of media salespeople.

In some cases you will find it important that your product is specifically identified with a book. In others, when the availability or efficiency of purchase of your target audience is the key element of choice in selecting a book, it won't matter whether the average target person reached sees three ads in three different books or three times in
the same book.

In other words, is it more important that the consumer remembers seeing your ad or remembers where it was seen?

Monday, July 20, 1998

Thanks for your response to my question (#1955.) I was refering to average frequency NOT effective frequency.
In addition, our buys are targeted to the same demo, Men 25-54. Do these clarifications add any new light to your thoughts?
I maintain that an average frequency of three (3) per radio station per week requires reducing the number of stations purchased which in turn
reduces my reach and overall delivery. Any new thoughts. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, July 20, 1998)

The problem seems to be lack of a specific communication goal.

  • Is the plan goal maximum reach?
  • Is the plan goal optimal reach at an average frequency of 3 or more?

Once there is agreement on this, it is a simple matter to construct paper buys to illustrate what is acheived buying with and without the requirement of an average reach of 3 on each station and how each contributes to agreed goals (a buyer should not decide independently that reach is the overall goal).

The Guru notes that he does not generally support buying to goals based on set frequency per station. Some stations with low turnover will build reach slowly while frequency mounts quickly. A 3 frequency will come too early in that station's reach curve, while another station builds reach quickly and frequency slowly.

Friday, July 17, 1998

Can you offer me advice on how to buy remnant advertising
on network and local radio? Are there any books that
describe this procedure or other media buying procedures
that save money?

Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, July 17, 1998)

The simplest answer, a method followed by successful remnant buyers, is just to make yourself known to the media of interest to you. Make them understand you will take any unsold time or last minute cancellations off their hands at an agreed price or discount level. Being prepared to take any is the way to assure they come to you.

The Guru can't recommend any specific title for this question, but please take a look at the AMIC Bookstore

Friday, July 17, 1998

I live in a state in which it has a lot of rural
communities and I am finding out that a lot of people
are buying satellite dishes. How do I find more info
on advertising on the programs being broadcasted on
satellite or is it all national advertising? I understand
that in order to get local news or programming people
have to switch over to their regular tvs or cable, but
how do I reach the audience that is watching, for instance
CNN on their dishes? And is their a way to track or get
ratings for this audience?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, July 17, 1998)

Just like local cable, the system operators have times open for their commerical insertion, and other slots where they must leave the national advertising in place.

Just like any other TV transmission, Nielsen will report a rating if the audience is large enough to meet reporting standards. Whether local market satellite audiences are big enough to report separately varies by market.

The Guru doubts any satellite's "footprint" can be so finely focused that it can deliver different commercials on a market-by-market basis.

Friday, July 17, 1998

I am working on a television post buy analysis and was
wondering what the industry standard index is for
estimated vs. actual GRP ratings? Rule of thumb in the
past was 90%+, is this still in effect and does it change
from market to market? Is there any documented research
for this percentage or do most television sales reps
know the "rules" in order for me to get make-goods for
my client?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, July 17, 1998)

Everything is by agreement. In this business, one tends to think the policy of the agency or medium where they learn things are rules of the industry.

Some agencies have a +/- 15% policy others have +/- 10%. Some advertisers make their agencies give them +/- 10% when the agency policy is a wider allowance and some major advertisers don't post.

Some network deals are 100% guaranteed, magazine "rate base" is 100% guaranteed, but many advertisers/agencies never verify delivery.

If you negotiate a 90% deal with your sales rep, then that' s what he/she's got to do. If you're doing regular business, it shouldn't be much of an issue to get 90%, anyway.

In markets where there are weekly ratings available, it should also be your practice to rerate buys as they progress and negotiate adjustments during the schedule to avoid shortfalls on post analysis.

Friday, July 17, 1998

Dear Guru,
Could you please tell me about rim-weighting.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 22, 1998)

Rim weighting is a method of adjusting survey results according to known characteristics of the population. It is considered equivalent to cell weighting.

See On the use of rim weighting by J.G. Upton in Journal of the Market Research Society v29 n3, July '87

and Weighting survey results also Journal of the Market Research Society, v28 n3, July 86

Both are available at the Advertising Research Foundation

Friday, July 17, 1998

Dear Guru,
I am curious to find out how user-centric Web research firms
maintain "freshness" of their samples. How often and how many
samples are being replaced on what intervals by companies
like Media Metrix, Nielsen, Net Ratings and Relevant Knowledge?
I also would like to know how Media Metrix and RK drawn business
samples from what sources.
Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, July 17, 1998)

"Freshness" is not necessarily a desirable element in sampling. Panel data, such as is provided by some services mentioned is explicitly not based on fresh samples.

Results based on a sample of 10,000 are about 3 times more stable than results based on 10 consecutive samples of 1000, and equal to a result calculated from a consolidation of the 10 smaller samples, assuming both samples are equally random within the universes they are supposed to represent.

From a practical point of view, the cost of recruiting and installing a sample precludes major "freshening." Virtually all syndicated surveys with large samples (10,000+) and frequent reports (e.g. monthly) are based on panels, rather than new samples for each report. The natural churn of panels is probably 20-30% per year.

The services you inquire about are relatively open about methods. They've been written about in the trade press and the respective web sites are also informative.

Thursday, July 16, 1998

I have a client that has a product that would be great for QVC. How do you get a product on QVC? Where do I start?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 16, 1998)

Just call QVC, which is based in southern New Jersey, and ask for their product submission kit. Or go to their "How do I get my product on QVC?" page.

Thursday, July 16, 1998

Our agency has recently acquired a direct response account.
We are wanting to test in two markets. The markets are Columbus, Ohio and Louisville, Ky.
My question, are these considered good test markets? The product that we will be marketing is a Gun Safe. The price point is $199.
If these are not good test market, what determines a good test market?

Next question, what do you know about per inquiry? Is this something that I should consider for my Gun Safe client or am I better off running DR?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 16, 1998)

1) The usual considerations in choosing test markets include:

  • Population ; neither the very largest nor very smallest are usually appropriate. Often, top 10 or 20 and bottom 10 or 20 are eliminated
  • Demographic mix Is the proportion of your target -- age/gender/race/education/income/etc. -- typical of your overall geographic target area?
  • Media Are the available media representative of your eventual roll out media? If you plan to do national advertising in magazines, it is best (ideally) that the test market allows you to buy local editions of the same titles.

    Are the relative strengths of the media representative?

    Does cable compete with broadcast in a typical way? Is the newspaper coverage typical?

Should these factors be compared to national or a smaller eventual total target region? One might expect that a gun related product is more likely to experience success in certain parts of the country where multiple gun ownership is the norm and less likely in some other areas.

2) Per inquiry is a great approach for the underfunded advertiser. But, PI will generally cost up to 50% of revenue. "Per Inquiry" means you pay -- often 25-35% of product price -- for every inquiry, not just every order, that comes in. With ad funds available, the marketing costs ought to wotk out to be far lower per dollar of revenue.

Relatively few "good" media are available for PI. I.e. if the media can be sold for real money, it won't be sold on the speculative basis of PI.

Thursday, July 16, 1998

Dear Media Guru:
Our client has asked that all radio stations on a spot radio buy MUST have a 3 frequency per week.
I maintain that this mandate is too limiting (and is a sellers perspective) as it requires reducing the number of stations
used and increasing the number of spots on the stations being bought. I do agree that a 3 frequency for the entire buy
makes sense, but not by station. What are your thoughts?? Thanks so much.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 16, 1998)

Is that a minimum average frequency or a minimum (effective) frequency?

The idea of exhausting a station's cume before moving to the next most efficient station can make sense, as a buying strategy.

If stations are reaching definably different market segements which are individually important to your planning, and you need to reach these segments equally, than the station-by-station standard might make sense.

But if all stations are targeted to the same demo and only differ by rating size or formats which are not relevant to brand marketing, then only the overall frequency ought to matter.

Thursday, July 16, 1998

I'm "shopping" for databases/software of TV and radio
station directories as well as newspapers and outdoor
companies. (Comprehensive listings including address,
phone and fax numbers, call letters, formats, personnel,
tape requirements, etc.)
Our agency currently subscribes to SRDS for this type
of information, however, they will not sell their
products in a database format. We want to upgrade to a
more "high-tech" system so my quest has led me to do a
product/cost comparison of what is available now.So far
I have located the following companies: Media Market
Resources (TV and Radio Datatrak; BIA Companies and
Parrot Media. Do you know of any other sources? I need
to complete my analysis and submit this proposal to my
Management by 7/22. Thanks for your assistance.

By the way, this is a great forum for media professionals
to gather information and share ideas. Thanks again.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 16, 1998)

The Guru has not seen as complete a set of listings as Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS)'. They do offer an online database version.

MRI also has a CD-ROM for consumer magazine data.

Wednesday, July 15, 1998

I need to know some trade publications(Textile)which the target audience are Int'l buyers/manufacturers
in German and Europe.
Please recommend some titile for me, thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 16, 1998)

See International Media Guide's Business Publication Guides

Wednesday, July 15, 1998

I need to find some trade publications which are big circulations and the
target audience are Int'l buyers/manufacturers.
The trade publications are include computer, electronics,gift&stationery, and building/constructions in
U.S.A. and Europe.
please help where I can find these informaiton, thank you.
Lisa Huang

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 16, 1998)

Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) offers a trade (business) publication source for the U.S. and there is also a European source: International Media Guide

Wednesday, July 15, 1998

Are you familiar with the concept of using 3-D display holograms for marketing purposes? Specifically, I'm wondering who sells this technology for commerical marketing purposes. I know there is one company called Dimensional Media Associates in NY that the AAAA has done a small piece about? WHere can I find out about others?
Thanks Guru!!

M. Gober

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 15, 1998)

One company offering such technology is HyperVision. Searching "3d display" at Yahoo will turn up others.

Monday, July 13, 1998

Dear Guru, You've never failed me. I need your help. I thought I understood pageviews and banner impressions.
However, I'm wondering, if a person sees banner doesn't it stand to reason that they will naturally view the page to do that?
What am I missing? Please clarify. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, July 13, 1998)

If a person sees a banner, the person sees the page it's on. But remember, "sees" is just a handy word. What we mean is that the person's browser "requests" the page from the server, and the page is loaded by the browser with the banner gifS or jpgS the server is programmed to deliver with the page at that moment.

In theory, depending on certain browser settings, if a person goes to the same page twice in one visit, and that page rotates its banners, then on the second visit, the browser could request the banners but load the page out of its own cache, creating a banner impression, but not a page request in the server log, even though the visitor "sees" the page both times.

Sunday, July 12, 1998

Dear Guru,
What are interstitials and how are they priced?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, July 12, 1998)

Interstitials have been discussed by the Guru several times in the past, use the Guru Archive search engine to review past answers.

Some people use interstitial only to refer to animated or interactive pages, but generally they describe any page set up as the target of banner click-thru, where one lands before (or instead of) going to an advertiser's actual site.

Pricing is whatever the traffic will bear and may reflect design and maintenance cost rather than traffic.

For example, AMIC itself offers to create a no charge "mini-page" interstitial for an advertiser buying a year's schedule. This allows advertisers who don't have sites to deliver a full message to viewers. Similarly, in other business-to-business advertising (which is what media's ads for the media buying community are) an interstitial can carry the b-to-b message when the advertiser's web site is totally aimed at their consumer audience.

Saturday, July 11, 1998

I'm a newbie and I need your help. I've been asked to
put together a proposal for an online campaign. But my
startup website doesn't have specific numbers on the
desired target audience for this campaign. I can tell
you now that we certainly reach that group but we have
no hard numbers. How can I build a compelling argument
without having to give exacting avails on this demographic?
What are your thoughts?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, July 12, 1998)

There are limited numbers of ways to document specific demographic target impressions for a website.

1. It can be rated by one of the user-centric meter / panel survey systems which attempt to parallel TV style ratings: MediaMetrix, RelevantKnowledge or Net Ratings.

These services, however, typically report data on larger sites and would not likely generate stable data on a start-up early in its life.

2. It can be rated by one of the other survey systems with a longer report cycle, like MRI or Nielsen, to give demographic composition which can then be applied to server log impressions counts.

These systems may be less likely to be useful for start-ups.

3. Strict registration with demographic details and cookies or sign-in procedures which allow detailed tracking of visitors in the server logs and log analysis software.

While this is possible for a site of any size or age, it creates obstacles to visiting which most sites would prefer to avoid.

So let's see how we can work with what you've got. Of course you have server logs which can tell the boxcar numbers of pages loaded to show total impressions.

From the way you state your question, you appear confident that your site is targeted to the demographic in question. Choose a site which is targeted to the same demographic and is reported by the ratings services mentioned above in point 1.

Assume you will get the same proportion of your total impressions in the target demographic segment as the rated site does.

You will also need to present a good rationale for why your site is targeted to the specified demographic

Saturday, July 11, 1998

Dear Guru, I have seen you use "advertising weight" in other response. Please clarify the meaning of this percentage. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, July 11, 1998)

Advertising weight refers to the gross audience of a campaign. It may be GRP/TRPs or impressions. It may be considered in total or by individual demographic segment. While some look primarily at expenditure, "weight" is a better guide to communications impact.

In competitive analysis, each advertiser's weight is compared to all others as a percent of the total weight in the category to calculate "Share of Voice."

Saturday, July 11, 1998

Dear Guru, Thank you for your incredible help! I have to fulfill an RFP for an online ad campaign. The agency requested avails, SOV and a proposal.
Please explain SOV in the online context. I understand avails to be available impressions.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, July 11, 1998)

"Avails" in the context of a media proposal typically means a listing of the advertising positions offered. In broadcast, it may describe dayparts and programs available for sale with audience and pricing specified.

The term seems a bit of a stretch in on-line, but could describe a lsiting of available banner sizes, positions and rotations, with impressions and prices.

