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Media Guru 1996

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Sunday, December 29, 1996

Can you recommend any books on international marketing--especially in the field of tracking films?Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, December 30, 1996)

The Guru doesn't have a recommendation for this specific category. Barnes & Noble has most standard textbooks and Amazon offers subject search and ordering on their site. They list several international marketing titles.

Friday, December 20, 1996

How do the concepts of effective frequency relate todirect response advertising? Should the same rules of frequency be taken into account when planning forresponse as when planning for awareness? Is frequency even a factor in D.R. or should I just max out on impressions and occasions?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, December 21, 1996)

Effective frequency applies, but differently. If it takes 3 repetitions for a message to be absorbed, then DR may need the 3 repitions as well before it begins to work. But perhaps that's why DR messages are often 90's or 120's, There is the chance to repeat information 3 or more times and capture attention. In half hour infomercials, it is not unusual for ther to be 3 10 minute cycles of repeated information.

Friday, December 20, 1996

Media Guru:
What can you tell me about standard error? Specifically, I have three questions:
1. What goes into standard error? If not the actual calculations, can you tell me what affects standard error: it's not just sample size, is it?
2. What is the maximum standard error that is considered acceptable to the media -- specifically, the advertising -- industry?
3. Related to the previous question, do you happen to know recent standard error levels for suppliers such as Nielsen (National), Simmons or MRI?
Thank you for your attention to this humble query.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, December 21, 1996)

As the adjacent answer to your previous Guru inquiry details, standard error considers sample size and the size of the specific response. Standard error is smallest for a 50% response in a specific way. 10% or 90% answers have the same standard error. When you hear that a study, like a presidential poll is "+/- 3% that is usually the standard error for a 50% response.

It is interesting to note that the size of the sample is the key and not the relationship of the size of the sample to the universe. In other words, when a broadcast rating service uses a larger sample for New York than for Klamath Falls it does so because of the cost of larger samples being more affordable by larger market's media who sponsor the research, not because a bigger market "needs' a bigger sample. Also note that because of the square root aspect of the calculation, a sample must grow by a factor of 4 to reduce error by half.

"Minimum acceptable error" is quite situational. While an error of +/- 2 on a rating of 10 seems small, it becomes important when a buyer need to decide between programs rated 8,9,10,11 and 12 which might all have identical audiences yet seem to vary by 50%.

As stated above, sample size and response control standard error. Neilsen Simmons and MRI each give the information with their reports to calculate error appropriate to the individual report and findings. Most software used to generate reports has the option to display the error witheach cell of data reported. (You may have noticed single and double asterisks on tabulations of Simmons or MRI data, these are indicators of standard error ranges)

Friday, December 20, 1996

What are some suggestions on how to roll out a new ad campaignfor your company, to your company?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, December 21, 1996)

The Guru wonders, if you are just sharing your adveritsing plans with your own company, why do you need a roll-out at all?

Thursday, December 19, 1996

Dear Guru...I am in the process of starting a retail mail order business..I am literally starting on a shoestring ...I was wondering what advice you could give as far as the most effective media for the money and any general media advice as well. Thanks..

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, December 21, 1996)

How much money? In given circumstances, radio, outdoor, direct mail, newspaper or TV might be the most productive use of money. It depends on total budget, what geography one needs to cover and what sort of message needs to be conveyed

Wednesday, December 18, 1996

i am looking for info on internet advertising control systems.the kind of systems that would allocate ads, measure impressions/"click thru's", automate billingsand allow control to book the ads and check availability.thanking you in anticipation of your helpkind regardstony glencross - tonyglen@iafrica.com

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 20, 1996)

The Guru is not aware of any software that performs all the functions you request. However, at any time there are usually one or two web counting or ad managing software advertisers here on AMIC if you check the top page.

Tuesday, December 17, 1996

Dear Media Guru Guy:Where can I find out more info on standard error? First, how is it calculated, or what affects standard error? Second, I'm thinking about magazine readership research, and I'm wondering what standard errors some of the popular studies have (MRI or Simmons, for example). And then, I'm also curious as to what, among media gurus, is considered an acceptable or unacceptable error. Do the same standards apply for other media research studies, for example, Nielsen ratings? Thanks Mr. Guru.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 20, 1996)

Standard error reflects the range of "tolerance," due to sample size, around the reported answer where the "truth" lies. Inother words, statistical data like "10% of women 18-49 read MagazineX" in reality means that within the range of error expected, if thesame study were repeated 100 times, with a sample of 225, the resultwould between 8 and 12 percent, 68 times out of the 100.

The formula isthe square root of (P times Q divided by N)

P= the percentage to be tested
( e.g. the 10% in the Guru's example, above)

Q=100 minus P ( 90% in our example)

N= total sample size (225 in our example)


10 X 90 = 900

900 divided by 225 = 4

square root of 4 = 2

One standard error is the amount of variance sampling causes 68% of the time.

So, at one standard error, 10% is between 8% and 12%with 68% "confidence" At 2 standard errors or within+/- 4 points, or6 to 14% we have an answer we are confident our research will repeat95% of the time. This is why the concept is also referred to as"reliability". It is really way to express confidence that the samesampling procedure will produce the same result.

Most statistical texts can give you considerably more on the topic.

Monday, December 16, 1996

Media Guru,I would like to know if there is a directory that listsall the internal Web Media buyers for the various top 100 advertisingagencies. If there isn't such a directory or listingcan you point me to where I might find such information.I've tried contacting ad ad agencies, but with all theirdifferent divisions nobody seems to know who handles thesefunctions.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, December 19, 1996)

Not all agencies have designated a single person for this function, and some agencies far outside the top 100 overall might be in the top 100 of internet buyers. (BTW, the Guru does not think there are directories exactly as you describe for most of the "traditional" media either.

You could start with AMIC's listing of Internet Advertising Agencies

Friday, December 13, 1996

I am starting a mail order business that is geared to people that live in rural areas.Can you suggest ways to advertise, to reach that type of person?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, December 19, 1996)

Direct mail seems to be an obvious first choice. You could buy lists of the addresses you want from this link at Yahoo

Wednesday, December 11, 1996

Oh, all exaulted one, (I'm buttering you up)I'm writing a paper on the aviation businessand am looking for the total money spent on advertising by the aviation industry in the last recordable year. Is there a listing by industrycatagory of annual ad dollars spent?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 20, 1996)

Monday, December 09, 1996

Do you know where I can find research or reportsregarding creative effectiveness in a web page? (i.e. themore creative, fun and colorful the more viewership it isgoing to receive.)

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 20, 1996)

The December issue of Ad Age'sNetMarketingcites several studies on this topic.

Sunday, December 08, 1996

Hi Media Guru. I am interested in the amerikan TV und Meidaplaning Market. I would like to get some information about the TV Market Situation in the State. Do know some books concerning this subject. The same with Media Planning. I coudn't find any Book in the inter bookstores concerning that subject. Can you give me a hind, where I can find these literature. You would make me very happy. Thanks Markus

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 20, 1996)

SQAD and MediaDynamics are different resources which reflect the TV marketsituation. Both offer data in the AMIC Rates andDatesarea.

Friday, December 06, 1996

I am seeking information about Web advertising expenditures in the travel industry and a comparison to the total media budget. I am also interested in the amount that companies in the travel industry are spending for their own sites.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 20, 1996)

AdAge occcasionally publishes total internet ad spending. CMR(Competeitive Media Reports) has begun tracking internet advertising (forthe major ad-bearing sites, at least.

Thursday, December 05, 1996

Do you know of any sources where I can research ad campaigns that other companies have done so we don't do repeat something that's already been tried. How would you go about researching a competitors advertising history?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, December 20, 1996)

There are companies which can provide you with copies of ads for specific prodcut categories and even within category by type or content, eg ads for computer software, emphasizing price and including cows.

For TV:

Tuesday, December 03, 1996

Hi, Media Guru! Thank you for your kind answer to my previous question.Your answer was really helpful to me.

Currently, I am looking for information about American Network TV advertising rates.If you know any source that I can find the information, please let me know.Thank you very much.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, December 04, 1996)

Monday, December 02, 1996

Is there a standard industry statistic on using a 1-800 number in tv and radio spots and what the response levelpercentage is? If it is a percentage, is it a percentageof the number of times the spot ran or a percentage relatedto the target audience?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, December 03, 1996)

There are a number ov variables in this kind of direct response, several of which are more important than the ones youmention.

Is the 800 number purely informational or a sales responsevehicle?

What is the product, how unique, how interesting?

What is the product's price?

How good is the commercial?

The Guru believes there are almost mystical aspects to Direct response. Sometimes spots with smaller audience seem toproduce more response than others with larger audience, whenthere are no apparent difference in target composition orprogramming "fit".

Sometimes one station seems to outperform a similar station whenimpressions, spots and programming appear identical.

Overall, 2% of people reached, is generally considered anoutstanding response rate.

Wednesday, November 27, 1996

I'm working with an essay concerning internetmarketing and children.Which can I find information about this subject?Do you have any specific contributions?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, December 01, 1996)

The Guru believes that computer facility in today's world is in an indirect relation to age: the younger, the more computer savvy (although the Guru himself is ancient).

There are several sites aimed at kids, and several programs like NetNanny, created to allow parental control of browser use, because kids are on the net and might not just browse kid's oriented sites. The Guru would suggest you search Yahoo, AltaVista, and the like for kid oriented sites and also that you review the content of sites for software like NetNanny.

Tuesday, November 26, 1996

I currently publish a quarterly newsletter for a doucmentmanagement firm which outlines some of the services, software,and hardware that is available today in our industry.In recent converstaion it has come across that we wouldlike to focus our information based upon customer needsand wants in document management.

My first thought was to release a survey that wouldeffectivley find data that would allow us to analyze thecurrent market trends and cater our publication to theirparticular interests or needs.

The only problem I have at this time is findinginformation that will guide me in the right direction ingenerating effective surveys that do not sway theresponses of people taking the survey. I am planning toinclude this survey in the next release of the publicationwhich will be late December early January. (hopefully)

If you could direct me to books, websites, or any otherresource that can provide me with some "good" information oneffective question design I would really appreciate it.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, November 27, 1996)

The Guru regards questionnaire design as an art, rather than a formualristictechnique which can be learned from books. The Guru haspracticed the art himself, and learned it by being part of anorganization which had the expertise and through formal academictraining. Having visited many marketing research sites, the Gurudoes not recall seeing any attempts to teach questionnairedesign. Questionnaire designers begin with a good understandingof the way the intended respondent thinks about the products orprocesses to be surveyed. Often this is doene by conducting"qualitative research" such as focus, groups first. The best wayto learn something quickly about designing questionnaires is toread through actual questionnaires that have been used, alongside their survey results, the oiriginal hypotheses or issuestatement and the conclusions drawn from the data.

Surely there are text books in this field. Try Barnes and Noble.

You are wiseto realize that questionnaire design can substantiallyinfluence the validity of the data. But so can sample design. Agood questionnare used among a poorly selected sample, such as"any customer willing to return a survey" will be equallyunreliable in predicting consumer behavior.

Friday, November 22, 1996

I am trying to find an organzation similar to Harte Hanks on the West that services the New York area with direct mail shoppers.

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, November 24, 1996)

Try the Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS)"Community Publication Advertising Source" for listings of such publishers.

Monday, November 18, 1996

Oh great media guru, I feel as if I have been thrown into an impossible situation. We're a start-up internet company and I think I'm in over my head. I am not experienced in the advertising industry and yet I am supposed to create and execute an advertising campaign with a $300,000 budget. The partner who has given me this task wants to advertise in at least two cities and in at least 7 different mediums. My first question is... Is this a rational task for an inexperienced person? When I call the reps for TV stations and radio stations I feel like I should REALLY be working with a consultant to point me in the right direction and to make sure I don't get ripped off. Any advice? I need to find a place where I can estimate costs. Is there any source where I can find rate estimates. Do you know of anywhere where I can find general rates for multiple mediums? Or maybe a directory that would give me phone #rs to call. For example, how do you find info. on freeway billboard advertising in different cities? Are there media buying consultants that work on a flat-rate basis that can help me? (I don't want any commissions to get in the way of prudent spending....dazed and confused

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, November 19, 1996)

Yes, there are media consultants will work for flat rates (pure "media buyers" are more often paid on commission.)

The Guru does not believe that commission should necessarily be assumed to cloud buyers' judgement, as "buying on the spread" might.

The Guru will send you a private message with references to a media consultant.

Monday, November 18, 1996

I'm looking for the most recent SMRB on Television. My University library only has 1992, but for an advertising project, I need more recent information. This page has recent info for magazines and such, but not for television, is there anyplace online that I can get television information?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, November 19, 1996)

SMRB is usually available to university libraries at a very small cost for the previous year's edition. If your school has an active advertising education program, you should ask them to remain current in such basic resource materials.

If you have more specific questions about television, the Guru may be able to direct you to additional sources for specific data.