"SOV" does not seem to fit here unless it is meant to express the portion of the site's total available impressions delivered by each available advertising opportunity in the "avails."

The Guru's observation has been that people operating web sites and managing their advertising have not come from other media or even agency backgrounds. It would not seem useful to try to impose broadcast terminology on new electronic media, except for those terms common to all other media, such as "impressions," "GRP," or "cpm."

Saturday, July 11, 1998

What does SOV stand for? I was asked to respond to an RFP with avail info, SOV and a CPC proposal?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, July 11, 1998)

In media terminology, the Guru understands SOV to be "Share of Voice" or percentage of all advertising weight in the market place. Without knowing what your RFP is about, the Guru can't explain further.

Thursday, July 09, 1998

Dear Guru
How do you define Selectivity of media vehicle ? How do you measure it ? Therefore how do you calculate a Press Selectivity Index ? Is it similar in concept to a brand development Index or a category development Index (BDI & CDI) ?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 09, 1998)

The Guru defines "selectivity" as narrowness of targeting audience. For example, if your target is women 18-49 and there is a magazine, all of whose audience is women 18-49, than that magazine is highly selective. A magazine with 80% w18-49 and 20% W50+ is less selective.

Standard print audience measures such as the U.S.' Simmons, MRI or U.K.'s TGI provide these data.

Logically, a selectivity index would compare the incidence of a given demographic group within the population to its incidence in the audience of the medium, with the population incidence set as equal to 100. Thus, if women 18-49 are 50% of the population but 80% of the media audience, the selectivity index would be 80 divided by 50 or 160 (the decimal is moved 2 places to the right for an index). In this sense it is similar to BDI which indexes product purchase in a market to product purchase nationwide, in terms of percent used in the market compared to percent of national population in the market.

Wednesday, July 08, 1998

What is the media research source to which one goes to get information on the general characteristics of each mediums. Things like demographic selectivity by TV daypart; attentiveness scores by TV daypart; etc., for all media?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 08, 1998)

To compare all media across several, common demographics in the general adult population, the sources would be Simmons or MRI

Wednesday, July 08, 1998

Are there any magazines out there that specifically
target the (1)Hispanic and (2)Afro American Teen
markets? I have heard of "The Source" to target the
latter but are there any other publications?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 08, 1998)

Vibe is very similar to The Source and SPIN is somewhat similar.
There are also numerous rap music titles.

For Hispanic teens there are Eres and from
Editorial Televisa

The Abbott Wool's Market Segment Resource Locator area of AMIC includes links to ethnically targeted magazines and has some additional titles with a regional focus.

Tuesday, July 07, 1998

What is the best resource for finding local/regional niche publications, i.e., children's newspapers and magazines? These would be small publications that are not listed in SRDS (such as Columbus Kids).

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, July 07, 1998)

Newspapers list
is one such source. Diligent use of search engines will likley find others.

Monday, July 06, 1998

Dear Guru, I'm trying to find info on the relationship
between reach and frequency known as the prime axiom in
media planning. Such as, what it is, why is it useful
and how is it directly or indirectly measured?

Also, I need research on the volatility of broadcast
media. For instance, how can broadcast media avoid
law suits if they fail to run a commercial.

I'm frantically completing a take home exam for a
graduate class and can't find research on these topics.
Any help you can give would be greatly appreciated.

I'll let you know if we get an "A."

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, July 07, 1998)

One wonders at the sort of course where these terms matter but are not thoroughly taught.

Reach and Frequency are the weights and measures of a media plan.

  • "Reach" tells you how many different people are exposed to an advertising schedule. It is commonly expressed as a percentage of a target group's population. E.g. 75 percent reach among women 18-49.
  • "Frequency" tells you the average number of exposure to the schedule experienced by the people reached.

The usefulness should be obvious: no matter how great or impactful an ad may be, it will not sell product unless it reaches enough people and reaches them frequently enough to have an effect on their behavior.

The various research tools media planners use which measure the audience of TV shows, radio stations, magazines, etc can also tell us how many people are reached by schedules of several uses of theses programs and books. From these direct measurements, statistical models are built which can estimate the reach and frequency of schedules being planned. Media Planners can therefore compare alternate schedules to determine which ones will best meet reach/frequency goals.

Thinking of pure arithmetic relationships, reach and frequency are linked with GRPs -- Gross Rating Points. When the ratings (audience as percent of target group) of all the individual ads in a schedule are added up, the resulting total is GRP. GRP divided by reach = frequency and reach X frequency = GRP.

2. Mistakes happen. Fine print in contracts protects broadcasters against liability if they inadvertently miss airing a commercial, or deliberately do so because a higher paying advertiser comes along, or because the decide to air a news special. etc. Their only obligation is typically to give a "makegood," another commercial location with equal or better quality.

Monday, July 06, 1998

Can you recommend on media planning departments to study in the U.K.??

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, July 07, 1998)

It depends on your reason for studying them. Saatchi, of course is the biggest worldwide, UK-headquartered agency.

Monday, July 06, 1998

Dear Guru,
I am working on a very important new business opportunity. The clients is the biggest white goods, brown goods and small home appliances manufacturer in our country.
The pitch is for the total communications activities for the whole brand range.
Is there any case history on this category(especially on the MEDIA part)?
Thank you very much in advance.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, July 07, 1998)

The applicability of any case study may be questionable in a different country than the one where it occurred. The Advertising Research Foundation and ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research organization collections are the best resources.

Sunday, July 05, 1998

This is a print ad question. Wondering if you know of any
research exploring the effect of placing an ad featuring a
product or service that is the focus of surrounding
editorial content.
thanks and regards
Jessica Lilie

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, July 06, 1998)

Media Research Index
and theAdvertising Research Foundation Library are the Guru's favorite sources for such research.

Friday, July 03, 1998


The Media Guru Answers (Friday, July 03, 1998)

The Guru has discussed this issue many times. If you go back to the Guru Page and select Guru Archives and do an advanced search for this coding:

(web | internet | online)&(price | "cost per thousand" | pricing | cpm),

you will find 25 Guru replies on your topic.

Wednesday, July 01, 1998

I coordinate a small printed program for a local perform-
ing arts company. I would like a source of National
co-op advertisers that I might cross reference with
local advertisers to pitch the program sales to. Any

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 01, 1998)

Wednesday, July 01, 1998

I work for an editorial company, we publish three different magazines about informatic technologies for computer distributors, financial sector and the goverment.
I want to know what kind of media can I use to improve the magazine's advertising

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 01, 1998)

Since you haven't told the Guru what kind of media you are using already, any suggested improvements are guesswork.

The Guru also wonders whether you are advertising to potential readers, to increase circulation, or to potential advertisers.

If the former, you may need to rule out your competition as the other media most likely to reach your target reader and find other media with a different editorial focus, addressed to the same people. (Since you are writing from Mexico, the Guru doesn't have any specific recommendations.

If the latter, the Guru would imagine you are using print ad trade media and would next look to on-line opportunies in either ad trade media, like AMIC , itself, or other business media aimed at your prospects.

Wednesday, July 01, 1998

I am trying to compile data on general internet usage
and marketing to the gay community. Any suggestions on
where to find demographic data regarding the gay
community online?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 01, 1998)

Though the major web use measures don't report a gay demographic, any of the gay oriented on line sites might have proprietary research.

Start by searching the word "gay" at Yahoo.

Monday, June 29, 1998

We are producing a 90-second radio vignette for our client.
It will include :30 for their commercial and :60 of new
entertaining content that relates to thier product.

When scheduling this vignette to air on network radio
once each day for 26 or 52 weeks, is it better to get
a fixed time or an ROS type schedule?

Thanks for your help!

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, June 29, 1998)

There are pros and cons to either. An ROS schedule should cost less per spot and per GRP. It should also develop better reach.
A fixed time lets you pick your environment, but you may not have any particular prefernces, so that can be an illusory advantage. Over the course of an ROS schedule, ROS should get the network's average rating as the
schedule's average rating, or a better one if that's what you negotiate. Picking fixed positions will not likely give any advantage over that.

The greatest remaining benefit of fixed positions is being able to tell the client to listen for his spot at a specific time. However, even with an ROS schedule, the network should be able to give you a scheduled times a day or two before they air.

Monday, June 29, 1998

recent informations about ''special events communication''

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, June 29, 1998)

Advertising trade publications like Ad Age frequently report on event marketing.

Friday, June 26, 1998

Are you aware of any published research that indicates
at about how many GRPs recognition (or even recall)
measures begin to level off?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, June 27, 1998)

There may be many such studies, most likely available through the Advertising Research Foundation library or Newsweek
Media Research Index
. However, when such single variable sudies are published, it makes it all too easy to overlook the fact that the creative carries the greater burden for your measures. Thus the perpertual questions about how many GRP = wearout.

Friday, June 26, 1998

My client, advertising in the southeastern
United States, would like to see a cost efficiency
index for the different media in our plan. Spot
television, spot cable, spot radio and local newspaper
are currently being considered. Our target audience
description includes household income and job title.
We do not subscribe to local syndicated research such
as Scarborough or Media Audit. Is it possible to
provide such an index without this research? If so,

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, June 26, 1998)

Among the media you are considering, some will have the data you need and will probably be happy not only to supply it but to do much of the analysis you need.

Friday, June 26, 1998

I'm looking for early news ratings in Syracuse, NY. We don't subscribe to NSI in Syracuse, so,
I thought you may have this information. I need 5pm and 6pm news ratings on all stations for
Adults 25+. If you do not have this info, is there a place on the web that would have the ratings
info by market. Thanks for your help!

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, June 26, 1998)

If the Guru had NSI data, it would be a viloation of contract and/or law to share them with you. Since these data are what Neilsen exists to sell, they are not likely to be legitimately available free anywhere.

The stations from which you might buy time, however, would have the data and be entitled t present it to you.

Friday, June 26, 1998

Dear Guru,
A client requested resources that track print advertising in regards to spending on national retail print advetising. They wish to compare what they are spending to their competition.

Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, June 26, 1998)

CMR (Competitive Media Reports)
reports retail expenditures.

Thursday, June 25, 1998

Guru, I work for an online interactive media group (Vickers and Benson). We are planning a large campaign for a major Canadian bank. One problem however is trying to find the value of a high
priced CPM. If I'm going to pay $85CPM on AOL can I be certain that it will result in higher clickthroughs? Do high CPM's mean good clickthrough rates? More imprtantly, how does one determine CPM value? If I concentrate
my budget on a few high-end sites am I bound to get a higher clickthrough % than several low-cost CPM?

Thakx in adavnce

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, June 26, 1998)

Absolutely not! There is no inherent, reliable correlation of web cpm with clickthrough.

Clickthrough is a function of two things:

  • Placing your banner on a site where the visitors are likely to be interested in what you are advertising, and
  • Making your banner interesting enough to attract clicks.

In the first case, it is between you and the seller to determine if the right audience will see the banner. One way is to attach the banner to specific key words in search engines or site searches. Another is to select sites with very targeted content. The former can be far less expensive cpm-wise than the latter. Often high-end cpms are charged for highly targeted sites which have smaller, but more select audiences.

If you are looking for clickthrough guarantess, some sites are sold on a cost-per-click basis, and you should ask for that if the seller insists his audience will deliver high clickthrough.

Becasue the real burden of attracting clicks is born by the ad copy and also depends on how fresh it is to the eyes of the prospect, the Guru thinks selling cost-per-click is a sucker bet for a web publisher.

Thursday, June 25, 1998


The Media Guru Answers (Friday, June 26, 1998)

Sponsorship is a vague term in online thus far.

It could mean a multi-ad presence all around a web site, or an "ownership" of of a special area of a site or a special created site under the umbrella of a larger site.

In the first two situations, the Guru sees pricing based on a cpm multiple.
In the third situation, there is also likley to be a creative/production charge.

Thursday, June 25, 1998

What is your opinion regarding the future trend of local content sites (sites that specifically target the local community)? Is there a potential market for this area? If so, will large companies advertise on such sites given the fact that traffic will be less? Also, can you recommend an approach to acquiring sponsorships for such a site? Are there any specific criteria that media buyers look for in local content sites?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, June 26, 1998)

Major markets, like New York, LA, etc., can surely amass enough audience to support a local content site. Such sites also exist for smaller markets, such as Charleston, SC. Often local content sites are maintained by newspapers wich are concerned about losing local advertisng revenue to the net.

Logically, media buyers will consider local content sites when selecting on behalf of a locally oriented advertiser, i.e. one who particularly wants visitors from a particular location or those who have an interest in a locale. Under these circumstances, fewer visitors who are more likely to be prime prospects for specific retailers, travel options, local festivals or entertainment are more valuable.

Wednesday, June 24, 1998

Who, if any companies are selling several mediums (such
as radio, tv, newspaper, billboard, direct mail, etc.
as one big package to advertisers/agencies?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, June 26, 1998)

The Guru does not believe there are any such companies. True giants like Time-Warner or Disney ABC may own properties across such a broad spectrum, but aren't selling such complex packages, as far as the Guru is aware.

Wednesday, June 24, 1998

What kind of advice could you give someone who is just starting out with online advertising?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, June 26, 1998)

Are you starting out selling online advertising, buying / planning online advertising, using online advertising to build your business or building a web site to be supported by advertising?

Your question could have so many implications.
However, the Guru's advice would be similar in most of these cases. Begin with a major firm well established or connected to traditional marketing. The greatest weakness the Guru sees in the online field is a lack of the ability to discuss marketing / advertising in industry terms, so that a general agency or traditional marketer interested in adding online elements to a plan can make neccessary decisions.

Granted, online has distinct and valuable aspects, but explaining these in comparable terms vs traditional marketing makes the advantages clear.

Or, not everything on-line is a concept sell, there are still quantitative realities to address.