Friday, November 15, 1996

My company sells products primarily to students. Do you know of if there is an organization where I can place an ad in many school newspapers without having to contact each school individually? Also, is there an organization that puts up poster or flyers on school campuses? I'm already aware of a company called Marketsource that primarily targets students, but they only market during the fall and spring.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, November 16, 1996)

Tuesday, November 12, 1996

I am new to the media-buying industry, yet I am responsible for the media buying of my company. The campaign my VP wants is to be very diverse (TV, Mags, Bus ads, Subway ads, Direct Mail ads, etc. I'm having trouble determining how to space out our $rs. What is a good resource I can go to that can help me to determine what each media is best for. Meaning what type of company/product/budget. We are a website and the goal of my advertising is to create both an image of our company to people between the ages 16-24 as well as to drive them to our site.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, November 13, 1996)

Media are not best for kinds of products or companies or budgets, they are best (or not) for specific marketing goals or types of communications.

Saying you're marketing a web site to persons 16-24 is a good start. Analyzing what is the draw of your site and company and what media draw people with the same interests is the next step. Talk to some of these media and ask for their research on the field. Browse similar sites and see if the have media advertisers or links.

Monday, November 11, 1996

What is the average starting salery in the media advertising field?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 11, 1996)

Salaries vary by region and type of employer. The ad trade publications, such as Ad Age Inside Media and MediaWeek publish surveys, segmented along these lines, regularly.

Wednesday, November 06, 1996

How do I reach buyers of advertising for my online sports magazine? Are their places I can list this opportunity?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, November 06, 1996)

There is the Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) Interactive Media Resource as a listing. There are sites which list ad-bearing sites, such as Webtrack. Beyond that, listing with the search engines is wise.

Other than on-line and SRDS, consider advertising in the media trades, such as Inside Media (print ot web versions) and MediaWeek, or with general advertising trades like AdAge (print or web versions).

Tuesday, November 05, 1996

We are a branch office of an american company based in Trinidad & Tobago, WI. We are designing an advertisement (print) to be published in T&T's airline magazine. We have a 'by-line' that will represent the focus of our ad but want to research whether it has been already used, ie limited under copyright law. We are targeting both UK and USA with the ad. The airlines is also flying to Germany and Sweden. Question: where would we have to check for potential breach of copyright? (b) Are we bound to place an official check in all countries that the airline flies to? (c) Do you have addresses for UK and USA with whom we can liaise? Thank you oh masterful one.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, November 06, 1996)

The Guru greatly appreciates your expressions of respect and gratitude. However, you are asking a legal question, not a media question. But, because you asked so nicely, the Guru investigated and found the following, which seems to apply to your question, on the website of the US Copyright Office, under the heading "WHAT IS NOT PROTECTED BY COPYRIGHT:

"Titles, names, short phrases, and slogans; familiar symbolsor designs; mere variations of typographic ornamentation,lettering, or coloring; mere listings of ingredients or contents"

A similar tactic would likely find you the same information for the UK.

Tuesday, November 05, 1996

I developed and launched a relatively successful websitethat reaches a very specific audience of users. Demographicshave been developed through an online survey, as well asdetailed "hit" statistics provided by the ISP. Althoughthe audience is relatively small compared to other typesof media, it comprises a highly desirable consumer group.How can one calculate the tangible ($$$) value of banneradvertising on such a site (to companies who wish to reachthis specific audience?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, November 06, 1996)

There is considerable controversy regarding the value of Banners. If they are merely logo's which, when clicked take the vistor to the spoonsor's own site or an actual ad. But your question goes to the next stage, the relative value of a highly selective but small audience. The Guru recommends checking the pricing of space in magazines which are selective for the same audience as your site, and comparing that pricing to prices of general audience magazines. The comparison should be on a cost-per-thousand-audience basis, which will allow you to price your site's visitors or banner-clicks according to the same index versus reported general audience sites such as Netscape or Yahoo.

Monday, November 04, 1996

Do you know any ad agency to do DM (direct mail) to universities?Please let me know name & number of such campanies a.s.a.p. Thank you

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, November 04, 1996)

This is not a media question, but the "Agency Redbook" can guide you to DM agencies (use your browser's "find" function to locate the URL further down this page, in a previous Guruquestion/answer.

Thursday, October 31, 1996

Dear Guru,I am carrying out a study on the effects of frequency on attitudes and behavior, distinguishing between low and high involvement productsAre there any previous learnings on this subject ?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 31, 1996)

Compilations of such research are best available from the Advertising Research Foundation or the Newsweek Media Research Index at VMR.

There ahve been several trade articles on the concept -- effective frequency vs propinquity -- most notably by Irwin Efron, and some by Abbott Wool and others, published in Inside Media and MediaWeek.

Tuesday, October 29, 1996

How can you figure duplication numbers for trade publications?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 30, 1996)

Some publications will have done research on their audiences' reading habits from which you can calculate duplication. Given a few such studies, you can model duplication between othe titles. Some judgement will be called for based on how closely realated the chosen publications are. There is software available, such as Telmar's "MakeDemo," which can help with these estimates.

Monday, October 28, 1996

What defines an "Ad Agency"? How does an agency get paid when placing ads? How do they "qualify" for the agency discount for placing ads, and is this discount universal through most media? If they don't have discounts for ad placements, is there another way to bill a client for this service other than by the hour? Thank you for your response. DJ

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, October 29, 1996)

There is really no "qualification." Ad rates ares either quoted as "gross" (comissionable) or "net" (non-comissionable). The idea is that the gross rate is there to show to an agencies client, and includes the agency's traditional 15% commission.

Rate cards specify when rates listed are net, meaning the amount the media itself must receive. This is typical for retail rates, which commonly cover ads placed by smaller,local advertisers, directly.

Some outdoor rates still observe the tradition of 16.67% commission.

Some agencies have deals with clients at rates other than 15%.

Sunday, October 27, 1996

I am looking for a way to use prizm, is there a way to do this, or is there another way to find the same kind of information?I am researching two magazines for a class and need to know about their consumers.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, October 28, 1996)

PRIZM is a product of Claritas. Various waysto use PRIZM are described on the Web site. You would need to use PRIZM in conjunction with a magazine audience study such as Simmons or MRI for the project you mention. Claritas' own COMPASS computer system can do this at a highly detailed level, but the broader strokes you might need can be accomplished through most data tabbing systems for MRI or Simmons data such as Telmar's TNT CrossTab. The user must have the "rights" to access magzine and PRIZM data. The magazines themselves could help you, if they were willing to support student projects (doubtful).

Wednesday, October 23, 1996

1. What would be the best way to value ($$$) a credit mention at the end of a prime time television program?
2. ... Value to a :10 opening and :10 closing billingard at the end of a prime time television special?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 24, 1996)

The simplest way to calculate these is by a simple time relationship. A :10 is one-third of a :30, though it might not sell for that price. A credit may have viewer attention for only 2-3 seconds and may be text only. So perhaps half of the time value, at best.

Tuesday, October 22, 1996

what is composition

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 23, 1996)

"Composition," in media terms, usually refers to the portion of a media audience which falls within a specified demographic cell, e.g:

25% of the adult audience of American Snipe Hunter magazine are Men aged 25-49

Audience composition may be reported in ways other than percentages, i.e thousands or, for TV, viewers per viewing household.

Tuesday, October 22, 1996

What is %coverage & %composition

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 23, 1996)

% Coverage is similar to rating and reach. It describes a media audience in relation to the population of a defined geographic area, e.g;

If American Snipe Hunter magazine is read by 200,000 men aged 25-49, and the entire U.S. contained 20,000,000 men 25-49, Then the magazines COVERAGE of US men 25-49 would be 1% or 200,000 / 20,000,000.

"Coverage" is occasionally used in other ways: newspaper coverage of a schedule may refer to the sum of the circulations divided by the household population of the target geography.

"Coverage" of a broadcast program may refer to as the sum of the populations of the Designated Market Areas in which the program is available to its audience, without regard to what portion of the audience who CAN receive it actually chose to tune in. Sometimes "reach" is used in this context, but is considered deceptive when so used.

For %composition, see the adjacent question.

Be sure to check out the Encyclopedia of Media Terms on AMIC.

Tuesday, October 22, 1996

I am a consultant to a TV station. Recently most agencies have adopted one or another Media Planning software. We have tried to undersatand what type of optimizers they have and what effect in their decisions may have. For example one that uses integer programming seems to benefit high GRP programmes while others low cost and low audiences. How does the type of optimizer influence the plan? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 23, 1996)

Optimizers must be set to Optimize something. It may be pure reach, reach at a given level of frequency, reach within a specific budget,etc. Usually some form of reach is in the goal, because other considerations like cpm or GRPs are simple arithmetic, while reach involves more complex computer models.

The reach models must be based on some measurement of "actual" schedules to be worth anything at all. If each optimizer is merely based on some programmer's opinion of how audience accumulates, there is no way to predict results without owning a copy of the program.

When reach within budget is the issue, it is possible forlow cost/low rated programs to be preferred if theydeliver so much more gross audience that even at low rates of net accumulation, the total reach can be more than quicker 'cuming. high-rated schedules.

Sunday, October 20, 1996

What is your take on the Audits & Survey challenge to MRI and SMRB for use among media buyers.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, October 21, 1996)

The Guru believes the challenge is -- first -- about use amongMedia Researchers. Buyers typically will use what the agencyprovides and "blesses" without much question.

The focus of the A&S study, as the Guru understands it, is on "Primary" (subscriber household) readers, on the theory that this is the more stable audience, and will lessen study to study audience size "bounce" for mid size publications, which can sometimes vary greatly between waves of MRI or Simmons. It remains to be seen if this will be the case. There are several other technical differences.

But, practically, for media buyers, comparing to Simmons or MRI, the missing elements would be brand data -- A&S has said it will report categories only -- and lack of reporting on any package goods categories.

Obviously, buyers working on General Foods will view this differently than those assigned to General Motors orGeneral Electric.

Friday, October 18, 1996

Where can I purchase a list of e-mail addresses that match specific SIC numbers?Who on the internet does these types of services?I have a client that would like to do a mass mailing to internet users that are specific to his SIC number.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, October 21, 1996)

The guru is opposed to sending unsolicited e-mail. Consequently the guru will not promote any sources for sending unsolicited mass mailings via e-mail. There are many reasonable ways to use the internet for advertisingand promotion. The guru does not feel that mass e-mailings is one of them.

Set up a WWW home page. Register it with as many search engines as possible.Use banner advertising on appropriate other sites. Send announcements to appropriate news groups and mailing lists that permit them. Create a mailinglist of people who WANT to receive your promotion material.

There are many ways to be a good netizen. Sending unsolicitedmass e-mailings is not one of them. You can create more ill will, thangood will by doing things such as spamming and mass e-mailings. Remembermany people pay hourly rates for their internet connection. When you send e-mail you are in fact causing the recipient to pay to receive your message.

Tuesday, October 15, 1996

Do you have any suggestions for increasing LOCAL traffic? How do I attract people from a specific geographiclocation? (i.e., the site I am currently promoting is anAuto Referral, Free Classifieds, etc. site, and my client,although he wants national traffic, he is very interestedin getting lots of traffic in the Los Angeles area so hecan personally take the referrals into the dealerships. Healso wants to promote certain areas more than others sincethat is where he has subscribing dealerships.) How do Igo about doing this? Please post any advice, or sitesthat would be helpful.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, October 18, 1996)

On the one hand, you are flying in the face of the essenceof the web, it is inherently everywhere with national orother borders being irrelevant. However, you can stilldesire to use the web to market in a limited area.

One simple option is to advertise the site in traditionallocal media, newspapers and local broadcast, etc plus localBBS systems.

Secondly, there are so-called city sites, aimed at promoting local business and entertainment, and if there isone such in your area, it would be ideal for an adplacement.

Yahoo has also established some city specific search engines. Yahoo is also a good placeto search for other city centric sites with which toexchange links.

There may also be newsgroups or mail lists devot4ed to yourgeographic area or sales arena which would be useful

Liszt is an excellentsearch facility for topical e-mail discussion lists.

Sunday, October 13, 1996


The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, October 13, 1996)

Teleseker has a multi=media study (including newspapers, magazines,radio and TV) for the Israeli market. They are also the represetnativeof Telaar (the parent of AMIC) for Isreal and can provide Telmarsoftware along with their study. They can be contacted at:

Teleseker Ltd.
The Twin Towers
33 Jabotinsky St.
Ramat Gan 52511
Tel: (3) 613-0333
Tel: (3) 613-0341

Sunday, October 13, 1996


The Media Guru Answers (Monday, October 14, 1996)

One of the best known texts on media planning in the us is "Media Planning" by Sissors and Bumba. There are other books with their own adherents.

However, these books are about US media planning. In other countries, like Israel, though general principals would be similar, specifics may vary drastically, based on media types available, and standards of measurement or exchange, etc

Wednesday, October 09, 1996

I was wondering what the effective levels of reach &frequency for a new product launch would be, as well as an adequate budget?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, October 11, 1996)

Determining the effective levels and desired geographic scope will determine adequate budget.

There are no absolutes in effective levels for intros or any other purpose.

Issues to consider include:

  • Competition; how many, spending how much
  • Clutter in the media to be used
  • Typical levels of frequency in the media used
  • Complexity of your message
  • Interest in your product type - e.g. insurance vs sports cars
  • Ability of the target consumer to digest information
  • and others which may be specific to your own situation.

Generally, you want to reach the majority of your target at the determined effective level.

Wednesday, October 09, 1996

I need an estimate of 1995, 1996 spending in interactive television trials. If possible I would also like to estimate projected spending for 1997-2000. I would also like to know major advertising participants and average cost of participating in interactive TV trials. Do you have any information on these topics or can you recommend resources?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, October 11, 1996)

The best source of such data would be the few operators of interactive TV systems. Barring that, a search of the Advertising trades for articles since 1995 may help.

Tuesday, October 08, 1996

I wonder if you could enlighten me on your thoughts onthe following: currently, within our market, we lookat cost per point (CPP) for TV. This has been the casefor a number of years now. Recently, however, certainTV stations have been trying to encourage the use ofcost per thousand (CPT). Is there any right or wrongway of looking at a cost measurement for TV?My thinking is that CPT does not prove to be stablewhen measured across a time period, simply becauseuniverse sizes change over time (thousands do increasebut not necessariily the penetration into a market).Therefore CPT could be used when measuring off the sameuniverse size, but is not feasible in showing trendsover different years using different universe sizes.CPT works to the advantage of the media owners as it isseen as much less of an amount than a CPP is (at themoment)???Please help.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 09, 1996)

The issues you raise with the use of CPT as against CPP are real, particularly in that when you have people meter data and the universes are changing they will affect the 'thousands' calculated conceivably more than the change in the audience itself.

In people meter panels the universe can vary if it does not form part of the weighting cells.

In addition as a rating using people meter data is a time weighted average it is not strictly speaking possible to convert them into whole 'people'.

Selling or buying TV based on CPT derived from respondent level people meter data would be fraught with hidden difficulties for both the users and the TV stations.

Note that this question was posed about the South African market.

Sunday, October 06, 1996

I am creating a hypothetical advertising campaign for a class at Columbia Business School and I need informationon the costs of advertising in media (TV, radio, internet,publishing, etc.). I would like to know if anyone cansend me a table with comparable costs (per ad, city, audience)or a sample advertising budget, or even better a sampleadvertising plan.

Also, any information on advertising costs on the internet.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 09, 1996)

The Guru doesn't provide personal answers; like Dear Abby's, Guru questions and answers are for all to see and use. One of the most important parts of advertising education is learning how to find information, but the Guru isn't going to do your homework.

Your school library will have the publications of Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) which list media rates for most media, including interactive. You can look up internet sales reps through Yahoo or AltaVista search engines. Many advertising agencies also publish their own cost guides, and AMIC itself offers media cost information, at Rates, Dates and Data accessible from the AMIC home page.

Friday, October 04, 1996

Dear Media Guru, First, thank you for this service. We run a national niche trade publication which also enjoys a good newsstand presence. I am wondering where we could go to find out if the terms that our prospective advertising representative has suggested? 25% commission, a 1000+ retainer per month, plus traveling fees. He has references confirming that he currently does 20K in ad revenue for two of his other clients who are similiar to our publication.He is very professional and comes highly recommended, but we are unsure of his costs and whether the costs will be offset by enough revenue quickly enough to avoid a financial problem. Any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 10, 1996)

The Guru believes this calls for comparison shopping. You will find a list of independent print sales representatives in the front of Standard Rate and Data Service (SRDS) Consumer Publication and Business Publication Advertising Resources

Friday, October 04, 1996

can you provide me with a definition of Single Sourcestudies, and how the data from them is used?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, October 10, 1996)

This term is typically applied to studies which provide media usage and product purchase data for the same period of time, in the same report. IRI is one provider. One use of the data links purchase behaviorto to TV viewing the day before purchase.

Wednesday, October 02, 1996

what is your view on the "accordion assumption"?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 02, 1996)

By the "accordion assumption" the Guru assumes that you arereferring to the situation in radio, for example, where 25 spots ineach of 4 weeks is considered the same as 100 spots in 1 week.

In general the Guru believes that it will slightly underestimate thereach. Since there is a larger potential audience over 4 weeksthan over just 1 week, it is reasonable to expect less duplication with the same number of spots over the longer period. However, in atypical schedule, the differnce will likely be small. Unfortunately there is little in the way of concrete data to make more than just a small general adjustment when using a longer period.

You might consider posing this question to the "Media PlanDiscussion List" and see what opinions you can ilicit fromthat group.

Monday, September 30, 1996

I'm looking for some internet statistics about these topics:
* which kind of industries usually buy web pages to promote their business
* why do they choose internet and not another media
* what do they expect from their web pages
I also would like to know if there is any recent research about the global number of connected industries, subdivided in different fields (industry, agricoltural, service, etc.)

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, October 02, 1996)

The Guru does not believe there is much in the way of statistics to answer your questions, but he will offer some opinion based on observation:

1. Computer hardware and software companies have web sites, because of the obvious relation to their business.Entertainment companies -- TV, movies, records -- have web sites, because their customers typically view the web as another form of entertainment.There is probably no category of business not currently on the web somewhere.

2. The Guru believes that these companies choose the web in addition to traditional media, such as related magazines. The vast majority of Web sites have very tiny audiences as compared to most traditional media, and traditional media are one of the principal means of advising the relevant public of the URL of the website.

3. The expectations of web sites vary. Having a web site is the current credential of coolness in the entertainment arena, particularly youth oriented entertainment. It's also a credibility tool in the computer industry. It allows companies to build databases of prospects and offer information inexpensively and in more detail and with graphic support not available by phone.

Sun Microsystems and Federal Express are said to save millions annually by providing customer service on the web.

One of the biggest mistakes of web sites is being designed without a clear vision of the marketing purpose to be accomplished. You've probably seen them, they're very confused about whether they want to impress investors, stockholders employees or customers.

Search engines may offer some statistics about industry involvement as may some trade publications. IE it's plausible that a Cable tv trade publication could determine what percent of cable networks or MSO's have sites. It's mind boggling to think of trying to sort the millions of personal, hobby, retail, consumer goods, and business to business web sites by category of focus. Projecting from sampling would require universe estimates that probably would change too fast to complete the analysis.

You might want to browse theInternet Surveys archives

Friday, September 27, 1996

what would you say is more important to a person wanting to enter the advertising field. A good education or hands on experence.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, September 28, 1996)

The Guru prefers to hire someone with experience rather than someone with an academic advertising background. Since it's rare to "enter" a field with experience, the best compromise is internship. As far as "good education" the Guru wishes candidates came out of school with broad general knowledge and decent English and arithmetic skills, rather than some of the odd ideas about advetising he has found in new graduates with degrees in "communications."

Friday, September 27, 1996

I am looking for advertising effectiveness research which can be transferred to the medium of direct marketing. In particular, I am interested in direct mail saturation. I have checked the guru archives. Can you suggest where I could look? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, September 27, 1996)

The Advertising Research Foundation library is probably the largest compendium of advertising research.

There is a lot at The U of Texas, Austin, though how much direct marketing data is not certain.

Finally, the direct marketing experts are the Direct Marketing Association (DMA)

Thursday, September 26, 1996

How do you measure usage on the internet? Is thereany accurate way of doing this? If so, who is the companywho does this?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, September 26, 1996)

Assuming you mean website visits, there are several ways. Webs sites genearlly have logs which track this. There are sites, like Webcounter. There are services which "audit" site traffic like Neilsen I/PRO I/AUDIT, and others.

You'll often see the logos of these services on the sites they audit

Tuesday, September 24, 1996

What do media specialists have to learn to prepare 21st century?What will be the most important change for media specialists?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, September 26, 1996)

Media specialists will need to learn how to deal with change. In the hardly more than first half of the 20th century alone, we have gone from the dominance of Newspaper, to the dominance of magazines, to the incredible dominance of radio to the overwhelming dominance of TV.

In the latter half of the century we have seen the fragmentation of media as the key trend. When the Guru entered the business (yes, in the latter half of the century) there were only 75 independent TV stations. Now there seem to be that many in the New York DMA.

With cables growth there are nearly that many networks now. The World Wide Web is millions of individual media fragments.

Something other than computer based media will probably be the big news before 2010.Personal, wrist based satellite dish receivers?

Monday, September 23, 1996

My client's external auditors are not satisfied that affadavits received from broadcasters are definitive proof that the activity aired. We have explained that this is the accepted industry practice but are now being asked to provide additional information about this practice. I have some very detailed info from a FCC policies guidebook, but would like some additional information such as when station's began providing affadavits, any cases when the FCC audited a station and found no problems, the % of stations audited that have been fined for falsifying records, etc. Any answers for these questions or ideas on additional resources would be greatly appreciated.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, September 24, 1996)

There was an article about this topic many (perhaps 10) years ago, in a trade magazine like Broadcasting.

As the station affidavit is accepted as definitive by industry practice, it is hard to imagine that a station would do more. The only better detail would probably be the real time tape of all the station's air-time. But would the auditors review it.

The Guru would turn the problem around. Since it's the client auditors inexperience which is raising the issues, let them specify what proof they would like. The feasibility of that form of proof (for the future, most likely) may be addressed.

More immediately, the "Four A's" (American Association of Advertising Agencies)frequently publishes guidebooks on such topics.

Sunday, September 22, 1996

Hello Media Guru, As powerful as the Web search enginesare on the internet, I cannot find any research sites on the newspaper business in the UK. There are manysites by the US and Canada newspaper organisations, Can you tell me of any sites in the UK, which carry recent research material?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, September 23, 1996)

Our very English guru suggests you look at

1. AdWeb and look at the section on the NRS (National Readership Survey) first. This will give you top line info and is free access.

2. IPA (Institute of Practitioners inAdvertising). You can look at recent research appraisals here and some other information on readership but not all of it is free access.

3. MediaTel This will have all sorts of information on readership but is mainly closed access and users have to pay.

Saturday, September 21, 1996

Is there a book or directory that lists advertising agencies y region, clients and size? If so, is it available on the internet and where?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, September 23, 1996)

Use your browser's "find" function to look at earlier answers on this page with references to The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies (The Redbook).Also check the Guru Archives.

Friday, September 20, 1996

Can you access competitive information that may be proprietary?For example; can I find out what dayparts & spending levelsa competitor did for 1995?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, September 23, 1996)

You can't get the proprietary version, but CMR (Competitive Media Reporting) is in the business or monitroing and compiling such information, now including Internet advertising.

Wednesday, September 18, 1996

I'm trying to come up with reach curves (how many impressions does it take to get max. reach) for various on-line sites. Do you know how to do this?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, September 19, 1996)

Yes the Guru knows how to do this. He has done it for many media. The first step in "how" is to assemble some actual measurements of the accumualtion patterns of the medium for which you want a reach "curve" model. Telmar has done this and the latest versionof the AdPlus programhas internet curves built in.

If you could persuade a site to give you their unique monthly visitors and for example the 3 month unique visitors,then you could use the latest version of Telmar's AdPlusto determine the reach.

Note: Telmar is the parent company of AMIC and provides supportfor the media guru.

Tuesday, September 17, 1996

Dear Guru,Please can you tell me where I can obtain a copy of the current Advertisng Statistics Yearbook (UK). Thank you!Julian Parish.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, September 19, 1996)

Ad Stats Yearbook
NTC Pulbications
Henley on Thames
tel 01491 411 000 or 574671
fax 01491 571188

Monday, September 16, 1996

Has anyone already validated the old ratio theory, in order to provide help in answering such statements as : "adspends should not represent more than X% of our turnover in this country"? I know this appears like a rather naive question, but some still use this so-called ratio as a weapon and as a norm, regardless of launching years and conflicting effectiveness measurement tools. Have you got an answer , maybe not so simple as the question ?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, September 17, 1996)

The Guru says "no." Except for individual brands/services basing ratios on their own experience.

Otherwise such static ratios are always limited in applicability.

First, they generally only apply within product category, to take account of competitive environment.

They also must vary with brand maturity; launching always requires spending ahead of sales. Mature, established, category dominating brands can spend at a lower ratio.

Market position is also a factor, a smaller share-of-market holder needs a higher ratio to grow share.

There are so few simple answers to marketing questions, once we go beyond "does advertising work?"

Sunday, September 15, 1996

Where do I look for Lifestyles and Demographics for Filipinos between the ages of 12 and 20? Is there a page where I can view stat information such as: number of population for each major city in United States, age breakdown, etc.?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, September 17, 1996)

Filipinos are a fairly small segment of the Hispanic and/or Asian-Pacific Islander cultural segments, and the Guru, who has an especial interest in multicultural marketing, does not recall seeing any such data on the web. Lifestyle information is relatively rare for an under-18 demographic, except for the general market or its major segments.

Some of the listings at Abbott Wool'sMarket Segment Resource Locator might provide good leads.

A search engine such as AltaVista or Yahoo might produce some leads as well.

Finally, American Demographics Magazine frequently covers such topics, though the Guru's check of their archives was not productive.

Sunday, September 15, 1996

What is the most rapidly growing advertising medium?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, September 16, 1996)

According to a recent Ad Age report, the web, though still the smallest, grew about 50% from first quarter to second quarter this year. That surely is fastest. In the not too distant future, some sort of stable level will surely be reached, and growth will be merely inflationary as with most other media. On the other hand, technology being what it is, there may be a new internet or other similar breakthrough before that happens. Who would have predicted today's WWW importance just two years ago?