Tuesday, June 23, 1998

When prototyping a magazine (for comp, coverage and R/F purposes), to compare the prototyped pub with magazines measured in MRI, JD Powers, etc., is there an industry standard when taking 50% of one magazine and 50% of another magazine for use as the prototype? There are two options I foresee, simply averaging the two comps and applying the average to the prototyped mags total audience, or weighting the average to take into consideration each publications readership trends. Which is more standard and what are the pros and cons of each option?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, June 26, 1998)

In the Guru's opinion, readership trends need not come into the picture. When you prototype, you are making a judgement that a given magazine's audience make-up is going to be comparable to the prototyped book, based on having similar editorial content and targeting. Size, as in circulation trends is less relevant. One factor is that larger circulation books tend to have lower readers-per-copy, since there are more copies available in proportion to the prospective total audience.

In any case, composition and duplication are the keys, so if the Guru were going to give any weighting to the two model titles, he would emphasize one with a similar circulation.

Tuesday, June 23, 1998

Dear Guru,
1)I have heard the concepts "awareness" and "response curve"
But I need more detailed explanations for them. E.g.
what kind of researches are needed, how to judge the
findings, how to use these results to improve/evaluate
a tv ad. schedule...
2) What do you think about "conversion factor" which
represents an index in terms of ratings for a target
based on another one. The point makes me unconvinied
with this concept is: Some targets are heavy wievers
and some are not. But there is nothing for these differences
in the "conversion" calculation.
Thank you..zrb

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 25, 1998)

1) Awareness and response curve can both have more than one meaning. Advertising awareness is a result of quantitative, random sample survey research, where questions are asked to determine whether respondents can recall ads for a prodcut and/or what elements of the advertising they recall, e.g. copy points, which medium was seen, etc.

There is unaided awareness, i.e. "When you think of toothpaste, what brands' advertising have you seen?" and

Aided awareness, i.e. Which of these brands' advertisng have you seen?

  • Colgate
  • Crest
  • Aquafresh
  • Mentadent
  • Other

There is also brand awareness, considered without regard to advertising.("What brands of toothpaste are you familiar with?")

Response curve too, can mean many things. The "curve" part just refers to plotting on a graph with one axis representing some form of behavior such as purchase, purchase intent, ad recall, brand awareness versus another axis representing some stimulus, such as advertising weight or promotional effort.

2)Conversion factor does explicitly account for differences in viewing behavior between one target and the next. For example, if a certain program or daypart has an average Household rating of 10.0 and an average women 18-49 rating of a 6.4, and an average Men 18-24 rating of 2.5 there is a conversion factor of .64 for the W18-49 and a factor of .25 for the M18-24.

This difference is because of the difference of heaviness of viewing of the specific programming by these demographics. Their general heaviness of viewing relating to any other dayparts is irrelevant here.

Monday, June 22, 1998

Are you aware of any research on right hand page vs.
left hand page in magazine advertising?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 25, 1998)

Roper-Starch's Starch services compare many content and positioning aspects of print copy. Newsweek
Media Research Index
should have some compilations.

Monday, June 22, 1998

Do you know of any awareness tracking studies or models that relate recall by medium to purchase intent? Would it be feasible to carry out this kind of effectiveness study to determine what kind of results a media placement agency is delivering to clients?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 25, 1998)

No doubt some users of recall tests have made an effort to relate recall to sales or purchase intent. This involves using their own, proprietary test scores and sales data. It is possible that the Advertising Research Foundation Library or the archives of their Journal of Advertising Research or conference presentations include the sort of analysis you need.

However, whether this is a basis for judging the performance of a media service is another question altogether. Has the media service been instructed to buy for optimal recall? Has the media service been instructed to buy to optimize purchase intent? In the Guru's experience, these are rarely part of the media goals conveyed to a buyer. More often, buying efficiently or to achieve a reach, frequency or effective reach goal is the instruction.

Further, if you wish to make recall or purchase intent your standard of evaluation, it only makes sense if you share the model you wish to use with your buying service

Sunday, June 21, 1998

Who is british airways target group and in what publications do they advertise?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 25, 1998)

titive Media Reports)
is the resource which reports magazine advertising schedules.

Once you see the schedule, you can begin to form an opinion about the target. Reading the actual ads will help.

Sunday, June 21, 1998

I'm considering a job offer, client-side, and am
wondering what spot tv software is used by Y&R, SF.

Just trying to update my knowledge base without getting
to personal with the hiring company and their agency-

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 25, 1998)

This seems to the Guru to be a perfectly appropriate and intelligent question to ask of the head hunter or prospective employer.

The Guru can't possibly keep track of the software used by every agency, office-by-office.

Saturday, June 20, 1998

One of my clients would like to sell pottery/teapots
made by local artists in the Seattle area. We have
decided that the internet is the best way to sell them,
but we do not know if our sales projections are
accurate. We need at least 10 sales per month in order
to break even. Is this a realistic goal? We would
like to start with simply registering on the search
engines and maybe running a banner ad on a wedding
web site. Do you think that we will be able to get
at least 10 sales per month with this limitted type
of advertising?

Stewart McCullough

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 25, 1998)

There is no reasonable way to predict sales for such a product. Many sites selling computer related goods or broad-appeal goods like books and CDs are very successful. The reputation and quality of the product and how persuasive the selling message are surely more influential factors than just the selection of the medium.

Friday, June 19, 1998


The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, June 20, 1998)

The principal user-centric web measures are MediaMetrix , Relevant Knowledge and Net Ratings.

Many sites, including AMIC , are rich in content about the internet. The most prolific are probably C/Net , ZD Net and CMP Net ,

Thursday, June 18, 1998

Is there a threshold at which you maximize on reach (TV) at a certain weight level?

I am purchasing a high concentration of grps (60% in prime / 20% in news/prime access / 20% early morning/daytime/late night) in excess of 300 Ad 18-49 GRP's per week for 4 weeks. Running R&F against such a plan shows reach at 99% --- which I feel is impossible.

Isn't the threshold of maxing out on reach at 96%?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, June 19, 1998)

The typical, short term cume study gives a 96% top end. But 99% of Homes have TV so a 99 reach is theoretically possible.

Since either 96 or 99 is the result of all TV collectively, a very heavy plan is required to achieve it, especially in today's fragmented TV environment, where cable has so great a share of viewing.

For your schedule, even 96 is probably somewhat high. If your R&F system is unsophisticated, outdated or unable to adjust to the number of weeks in the schedule, that may explain the high result you are getting.

Tuesday, June 16, 1998

We are a California-based Ad Agency. Is Spot TV billed with sales tax, from out of state (or indeed, in-state)? If so why, and if not, why not.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, June 19, 1998)

State tax rules vary from state to state. Advertising is not usually subject to sales tax. Once, a few years ago Florida decided to tax ad sales. The entire industry began moving conventions and production business out of the state, so that the tax was quickly dropped.

It becomes a very complex issue, based on audience rather than the sales transaction, with only the portion of audience locally delivered considered taxable by the courts. National publications based in Florida were creating special editions without Florida circulation, to avoid the taxes.

Tuesday, June 16, 1998

Looking for info on integrated marketing (Advertising/pr/+ mix) to sell concept to clients. any thoughts? any research I can find? thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 25, 1998)

The Advertising Research Foundation Library and Newsweek
Media Research Index
are the Guru's favorite resources for this sort of info. You may also find Ad Age and American Demographics helpful.

Monday, June 15, 1998

what is tgi

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 25, 1998)

According to its site, TGI ". . . is a single-source survey of consumer habits, covering in one questionnaire the product use, media consumption and attitudes of adults
age 15-plus in the UK. It was first conducted in 1969, and has been in continuous annual publication since then.

It is used by advertisers, their agencies and media owners to understand more about their markets and to provide an independent benchmark of media
performance. All data is available to subscribers electronically. . ."

Other countries are also studied. The U.S. version closed many years ago

Monday, June 15, 1998

what is the direct spenditure of children from their pocket money

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 25, 1998)

The Guru thinks it unlikely that such data could be validly compiled. More possible might be finding out the average pocket-money allowance children receive. Try contacting a children's oriented magazine like Parents', which may have researched the question.

Monday, June 15, 1998

Dear Guru:
Interactive shops are being created and merged more
frequently lately. Is there a current comprehensive
list of the various interactive shops/agencies that
exist in NYC? If so, do they describe the shop and
provide a contact? Please help me media guru!!!

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 25, 1998)

The Guru has seen a listing of interactive agencies published in AdWeek, but it was neither NY focused nor comprehensive. AMIC itself lists some in the Web Sites area under "ad placement on the web." Peobably the best lsiting would be maintained by major, NY-based web site's ad sales departments, such as CMPNet orZDNet

Friday, June 12, 1998

Can anyone give me a brief update on the progress of digital tv in the USA

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 25, 1998)

As of November, some U.S. stations will begin broadcasting a digital signal. There will be few receivers at that time, and receiver prices will be so high ($8000+)that growth of the digital audience will be slow for a while.

Thursday, June 11, 1998

A] How can a newspaper and a magazine be analysed for their advertising effectiveness on parameters such as
1. Reproduction quality
2. Clutter level
3. Editorial content

B] Suppose 20 magazines and newspapers are being analysed, can each one be rated according to the above parameters?

c] What is the method of rating these publications?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 25, 1998)

Any analysis of advertising effectiveness against such standards has two elements

  • an effectiveness measure and
  • a quantification of the standard

Sales tracking, purchase intent research or recall studies might be appropriate as the effectiveness measure.

As to the parameters of the media, you would probably want to develop your own scales of judgement as objectively as possible. For example, if you rate reproduction quality on a scale of 1 to 10, and compare the ratings for ads of several campaigns to their scores on your effectiveness scale, perhaps using a regression analysis in a spreadsheet program, you can see the correlation of the variables.

Thursday, June 11, 1998

what is recency planning

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, June 24, 1998)

The Guru has discussed recency a half-dozen or more time this year. Please return to the Guru main page and select the Archive / search engine to find "recency" topics. Or simply use your <ctrl>-F or browser Find function to locate "receny" references on this page.

Wednesday, June 10, 1998

I have two questions:
1. Is there a publication (print or electronic) of brand and product managers?
2. Is there a publication (print or electronic) similar to Red Books that has information on advertisers and where they spend their money regionally?

Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, June 10, 1998)


The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies has an advertisers' book similar to the Agency Directory.

There is also Adweek's Client Directory

To find spending by region, CMR (Competitive Media Reports) is the resource to try.

Wednesday, June 10, 1998

What web sites would you recommend to target producers and post producers in the film industry? Their online knnowledge would lend them to use the internet as a resource, and we would like to target them with ad banners. Any suggestions are welcome. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, June 20, 1998)

It's really up to you to think of what categories of information might be of interest to your target, which seems quite small, and then to use search engines, such as Yahoo, to find related sites.

Wednesday, June 10, 1998

what are the press evaluation softwares being used in the USA and Europe ? What about Asia?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, June 10, 1998)

The research vendors themselves, for example Simmons and MRI in the U.S., often offer software of their own. Planners generally do better with a "suite" that can evaluate all media together. AMIC's sister company, Telmar, is the leading provider of such press evaluation as well as all-media software for the U.S., Europe and Asia

Wednesday, June 10, 1998

Dear Guru,
Is there any way to compare between the quantity of a campaign GRPs to the purchase intentions?
For example: if we did a campaign of 1000 GRPs, and the post test results show that 50% intend to buy the product
(a new product that was just penetrated).Is there any criteria that I can use to evaluate the "value" of each
rating point according to its influence on the purchase intentions or on the aided / unaided awareness?
I know that the purchase intentions and all other post-test results are a results of lots of other factors
as the message itself, the frequency, the product itself etc. Still, I wonder if you can help me to focus on the connection / correlation
between the GRPs quantity and the slots mix to the purchase intentions (The competitor's campaign had the same sum of GRPs but most
of it in off prime, unlike ours that was about 50% in prime time, and this difference had a meaningful effect on the purchase intentions.
Can I "prove" the correlation between slots mix and purchase intentions?
Thak you very much!

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, June 20, 1998)

The Guru could rule the world if GRP's had a simple direct relationship to purchase intent, or sales, etc. If advertising copy quality or unit length or programming made no difference, as your theory would require, there would be no creative "stars" in agencies and The biggest agency might have a one-person media department.

To approximate what you are looking for, if purchase intent is measured at enough different points of enough different schedules, then a graph relating GRP to intent can be created. It will only be approximately predictive because it ignores all those other variables the Guru mentioned.

Tuesday, June 09, 1998

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, June 10, 1998)

Tuesday, June 09, 1998

I have been assigned the task of putting together an internet plan.
I haven't the first clue where to start. Let me give you a little
background. My client is a local hospital that is interesedt in marketing
to business owners/presidnets/ceo's/human resource director/benfits administors.
The ojective is to create top of mind awareness that our hospital is the hospital of choice
when selecting Health Plans. Again, this is a local client. Please can you give me some
direction. Where do I start. Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, June 10, 1998)

There is very little research available on internet audience at the micro-geographic level. There is very little available that might cover a segment as small as president / ceo / HR director. The Guru is saying "very little" while really thinking "probably nothing."

MediaMetrix or Relevant Knowledge are most likely to have some pertinent information.

  • Presidents and CEO's are generally found to be the last people in their companies to be computer users.
  • The internet is inherently a non-geographic medium since the entire nation and world have equal access to any web site, and a hospital has a relatively tiny service area

  • Some major markets do have extensive, multi-purpose local sites, and

  • some sites have the ability to serve an ad based on the location of the visitor. This is severely compromised by such problems as all AOL users appearing to be located in Virginia. Other national internet providers' customers carry the same sort of obscured location.
  • Ideally, you might find ad-bearing sites which appeal to business and HR managers which can tell you where, geographically, their visitors come from, or local interest sites which, by virtue of registration know the business role of their visitors.