Sunday, September 15, 1996

What is the projected 5 year forecast for marketing and advertising trends?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, September 16, 1996)

This is like asking "what is the economic future of the US, for 5 years out?"

Wednesday, September 04, 1996

1) Any studies of the success of newspaper inserts?
2) Any studies of color photos vs. drawaings?
3)What information is available to show the strength ofnewspapers vs. shoppers? Thank you in advance!

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, September 06, 1996)

In addition to the Guru's two favorite resources Advertising Research Foundation and Newsweek Media Research Index, the The Newspaper Advertising Association has a wealth of this sort of facts about newspaper advertising.

Wednesday, September 04, 1996

My company runs a popular, ad-supported web music directory, and I was wondering what is the best way to learn what advertisers have upcoming online campaigns? Currently, I just spend hours calling them all and asking what their plans are. This seems to work OK, but there has to be a better way. Is their a single source that lists current and future online campaigns for advertisers, and if so what is it and how do I get it?

Any help would be much appreciated.Thanks for a great resource!

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, September 05, 1996)

The Guru doesn't believe there are alert resources such as you desire for any of the traditional media, either. Advertisers naturally guard information about their forthcoming plans. TV, radio and print salesmen go to great lengths to spot advertisers running in the competitve media, and build relationships that help assure they'll be the first thought of when plans are brewing.

It's just plain hard work until you spot some action or luckily call the right person at the right time.

Tuesday, September 03, 1996

My company has just developed an internet site as an extension of its core business. I'm in the aviationfield. The chiefs believe since we have an internetbusiness, we must advertise on the internet. I'm concerned about its effectiveness over more conventionalmethods. I'm not so concerned about prices, thoughI find it ridiculous some charge $1,000 per month andcan't tell me how many "hits" they get. Is there anyPROOF internet advertising really works?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, September 04, 1996)

Short answer: NO
Eternal answer: It depends

Some are succeeding according to the standard they have set themselves for success. "Success" must be measured against goals. Is internet advertising going to be used to sell your company's product / service or to bring visitors to your site?

Nobody should be charging serious money without being able to count hits / accesses. It's too easy, today, to attach a counter like "Web Counter" and be accountable to paying advertisers. Any site which can charge $1000 / month can surely afford its own documentation.

If the web is your "store" however, you will want to advertise in other media which has a large audience of computer users within your target area.Eg; www.Amazon.com is a successful on-line bookstore which advertises its URL in the book section of major newspapers.

For you, aviation industry magazines are a possibility. Featuring your URL in your regular print advertising is a way to test the waters. If readers of those trade books are not drawn to your site, then there is less likelihood that web advertising will succeed with your customer.

Sunday, September 01, 1996

I've got 22 email newsletter titles, which I launched about two months ago. And subscriptions are coming-in thick-and-fast -- up to 150 per day. Each of the newsletters announce Web sites relevant to a particular topic. To-date, I've been trading 200 word sponsors' announcements in exchange for banner advertising on other sites. However, I'm now starting to get enquiries re. paid sponsors' announcements.

Can you specify a typical range of prices (eg. price per 1,000 readers) for sponsors announcements in email newsletters? -- bearing in mind that my sponsors are permitted a description of up to 200 words and our 22 newsletter categories allow pretty good audience targeting.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, September 02, 1996)

There is not any e-mail newsletter standard pricing as yet. Assuming that your subscribers have all requested subscriptions, and the soel purpose of the newsletters is to announce sites in which the would be interested, then the value is probably comparable to web banner advertising.

The Guru compares this to outdoor billboards at about $5 per thousand. Others compare it to vertical magazines at $70-$100. But those magazine situations are full-page, detailed message ads, not road signs, like web bannners,See Pricing Web Site Advertising; A Media Buyer's View ,here at AMIC

Saturday, August 31, 1996

How does one determine what is effective advertising on the Internet?What would be thought to be an effective frequency?How does it compare with more traditional media (direct advertising etc)?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, September 02, 1996)

One first has to define what qualifies as advertising in the internet context. Is it a full web page or is it a banner ad on someone else's page?

Effective frequency was long cosidered to be just a simple 3 or more times, stemming from the origninal 1883 Ebbinhaus learning theory experiment.

More recent theorists look at differnet amounts of repetion needed to "learn" an advertising message, based on content (high interest/low interest, etc) or environment (relevant surroundings, clutter, competition, etc).

But in the case of banners, these are usually no more than logos, with nothing to learn, they're fishing lures to bring the browser to the more detailed inormation. In the case of full web pages, the idea is either to draw the browser through the whole content if the page is an ad or to bring the browser back often if the page itself is a medium for other people's banner ads.

Learning and repetiton may not be relevant or may nned to be redefined.

In a direct mail context, the banner may be like the outside of the envelope, and the web page like the content. Both are a one-shot deal: effective frequency doesn't enter the picture.

Friday, August 30, 1996

Greetings, Guru--Firstly, thank-you for this service. It beats climbing K-2 looking for some soothsayer in the Lotus position.

On to the serious.I own and operate an audio production house, geared toward radio. We write, voice and produce. Our first two years in business we catered directly to radio stations, and would now like to shift our focus to ad agencies (with a definate, if not primary, interest in radio). Can you suggest any lists, resources, tips or leads that might "weed out" the irrelevant candidates?Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, August 30, 1996)

TheStandard Directory of Advertising Agencies (TheAgency Redbook) includes in each agencies listing the approximate investment in each medium. Though not likely to be especially accurate in a statistical sense, the agency's claims should at least indicate their interest in radio.

The Guru is one of the few still in the lotus position, most others apparently preferring X-cel.

Friday, August 30, 1996

Dear Guru,We are planning a campaign in the market, where no consistent media research data is available. What we have at the moment is following:1. 2 heavy competitors (one is our client)2. The competitor is running a campaign in the key city of the region using 3 local channels with a combined monthly reach of 93% of the city and the surrounding area, which equals 12.5% of the regions' population. The competitor is spending ca. USD 90K per month.3. We have the objective of running a regional rather than local campaign and, at the same time, outvoice the competitor by 30%.4. To our choice are 3 regional channels with a combined reach of 40.7% in the regionQuestion: what budgert should we be looking at on a monthly basis, given that the average ratio of the local rate card to regional one is 1:1.5?

Sorry for asking for a piece of alchemy and thank you in advance,

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, August 30, 1996)

The simplest conceptual answer is to spend 30% more than the competitor in the key city: USD117 This way you outspend him where he's active and meet the 30%+ goal. Otherwise, assuming the regional buy includes the key city, your budget is still 117, with some in regional media and some in the more efficient key city media, so that you have at least a 10% edge in key city impressions.

If the rate card is telling you that a $150 spot buys thewhole region at the same rating that $100 buys the key city's 12.5% of the region (if the Guru followed your data correctly), then 1.3 x 1.5 x 90, or 175.5 is the budget to deliver 30% more impressions in the key city and an equal level across the region.

Thursday, August 29, 1996

Dear Guru :Where in the Interent World do people that have relevent press releases, for the good of businesses everywhere, go to place them? Can this be done so the press can choose what they want; or does this have be done on a one to one basis still ?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, August 30, 1996)

The Guru does not know of any place on the internet that is a repository forpress releases.

In general unsolicited mail is frowned on by the internet community. It is referred to as "spam" and is considered extemely bad etiquitte. Sending such information to lists or newsgroups is considered "spam". Spamming is not permitted by most Internet Service Providers, and spammers canexpect to have their accounts cancelled.

There are however a number of newsgroups that allow PERTINENT advertisementsand press releases. Check the list of usenet newsgroups supported by yourprovider to see if any are apropriate for your company. Then read theFAQ for that newsgroup and monitor it for a while to see if your pressrelease would be welcomed.

Thursday, August 29, 1996

Hi! Do you know of any research into political advertising?If so, where should I look? Thank you!

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, August 30, 1996)

The Guru relies on the Advertising Research Foundation and Newsweek Media Research Index for such needs.

Wednesday, August 28, 1996

What do you think are the chances for a media planner from a third world country in the US? Do I start from scratch or will my experience of two years in an internationally affiliated agency help?Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, August 29, 1996)

The factors will be how similar your own country's media environment is to the US and how well you can generalize your experience, on an interview. Will your "internationally affiliated" agency help you make contact with its US affiliate?

Your experience may be exceptionally valuable to an internationally oriented US agency doing business in your home country. There are also agencies specializing in advertising to Asian Americans where you would have an advantage, YAR in New York is one such.

Good luck.

Sunday, August 25, 1996

Guru, could you tell me where can I find a list with the most important books on "Media Research" (for both printed and electronic media)

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, August 26, 1996)

The Advertising Research Foundation library is likely to be the best collection of these books.

Friday, August 23, 1996

Need product usage infromation: dog food product usage information among hispanics. Where can I find any info. on this subject...Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, August 26, 1996)

Simmons' SMRB and MRI are the industry standard sources for national demographics of product usage.

MRI uses language use and national origin questions to classify a Hispanic demographic set. SMRB does this with it's general study and also has created a separate Hispanic study with a large, 10,000 sample among hispnics. All three willinclude pet food.

Friday, August 23, 1996

Could you please guide me the best resource for obtaining a list of all advertising and broadcast publications, their addresses and names of editors, journalists,. . . Is there an organization from which I can obtain this information?Thanks,

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, August 26, 1996)

The best source of information on publications is the Consumer and Business publication directories of Standard Rate & Data Service. These will be rich in information about advertising and includes addresses and the name of the publisher and/or editor. For more detailed information about editors and journalists you could contact each of the publications directly.

Friday, August 23, 1996

I am looking for the list of ad agencies/media buying services located in Richmond, Virginia. Can you give me a hint where to find that kind of information? Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, August 23, 1996)

The TheStandard Directory of Advertising Agencies (TheAgency Redbook) has a geographicallist of agencies. It should be available at your local library.

Wednesday, August 21, 1996

Guru,I am looking for two directories: 1) a directory that lists ad agencies that buy up banner space for their contracts.2) a directory that lists important Web design firms.Thank you very much.John Busby

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, August 23, 1996)

The Guru is not aware of any such specific directories for ad agencies that buy web advertising. You could attempt to build your own, using Yahoo and AltaVista or other search engines. If the directories you want existed, on the web, you could find them with the search engines as well.

A list of web design firms is included within the AMIC Web Sites / Internet Marketing Companies pages onthe Advertising Media Internet Center.

Wednesday, August 21, 1996

What kind of data do you have regarding Hispanic portrayal in the media?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, August 21, 1996)

This isn't exactly a media question in the sense we use it here. However, the Guru recalls seeing something on the topic ie how many hispanic characters, how many hispanic actors, how positive the image, etc in a recent trade article. Try Minority Markets Alert, 212-941-1622 or epmjensen@aol.com.

Friday, August 16, 1996

Are any of the multi-level marketing plans that are everywhere on the internet any good?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, August 20, 1996)

Though your question has absolutely nothing to do with media, the Guru is confident in saying "no."No selling business which is dependent, for its revenue, on recruiting more sellers rather than on selling whatever is its product or service, can perform as promised. If you do the arithmetic on a typical MLM's promises, you usually find that within 6 months, everyone in the world would have to be a selling for the company. And you've antagonized your friends and family, who you sucked in as your first level downline.

Friday, August 16, 1996

I am working on a media plan to introduce a name change of a Busisness to Business Office Equipment dealer. Is there any guidelines as to what the media mix should be? Are there any examples of case studies on these types of media plans-and where would I find them? Do you have any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, August 20, 1996)

The only guideline the Guru can think of, from your information is to specifically determine and use the media your B to B customer consumes.

Thursday, August 15, 1996

How can I find information about differences in retentionrate between different Media

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, August 19, 1996)

The Guru finds his generic research most often at Newsweek Media Research Index or through the Advertising Research Foundation

If one finds retention rate of media, it is worth considering that budget must be considered as well. In the laboratory, a radio commercial might have far less retention than a tv commercial, for example, but in the real world, 10 radio spotsmight produce better message retention than 3 tv spots, for the same budget.

Monday, August 05, 1996

Who are the top ten traditional advertising agencies in the US?WHo are the top ten ad agencies with a bent towards internet?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, August 08, 1996)

Agency ranking are published annually by Ad Age.

Modem Media, and Poppe Tyson are among agencies well known for internet development. It seems as if most majors have added a division for the purpose and, no doubt, there will soon be some sort of official rankings. But should it be based on number of sites developed, site development billings, value of sites to the owners, number of accesses of sites developed or ??? _x0008_A

Monday, August 05, 1996

Our client is interested in selling web site advertising to local advertisers in serveral markets throughout the U.S. How do we go about finding a local Web advertising sales rep for these areas?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, August 08, 1996)

The easiest method is to use a search engine like Yahoo and combine a search for web reps with the specific locality you need.

Otherwise, a geographic list of ISPs such as The Listwill guide you to access providers by area, who will know what sites they have which carry advertising.

Monday, August 05, 1996

In regards to print advertising, what is a wear-out report? What data do I need to complete this report (reach, frequency, formulas)?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, August 08, 1996)

The Guru has discussed Wear Out previously (see below July 17 and May 7).

A wear out report would state the status of various print executions in your campaign in comparison to the wear out standard you have established.

Clients have a way of asking the wear out question without setting a standard or even being able to decide how to set one.

Essentially an ad is worn out when it loses all or most of its ability to accomplish its marketing purpose with its target. The purpose may be as simple as product sales, or lead generation in a direct response campaign, or it may be as difficult to define as building brand imagery or awareness of a specific product benefit. Since directly relating any of these to a specific ad would require custom research, it is typical to use whatever research has been done in the past as related to easily modelled media measurements, such as reach, frequency, GRPs or quintiles.

For example if in the past, a custom study showed the average ad was worn out at a time when the planners knew that 80% of the target had seen it 8 or more times, or when the frequency in the top 2 quintiles passed 30. (Don't use these examplenumbers). Naturally, different ads perform differently, but you will need to work on an average basis.

A wear out report then becomes a matter of reporting something like how many of thetarget have seen the ad at least "x" times, or that the frequency in the top 2quintiles will exceed the standard measure as of a certain month of the schedule, or"X" number of GRPs will have run for the ad by some date.

The key is knowing how one of these media measures relate to your wear out standard. Then the report is a simple task.

Sunday, August 04, 1996

I am working with a client in Los Angeles. It is a group of Opthalmologist promotingPRK (PhotoRefractive Keratectomy) or corrective vision by use of thelaser. It is a direct response type of account as we have an 800# to call and telemarketers tracking the number of calls. The target audience is Adults 25-49, withHHI $75+, Professional/Managerial with active lifestyles. This is an elective surgery. I used television duringfirst quarter. It worked for a while, but because I did not have the budget for prime, Iused only early morning, early fringe and prime access. Programming such as Home Improvementand Seinfeld and etc. It worked for a while and then my cost per lead began to rise. I've usedradio and it has been fairly successful. Is there any book that I can purchase or can you direct me onwhere do I go from this point? Several years ago, I has a book on direct response, but it has disappeared.Please help a tired old media person. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, August 20, 1996)

There are many (mostly) unpredictable aspect to direct reponse, and ordinary media measures do not seem to be good predictors of results. Saying "prime doesn't fit the budget" is likely to be a reflection of the typical desire to run a lot of spots as opposed to determining the "best" spots. With an exrtremely narrow target as you have defined prime may be more valuable than cost per spot indicates.

One basic aspect of DR, especially for low-interest, one-time purchases like elective surgery, is that there is a definitely limited potential consumer base in any given medium. This would accunt for your unsurprising rise in cost per lead. The quick cure would be new media vehicles. On a cost per lead basis, perhaps prime will now be most affordable.

Sunday, August 04, 1996

I am currently involved in evaluating or trying to evaluatea group of Medical trade publications. The client is acontact lens manufacturer. I have requested from the publications, the following information: Rate card, editorial calendar, and qualitativeinformation and current BPA statements. Also, I have requested competitivespending for 1996. I need to know how to evaluate a BPA statement andhow do I compare one publication to another? What should I look for whenlooking at the book? (For example, editorial content, special productlistings and etc.)

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, April 03, 1971)

The issue is essentially targeting. The BPA statement is about "how many and what kind".Within medical journals there will be many readers of no value to a contact lens marketer. You can make some judgements based simply on editorial focus; whether it regularly or occasionally relates to ophthalmalogy or optometry, etc. Other, more general titles, need to be considered based on how many members of relevant specialties are subscribers or on what per cent of readers are in relevant specialties.

Tuesday, July 30, 1996

I am in the process of setting up a Web Wrepping business in New Zealand. I am have been reading about varioyus different pricing models for on line media - what in your view is the the way to go? - also, I am planning a trip to California and want to visit some companies specialising in Internet Media (such as Web Rep). Do you recommend any others?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 31, 1996)

If you've read about the models the Guru frequently cites, the Modem Media Model, the alternate "Media Buyer's View" by Abbott Wool posted here at AMIC, and Ad Age's coverage of "click-through" based pricing, you're pretty well read. It's time to think about what your prospect might accept.

WWWebrep is a good starting point.The Guru recommend finding others through search engines -- it's sort of a test -- if a web rep isn't readily findable though search engines, it raises doubts, doesn't it?

Tuesday, July 30, 1996

What is a good source(s) for evaluating the impact of advertising on the Web for a multi-media plan? Also, in your opinion, what is the value-added the Internet or Web in particular has to offer an advertiser than other media does not?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 31, 1996)

Sources for evaluating impact will probably be scarce for a while...when will there be an advertiser big enough to have a prototypical "cool" web site who is willing to test the web's ability to sell without other traditional advertising support?

Some of the B to B media sites might be close. There seem to be a few logical analytical steps that someone considering WWW advertising could go through if they're not prepared to spend on actual research.

Consideration 1:
Does the target participate in the web to an extent that could even conceivably affect sales if the site was a raging success in drawing traffic?

IE the Ragu site is frequently mentioned as one of the coolest, but what fraction of Ragu's probable target audience (Working LOH 25-54, maybe?) is a regular web user -- not merely having "access."

Consideration 2:
Is there some logical connection of the web to the advertised product/service that could add value, eg computer or entertainment industry or some other where the web could provide an interactive demo or sample.

Consideration 3:
Is building a database of visitors of particular value?

Consideration 4:
Is there any clear marketing goal that the web can achieve better than traditional marketing communications.

Just so this doesn't come across as the Guru downplaying the web, recognize that it is of value to certain advertisers to be perceived as cool, leading edge, etc and the web is today's ultimate credential in that arena.Yahoo or AltaVista can find you others.

Wednesday, July 24, 1996

Is there an industry standard in regards to ad reps average sales call:close ration,# of resp needed to sell available inventory, profit per rep, etc.? My company is looking to build an internal ad sales dept. and any info/guidelines would be helpful.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 25, 1996)

The Guru is not aware of any such standard. It would seem that there would be considerable variation depending on

  • magazine category -- some books are a given to most of their advertisers, while in some categories magazines are a hard sell altogether
  • magazine page rate -- a magazine that can sell a $100,000 page probably is more profitable per successful sale call than one selling a $10,000 page

You might learn more by raisng your question on e-mail discussion lists devoted to media or marketing or sales. Some are listed below, in a March 4 and March 22 Q&A's, and most others are listed at The List of Marketing Lists .

Tuesday, July 23, 1996

My telecommunications client is planning a multimedia (TV, newspaper, radio) launch in Chicago this fall, hoping the phone will ring off the hook. Is there a way to predict response levels per medium (or in total?) for the client to effectively staff its phone lines? I have total population, target population, reach & frequency levels (for TV - a 6 week flight; for radio a different 6 week flight; print used in both flights). The kicker is: this is not a direct - response spot (of course, an 800# will be included, but generally, it's an image builder). I also know that it will depend greatly on many things creatively (length of time the 800# is on the screen, is it a pnemonic number, is there an offer, etc). I'm thinking if there is an easy answer to this, I wouldn't have a job.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 24, 1996)

The safe answer is to contract an "inbound telemarketing"service which is large enough to expand or contract around your actual traffic. Depending on the offer and strength of copy, calls could equal .01% to 5.0% or more of persons reached. Using a service the first time out, especially if you're not specifically setting up a DR business, will give you benchmarks for the future.

Monday, July 22, 1996

I am looking for a list by industry of gross revenue and the percentage spent on advertising.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, July 23, 1996)

Advertising Age frequently publishes this sort of data as a chart. . . or two charts which can be combined into the info you need.

Monday, July 22, 1996

I am looking for a list by industry of gross revenue and the percentage spent on advertising.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, July 23, 1996)

Advertising Age frequently publishes this sort of data as a chart. . . or two charts which can be combined into the info you need.

Thursday, July 18, 1996

What Media Mix should I use for an Automotive Dealership

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, July 19, 1996)

This is another of those "it depends" questions. See the question and answer below, from April 30, about how to determine media mix, based upon analyzing goals and how best to achieve them, in terms of communications.

Wednesday, July 17, 1996

Do you know any research about how much average frequency is enough before the consumer turns against the advertised product. I mean before they are fed up with the ad. I would like some articles or tables about different product categories concerning this effect.Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 18, 1996)

There does not seem to be any definitive research on this. Planners dread the question "when is the campaign worn out" almost invariably asked without any definition of "wear-out." Certainly some ads are less enduring in terms of selling ability, which may have little to do with consumers being "fed up." Some advertisers use frequency in top quintiles as a guide, some just accumulated GRP, others study the competitive environment and clutter of their usual advertising media.

The "propinquity theory" gaining in appreciation argues for lower frequencies and if it catches on generally, may change the concept of wear out. Probably the best source of published study and opinion would be the Advertising Research Foundation Library

Tuesday, July 16, 1996

What I would like to have is a listing of thosetechnology & integration companies that are workingwith advertising agencies to create content for sites -- and would be interested in a technology my companyprovides to help.The ultimate example of a full-service company I wouldtarget would be someone like CKS partners, but thereare many smaller players I am unaware of.Does a list like this exist and if so any suggestionsas to where to find it?Any and all help is very much appreciated. We have ademonstration application going up on Friday at www.medalwatcher.com which will be a showcase ofour technology in the form of a real-time olympicresults, dynamically updated (way beyond HTML webpage updates like all sites) and integrated real-timeMacromedia movies triggered by results. Hot stuff -- but we need the right people to see it! and of course being olympic, it is time sensitive.I appreciate your help. Scott Healy, Wayfarer Communications

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 17, 1996)

The search engines like Yahoo can turn up such companies. One would have to assume such companies have established a web presence.

Wednesday, July 10, 1996

Who do I contact to inquire about airport advertising in Phoenix, Arizona? A quick reply would be appreciated because I'm working under a tight deadline. Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, July 11, 1996)

Try TDI (Transit Display Adverising) in NY City or Gannett Outdoor If they don't have the Phoenix Airport, they'll know who does.

Sunday, July 07, 1996

I am convinced that with a limited budget it is necessary to reach "effective" reach levels at a given period of time rathe than spread thos dollars throughout the year to achieve low levels but high coninuity. I am working in the Automotive field. Please help me. I need specific documented research studies on effective reach!!!

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, July 08, 1996)

It isn't clear what your query is. Many people continue to feel as you do. In recent years, many others have espoused the "propinquity" theory which advocates continuous low levels, based on the idea that the single exposure closest to a purchase occasion is the most effective.

There has been considerable trade publication comment on the matter, most often by Erwin Ephron, probably the leading proponent of propinquity. A recent Advertising Research Foundation workshop devoted considerable attention to this issue, and the proceeding of that conference should be available from the ARF. There have been opposing positions, in agreement with yours, published as well, one of the earliest by Abbott Wool in Media Week shortly after Ephron's first publication of the theory.

The Guru has discussed this before, so using your browser's "find" function to scan this page and the Guru archives will provide additional material.

Surely the most archetypical exception to continuity is for the highly seasonal product, as automotive products may be.

Tuesday, July 02, 1996

where does a small startup company find info on the market penetration of its competitors

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 03, 1996)

If it is in consumer goods or services, then syndicated research such as MRI, Simmons SMM or Mendelsohn's MMR may have the information. You will find links to these services below, in previous answers.

In other business areas you may need to commission research. "Omnibus" studies can where several clients share the cost of research can keep costs within reach. The American Marketing Association or the Advertising Research Foundation can help you find research companies which offer Omnibus surveys.

Some industries also have their own specific Associations which maintain a tracking of market penetration or similar data.

Monday, July 01, 1996

Is there a resource you could direct me to that would indicate general percentages of gross sales allocated to advertising budgets. i.e. percentages of gross sales acar dealer, convienence store, furniture store or other product catagory would generally allocate to media?L. Hennessee

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, July 03, 1996)

For these locally oriented retail businesses, the best source would most likely be industry specific trade publications. These magazines typically survey readers -- or their indusatry at large -- for such information

Friday, June 28, 1996

How can I get availability, delivery, and cost information about advertising on TV and in magazines in the United Kingdom? Target Women 25-54.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, July 08, 1996)

Our English Guru has responded: "The only way is to talk to an ad agency. TV costs in particular vary so much that there is no basic source. Talk to the IPA. They have an information dept."

Friday, June 28, 1996

tell all about TMD carat

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, July 08, 1996)

Our English Guru says: "As with Eurospace, this is another grouping, this time of media independents. They are not members of the IPA.Call them and ask for their promo pack.

These are silly questions - its like saying tell all about IBM!!!The Guru is for specific media questions not general corporate info."

Friday, June 28, 1996

whats there to know about Eurospace

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, July 08, 1996)

Our English Gurur has responded:"Eurospace is an agency grouping (including Y&R and others). I would suggest you you contact the IPA in London (our equivalent of theAAAA in US). Their phone number is 171-235-7020"

Thursday, June 27, 1996

Is there an established formula for setting rates for non-url linked advertising on web pages (i.e. display only advertising with no links to other sites)?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 27, 1996)

Wednesday, June 26, 1996

I am looking to locate a range that an advertiser is willing to pay for each Web Site hit generated by another site or service.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 27, 1996)

Advertising Age has published frequent coverage of this issue, as have Web-oriented magazines such as NetGuide and Internet World on occasion.