Generally, the Guru does not believe that local retail advertisers with very narrow targets will find the internet to be an efficient or effective advertising vehicle, compared to traditional local business media, such as Crain's or The Network of City Business Journals

Tuesday, June 09, 1998

how do i calculate reach of TV+PRESS, Is there a formula

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 09, 1998)

As a rule, TV and press are thought to duplicate in a random pattern. That is, the random duplication formula is appropriate. The reach of each medium is treated as a decimal. To calculate net reach, we combine the probabilty of each medium's NOT reaching the target, to get the combined probability of neither reaching the target. The remaining people are the ones reached.

The formula works as follows when TV reach is 45 and press reach is 37.

People not reached by TV would be 0.55 of the target

People not reached by press would be 0.63 of target

Total people NOT reached are 0.55 x 0.63 or

0.35 of target.

The remainder of target is reached (1.0 - 0.35 = 0.65)

so reach is 65

Monday, June 08, 1998

First of all, this is a great service. Thank you.

I recently, heard a client say that they did not want
any rotators or orbits as part of their broadcast buy.
Can you please define rotators and orbits.
Thank you, in advance, for your help.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, June 08, 1998)

Rotator and orbit are descriptions of broad daypart or timeperiod schedules for a purchased spot.

A Prime Rotator, for example, is a spot purchased to run anytime during the week in prime time, that is, Monday to Saturday, 8PM to 11 pm and Sunday 7PM to 11 PM.

Your client prefers to know that his spot will be in Seinfeld or Everybody Loves Raymond.

Thursday, June 04, 1998

I would appreciate any information that you can give me regarding impact weighting ratios. I need to do an exercise comparing ratings for TV, radio, outdoor and cinema and I believe that there is an international standard that I can apply. I am writing from South Africa. Many thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 04, 1998)

The Guru is not aware of any international standard. Comparing the impact of various media is either based on research or on judgement. Because media are consumed differently in different countries, the relative impact would differ. For example, there is very little cinema advertising in the U.S. and not even a ratings standard for that medium.

Wednesday, June 03, 1998

Where can I find a resource like SRDS that does have such high fees?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, June 03, 1998)

MRI is going to be releasing a similar data set on CD-Rom, using web-like hypertext, covering consumer magazines. It will be free.

In the Guru's estimation, Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) isn't priced very high relative to the amount of data it offers. Unfortunately, many users at smaller agencies or advertisers don't feel they need most of the data in any one SRDS category.

Wednesday, June 03, 1998

how much more effective is an exposure on print compared to TV in case of consumer durables?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, June 03, 1998)

A TV exposure is generally more effective than a print exposure. However:

  • There can be very bad TV executions and very good print executions, which outweigh the general rule.
  • A TV :15 may not be more effective than a 4 color bleed gatefold off the 2nd cover.
  • Media plans don't usually operate in an exposure vs exposure mode. A given budget might buy 25 TV exposures for every print exposure or vice versa, depending on ad units, programming, geographic coverage, etc.

Tuesday, June 02, 1998

I am looking for a range of CPMs for Internet advertising.
My media director claims they fall between $5 and $30,
I believe them to be slightly higher. She is also claiming
that a huge number of advertisers are forcing sites, etc
to sell by clickthrus, I don't buy in to that. Is there
any place where I can get statistics on this?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 02, 1998)

On the largest, general audience sites, for significant orders, $5 - $30 is a reasonable range. For smaller, but more targeted sites with specialized audiences, up to $80 or more is to be expected. Special positions, linking to search keywords, etc. can call for premium pricing over the site's base cpm.

Tuesday, June 02, 1998

what are the best universities in the U.s for media research and media management studies ?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 02, 1998)

Some of the better schools, in terms of emphasis on media research are University of Texas at Austin, Florida State and University of Florida.

Monday, June 01, 1998

Dear Guru,
I have a local client who is looking at gradually expanding into the US / European business markets. They are looking to gradually start generating awareness in these areas. The target market is businesses / individuals interested in doing business in Africa. We have been asked to compile a report onthe following:
a) Media choices - TV vs. Print etc
b) Broadcast sponsorship opportunities (Sport, business programming etc.)
c) Advertising Costs and potential reach, frequency for campaigns in these markets.

Which medium / combination of media should they be looking at initially, and why?
Where do I source information on global rates, audiences, trends?
Thanks for a great service!

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 02, 1998)

You may refer to Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) for the U.S. media lists and Intrernational Media Guide for Europe.

You may find that trends are best assessed by reviewing the archives of each country's ad trade media, such as Ad Age in the U.S. or Campaign in the U.K.

If you can get the media factbooks compiled by major international agencies like Saatchi (Cordiant) or Young & Rubicam, there will be convenient trend data presented.

Saturday, May 30, 1998

what is the history of print media?.where does it stand today?.what it will be its future,say ten years time from now.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 02, 1998)

The question is so broad that no meaningful answer is possible. Since you are writing for India, the relevant history may be different than for other countries.

Print advertising, in the from of signs goes back many hundreds of years. The ruins of Pompei contained signs advertisng businesses and prostitutes.

Not long after Gutenberg created moveable type, Newspapers were invented, and newspaper advertising is almost as old, probably over 300 years.

Print today has different strengths in different countries and cultures within those countries.

Where broadcast media are not government owned and there are stron freedom of the press laws, combined with high literacy rates, print stands well in relation to other media.

Where government control of broadcast media is strong and the press is free, print is realtively stronger. Where literacy is lower, print is weaker.

The Guru does not see much ov this changing in ten years. In the U.S., for instance, there is research which shows that no more than 50% of adults are ever likley to participate in the internet as we now know it. If Broadcast and cable TV continue to fight for the same audience, print will remain stable.

In other countries, if litereacy is on the rise, print will likely prosper, if nothing changes about broadcast/ The irony about the "TV-like" internet, is that it does require literacy to use effectively.

Friday, May 29, 1998

I really appreciate this section of your web site. It is
a great idea!

I deal with network radio. We produce 2-minute radio
vignettes for advertisers. Each vignette includes sixty-
seconds of entertaining new content that relates to the
advertiser's product and sixty-seconds for their commercial.
The content of each feature is designed to help to sell
the product.

When trying to determine the CPP for a 2-minute vignette
like ours, would you consider the vignette to be a 2-minute
commercial (two :60s) or would you consider each vignette
to only contain one sixty-second commercial?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 02, 1998)

CPP is a simple calculation. Divide cost by rating. Length is not a factor. Sometimes buyers will create a special cpm adjustment based on length to compare different units.

If your content is a message about the specific product, you could count the whole 120 seconds. This makes no difference, except in the buyer's special case, mentioned above. Or, you can treat it as two :60's, which does make a difference, because the cost is then divided between the two commercials.

If, on the other hand, it is just related content, such as the history of shoe shines, to accompany a shoe polish commercial, then it is just a supportive environment, and not typically counted as a commercial message.

Friday, May 29, 1998

I had a representative try to sell me a sports package with "O.T.O" spots.
What does O.T.O. stand for.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 02, 1998)

O.T.O. stands for "One Time Only," meant to distinguish from multi-unit, sponsorship involvement.

Friday, May 29, 1998

how to increase traffic to one's site? also please provide me with some marketing ideas to do the same.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 02, 1998)

The Guru believes there are three essential ways to increase site traffic:

  1. Search engine listings
  2. Advertising in traditional media
  3. On-line advertising, which may be banners, links from other sites or mentions in Usenet ewsgroups or listserve discussion lists.

There is likely to be a cost involved in the latter two, though links can often be secured by a link exchange.

Friday, May 29, 1998

1.what is osto's model?
2.In case of an absence of duplication data for publications, how do l calculate
the effective reach using 2 or more media vehicles? in such a scenario, is it safe
to use the random theory even if multiple readership is negligible?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 02, 1998)

1) The Guru is not familiar with Osto's model. It may be specific to India, from where you are writing.

2) The Random method is a starting point. If you can find two other similar publications with measured duplication, you can use the duplication ratio from those publications. If you literally mean "effective reach," that is, reach at or above a minimum exposure level, then you need a more complex formula or a computer program like Telmar's ADplus.

Thursday, May 28, 1998

A comparison of TV versus Radio versus Outdoor in a developing country, namely South Africa, context.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 02, 1998)

You are asking for the entire contents of a major text. There are certain aspects of these media which are intrinsic, and do not depend on the country:

  • TV offers sight, sound and motion and can demonstrate products better.
  • Radio is sound only but can call upon the imagination perhaps more strongly than TV.
  • Outdoor can convey only brief messages, but has powerful visuals. In a developing country, literacy will be a factor in assessing the value of outdoor.

Beyond such basics, every country will vary, as will sub segments within that country. If the Guru offered generalizations about the English language South African market, they might not apply to the Afrikaans segment.

In different cultures, the relative strengths and audience accumulation patterns of media vary, depending upon availability, penetration, language/literacy factors and much more.

Thursday, May 28, 1998

I know that the Research Company that produces ratings weights its panel data by, say, 5 age categories - 16-24, 24-34, 35-44, 44-55, 55+. The software allows to construct any age group. If I create a group of 20-30, would I get correct data on viewing behavior? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 02, 1998)

To some extent this will depend on details of the study and the software, which you have not provided. Even though individual years of age may have the broader age cell's weight assigned, one can still approximate the viewing for cells you create.

Thursday, May 28, 1998

1.Please, where can I find "Archives" by topic?

2.I have seen a table showing Awareness Level correlat
ed to Target GRPs.Could you, please, tell me how they
estimate Awareness Level?

3. I also have seen a table showing Audience engagement
in various activities when average commercial is aired.
Would you, please, tell me how the information is obtain
ed? Is it from a national panel? If yes, does this panel
also provide audience data? Thank you, Inocima.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 02, 1998)

1) The Guru Archives may be accessed from their link on the Media Guru Page. In the next few days, we will be adding a search engine to allow you to find all all past Guru answers on the topics of your choice.

2) The Guru isn't familiar with the table you have seen. Since you are writing from Brazil, it could be based on research totally unfamiliar to the Guru. The proper way for such a table to have been created would use just estimates of awareness, but actual survey results. An advertiser or agency which has conducted many awareness studies and correlated them with actual GRP's of the plans running in synchronization with the studies could create such a table.

In fact, just a few actual measurements could be the basis of a table if it is assumed that the awareness / GRP relationship follows some sort of curve as does the Reach / GRP relationship. The Guru is familiar with one formula for predicting awareness based on GRP, which came from analyzing several plans and surveys. In essence, it predicted that when there was any significant starting awareness, awareness declined in any week where there were less than 100 GRP.

3) Again, Brazil's audience engagement data is not familiar to the Guru. In the U.S. such data usually comes from secondary sources such as our Simmons or MRI, which ask these questions but are primarily print audience and product usage studies.

Wednesday, May 27, 1998

Quick question....do you have any suggestions on a specific book or person I could gleen information from about buying national network television and radio? The kind of how-to/phylosophy type stuff you can find anywhere when talking about local spot..???

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, June 01, 1998)

The Guru does not know of any worthwhile book on the topic. It would be better to search the archives of Ad Age and MediaWeek for articles written by the major buyers and media strategists. There have been many good ones, especially now, with optimizers all over the news. The Guru particularly likes Erwin Ephron's work. See his paper on the Telmar Awards Papers pages.

Tuesday, May 26, 1998

We have a client who is considering terminating
all spot TV advertising in markets where he has
provided support for the past couple of years. His
thinking is that additional advertising here would be
wasteful as he feels that his sales have now optimized
and he would experience bigger growth by diverting
these funds into new expansion markets. Is there any
research that says he should continue to provide
support in the original markets for fear that he would be risking
experience a high degree of share erosion by pulling
the advertising there?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, May 26, 1998)

There are a lot of "ifs".

IF the spot TV is the only advertising in the old markets, it seems too obvious to discuss that he will lose share without the advertising, IF we assume advertising correlates with sales at all, which we must since we are in the advertising business.

So the question is whether the sales in new markets will be greater than the lost sales in the old markets. IF the new markets can be bought more efficiently than the old markets, then there is a good chance that they will eventually be more productive than the old, after we establish awareness in those markets.

On the other hand, what kind of product is it? IF it is a product that everyone only buys once or rarely over a lifetime, like sodding a lawn, or cemetary plots, and the old markets are deemed saturated, then it will be easy for new markets to show a better ROI than the old.

But, IF the spot TV is just part of a mix including national media, then this become a very complex question. The Advertising Research Foundation library would be the best place to look for research on the topic.

Monday, May 25, 1998

what is A.C.Nielson's ?.Are they into web related business.Do they function as some sort of auditing web hit figures?.Please clarify.Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, May 26, 1998)

A.C. Nielsen is the original name of the marketing and media research company which has been divided into A.C. Nielsen the company, according to them, offers "services in over 90 countries and with 1995 revenues of $1.4 billion, is a global leader in delivering market
research, information and analysis to the consumer products and
service industries."

Neilsen Media Research is the company you are probably interested in. They say: "Nielsen Media Research is a company of Cognizant Corporation. It's primary concern is media measurement across the United States and Canada."

AC Nielsen does the same in the most of the rest of the world.

Neilsen Media Research offers several internet measurement services, but the web site auditing service you want is probably
Nielsen I/Pro

Monday, May 25, 1998

what are the types of advertisement carried out in online other than banner advts.?.what are jump pages and interstitials in online

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, May 26, 1998)

Banners are the most common. The term is used to refer to any less-than-full-page advertisement placed on a web page. Other on-line media, such as e-mail has other ad froms such as simple text ads.

A "jump page" is one form of interstitial. The term "Interstitial" in common terms just means something that is in the gap between two other things. So a web interstitial is a page where you go by clicking on a banner, before actually arriving on an advertiser's web site. This is done because web sites are often about companies in genreal terms and do not do the selling job of an actual ad.