With P&G in the vanguard, there is a trend to pricing by click-through rather than hits, but it does sound as if your question is refering to resulting "click-through" hits, rather than hits on the originating ad.

Tuesday, June 25, 1996

Have you come across any recent studies discussing measurementof effectiveness of newspaper retail advertising?I'm particularly interested in any studies which mayhave used sales response as the criterion variable.
Mike Donatello
Manager, Market Research, Newspaper Association of America11600 Sunrise Valley Dr., Reston, VA 22091
Voice: 703.648.1140 FAX: 703.648.9819
MDonatello@aol.com ........ primary
donam@naa.org............ backup

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, June 26, 1996)

The Guru's first choice for such questions would be the Newspaper Advertising Association.

The Newsweek Media Research Index On-line, maintained by Virtual Media Resources, lists several newspaper effectiveness studies, but the latest is from 1985.

Tuesday, June 25, 1996

In ranking radio station, should you rank thenagainst average quarter house rating or is it better torank against cume and why? Thank Media Guru

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 25, 1996)

Rankings are usually done against AQH ("Average Quarter Hour" -- there are no household measurements in radio ratings)

One reason is that these numbers have a correspondence with cost per point and cpm, which are other typical evaluation standards for radio buying.

Depneding on your overall goal rankings on cume may or may not be useful. If a particular station is trying to convince you to use cume rankings, it -- no doubt -- fares better on cume than rating.

However, if you are buying to a reach goal, buying stations in order of cume or cume/efficiency may be the best way to acheive your reach goal for the least dollars, rather than by amassing GRP in order of cost per point. This is especiallytrue if you are planning to buy many spots on a station. In that case, the cume better reflects your reach potential. Conversely,if you are buying very few spots on a station, the AQH will betterreflect the situation.

Sunday, June 23, 1996

I am working on a media plan for attracting tourists to our small town. Is there a source of information to tell me what works best in this area...media mix, target audience, etc.?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, June 24, 1996)

Your town may or may not have the same target tourists as the next. Standard syndicated sources, such as Simmons and MRI can help with targetting.

Media mix depends on budget, geography and creative considerations among other issues. You probably should put together an overview of other tourism accounts' media use, with the help of the media you might consider using, or the help of commercial ad tracking services like CMR and VMS / RTV.

Sunday, June 23, 1996

I am interested in optaining information on a programsimilar to SRDS's e-kit that is targeted to health careonly. I work for an advertising agency that specializedin health care only. Specificly, I'm looking for a programthat will let me, for example, inter a catagory targetedto all RN's, Nurse executives, etc. The system will then listall trade publications that meet that criteria. It needs tolist rates, circulation, breakdown of target, deadlines,mechanical requirements and editorial calendar. (if published)Thank for your help, Media Guru.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, June 24, 1996)

Have you considered using the SRDS e-kit just for the business publication categories you need? The Guru is not aware of any companies competing with SRDS just in the health category.

Sunday, June 23, 1996

I am interested in optaining information on a program similar to SRDS's e-kit that is targeted to health care only. I work for an advertising agency that specialized in health care only. Specificly, I'm looking for a program that will let me, for example, inter a catagory targeted to all RN's, Nurse executives, etc. The system will then list all trade publications that meet that criteria. It needs to list rates, circulation, breakdown of target, deadlines, mechanical requirements and editorial calendar. (if published) Thank for your help, Media Guru.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, June 24, 1996)

Have you considered using the SRDS e-kit just for the business publication categories you need? The Guru is not aware of any companies competing with SRDS just in the health category.

Friday, June 21, 1996

We're currently considering an "advertorial" programfor one of our advertisers. I have been able to find someinformation and case studies regarding this kind ofmessage, but was wondering if you have any good stuff.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, June 21, 1996)

See he Guru's past comment on advertorial below. (you can search with the "find" function of your browser).

Thursday, June 20, 1996

How do I maximize distribution of my message with a minimum amount of advertising dollars?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, June 21, 1996)

You are asking for an entire course in media planning.The simplest answer is to find the lowest cpm medium for your target group in the geographic area you want to cover.

This, of course, raises numerous goal-setting questions and leaves out evaluation of individual media vehicle effectivenss.

Simple answer #2: go to a media professional. His/her fee will be easily offset by the added value of a properly structered plan.

Thursday, June 20, 1996

Do you know about media planning and/or media effectiveness courses or congresses, in the united states or europe that you recommend?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, June 21, 1996)

There is not a lot one can learn from these 2 or 3 day courses. But often a good insight or two on a specific topic can be gleaned. The Guru (who has often been on the faculty of these seminars) does not recommend any in particular, but the trade magazines Inside Media and Media Week will generally carry advertising of the schedules of the major seminar series.

Tuesday, June 18, 1996

Hello Media Guru. I publish The Real Estate Book of Santa Fe, A digest Size advertising medium. Can you tell me if any studies have been done on the difference in effectiveness of a full page 8.5 by 11 ad and a full page digest size ad?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 18, 1996)

Monday, June 17, 1996

Any ideas where I can get a list of the top Advertising Agencies in the United States with offices in South Florida??

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 18, 1996)

See the Jun 14 Toronto agency question below.

Saturday, June 15, 1996

Do you know any resources concerning the future ofinternet marekting. All sites which I know deal with moreoperational question. But what will be, if more and morepeople come on the net and the lines become faster. Willthere be an interaction between TV and the Internet or other meida?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, June 17, 1996)

Certainly as the internet "reaches" more people and becomes a mass medium which will partly depend on faster "pipes" advertisers will pay more attention. Ironically, static ads will begin to have perceived value, instead of primarily links as is the case now.

Already most media have web sites and there has been some "simulcasting" by broadcast media and "live," on line, publishing by print media.

The best way to gather information or informed opinion about the future of the 'net is probably by participating in newsgroups or e-mail discussion lists. In March 4th and 22nd Guru answers there are directions for subscribing to some of these. Another one which was explicitly about your topic, Internet Marketing, has folded.

Friday, June 14, 1996

I am a Student of Marketing From Scotland and I am Lookng for a comprehensive listing of Advertising Agencies in the Greater Toronto Area, Can you point meIn the right direction?

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, June 15, 1996)

The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies (The Agency Redbook) includes an international list of agencies by city.

Tuesday, June 11, 1996

do you know of any great research on the soho market? In particular I am looking for internet usage within the small office/home office market.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 13, 1996)

There are some marketing web sites in this arena. Try the search engines, like AltaVista.

Monday, June 10, 1996

Where is the best source to find information on Total Advertising Expenditures in Canada?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, June 11, 1996)

Competitive Media Reports of Canada, at (416) 961-2279 tracks consumer print. Perhaps they can direct you to sources of spending tracking for other Canadian media.

Monday, June 10, 1996

The company I work for has a wed site that we would like to have other companies advertise on. In essence, we have web advertising space for sale. I am trying to track down companies that will consult with us on how to best go about doing this. As part of the consulting, we are hoping to have a company that will direct advertisers to our site. I am having trouble coming up with a list of such companies. Any help you can provide will be appreciated. I have found two companies, Media Market (by Sponsor.net) and Webtrack, but so far, that is all.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, June 10, 1996)

Companies that sell web advertising space include WebRepand Katzalso,i-trafficmaintains a listing of web sites accepting advertising, and SRDSprints an Interactive Advertising Resource volume.

Saturday, June 08, 1996

One of our clients is about to introduce their next generation computer based system. I should notmention the client, but their industry is not MIS. I 'm trying to figure out the wisest programming of advertising dollars (including media & direct mail) to optimize this introduction. What profile of spendingshould be pursued. Should it be front loaded, even, gradually accretive...etc. Do you know of any source thatspeaks to this, in terms of actual experience with mildly high tech systems? I don't want an academic resource thattells me all the ingredients that go into a successful launch, etc. I would like to know case studies or related.Can you help me?thanks, mknab@interaccess.com

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, June 09, 1996)

There are as many theories as cases, and the ones published may not represent a projectible base. The Guru suggests bringing this qustion to one of the 'nets marketing discussion lists where some top people can share their experieince and enjoy dealing with real-life cases.

How to join these discussions is explained below, in answers from March 22 (MediaPlan) and March 4, (Market-L, MKTSEG and MavenConference)

Wednesday, June 05, 1996

I am looking for household counts and population for the top 100 ADIs in the US. Do you know of an internet source?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 06, 1996)

ADI is an out-of-date term, dropped by its creator, Arbitron, when they went out of the Television ratings business. Nielsen"DMA" is the standard, current geographic definition of mutually exclusive marketing areas. The Guru does not think there is a listing of these populations on the 'net. But most media, ad agencies or research companies which subscribe to Nielsen or depend on DMA's,have lists available and share the data fairly readily for legitimate inqiries. It might be worth exploring the search engines for the data, as well, since it is often incidentally attached to research results. Try AltaVista

Tuesday, June 04, 1996

i'm trying to find out about the Journal of Advertising Research, where is it available etc. I'm a media strategist in South Africa. Cheers James

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, June 06, 1996)

The Journal of Advertising Research is published by the ARF (Advertising Research Foundation) whose website is hosted on AMIC. Details are available at http://www.amic.com/arf/publish.html.

Monday, June 03, 1996

Hello, Media Guru. Could you help me find current costsof various media rates. (radio,tv,newsprint,internet and so on) Thanks Don

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, June 03, 1996)

The only reasonably comprehensive source of the information you request would be from Standard Rate And Data Service.

Your media list covers over 20,000 individual US media alone, usually divided among over 200 Designated Market Areas or evn more Metro areas

Thursday, May 30, 1996

Where can I find an 'open' list of business publications on the WWW? I've checked SRDS, but it, as you know is not 'open'.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, May 31, 1996)

Do you mean a list that's accessible through the WWW or a list of Bus Pubs with WWW sites?

Either way, AltaVistaor Yahoo search engines are the best resource. Refining your search parameters will find what you need if it's there.

There would seem to be little reason for anyone to create a classified list of business publications, a la SRDS, and post it for free on the web.

Wednesday, May 29, 1996

I need to locate a Japanese Tourism guide that accepts advertising in New York City.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, May 30, 1996)

Assuming that you have tried the usual SRDS resources without success, it might be useful to check with one of the NY hotels like the Kitano that caters to the Japanese tourist.

Saturday, May 25, 1996

Hello: "I had a dream..."...Do you know any listing of advertising/sponorship-rates for web marketing as wellas counted visits or PageViews???

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, May 26, 1996)

The Guru has frequently mentioned i-traffic for this sort of information. WebTrack also lists ad sites.

Saturday, May 25, 1996

What will be the best way to define when a commercial wears out ?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, May 26, 1996)

Please refer to the Guru's response to a similar question on May 7, below.

Tuesday, May 21, 1996

We're currently considering an "advertorial" program for one of our advertisers. I have been able to find some information and case studies regarding this kind of message, but was wondering if you have any good stuff. Have you seen any good "advertorials" or know of any articles/case studies?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, May 23, 1996)

The Guru recalls some good advertorials for Genie Garage Door Openers in home mechanics and do-it-yourself magazines in '92 or '93.

"Vertical" books have more opportunity for advertorial, so you should request samples and case studies from the publications you deem most likely to be your advertorial vehicles.

Friday, May 17, 1996

Dear Guru,I have two questions which you might have heard before.
a)I do know that a :15s commercial on TV cost between 50% to 75% of a :30s depending on market etc. Is there any studies that show what the benefit of either length is (if any) in terms of reach, frequency, effectiveness, memorability, etc.
b)I have seen studies praising the advantage of multiple media usage above single media; in other words using TV and radio instead of just TV. Can you elaborate on that and update with new info about this topic. Reason being a client who would like to slash the budget down to just using TV for campaigns. I however feel that there is an added benefit in using multiple media.Please respond by Monday if you can.Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, May 19, 1996)

a) There is is no difference in reach and frequency between a :15 and a :30. In the same time period, they have the same audience, within the tolerances of research measurement.

On the other hand, a schedule using :15's in place of some or all the :30's will provide more reach and frequency, because it has more announcements, hence more GRP, etc, for the same budget.

When :15's started to become popular several years ago, there was considerable research regarding effectiveness versus :30's. The general findings were that :15's had about 70 - 75% of the recall of a :30. At the time, :15's were typically a network option priced at 50% of :30's so the trade off of price vs effectiveness seemed favorable.

b) Multi-media plans chief benefit is in reach development, though the effects of the added reach have ripples in many directions.

Adding a new medium adds more reach than adding weight in the same medium: There are more likely to be different people in the audience of a different medium, over a given period of time. This applies to effective reach as well.

There are a variety of philosophical approaches to taking advantage of this.

One approach says to build reach up to a minimum effective level in the primary medium first, before adding the next medium. Another says build the first medium to the point where the reach curve flattens, then add the next medium to resume reach growth.

A newer, different line of thought, the "recency" theory, de-emphasizes reach in favor of delivering messages to the consumer closest to the point of making a purchas decison. This argues for continuity, to reach more people at all times rather than highest levels in sporadic flights. Again, multi-media will produce more reach, but other theories of minimum weekly levels may effect scheduling, ie radio bought to a minimum of 12x weekly when active.

Judgements must also be made regarding whether TV and radio is perceived as the same message by the consumer. Of course, this same judgement must be applied to different executions in the commercial pool of each individual medium as well.