A jump page is typically understood to be a static page with ad copy and a link on top the site. When called an interstitial, it is more often animated in some way or automatically sends the visitor on to the website of the advertiser.

Monday, May 25, 1998

our website attracts 1.1 million hits a day.our server is in u.s.a.In recent times a lot of our advertisers start asking demographic and psychographic profile of our reader.And also informations on impression,page view, ad view ,visitor, click-through ratio etc.please enlighten me if they data can be generated,if so who can do these things?.,our server or the I.T.professionals working with us.Also please send me the mode of collecting those informations.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, May 26, 1998)

"Hits" literally means entries in a site's server log. A server log entry is made for every file requested by a visitor to a site, as well as for every error, such as incorrect page requests within the site.

One page request, that is, one occasion on which a visitor requests a specific page of a site, may generate 10 or more "hits," since each gif or jpg image file for buttons or navigational images is a file, as is each text page. No one really counts hits as traffic anymore, page requests are the gauge of impressions.

Reading your server log carefully can tell you all about page requests, ad views, clicks, etc. But with over a million hits daily that would quickly become tedious. AMIC uses software called "Hitlist" from MarketWave to produce this analysis. There are several companies that offer comparable services and products.

Saturday, May 23, 1998

I am looking for any guidelines / research about:
1- number of spots for radio (sustaining level, 50% heavy up, 100% heavy up
2 - if I have continues strategy what maximum gap of not being on air may I allow without harm to sales (one week, two, three?)
3 - in my country (Russia) we have practice in outdoor not to place competitors on two opposite sides of billboard, ahzt I think is not correct, as each face of billboard works for different directions and can not compete with each other. What is the practice regarding this in other countries. Thank you very much.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, May 26, 1998)

1) The Guru doesn't judge radio effectiveness in terms of numbers of spots. If one schedule of 12 spots, for example, has an average rating of 0.5 (one-half of 1 percent of the target audience), which is common, it cannot be considered equal to another station's 12 spots with an average rating of 2.5 (also reasonable for top stations in the US). The first accumulates 6 GRPs and might reach 3% of the target, the second accumulates 30 GRPs and might reach 12-15% of the target.

So GRPs' or other audience measure are more realistic ways to determine levels. Having done this, if you determine that 100 GRPs, for example, is the correct sustaining level, then by simple arithmetic, 50% heavy-up is 150 GRPs and 100% heavy-up is 200 GRPs

2) Awareness begins to decline as soon as there is any advertising gap. Current thinking is that sales of a continuously purchased product are better supported by continuity at whatever level is affordable rather than an arbitrary minimum effective weekly level, separated by periods of inactivty. The U.S.'s Advertising Research Foundation has considerable literature on the topic and so might ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research organization

3) The Guru agrees with you regarding opposite sides of a billboard. The competitive protection policies the Guru is familiar with in the U.S. only deal with advertising seen by the same audience, that is, traffic headed in the same direction. Usually there will be a certain range specified, such as "Within 500 feet" for metropolitan 8-sheet boards, which are about 5x12 feet and can be placed in dense concentration within cities.

Saturday, May 23, 1998

how to price online advertising,especially banner advts.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, May 23, 1998)

CPM impressions pricing runs from $8 to $80 depending on audience "quality" and targeting, but see the Guru's recent answer to this question below, on May 11.

Thursday, May 21, 1998

Gurus, thanks for the extraordinary service and the opportunity to bounce ideas/ask questions of media experts.

My question has to do with screen advertising...those sometimes tacky slides shown in movie theatres before the previews, before the movie. I know one needs to consider the audience size, demographics and psychographics (dictated by the movie shown). Do you have any input or research on the effectiveness of this kind of advertising? Anything on the environment (actual, plus the advertising environment) in which the messages are presented? Any guidelines as regards pricing? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, May 21, 1998)

In the Guru's experience, the "tacky slides" are likely to be ads by small, local advertisers. Tracking of results by these advertisers is not likley to ne available. On the other hand, the full scale, filmed commercials are usually handled by major reps, like Cinespot (212-679-2000) or Screenvision (212-752-5744), who would have research data available.

These are also the best resources for price estimates. The Guru would anticipate a broad target cpm in the $20 range, depending on several variables.

Wednesday, May 20, 1998

Dear Media Guru,

I am developing and producing a short radio feature for barter syndication. On what basis do syndicators
typically set their ad rates? I realize that the rates
may be highly negotiable but are there any common
formulas (based on CPM, CPP or some other data)
used by syndicators to arrive at an "asking price"?
Also, can you recommend any resources helpful in
developing and marketing syndicated radio
programming? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 20, 1998)

Some of the issues in syndicated programming pricing are:

  • CPM or CPP better than spot radio pricing for similar audience size

  • Possible premium for an attractive program environment.

  • %U.S. coverage

There are numerous radio syndication companies, handling everything from Rush Limbaugh to obscure musical formats. One good way to solicit response from -- or tips about -- the right resource would be to post a message about your program to the "Radio Media" discussion list. Send your request to join the discussion to RADIO-MEDIA@adsong.com

Tuesday, May 19, 1998

What is the average number of bookmarks that an Internet user has? What are some of the most frequently bookmarked sites?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 20, 1998)

According to a September, 1996, I/Pro press release at Cyberatlas the median number of bookmarks was 40.

According to a leadeing web audience measurement service,
MediaMetrix,as of March 1998 the status is as follows for home PC users:

Top 15 Bookmark Sites
At Home -- March '98

  • yahoo.com

  • microsoft.com
  • nasa.gov
  • netscape.com
  • zdnet.com
  • aol.com
  • cmu.com
  • ustreas.gov
  • uiuc.edu
  • sportszone.com
  • mit.edu
  • loc.gov
  • realaudio.com
  • disney.com
  • whitehouse.gov

Average bookmarks per PC: 77.48

Monday, May 18, 1998

how will media segmentation affect media planning ?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, May 18, 1998)

"Media Segmentation" is a two edged sword. Highly segmented (fragmented) media allows better targeting. But, at the same time, it works against building higher reach levels.

A clever plan will find the best compromise between these two.

The current, "recency" approach to planning can take advantage of the efficiency of reaching lower levels of target consumers on a more continuous basis.

Thursday, May 14, 1998

Dear Guru, what is bases testing or basis testing?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, May 14, 1998)

From the BASES site:

"BASES Worldwide is the world leader in helping marketers ...

... estimate the likely sales volume of initiatives before market entry,

... diagnose the key drivers of and limiters to the sales volume potential,

... improve the sales and profit potential of their efforts."

There are 5 or 6 different models used depending on marketers' needs and goals.

Thursday, May 14, 1998

Dear Guru,
There are two questions I wish to address to you:
1. Is there any rule of thumb regarding the weight of 10'' spots? How effective can a relatively 'small' campaign composed chiefly of such short spots can be? By a small campaign I mean one that has arounc 300-400 GRP.
2. When it comes to factors that either enhance or lessen the effectiveness of a campaign, are there any conventions regarding the use of relevant factors? The order in a break may be a more familiar example but there are other factors that one may incorporate to a media plan, e.g whether the commercial is new or not.

Thank you so much for the attention
Iris Kalka
Pelled3 Communications

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, May 14, 1998)

1) The Guru's rule of thumb in general, is if the effectiveness - relative to a :30 - is better than the price ratio, a :10 can be a good investment. In the early days of :15s in the U.S., they were evaluated as about 75% as effective as :30s, and sold for 50%, so they were popular. The Guru believes he has seen research to say a :10 is worth 75% of a :15.

However, you are posting from Israel. Your local standards may be different, because of the different culture and different media environment, clutter, media mix, etc. If you can ascertain a local effectiveness ratio, you can make an informed decision.

In any case, the Guru believes these short executions are best used as a supplement to longer copy. The Guru does not believe most creative people would be comfortable with only :10 copy and just 300-400 GRP.

2) The number of factors, such as break position, age of commercial, complexity of message, product interest, etc, which can be influential is almost infinite. The relative influence is a judgement call. Evaluating through a logical process, by establishing your rules and executing them, is best.

The Guru has seen these factors used to develop an effective frequency basis for a media plan's communication goals. In this way all considerations come down to a single number.

Thursday, May 14, 1998

we are in the process of recommending to a new client a media strategy
that will help him sell more olives and cucumbers (both products in
either can and glass containers). The client has a large marketshare,
about 42%. Neither this client nor competitors have ever advertised
their products. In this respect the category has been rather dormant.
What guidelines can you provide regarding a 3 year plan. Since the
company name is very well known, does it make sense, for example, to
'fortify' TV advertising with radio? Providing that radio has very good
reach, is there a synergetic effect with TV or is the money better spent
in one media?
Thank you
Irene Kol

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, May 14, 1998)

Modern thinking for such products emphasizes reach over frequency.
It is more important to have some presence at any time that a purchaser might be making a purchase decision, than to drive reach to high levels (with more frequency) over a short campaign.

One guideline tha comes from this is to make a media mix more valuable, since a secondary medium almost always adds more reach than additional investment in the base medium.

Assuming then that you can afford an acceptable minimum continuous level of TV, addding radio will be wise.

No matter your client's awareness and market share, the first entry into advertising in this category will probably change the picture.

Wednesday, May 13, 1998

Is there any research regarding the value of a
radio remote vs. a regular maintenance schedule.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 13, 1998)

The Radio Advertising Bureau (RAB) compiles information of this kind.

Tuesday, May 12, 1998

I am a interactive media planner currently tracking a
buy via a third-party ad server. When comparing the
results from one site with the third-party server, the
difference between the impression delivery and clicks
is enormous (about a 600 click difference). My third-
party sales rep says that this particular site counts
clicks that are generated by robots and spiders. I
did not know that spiders were clicking on banners???
Please help me make sense of this Guru!

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, May 12, 1998)

Perhaps he said the site counts impressions generated by robots and spiders.

Since Clicks must always be less than Impressions, only that version would explain robots and spiders increasing the discrepancy.

Monday, May 11, 1998

Is this any accepted measurement standard in place to effectively price web-page advertising?
Also, has any service been able to obtain more direct response information, re:web-site hyperlinks, other than just counting "hits"?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, May 11, 1998)

Web (banner) advertising is typically priced in one of 4 ways:

  • CPM- (cost per thousand ad exposures)

  • Flat fee ( usually calculated, by the seller, and compared, by the buyer, on an exposure basis)

  • Cost per click ( based on the number of times the banner gets clicked by a visitor to the site where it is displayed)

    This is not a very reasonable method, since the responsibility for making the copy attractive enough to stimulate clicks and fresh enough to keep stimulating clicks properly belongs with the advertiser, not the medium
  • Transactional ( where the payments to the site are based on the visitor's action when arriving at the advertiser's site; including making a purchase, requesting information, or navigating within the advertiser's site)

"Nobody" really counts "hits" anymore. Page exposures of the site and exposures of ads are the coin of the realm.

The latter two models above are direct response measures.

Monday, May 11, 1998

Is there a correlation between GRP levels and awareness? If so, what GRP levels are recommended to significantly effect awareness? The category I'm looking at (long term care insurance) has low consumer awareness, and a high avoidance

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, May 11, 1998)

In its simplest terms, there is a correlation. Obviously, the more GRPs delivered, the more awareness is created. Creating new awareness will take more GRPs than sustaining existing awareness.

A safe minimum guideline is to continuously reach more people than the existing level of awareness.

It is also important to remember that awareness alone doesn't make a sale. The message must be persuasive, not merely one of which the prospects are aware.

Monday, May 11, 1998

does a hyphen in an url reduce traffic to a site, eg.suppose i have a site with a url
some-thing.com,does it pay to make it something.com?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, May 11, 1998)

The guru would imagine that there could be some loss of traffic, on the theory that the hyphen invites more typos.

On the other hand, if the domain name is based on a well known product name, company name, or phrase, it is most important to match the well known version. Your problem only arises then if it is a two word name, like Coca Cola, with a space, which is not permitted in urls.

Friday, May 08, 1998

Being a newbie to web planning and buying, what is the
difference between AOL and the Web?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, May 08, 1998)

AOL is an "online service." There is an AOL website but that isn't what. an AOL member goes to when signing on to AOL.

AOL, with its chatrooms, information areas, etc is essentially a BBS service. It has imitated the web in some ways, with clickable ads, etc.

AOL does provide a gateway for members out onto the web, and to many users the difference between AOL and the web may be unnoticable.

Some estimates are that about half of the people with internet access have it through AOL. Additional estimates are that many people who think they are "on the internet" have never gone beyond the bounds of AOL.

From a media planning perspective, buying ads on AOL or accepting value added "banners" in magazine's AOL areas when buying print has an audience limited to AOL members and not accessible to other web users.

Thursday, May 07, 1998

1.how to achieve better reach in lesser media budget?
2.please provide some tips on clever media planning.
3.who is best media planner as per you and why?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, May 08, 1998)

1. If reach is the only concern then it is usually easy to find
media with higher reach per dollar. For example, outdoor delivers enormous reach and has the lowest cpm of all traditional media.

Smaller units also stretch budgets without losing reach. Fractional pages or TV :15's instead of :30's, radio :30's instead of :60s also help.

But of course, there are other, copy effectiveness and impact issues associated with these media choices. There is always a trade off; you can't get more reach in the same media for less money, unless you can persuade the sellers to lower the prices.

2. Clever media planning includes some of the ideas above, but also requires a planner to sell the ideas for their benefits, and get past the negatives. The goal of media planning is to deliver on the marketing objectives.

"Clever" is doing it in non-standard ways. Can you persuade the media to create special programming which ties into your campaign? Can you show the media a benefit to them in carrying your ads so that they want to resduce the price or give more than the usual value added elements?

If the Guru has one real tip on clever planning it is: Learn to use and understand the research which is available. Few in media today do. An knowledge of what research is available and how to apply it to media decision making will make a planner stand out, and appear clever and creative, because that planner, in fact, will be so.

3. The Guru himself is the best planner he knows. The nature of the media planner's position in the ad business is to be subordinated to creative and account services. There is little chance for planners to become known beyond their agencies. No doubt the "best media planner" lurks in unsung obscurity in a hundred agencies.

Wednesday, May 06, 1998

I have been approached by advertisers interested in
"sponsorship" arrangements, but since I am new to internet advertising, I'm having a little difficulty visualizing exactly what I should plan to deliver to my "sponsors." Is it more than just impressions & clickthrus? Please advise.

Thank you.


The Media Guru Answers (Friday, May 08, 1998)

Advertisers buying on the web are mostly placing banners to generate impressions and clickthru.

Some want clickthru to an "interstitial," which is more of an ad than the visitor would get in arriving at the advertiser's site.

Still others are trying to generate revenue; e.g. they sell books, recordings, or fishing gear on their site and want to pay you a sales commision on purchases by customers referred by your site.

It seems that each week we hear of new web business models.

Tuesday, May 05, 1998

Hi Guru! This is a follow up on my question yesterday.
If u can buy cable locally how do I go about finding the
rates, research data, programming information etc. In the
media planning package that we work on, only the national
cable buying is mentioned.
Appreciate your prompt reply. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, May 05, 1998)

There are a some spot cable representative firms. One is National Cable Communications. They would provide the services you need.

Monday, May 04, 1998

Dear Guru
I am working on my final media plan for this semester.
1.Could u tell me if u could buy cable locally, like spot
2.Could u also tell me the best web sites and any outdoor/
specialty magazines for my target group Men; 18-60;
3. Is it possible to buy internet ny market?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, May 04, 1998)

1. Yes

2. You need audience research resources to help select media for your target. For magazines and the web, try Simmons and MRI. For more detail on web sites alone, try MediaMetrix, RelevantKnowledge or Netratings

By the way, your target, 18-60, is not a standard media "age break," you should decide whether to use 18-54 or 18-64, which is what will be available in research studies.

3. There are web sites focused on particular markets and cities. However, their audience is potentially worldwide. There are techniques which will control which ads are seen according to the location of a vistor's ISP, but that technique can go far wrong. For example, all people browsing the web through AOL appear to be in Virginia. Other large connectivity providers generate the same deceptive impression regarding location.

Monday, May 04, 1998

A partner and myself have recently started a company that specializes in custom audio for radio and television advertising (eg. jingles,custom music beds,voice-overs, or anything audio). My question is this: How do we go about finding the agencies or businesses that could benefit from this service? Our goal is to be the most cost effective professional service provider in this field. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, May 04, 1998)

The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies lists contact information, services and staffing of Advertisng Agencies

Thursday, April 30, 1998

what is the mathematical relationship between the cpp and cpm, is there any formula linking this two concepts?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, April 30, 1998)

CPP (Cost Per rating Point) is the cost of a number of media impressions equalling one per cent of a given population group (the specified "target"), as in Women 18-49 CPP.

CPM is the cost of 1000 target media impressions.

Therefore, the mathematical relationship depends on the number of thousands of people who equal one percent the target group.

For example, suppose there are one million women 18-49 in a market, and a radio spot has an audience of 20,000 women 18-49 at a price of $50.

The rating points generated by the spot are 2.0

(20,000 divided by 1,000,000).

The CPP is $25

($50 divided by 2.0)

The CPM is $2.50

($50 divided by 20[thousands])

Since CPP is the cost of impressions equal to 1% of the population, the CPM to CPP relationship is:

CPP divided by 1% of the population in thousands = CPM

In this case, $25 CPP divided by 10 [thousand]= $2.50 CPM


CPM times 1% of the population in thousands = CPP

While this works perfectly for national media, it can be tricky in local media unless geography is tightly defined. I.e. a broadcast CPM is usually defined as being on a Metro Area or DMA basis. CPM though, is often based on all impressions generated, even if outside the basic geography. Common geographic population definitions are essential to the accuracy of the formulas.

Wednesday, April 29, 1998

Number of countries that have Internet?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, April 30, 1998)

All of them, or approximately 160. Any country with telephones can have computer users who dial into an ISP of some sort. Yahoo lists ISP's in about 120 counties.

Wednesday, April 29, 1998

Do you know where I can access comparative figures with regard to newspaper circulation and readership figures (at a national level), by various countries? Also, do you know of any research into the phenomenon of 'aliteracy' - that is, people who can read, but chose not to read (magazines, books and newspapers)?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, April 30, 1998)

The The Newspaper Advertising Association probably has readership and circulation data by country.

Advertising Research Foundation Library, ESOMAR , the European Survey, Opinion and Market Research organization
and Newsweek
Media Research Index
may be sources for "aliteracy" data.

Monday, April 27, 1998

Dear Media Guru,
Do you know of any sources for research on which
media are best suited for a branding campaign? Our
state has allowed private firms to compete in the worker's compensation insurance arena, and we are creating a brand identity for the state's industrial insurance system.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, May 04, 1998)

Appropriateness for a branding campaign is not a general facet of specific media. Branding a computer product might be done best in consumer computer magazines or on the web. Branding fishsticks might be best done on daytime TV or women's service magazines.

Generally, you need to learn what media are considered authoritative by the target group of your campaign.

The Advertising Research Foundation
is the best repository of various research on branding.

Thursday, April 23, 1998

The internet has recieved many different
preceptions in the media, whether positive or negative. Many say that some
of the bad hype is coming from written media for the internet is taking
the attention away from them. I was curious as to your take on this ?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, April 30, 1998)

The Guru's impression is that there are essentially two schools of thought regarding the internet:

  1. The computer press, which has fallen all over itself to hype the excitement and potential of the internet, because it makes computer publications more interesting and important.
  2. The rest of the media which alternately trade on the hype and warn of social doom due to pornography, chat room phoneys, etc., because that makes intersting reading

It is interesting to note the publications spawned by the internet and the web, and their rapid demise, for example, the closings of The Net, NetGuide and Internet World, while the leading basic computer titles like Windows, and PC Magazine continue in good health, calmly incorporting internet and web topics.

At the same time, it becomes equally apparent that the internet can be a force for good, and a source of useful interaction. There are few general media today without their own websites and email-to-the-editor addresses.

It is also becoming apparent that the current trends will not put the internet into the lives of more than half of our population, so that the internet will not displace mass media.

Tuesday, April 21, 1998

Do any of the radio rating services do a report on Christian radio?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 21, 1998)

Arbitron, the big name in radio ratings, does an every-other-year report on formats which includes "religious." MRI, the print and product usage study, also reports on the religious/gospel format. Other audience measurement studies will likely be similar.

The "Christian" format you refer to is a subset of religious and may only be specifically available in custom studies.

Tuesday, April 21, 1998

First of all, you have a great service. Thanks.

Do you have any recommendations on how I can find
independent sales representaives who specialize selling
network radio?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 21, 1998)

If you literally mean network radio, i.e. interconnected stations carrying the same program fed at the same time (though clearances may vary) with imbedded commericals, these typically have in-house sellers. If you mean syndicated radio, with a program carried at various times by otherwise unrelated stations, there are several representatives.

One is Premiere Radio Networks. If they can't help you, they can probably suggest several others.

Tuesday, April 21, 1998

I've noticed that the many online news Web sites (i.e. Cnet,Pathfinder, etc.) are using Reauters as one of their resources. Can you suggest several other news media syndicate. And how do you rate Reuter's content?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 21, 1998)

The Guru only knows of Reuters, United Press International (UPI) and the Associated Press (AP). They seem comparable in regard to any media or advertising issues.

Monday, April 20, 1998

i have developed a set of criteria to evaluate a news website
they are as follows: original info,value addition, regional info,comprehensiveness, customisation, how do i weigh them to evaluate various websites.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, April 20, 1998)

Since you have set up apparently arbitrary categories of evaluation to suit your own perceptions, you can weight them with an equally arbitrary set of weights.

Relating these weights to marketing needs is the most obvious approach. For example, regional info might be completley irrelevant to some and the most important to others.

It is also not clear whether you're evaluating sites as potential advertising media, giving design awards, etc.

If advertising media, then impressions and cost per impression should be key considerations. If design awards, then navigation should be high on the list.

Thursday, April 16, 1998

Can you refer to an online source that provides
recent demographics/statistics for a specific local
region, pertaining to emoployment, realestate, and
spending habits.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, April 16, 1998)

USAData fits your

Thursday, April 16, 1998

What is a good source to learn more about magazine ad recall
by size, color, editorial adjacency and position?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, April 16, 1998)

The Starch division of Roper Starch is the best
known producer of these measurements.

Saturday, April 11, 1998

Dear Guru, could you please tell me how can I calculate
the frequency(exposure) distribution of an advertising
media schedule using the Sequential Aggregation,
Cannonical Expansion and Conditional Beta Distribution
models? Thank you in advance for your answer.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, April 17, 1998)

A good university or public business library
should have statistical or advertising methods text books
with this information.

For example, in NY City, the
Public Library's Science, Industry and Business
has such books and might even give you the
specific references to locate copies near you, if you
inquired by phone or e-mail.

Tuesday, April 07, 1998

I am looking for NCAA delivery in Kansas City and St. Louis markets only. Where would I find these figures in comparison to competing shows...or previous year's delivery? To my knowledge, Nielsen ratings do not apply for the month of March in these markets.


The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, April 09, 1998)

These markets are metered, so continuous measurement
exists. Often the promoters of special sporting or other
events arrange special ratings reports during their event.
So perhaps that's one option.

Otherwise, you yourself could buy
special reports from Nielsen.

Tuesday, April 07, 1998

What is your opinion regarding those Web sites that tend to focus on technology. Do these sites usually attract a larger pool of advertisers. I've noticed that Entertainnment sites tend to attract a larger audience, but what about those technology sites. Do you know of any statistics regading such matters?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 07, 1998)

It depends on how you define "entertainment sites" and how
you define "audience".

Relevant Knowledge
for example, which uses "unique
visitors" as it primary measure, publishes its top 25 sites

6 of the top 12 sites are search engines.
The biggest one which is not a search engine is Netscape which the Guru
feels gets most traffic by virtue of the fact that most
people don't know how to reset the "homepage" setting and so
go to Netscape everytime they start their browser.

Others are also "default sites" such as aol.com and msn.com.

Disney/ABC/ESPN is the top entertainment site and
Pathfinder, CNN, Wired, MSNBC and Blue Mountain Arts (web
greetings) are the other "entertainment sites" on the list.

Microsoft, CNet, and ZDNet are the technology sites
listed and they beat all entertainment sites except for the
Disney/ABC/ESPN combo.

Tuesday, March 31, 1998

Where on the net can I find a complete source for trade journal and magazine advertising?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, April 06, 1998)

Standard Rate and Data
Service (SRDS)
is the place on the web where you can
buy the information. The Guru doubts there is any
comparable, free data on the web.

MRI is now offering
a vast consumer magazine database, in a web-like format, on
a free cd-rom.

Sunday, March 29, 1998

Could you please tell me where I can find on-line books about theory and practice of advertising.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, April 06, 1998)

Amazon and
Barnes and
are good on-line sources of business books.

The Guru has not found any full texts of advertising books
on line. Look at the Guru's Encyclopedia of Media Terms and Parts of a
Media Plan

Many Universities with advertising curricula have course
outlines on-line.

By now the Guru's archive of hundreds of answers is a large
part of an advertising text, albeit not very organized and
somewhat media skewed.

Thursday, March 26, 1998

Where can I find information on the target market of
the SUV industry.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, April 06, 1998)

Simmons and MRI
are the most common, generally available resources for
identifying product purchasers in the process of
determining marketing targets.

Thursday, March 26, 1998

Has there been any research done recently (in the 1990's) on Print advertising wearout?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, April 06, 1998)

Major research if this sort would have been reported in
the Journal of Advertising Research

Wednesday, March 25, 1998

How can be measurement error calculated? I would like to know is there any correlation between sample size and data validity? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, April 06, 1998)

Sample size and data reliability are in a "rule of squares" relationship:
A sample four times as large is twice as reliable. Note that "reliable" is the statistical term referring to the chances that a duplicate study with the same size random sample will get the same results, give or take a specified range of error.

"Validity" refers to correctness. It might have to do with whether a question asked can corectly produce a result that is desired. For example, a question like "What will you have for breakfast a week from Tuesday?" may not be a valid predictor of what people will actually eat on that day. But, with a proper sample, it will be reliable in predicting with a set degree of variability what people will eat.

The formula for calculation of error for a given sample is:

The Square root of (P x Q over N)


p = the percentage result to be tested (e.g. 10% of the people will have bacon)

q = the complement, or difference vs 100% (if p = 10% then q = 90%

n = the sample size

So, if a sample of 500 produces the result that 10% will have bacon, the sampling error for this result is

the square root of (10 x 90)÷500 or

+/- 1.342

so the answer of 10% should be read as "between 8.658 and 11.342" and
really means that 68% of the time the same study repeated would produce a percent of bacon eaters between 8.658 and 11.342.

If the sample is quadrupled, to 2000, then the error is halved, to 0.671.

Wednesday, March 25, 1998

I am looking for software that will help our small media company track results from DRTV campaigns. At this point in time we are spending hours & hours entering data using plain old spreadsheets to generate graphs & tables.
Do you know of any software or a company who may be interested in helping us out? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, April 06, 1998)

Wednesday, March 25, 1998

Who would have the most up-to-date information or documents relating to media fragmentation?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, April 06, 1998)

Tuesday, March 24, 1998

Dear Guru, do you have any information regarding internet
usage and seasonality? For instance, do overall online
visits decrease in the summer, just as TV PUT levels

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 30, 1998)

The Guru suspects not.