Friday, May 17, 1996

I have been marketing on the 'Web by targeting companies on URL directories, getting their E-mail address and sending E-mail advertising to them. I have two questions: 1) Is this type of advertising violating 'Net etiquette? 2) Do you know sources for E-mail lists of certain industries like machinery equipment manufacturers, etc.?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, May 17, 1996)

Yes, emailing advertising to persons or firms with whom you have no regular relationship is considered a netiquette violation. The major problem is that the email will usually not goto the proper person and so will be considered junk mail and noiseby those recieving them. It is never ever appropriate to send emailadvertisements to mailing lists unless all of the following requirements are met:
1) The list explicitely accepts ads.
2) It is labelled as an ad in its subject.
3) It is relevant to the list topic. Unrelated ads are NEVER appropriate and are considered spamming.
4) You have joined and monitred the list for some period oftime and believe the ad will be well recieved and is in keepingwith the tone of the list.

On-line marketing discussion groups often address this topic. Discussion groups devoted to internet marketing may see the issue somewhat differently than general marketing groups. The Guru, personally reacts very badly to receiving unsolicited email advertising.

A list of marketing discussion groups may be found in prior answers, below and in the archive.

Wednesday, May 15, 1996

Where can I find this data: World Mass Media Advertising Expenditures

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, May 17, 1996)

Some of the largest multi-national agencies such as Saatchi and Interpublic compile these data. Advertising Age is most likely the best probable published source if there is any.

Wednesday, May 15, 1996

In response to your answer on the question about newspaper on 5/14, do newspapers ever publish readership fiqures by section? I am planning a campaign and would like to know if the main news or the travel section would have a better readership. None of the newspaper that I have talked to have information about readership figures by section.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, May 16, 1996)

Main news and sports are often the best read sections. Speak to the papers you will use in regard to section readership research they have done. The Newspaper Advertising Association reports Simmons' ovwerall sectionreadership findings. In addition the MRI study has information onnewspaper section readership.

Tuesday, May 14, 1996

Do you know of any research that talks about the seasonality in the high-tech industry? For example, does readership drop during the summer and/or December?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 15, 1996)

Circulation audits (ABC, BPA, etc) can be examined by month to consider such fluctuation. However subscription copies, which are the vast majority of technical publications circulation would mask the seasonal effects.

Perhaps some of the publications in which you are interested have other indicators, such as reader service cards returned or e-mail recieved, by month.

Tuesday, May 14, 1996

Do newspapers ever publish cir. figures by section? If no, why?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 15, 1996)

No, because sections do not usually "circulate" separately form one another. There are readership indices for various sections that are often available.

Sunday, May 12, 1996

I'm trying to determine how I should price banner advertisments on our upcoming WWW site. I've located the article "Pricing Web Site Advertsing" by Abbott Wool as suggested by one of your FAQs. Can you recommend any other sources of information on this topic and/or do you have any advice not included in Wool's article?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, May 13, 1996)

The San Jose Mercury News has an extensive discussion of counting web site audience and the process of determining web advertising price/value, at its site.

Saturday, May 11, 1996

What will be the total amount spent on Web advertisngin 1996 in *real* dollars? (sans swapping) I have heardall sorts of #'s being thrown about ranging from $150million to $350 million. BTW, this is a useful site. thx

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, May 12, 1996)

The Guru has heard a wider range than the one you cite. Even after 1996 is over it will be difficult to look back and determine the ad volume. There are too may sites, too many definitions of advertising to easily encompass a count. And you're welcome, we are pleased that you findour site useful.

Thursday, May 09, 1996

I am in search of a national network who would handle all Pennysaver/Shopper weekly newspapers. Would you know who I can contact?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 15, 1996)

The largest Pennysaver/shopper seller of which the Guru is aware is American Publishing Company handling over 300 papers, mostly Pennysavers and shoppers, in 29 states.

Wednesday, May 08, 1996

what is the demographics of the vedio rentalpopulation.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 08, 1996)

Please refer to the Blockbuster Video Q&A, below, on May 5th / 6th

Wednesday, May 08, 1996

Is there a way to identify a list of hot web sites that are visited from certain cities or states? Something like, " what are the top 10 financial web sites most visited by PA on-line users (residents)?"

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 08, 1996)

Web sites' logs will show the domain of the visitor, which can be attached to geographic location. The Guru has not seen any sites compiling and publishing these findings. The internets' strength is in how it makes geography irrelevant, which is not a plus for retail marketers.

Wednesday, May 08, 1996

I am composing my first interactive media plan for a regional bank client. It is a three month campaign. I am trying to set a monthly gross impression goal that would generate adequate on-line exposure for launching a pc based banking product. Any rules of thumb?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 08, 1996)

You could try to "back into" your goal.

How many customers for the PC product would be considered a "success?"

What response rate can you expect from a web site?There may be some published infromation in the trades.

Suppose it's the 1 - 1.5% that's considered successful in some other direct response media. Divide your customer sign-up goal by the response rate to project needed site visits. For example, if you want 1000 pc accounts, 1000 divided by .01 (1%) is 100,000.

Is this realistic? If there are 10 million US households using the WWW (a mid range estimate) how many might be in the "regional" service area of your bank? We assume there is some need for a personal visit to the bank at some point in the process.

Let's take a generous estimate of 10%. So there would be 1,000,000 potential customers. You would need to draw 10% of them to your site to get the 100,000 vistors who would produce the 1000 accounts.

This certainly indicates that you would need a strong traditional media campaign to draw site visitors.

But, plug in your own numbers in the suggested process, and as the saying goes, "you do the math."

Tuesday, May 07, 1996

How many times can a print ad run before it wears out?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, May 08, 1996)

The only answer to such a question is "it depends."

How powerful/interesting/competitive is the ad?

What reach and frequency is being developed as the ads insertions repeat.

How many different magazines versus repeats in the same titles.

What is your definition of "wear out?" Decline in awareness, decline in incremental sales, frequency of exposure in the top quintile or top 2 quintiles?

. . .it depends.

Sunday, May 05, 1996

I'm trying to figure out how Gross Rating Points are used to figure out gross impressions when it comes to using billboards to advertise?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, May 06, 1996)

As you may know, generally. . .

Gross Rating Points as a decimal fraction (i.e. 50 GRP = 0.50)multiplied by population (for the relevant demographic) =impressions.

The "trick" with billboards is that GRP in outdoor are expressed in daily quantities. So a #50 -- or 50 GRP -- showing means a total daily "circulation" equal to 50% of the population, or 1500 GRP per month.

Sunday, May 05, 1996

I am looking for any information about the market segments or conditions for Blockbuster Entertainment, and have been unsuccessful thus far. Any suggestions?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, May 06, 1996)

Standard Syndicated product usage research such as MRI or Simmons SMRB Survey of Media and Markets (212)916-8900 would cover video rentals. Local, retail oriented research like Scarborough often has more data about particular stores and chains.

Thursday, May 02, 1996

I am looking for the most efficient and wide-spred meansof reaching media buyers regarding available banner spaceon some of our prominent web sites. Is there a comprehensiveindex or posting service that will give me access to the big guns ?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, May 03, 1996)

You probably want to reach people with planner titles, rather than buyers. In most cases planners will be making the decision on whether to include web media and which to use.

If you are not restricting yourself to those already known to be using the web, then the two trade journals for the media segment of the ad business could be your best bet: Inside Media or MediaWeek(212) 536-5336. You can use them as advertising vehicles or sources of media planner lists. The Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies could also generate a mailing list of persons with media titles listed in the Agency "Redbook."

Wednesday, May 01, 1996

Are there any software packages that allow you to collectmedia data over the internet? Also, what are the latestprograms dealing with media planning? I work with a small agencyin New York that places local radio, newspaper and televisionin a few markets in the midwest and we are looking forways to go take our media planning into the digital age.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, May 02, 1996)

Telmar, (AMIC's parent corporation) is in the business of providingits clients with leading edge technology for internet, dial-up and local access to media software as well as to the hundreds of syndicated databases available for clients with legal access.

Telmar has programs for print, television,cable, radio, and newspaper. The All Media Planner allows the user to do all media advertising media planning, including reach/frequency analysis, media mix, optimization, budget allocation, flowcharting, graphics. Also note that there is free cost per point information provided by SQAD on AMIC.

Contact sales@telmar.com for further information about Telmar's services.

Tuesday, April 30, 1996

I'm working on a presentation on how media planning professionals go about determining a media mix, and how a percent of budget is allocated to each medium being used. It's a general presentation for a client who is not very familiar with media planning terminology or methods. So far my sources for info include a couple of similar documents that I and others that I work with have written in the past, and the media planning textbook (by Scissors). Do you know of any other RECENT sources of info, points-of-view, articles on this topic? Or have you answered a similar question recently? If so, please tell me the category under which your response would be filed (I have looked through several categories of your responses and did not see anything relevant to this topic). Thanks!

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 30, 1996)

In the broadest terms, the process may be thought of as

Marketing Goals ---> Marketing Strategies ---> Media Goals ---> Media Strategies ---> Media Tactics, etc.

A very simple example:

A marketing goal of increasing the number of users of product X might lead to a strategy of converting users of competitive brand Y.

The media goal might then be to optimize reach at effective levels of frequency among a demographic group matched to current users of brand Y.

The media strategy to achieve this might then be built by examining various media mixes to determine which produce the best balance of effective reach for the budget, within the creative limitations.

Of course this is just one possible marketing goal, one possible strategy that might emerge.

There are many ways to set reach goals, to set minimum effective levels or decide to apply the recent "proximity" or "recency" theory of exposure.

In short, one doesn't decide on percents of media and see how it turns out, one decides which media will best answer the marketing and media strategies. Often, some creative decisons have precedence: if TV is designated as the "primary medium" because of communications ability, need to demonstrate, etc, then the strategy migh dictate putting all money into TV "until the effective reach curve is exhausted."

There are infinite ways to express and measure goals and their achievment. Some standard media planning software, such as Telmar's Media Maestro, and Hispanic Media Maestro, allow easy examination of various mixes, instantly showing how reach/frequency/effective reach change as budget or schedules are shifted between media by the planner.

Tuesday, April 30, 1996

please discuss the cost evaluation process for advertising on the web. IE. Yahoo, aol, prodigy. What is the basis for comparison and unit of measure for cost evaluation. thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 30, 1996)

Rreview the Guru archives by topic, Web Advertising.There is also an excellent, more extensive pricing analysis article here at AMIC, PRICING WEB SITE ADVERTISING;THE MEDIA BUYERS' VIEW

Current trade press coverage is featuring P&G's demand that pricing be based on "clicks" of banner ads rather than just page views. The Guru sees a parallel to "per inquiry" advertising. Websites could and should charge far higher rates for clicks on ads than for accesses. The advertiser, of course shares responsibility for the drawing power of the banner in attracting clicks.

To compare to print or tv, the medium's job is to bring a viewer / reader to the ad. The pay-by-the-click approach is comparable to paying for a magazine only if someone circles your key number on the reader response card. It's a feasible approach, but likely to be costly.

Tuesday, April 30, 1996

Can you recommend any good books on how to plan/negotiate/buy national broadcast. My experience is only in print and spot TV so I need a good book to get me up to speed. Thanks in advance.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 30, 1996)

There are a few books on planning, such as Sissors and Bumba's "Media Planning." Negotiating and buying is more a matter of apprenticeship and seat-of-the-pants learning. While essential principals of National Boroadcast are similar to spot, there are many differences in details, like guarantees, "re-caps," special math applications, etc. Your best best would be to befriend a salesperson in each medium and get a quick course in the special issues that apply, assuming there is no one to guide you in your own company.

Monday, April 29, 1996

I'm looking for some current information on the media habits of women 25-54, especially the differences between women who work outside the home and those who don't. East Coast markets. Can you supply, or point me to a source. Time is critical. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 30, 1996)

While individual rating services have some data on this topic, the broadest cross-media sources would be Simmons SMRB Survey of Media and Markets (212)916-8900 or MRI

Monday, April 29, 1996

Ever heard of Duncan's Radio Market Guide? Does this thing give local market radio advertising expenditures? Who's the publisher and what's the contact info? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 30, 1996)

Duncan's Radio Market Guide is published in Indianapolis by Jim Duncan, at (847) 577-4660.

Monday, April 29, 1996

Hi, can you tell me where on the Web and in Traditional research, I canlearn more about College Students and their demographic profiles, etc.Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 30, 1996)

See the SMRB and MRI references, just below.Also contact college targeted media which will have their own resources.

Monday, April 29, 1996

I represent a company that is creating a pre-paid calling card (PPCC) where all of the time is sponsor/advertiser supported. The users of the card will be a very targeted audience appealing to a good number of potential sponsors/advertisers. Each month, card users would be given 60 minutes of free time. When a user "signs on" to make a call, he/she hears a brief (8 - 10 seconds) promo/message from on the of the sponsors/advertisers. Our estimates are that a sponsor would get their message to a user at least 2x/month in audio format and 1x/month in print. In addition to these "impressions", the sponsor would get information about each user/subscriber including name, address, phone number, e-mail address (if applicable), etc. Additionally, sponsors would get detailed usage reports show which messages were played when, to whom, etc. My question is about pricing: we are thinking of charging a sponsor $1.50 - $1.75/subscriber/month (60 minutes). Our feeling that this application combines direct marketing tools (lists - compiled and response) and broadcast/mass marketing. Does our pricing seem in line?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 30, 1996)

Your pricing works out to $500 - $580 per thousand impressions, whereas typical mass media for selective audiences (special interest magazines) are about one tenth of that. If your delivery data capture is enormously valuable to someadvertisers in unique situations, there may be takers at these prices.