-Heavy internet users tend to be of the same type as
lighter TV viewers, anyway.

One may be able to get toplines from Media Metrix or Relevant
, the only monthly, survey measures of the web
which are at least partly released to the public.

Monday, March 23, 1998

what is the correct television weight for a campaign

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 30, 1998)

The "Correct" weight depends on many factors, there is no
one correct weight.

One way, but certainly not the only way, to calculate an
appropriate level is to follow this checklist:

  • (A) How many new sales / product units, etc are
    your monthly sales goal?
  • (B) What percentage of the prospects who are
    successfully exposed to your campaign are likley to buy what
    you are selling?
  • Divide (A) by (B) to determine with how many prospects
    per month your advertising must effectively communicate.
  • Using the reach and frequency calculating system of
    your choice and your judgement of "effective levels of
    communications, calculate what level of weight delivers the
    desired effecively reached audience.

Monday, March 23, 1998

Does direct response television work for telecommunications companies? ie, long distance offers. Does direct response work best as an adjunct to traditional media? Any info on drtv would be great

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 30, 1998)

There are two key factors controlling whether or not Direct
Response works: The creative of the advertising and the
quality of the mailing list used or TV target reached.

This can work for telecommunications. The Guru belioeves
that the branding and awareness benefits of traditional
media will make DR more successful.

Monday, March 23, 1998

I have recently noticed that the American market is more open to the Asian demographics. Do large corporations consider the Asian demographics a marketable area? If so, which industries are most likely to target their campaigns toward the Asian communities?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 30, 1998)

Some corporations have been marketing to the so-called
"Asian market" for years. One must keep in mind that there
are several National groups with many difference in
language and culture within the Asian market.

Two industries that have been very active in the Asian
market are insurance and long-distance telephone companies.

Monday, March 23, 1998

Our company will soon put itself on the Internet. I would like to know how a potential website advertiser
approaches the decision making process of advertising on our site. Will they require our company Website statistics, media kit, etc.. If so, should our company approach these advertisers if we are fairly new to the Internet market. Also, what about determining a pricing model? We feel strongly that the site will attract a large audience, but how do we determine what is the standard cost rage for advertisers?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 30, 1998)

There are three basic issues that advertisers consider
in evaluating your website, and they are all
about your audience:

  • How many?
  • What kind?
  • What

The interpretation of "How many" is obvious.

kind?" may be judged by your content and its presumed
appeal to specific types of people who would or would not
be interested in what the advertiser has to sell. When a
site has registration and can ask questions of its vistors,
it may be able to describe "What kind" better. When a site
gets big enough that the major, user-centric, survey
research can reliably describe its audience, that's the
best option.

"What action?" is a measure of how many people at your
site will click on the advertisers' banners and perhaps
take additional action at the advertisers' sites; e.g.
requesting information or buying merchandise.

This measure is conducted while the advertising runs, by
the advertiser.

Monday, March 23, 1998

Our company is currently trying to put itself on the
Internet. Is there an independent company that handles
log analysis for companies that are starting out. Perhaps you can tell us if there is a reliable software that handles such task.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 30, 1998)

AMIC uses "HitList" by Marketwave , which resides on our own server.

Another option is an offsite log analysis of the type
provided by companies like Netcount

Monday, March 23, 1998

I need latest info on the recency theory for tv media planning and the general opinion of the industry on this theory.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 30, 1998)

Trade publications like Ad
, Mediaweek and Jou
rnal of Advertising Research
cover this topic
regularly, with articles from Erwin Ephron, Walter Reichel
and John Paul Jones.

Media Research Index
and theAdvertising Research
Foundation Library
also archive such information.

The Guru believes the industry is still divided on Recency
vs Effective Reach.

Monday, March 23, 1998

Recent studies on Outdoor studies (audiences), where can I find?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 24, 1998)

In the U.S, Advertising Research
, and Newsweek
Media Research Index
. In Europe, ESOMAR , the European Survey,
Opinion and Market Research organization, may be a source.

Monday, March 23, 1998

Where can I find Papers and Communications on Press Circulation vs Press Audiences, meaning average readers per issue?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 24, 1998)

In the U.S, Advertising Research
, and Newsweek
Media Research Index
. In Europe, ESOMAR , the European Survey,
Opinion and Market Research organization, may be a source.

Monday, March 23, 1998

Where can I find information about The Media Edge?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 24, 1998)

If you mean the buying service which is owned by Young &
Rubicam, it's in New York.

Friday, March 20, 1998

Could you please tell me where I can find out about Asian advertising standards. I understand they are called "Zenith Media".


The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 20, 1998)

Zenith Media is
the Media Services arm of Cordiant (Saatchi and Saatchi,
Bates, etc).

Thursday, March 19, 1998

Im a printer wanting to target "Preprints" as turnkey to companies that are buying printing from me and buying inserting from the newspapers direct. I have called some newspapers and even news associations about rates but get the feeling that they're suspious of me. All I want is to sell voulume printing and give my customers accurate information for targeting areas and possibly handle that for them for a 15% agency commission. Do you have any advice?????

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 20, 1998)

Generally, major newspapers have "rep" firms contracted to do the
selling for them, and might be obligated to pay commission
to the rep assigned to cover the customer you bring in,
leading to double commission.

Try working with the reps. Ask the newspapers for the
contacts at their rep firms.

Tuesday, March 17, 1998

I am starting an online business soon, and I am perplexed as to what methods to utilize with our limited budget of $5000 per month. I want to initially do my advertising exclusively on the net, and I have been looking into using an interactive ad agency. What kind of targeted traffic should I expect for my budget, and what methods will an agency use to create traffic, besides search engine listings and optimization?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 20, 1998)

$5000 might buy just a month of banner display on a major,
general audience website. at $10 per thousand impressions.
Therefore, you would have 500,000 impressions and perhaps
click-thru 5,000 - 10,000 traffic to your site. Of this
traffic, you might get 25 - 100 sales, depending on what
you're selling.

Other, more targeted sites might sell for less out of
pocket, at a higher cpm (e.g $25-$100), but ultimately
generate more sales ROI because their audience is more
likley to be interested in your product.

Another technique that an agency might use is a revenue
sharing model, wherein sites which send you customers earn
a share of your revenue from visitors "referred" by their

Tuesday, March 17, 1998

Dear Guru, I could use your help with a quick internet
fact. Approximately what percentage of online advertising
consists of banner ads? Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, March 19, 1998)

A lot of the answer depends on definitions: If you define
"online" as WWW, and define "online advertising" as
commercial messages occupying a portion of a page on a site
not owned by the advertiser, and you define "banner ads"
as commercial messages more or less complying with the IAB
/ CASIE standards,
then the answer is virtually 100%.

If you define "online" as including the entire internet,
and "online advertising" as including sponsored e-mail
discussion lists, spam to newsgroups and individuals,
various commercial messages on the commercial on-line
services like AOL, plus "interstitials" and commercial web sites
themselves, banners may still be the majority, but in an
incalculable proportion.

Monday, March 16, 1998

Where can I get quotes for Stadium and Airport advertising?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 16, 1998)

Why not start with TDI, at (212)599-1100

Sunday, March 15, 1998

Two Questions: 1) I've been asked to prepare a presentation covering "Alternative Lifestyles Marketing".
When I was given the assignment I asked for a definition of "Alternative Lifestyles", but didn't get a
good answer. How might you interpret this "target"?

2) I'm seeking information on the "Optimizer" programs that have become newsworthy (in media circles)
as a result of the recent mega-million P&G AOR assignment. I've heard there are two. Who are they,
and can you describe briefly what they do (strengths & limitations)?


The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 16, 1998)

1) "Alternative Lifestyles" generally refers to
non-traditional social orientations which may become the
major influence on a person's relationships, extending to
product choices, entertainment choices, clothing styles,
etc. Most often, "alternative" seems to be used to
refer to socio-sexual distinction.

The Gay market is
probably probably most familiar of the "Alternative Lifestyles"
markets. Others might arguably be the singles market, the
mature market, punk, rapper, etc.

2) Optimizer programs are designed to build media schedules
based on detailed analysis of each possible "insertion"
(print or broadcast).

Usually the programs optimize reach within budget.
Therefore they will first select the most efficient (cost
per rating point) single insertion. Next they consider
every other single insertion, including a second use of the
first selection. The pair of insertions with the greatest
net reach per dollar becomes the next selection.

In some systems, each "best" choice is frozen as the
base upon which to build additional schedule until the
budget is exhausted. In more sophisticated systems, entire
schedules are reevaluated for best mix at each incremental
budget level.

In either, it is up to the planner to set constraints on
which vehicles are to be considered, any weights or
restrictions such as using each vehicle a minimum number of
times, if used, or a maximum number of times.

Several agencies have proprietary systems. In Europe,
there are commercial systems including "Supermaximizer" and

In the U.S., the Guru believes the Telmar Optimizer is the
only commercial system available allowing TV optimization
with any available audience database (e.g. NTI, NSI, Cume
studies, etc.)

Saturday, March 14, 1998

Can i have a copy of the folowing study or excerpts
of the same from somewhere. Is there any site on the
net where i can acquire related info.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, March 14, 1998)

Go to
Starch Tested Copy , a service of Roper

The Advertising
Research Foundation
Library and Newsweek
Media Research Index
should aslo have copies of this

Friday, March 13, 1998

Do you have any research regarding the impact of spreads vs. the impact of pages in magazines?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, March 14, 1998)

Starch Copy Tests , a service of Roper Starch,
is best known for such comparisons.

Friday, March 13, 1998

What is a good source to correlate DMAs with ZIP Codes? Or is there an intermediate step required?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 13, 1998)

Nielsen Media Research, the
creator of DMA's, publishes a reference book for this

Tuesday, March 10, 1998

What is the recommended duration to run an initial online campaign drawing traffic to a new web site. 2 months? 3 months? Will there be message wearout? Also

should banners be changed weekly?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 10, 1998)

  • Since your server log will tell you how traffic is
    building, plan to run the campaign until a desired traffic
    level is reached or until the growth curve flattens.
  • The research seems to indicate that there is a sharp
    fall-off in response after 3 exposures to a banner. So
    wearout will be fairly rapid, if you place your banners on
    sites with a lot of repeat visitors instead of high
    turnover, or on related sites that get the same visitors.

Monday, March 09, 1998

How do you delicately tell the client that newspaper doesn't deliver Gross Rating Points?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 09, 1998)

The Guru doesn't understand. Do you mean

*Newspaper isn't measured in Gross Rating


*Newpaper isn't a good way to deliver
Gross Rating points?

In either of these cases you'd be wrong to tell it to the


*Any medium with a measured audience can be reported in
Gross Rating Points. Divide the audience (households,
people, etc) by the population in the same category for the
geography in question: Metro Area, DMA, City, etc. This
calculation will give the "rating" of a single issue or
the Gross Rating Points of a campaign.

In Newspaper measurement, "Coverage" is the term usually
used in place of Household rating


In some market/demographic situations, the leading
newspaper might have a little as a 10 rating. But it is not
uncommon to find major market newspapers with a 50 or 60
Metro coverage (or household rating).

Thursday, March 05, 1998

What is recency planning and
is it different from the method
of acquiring effective frequency
as a media objective

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, March 05, 1998)

Recency planning is quite different than effective
frequency planning.

Recency planning is based on the premise that the ad
exposure closest to the time of purchase decision is far
more effective than any other.

Hence flighting, to build up to a given effective
frequency, for a shorter period of time will sell less
product than having some activity at any time when
purchase might be occurring.

Wednesday, March 04, 1998

we are planning to begin copy testing TV commercials in cinemas. The idea is to use existing cinemas situated in malls. The people in the mall will be asked to pop in for a few minutes. They will be shown few spots together, as if it were a real combination of commercials recently shown on TV. They will then be asked to reply to a few questions. Naturally, this method selects people who are willing to expose themselves to the test. Other methods currently at work are more 'coercive'. Interviewers actually go to people's homes and show them commercials. What method would you approve? How can we improve our took?
Iris K.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, March 04, 1998)

The Guru's thoughts:

  • A more appropriate scenario would be to invite
    people to a "movie screening." Then have your commercial
    among a few at the beginning of the screening and have some
    trailers for new movies as well. In this way, it's a more
    realistic replication of the real life viewing situation
    and does not bring excess attention to the
  • You say you're going to test "TV Commercials" in
    cinema. As long as there have been cinema commercials, the
    conventional wisdom has been that you must not use the same
    commercial as people would see on TV. A cinema commercial
    must be bigger, better, edgier, more daring or else the
    resentment naturally arising from finding commercials in
    the theater will work more srtrongly against you.

Monday, March 02, 1998

Have you come across any qualitative research on impact of TV spot position in
break? Increasing number of our clients have started insisting first and last
in break being the best spot in any given break. Is it true? Any supportive
research aside from rating analysis? From: mindshare

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 02, 1998)

The Advertising Research
library is your best bet.

Monday, March 02, 1998

Question: I'm looking for a percentage breakout of OOH
advertising usage by industry. Can you provide it? Or tell
me where I can find it? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 02, 1998)

CMR(Competitive Media Reports)
tracks OOH.

You may
also find that larger OOH sellers, like Eller, Outdoor
Systems, and TDI can help you.

Monday, March 02, 1998

Dear Media Guru, I am interesting on Internet Planning.
I would like to know if there is something written
about it. Thank you very much.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 02, 1998)

There are regular articles in Ad Age and
C.A.S.I.E. (The
Coalition for Advertising Supported Interactive
publishes research on measurement of various
Internet advertising techniques and approaches.

Sunday, March 01, 1998

We are considering cinema advertising for our national automotive client. We have a launch scheduled for 2Q, so we are looking into a 4-week flight to launch our :60 unit in cinemas. We are doing an analysis of the category - Screenvision and Cineplex. The question is, are there any other cinema networks that we should look at? Also, where would be the best place to find additional information about cinema advertising in general?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 02, 1998)

You have mentioned the largest players.

You should also find that they are the best sources of available research on the topic.

and The MPAA
have data on movie attendance.

Friday, February 27, 1998

Dear media Guru, I have to do my research paper on "Media monopoly",which sources (book, web site, journal,etc.)
I can find more information? Now, I've read "The media monopoly" by Ben H. Bagdikian and "We the Media". Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 27, 1998)

The Electric Library is a
good source for articles on business topics.

should also be able to find some material at Ad Age

Friday, February 27, 1998

Are you aware of any research that would support or
disprove that statement that flyers or inserts increase
newspaper readership or single copy sales. As an
example: Individuals buy a particular daily newspaper
because their favourite food store flyer is inserted.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 27, 1998)

The Guru would look on the The Newspaper Advertising
site and also post the question to the
Newspaper research discussion list:

send the message

subscribe newspaper-research



or the Mediaplanning discussion list

To subscribe to this list, send e-mail to:

with a message that says:

Wednesday, February 25, 1998

I am looking for a media buying "school" that specifically targets television only. I attended a media school in Pennsylvania that dealt with all types of media buying. I am interested in focusing on strictly television. Do you have any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 25, 1998)

Some of the biggest rep firms may do this. They certainly
run training for their own junior staff.

If you really mean buying only, such a
school could be useful. If you are thinking about planning,
the Guru doesn't believe it can be learned intelligently
without consideration of all available media.

Wednesday, February 25, 1998

Dear Guru:
Have you come across any qualitative research on impact of TV spot position in break? Increasing number of our clients have started insisting first and last in break being the best spot in any given break. Is it true? Any supportive research aside from rating analysis?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 25, 1998)

The Advertising
Research Foundation
library and Newsweek
Media Research Index
are the best source for such

Monday, February 23, 1998

what are the definitions for a vertical pub and a
horizontal pub?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, February 23, 1998)

These definitions apply to the relationships among sets
of publications.

Vertical pubs are those with a common editorial focus, such
as music/style, or womens beauty titles. So SPIN, The Source,
Rolling Stone
and Vibe are vertical books to reach young

Horizontal pubs are those of different editorial focus used
to reach a common target. Rolling Stone, Sports
Illustrated, Playboy
and Car Stereo Review are a horizontal

Saturday, February 21, 1998

Question: What are the various pros and cons of the respective television dayparts when determining daypart mix or dispersion? I've perused ARF and Newsweek's archives and can't find anything regarding "rules" of the daypart mix.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, February 21, 1998)

The Guru doesn't feel there are explicit "rules," per

Considerations include:

A daypart mix will reach more people than the same dollars
in any single daypart.

Dayparts chiefly differ in

  • rating size
  • cost per spot/cost per grp

  • audience compostion (proportion of genders, ages,

  • and viewer attentiveness

A plan's communication goals should specify which of these
aspects matter and to what degree, allowing the planner to
make an intelligent choice in mix by examining how well the
various possibilities deliver the goals within the budget.

Wednesday, February 18, 1998

I am looking for information on optimization and the
recency theory. Have you come across any good reports
on this subject relevent to TV buying in the USA?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 18, 1998)

The Advertising
Research Foundation
library is a good source as are the
archives of Ad Age and

Tuesday, February 10, 1998

Where can I find out the salary range for media planner/
buyers in the Columbus, Ohio area?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, February 10, 1998)

Ad Age publishes salary
surveys by position, by region. A Columbus-based recruiter
who specializes in the advertising industry might also help

Tuesday, February 10, 1998

Describe trends in Country Music listenership over continental USA for past five years, please.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, February 10, 1998)

An Interep report
using S
data from 1988 thru Fall 1996 shows a fairly
constant growth in the cume audience of the country format:

It grew from 25,161,000 A18+ to 40,663,000.
Only one downturn showed, in 1994

Tuesday, February 10, 1998

I have recently moved to the US after working with JWT,
India for 5 years. While familiarising myself with the
new terminology was easy enough, i need a better handle
on the media industry- any articles on audience
fragmentation,case studies on effective media strategy,
or indeed any reading that you think would give me a
holistic picture of the industry would be very helpful.
Also,any pointers on where i could get hold of case
studies on Nike,Levis,Budweiser,Volkswagen,Apple etc(I
realise that is not a media related question, but
would be grateful for help). Lastly, any research paper
on how teenagers consume advertising.
Thanks for your time and help.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, February 10, 1998)

There is no one book that answers all your questions. The
Advertising Research
Library, however can provide much of what
you need. The Newsweek
Media Research Index
will also be useful.

Friday, February 06, 1998

Which source could I find information regarding the top ten cities with the highest population of females 18-34?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, February 07, 1998)

Both Nielsen and Arbitron provide
management booklets with DMA (Designated Market
Area) population ranked this way. These are the standard
media planning/buying geographies. Additionally, the
Arbitron book has metropolitan area population, if that's
what you need.

If you literally need cities, the
U.S. Census
site should have what you need.

Friday, February 06, 1998

Posting for the February 1998 NSI

Considering the fact that the Olympics will dominate the Feb ratings book, what's the best method for extrapolating ratings for posts that come about in subsequent months like January, March and April? Thanks for your help.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 06, 1998)

One can't know the absolute effect of the Olympics by themselves. Perhaps
the best method is to look at the relationship of November /
February / May of the previous year to judge how much
Olympics hype to discount. On the other hand. the program
promotion done during the Olympics may actually create a
real lift for CBS' programming in March/April.

Friday, February 06, 1998

In the interactive media source (SRDS) they list rates in net cpm and gross cpm.
What is the difference in the two?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 06, 1998)

Net is 85% of gross, to allow for the once "standard" 15%
agency commission.

Net is the final amount received by the media vendor.

Monday, February 02, 1998

Hello Guru
Where can I find information on how peoplemeter and diary data differ?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, February 02, 1998)

There have been innumerable articles published on this
topic, especially in the mid '80's, when the NTI People
Meter was introduced and, briefly, had competition.

The Advertising
Research Foundation
library could supply copies, if
you are a member.

Nielsen likley has white
papers available on the topic.

Friday, January 30, 1998

We have a website drawing well over a million readers every two months, popular among Christians of almost all denominations. We would like to contact an agency that can and would sell advertising on our website. Can you suggest a few agencies who would be capable and interested in acting on our behalf and achieve results?
Thank you! Please answer jbhc@shani.net (George Gallup)

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, January 31, 1998)

DoubleClick, WWWebrep
and SoftBank are among
the rep firms that might suit your needs.

Friday, January 30, 1998

Is there som way to find out what web sites sell vertical or square ad banner units versus horizontal (rectangular) banners?
Our target is business professionals and our creative and messaging really beg for a vertical banner execution,not a horizontal one. The search engines don't sell this space unit.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, January 30, 1998)

The major search engines sell advertsing briskly. Some less
popular sites may be more willing. There are vertical and
square banners in the IAB/CASIE set of "standard
banners". (See AMIC's Web Glossary)

When you find a site in which you are interested,
just ask about the banners you want.

Tuesday, January 27, 1998

My business needs help developing an e-mail business- to-business DM program (using OPT-IN only
lists) targetting the following segments:

1. Site Development Software or Services
2. Shopping Cart Software Providers or Services
3. Internet Advertising and Promotion Products or Services
4. Merchant Accout/Transaction Processing Products or Services

I would like your help in locating companies that can develop my e-mail DM program.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, January 28, 1998)

The Direct Marketing Association
can guide you to DM program creators / providers.

Tuesday, January 27, 1998

I am interrested in media planning consultancy services.
What are the most important services that these consultants offer?
Would you please give me a list of the consultants company's servers. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, January 28, 1998)

The key service of such consultants is linking marketing
goals to media solutions. See AMIC's "Web Sites" area, under Media / Consulting

Tuesday, January 27, 1998

Dear Guru, I'm working on a project named 'advertising
strategies'. How would you define an advertising
strategy? Do you believe the mediaplanning proces lays
within or without the advertising strategy? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, January 29, 1998)

Certainly, media planning is a part of advertising

An advertising strategy is a planned way of accomplishing
a marketing goal through the Marketing Communications
method called "advertising."

Advertising strategies may include those defining copy strategy, geography and more.

Advertising is
usually understood to be marketing messages delivered
through media.

Monday, January 26, 1998

This question may not be in your league but here it goes
anyway. I am in search of software that can handle media
planning in conjuction with accounting. In other words,
place media buys and tie into accounting. Please let me
know if you are aware of any such animal. Thank you in

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, January 28, 1998)

There are several options. One of the oldest and most
popular is
Donovan Data Systems

Thursday, January 22, 1998

Dear Guru,
My client is a Bank Investment and it wats to ad on outside country veihicles. I need your help to identified the best magazine and newspaper to my client.
Country: USA, Europe.
Client Category: Bank Investment
Are you familiar with CFO Magazine, TMA Journal? Are they a good sugest? What kind of advertiser run on these magazine?
Thanks a lot, Thaya

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, January 22, 1998)

No print media plan should ever be completed without the
planner having seen the magazine and absorbed the
information in its media kit: rates and editorial focus at

Doing this will be the best start to answering your

Tuesday, January 20, 1998

What are the advantages of a client having an Agency of Record (AOR)?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, January 22, 1998)

The Agency of Record is the one authorized to order media
for the client. In a sense every client has an agency of
record. The term has come to mean situations where the
buying agency is not necessarily the creative agency and
is common when a large advertiser whose brands are handled
by several agencies designates one of the agencies to
handle all business in a particular medium.

The advantage, in theory, is that the AOR has more "clout"
in negotiation.

A second advantage, especially in TV is being able to
allocate spots from a large pool of purchases to brands
in a way most efficient and effective for all.

Sunday, January 18, 1998

Can you indicate me where I can find medialandscapes (for advertising purposes) in Arizona, New Mexico and Texas : media expenditures, existing media, audience profiles. Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, January 22, 1998)

The Guru does not believe there is any current
single resource providing all this information.

It calls for information most typically provided by Standard Rate and Data Service
plus CMR(Competitive Media Reports) plus several audience research
firms, and would be organized by DMA or Metro area, not by

The now defunct trade publication, Inside Media
regularly produced articles spotlighting markets, including most
of the information you want. Perhaps someone archived

Friday, January 16, 1998

What are the key strengths and weaknesses of Network Radio?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, January 16, 1998)

In the Guru's opinion, Network Radio's key strengths are
coverage and efficiency. Weaknesses are rating size,
and lack of clearance in-program.

See also the Guru's Media Advertising Strengths Page

Thursday, January 15, 1998

Can you explain what "mapping software" is? And, do you know about a software package called "Clarisoft" or something like that?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, January 15, 1998)

There are probably several meanings of the term, created by
different software makers.

In a media context, the term usually refers to software
which can draw a map colored or shaded to reflect
demographic, media or product usage behavior.

For example a DMA may be drawn, and colored to indicate
which zip codes have the highest circulation of the local
newspaper, a national magazine, or TV show audience. It is
common to separate zips or other sub areas into quintiles
or tertiles, etc.

The entire US may be drawn to show sales levels of a
product or BDI by DMA.

A three mile trading circle around a store location can be
created to show media income of census tracts, for planning
the distribution of a circular.

Claritas PRIZM, Donnelly's Cluster Plus, and other
segmentation systems are typically used to analyze or
model the data. There has been considerable consolidation
of software vendors in this field in the last few years.
Compass, Conquest, and Strategic Mapping have all folded
into Compass.

Wednesday, January 14, 1998

Dear Guru,
I would like to know whether there is a booklet
having all the media information on Asia Pacific market,
such as Advertising Expenditure, economic data, media
environment (TV, press, radio etc) on a country by
country basis.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, January 15, 1998)

Saatchi and other major multinational agencies often
prepare these booklets.

The Telmar (AMIC'S sister company) office in Honk Kong
might know specifically which agencies are best to ask.

Contact Lawrence Federman Telmar
World Offices

Wednesday, January 14, 1998

Dear Media Guru:

I recently came across a listing of co-op advertisers and contacts, the percentages of sales they were willing to spend, etc. However, for most of these companies I have no idea who sells their products in my area (or, at least, enough of their products in my area to qualify for co-op). Would it be productive for me to call the contact people listed for each co-op opportunity and ask them who in my area I might contact to apply for co-op? Or should I just hang on to this list and hope that one or more of the clients I will be meeting with about advertising just happens tro sell some of the products on my list? Thanks you in advance for your answer, and for providing this wonderfully informative service.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, January 14, 1998)

The Guru presumes you are asking this as a media vendor. It
would seem that calling the advertiser is the only way to
locate local contacts, unless the local Yellow Pages can be
of use.

Tuesday, January 13, 1998

I am trying to find both general and specific information on the differences of the three most prominent types of media services: In-house Agenies; Advertising/DM Agencies; and Buying Services. Would you be able to provide information on the responsibilities of each agency, responsibilites of those in the agencies, and some examples? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, January 13, 1998)

Every organization in each of the three categories may
structure itself differently.

Ultimately, the responsibility of each is to buy media time
/ space for advertising.

Some buying services are set up purely to to buy media
specified by clients. Others may add planning, research or
promotional services.

In-house agencies may do any or all of the same

Advertising agencies are structured to provide all these
services, plus creative development and production, market
research and marketing counsel.

When In-house agencies
or buying services are used, the remaining advertising
services may be provided by a creative boutique, full
service agency, or other "in-house" departments.

Thursday, January 08, 1998

It is really true that most advertisers can't concieve of paying more than 2.5% in fees for media placement regardless if it is for spot or network?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, January 09, 1998)

Advertisers often pay up to 5% for spot. The Guru has heard of
9% deals. At 2.5%, small buys cannot be handled profitably,
but very large ones might be. Economy of scale is always an
important factor in negotiation.