Monday, April 29, 1996

I represent a company that is creating a pre-paid calling card (PPCC) where all of the time is sponsor/advertiser supported. The users of the card will be a very targeted audience appealing to a good number of potential sponsors/advertisers. Each month, card users would be given 60 minutes of free time. When a user "signs on" to make a call, he/she hears a brief (8 - 10 seconds) promo/message from on the of the sponsors/advertisers. Our estimates are that a sponsor would get their message to a user at least 2x/month in audio format and 1x/month in print. In addition to these "impressions", the sponsor would get information about each user/subscriber including name, address, phone number, e-mail address (if applicable), etc. Additionally, sponsors would get detailed usage reports show which messages were played when, to whom, etc. My question is about pricing: we are thinking of charging a sponsor $1.50 - $1.75/subscriber/month (60 minutes). Our feeling that this application combines direct marketing tools (lists - compiled and response) and broadcast/mass marketing. Does our pricing seem in line?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 30, 1996)

Your pricing works out to $500 - $580 per thousand impressions, whereas typical mass media for selective audiences (special interest magazines) are about one tenth of that. If your delivery data capture is enormously valuable to some advertisers in unique situations, there may be takers at these prices.

Monday, April 29, 1996

I'm looking for some current information on the media habits of women 25-54, especially the differences between women who work outside the home and those who don't. East Coast markets. Can you supply, or point me to a source. Time is critical. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 30, 1996)

While individual rating services have some data on this topic, the broadest cross-media sources would be Simmons SMRB Survey of Media and Markets (212)916-8900 or MRI

Monday, April 29, 1996

I represent a company that is creating a pre-paid calling card (PPCC) where all of the time is sponsor/advertiser supported. The users of the card will be a very targeted audience appealing to a good number of potential sponsors/advertisers. Each month, card users would be given 60 minutes of free time. When a user "signs on" to make a call, he/she hears a brief (8 - 10 seconds) promo/message from on the of the sponsors/advertisers. Our estimates are that a sponsor would get their message to a user at least 2x/month in audio format and 1x/month in print. In addition to these "impressions", the sponsor would get information about each user/subscriber including name, address, phone number, e-mail address (if applicable), etc. Additionally, sponsors would get detailed usage reports show which messages were played when, to whom, etc. My question is about pricing: we are thinking of charging a sponsor $1.50 - $1.75/subscriber/month (60 minutes). Our feeling that this application combines direct marketing tools (lists - compiled and response) and broadcast/mass marketing. Does our pricing seem in line?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 30, 1996)

Your pricing works out to $500 - $580 per thousand impressions, whereas typical mass media for selective audiences (special interest magazines) are about one tenth of that. If your delivery data capture is enormously valuable to some advertisers in unique situations, there may be takers at these prices.

Monday, April 29, 1996

Hi, can you tell me where on the Web and in Traditional research, I can learn more about College Students and their demographic profiles, etc. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 30, 1996)

See the SMRB and MRI references, just below. Also contact college targeted media which will have their own resources.

Monday, April 29, 1996

Ever heard of Duncan's Radio Market Guide? Does this thing give local market radio advertising expenditures? Who's the publisher and what's the contact info? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 30, 1996)

Duncan's Radio Market Guide is published in Indianapolis by Jim Duncan, at (847) 577-4660.

Saturday, April 27, 1996

Hello: Do you know a university or business school in CA thatworks successful on the field of internet marketing?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, April 28, 1996)

Most Universities large and small seem to have a website today. Surf the California schools to see what is offered. Generally, "www..edu" will find a college, but abreviations can muddy the issue so you might try a search engine like AltaVista

Since internet marketing, especially the WWW, is only a two year old concept (give or take) in any big way, it is probably far too soon to judge the success of any school's program. Though big in terms of noise and press, the internet is just a small one of many, many marketing media, and probably a long way from being more than one or two courses in a marketing curriculum.

Wednesday, April 24, 1996

what is the kiosks ? and how can it be applied for the advertising of soft drink?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, April 25, 1996)

A kiosk is a small structure, sometomes just a two sided sign, sometimes a small newstand type booth, on the outside of which are placed poster type ads. Of late kiosks include phome booths, and some have added animated electric signage.

Tuesday, April 23, 1996

Do you know of any list/directory of sites that accept advertising ?Thanks,Ron Goldmanrgoldman@odyssee.net

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, April 23, 1996)

Two are on-line at i-traffic and Webtrack.

Off-line, SRDS (Standard Rate and Data Service) has a new guide called (approximately) Interactive Media Resource.

Thursday, April 18, 1996

How does an agency gain ASI vendor status?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, April 18, 1996)

Though this is not strictly a media question, the Guru has associates in many arenas. One, who is in the Advertising Specialty business, explains:

ASI (the Advertising Specialty Institute) is like a clearing house for both distributors and suppliers. It really is a good organization in many ways. It helps us find suppliers who will usually do what they say (no guarantees) It helps find legitimate distributors to represent their products.

The Guru suggests browsing the ASI Website for more information.

Wednesday, April 17, 1996

When did companies start advertising on the internet.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, April 18, 1996)

According to Guru-in-Training ArielleWeinstein of i-traffic, a Web MediaPlanning firm:

If you are using the term "Internet Advertising"according to today's definition: a logo, or banner on a website that will link the visitor to another website if he clicks on it, then here's your answer:

"The first banners appeared in August of 1994 on Hotwired'swebsite, after the site solicited several agencies to have their clients become charter advertisers. MCI and Saturn were among the first to put up banners on the world wide web."

If you mean the whole, 30 year old Internet, the answer maynot be traceable at this date, but if the Guru learns more,it will be posted.

Tuesday, April 16, 1996

Firstly, this is an exceptional site, and your service second-to-none. Thank you!Secondly, I can't seem to find a website for thepublishers of Adweek, Brandweek, etc. Can youguide me in the right direction? Thanks, again!

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, April 17, 1996)

Thank you. We try our best to provide a service to the advertising community.

We were also unable to find a site for Adweek or Brandweek. Try callingthe publisher of Adweek (212) 536-5336 and ask why they are not onthe WWW or if they are, why are they so hard to find. They should setup a site and then advertise on AMIC :-).

Friday, April 12, 1996

Actually, two questions: 1) Have you considered highlighting or otherwise differentiating your Guru Questions from your Answers? Doing so may make browsing more efficient. 2) Could you briefly review the various techniques and services available to assist site operators and direct marketers in understanding who is accessing their data, or would have interest in doing so? Thanks, and apologies if this last question repeats portions of previous ones.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, April 17, 1996)

We are always looking for ways to improve our service. We willbe looking into ways to make the Guru information more useful. Werecently expanded the archive to include past questions by topic.

The issue of understanding who the users at a site are is a difficult one and various reports and discussions on monitoring isa hot topic. A few of the places that you can begin to get informationon internet use and measurement include:
O'Reilly Associates
and i-traffic.

Thursday, April 11, 1996

Do you have any information or links on the topic of clickstream analisys, composing a consumer profile by recording his clickstream on the internet and analyse this for one to one marketing?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, April 17, 1996)

You should do a search on AltaVista. A quickcheck revealed over 400 articles on "clickstream".

Thursday, April 11, 1996

Dear Guru: I recently had a company ask about advertising rates in our company newsletter. While we haven't had advertising in our newsletter, it is certainly option I would like to explore. However, since most rates for magazine may be based on circulation, would the same be true for newsletters with a limited circulation? How would I go about setting up a rate structure for advertisers in our newsletter?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, April 15, 1996)

The key factors are circulation and audience. Does your newsletter circulate only within the company and therefore have one reader per copy or outside the company, where theremight be pass-along?

Is the circulation large enough to compare to a magazine.

If you can fairly compare to a magazine, try to find one comparable in topic to your company's business and use their rates as a yardstick.

Consider whether you will have any costs of including ads and whether the inclusion of any given advertiser might have political ramifications with your outside-the-company audience.

Wednesday, April 10, 1996

Can you please give me an overview on how to buy Yellow Pages advertising on a national basis. I know that Donnelley handles NYNEX, but who do I go to for the rest of the country?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, April 15, 1996)

Donnelly handles about half the country and most of the rest is covered by one or two others. As the major geographic areas tend not to be competitive, Donnelly will generally direct you to the rep for the areas they don't cover.

Another option is to call the remainder of the dozen or so other RBOCs, like NYNEX, who divide up the country.

Tuesday, April 09, 1996

I am a final year student at the University of westminster and I require advice on the following problem:What are the most appropriate spatial units for geodemographics categorisation of marketing areas?Any help on where I can obtain info to answer this will be appricated.Thanking you

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, April 10, 1996)

The smallest possible areas will lead to the most detailed marketing analysis. It will depend on what sort of data is available. In the US, Census blocks are theoretically usable, but block groups, tracts or zip codes, are more feasible. The sample size of media or marketing research to be fused or modelled with the census data will be a secondary constraint in many cases.

In other countries, the data equivalents will determine the basic geographic unit.

Saturday, April 06, 1996

Interested in locating research re radio programming, in-depth info re radio listeners (psychological characteristics as well as demographioc variables). Most research seems to be reach and frequency. Has any qualatitive research been done with various types of radio listeners? [Interests, values, what turns them on, etc]

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, April 07, 1996)

The major syndicated media studies MRI and Simmonscover demographics, psychographics and purchase behavioralong with radio listening by format. The studies are notprincipally focused on radio, but would be useful. Radio Networks and major stations have access through their national reps, if not locally.

Many major stations may also have proprietary studies, butit would be harder to fairly compare different studiesacross formats.

Friday, April 05, 1996

How much advertising dollar is spent on magazine advertising by AT&T, MCI, and SPRINT? What is their advertising Strategy in relation with the print media? (This is related to my independent project at the University at Albany. I would really appreciate your help. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, April 07, 1996)

Advertisers' magazine spending, and print schedules, are reported by CMR (Competitive Media Reports). The data are not normally available without cost.

No doubt deducing the strategy from the listed schedules would be the key learning experience from your project.

Friday, April 05, 1996

Interested in locating research re radio programming, in-depth info re radio listeners (psychological characteristics as well as demographioc variables). Most research seems to be reach and frequency. Has any qualatitive research been done with various types of radio listeners? [Interests, values, what turns them on, etc]

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, April 07, 1996)

The major syndicated media studies MRI and Simmons cover demographics, psychographics and purchase behavior along with radio listening by format. The studies are not principally focused on radio, but would be useful. Radio Networks and major stations have access through their national reps, if not locally.

Many major stations may also have proprietary studies, but it would be harder to fairly compare different studies across formats.

Wednesday, April 03, 1996

Can you explain what the MRI index is? as it relates to publishing...also - what is sell through? Thank you

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, April 04, 1996)

MRI has many indices. The one you would most likely see relates incidence of a specific finding to population as follows:

                       Total    Women18-49Women                 90,000      50,000% Row                    100        55.6%Column                  100         100Index                    100         100Lady X Magazine        4,500       3,500%Row                     100        77.8%Column                  5.0         7.0Index                    100      >>>140<<<

The index in question, indicated by >>>140<<< means that the Women 18-49 audience composition (77.8%) of Lady X Magazine is 40% greater than the incidence of women18-49 in the total population (55.6%).

It also reflects the fact that while the coverage of Lady X Magazine is 5% of all Women, it's 7% of Women 18-49.

In summary, index reflects a skew of publication audience to a characteristic or a purchase behavior, etc.

Friday, March 29, 1996

Has anyone published information regarding web access, web usage and web demographic profiles of consumers by DMA on the Web? Furthermore, is this information freely accessed? I am specifically interested in th Mpls/St. Paul DMA.

The Media Guru Answers (Saturday, March 30, 1996)

In the Guru's opinion, there are not even good answers to those questions at the national level. If you look down below, at a March 7 question, you'll see a link to a compilation of Web demographics info. There is also a listing of other studies and Web providers at bxi, and Nielsen has done a large scale study. It's possible that the Nielsen or O'Reilly (see bxi) web-use studies had big enough samples that they can break out Minneapolis, but that data would not likely be free, if available.

Wednesday, March 27, 1996

what is the going rate for advertising on web sites?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 29, 1996)

The various trade publications often discuss this data.Ad Age is one, and most libraries have it on file if the web site doesn't. CMP, Meckler and other computer publishers may such articles filed on their sites.

Finally, i-traffic, a Web media planning / buying service, maintains a listing on their site.

Wednesday, March 27, 1996

We are looking for the publication "Basic Cable Facts." Can you provide info on the latest issue (96?) and who to contact. Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 29, 1996)

The best information source would probably be The CableAdvertising Bureau.

Monday, March 25, 1996

Do you have any information available on the erosion of television news ratings over the past three decades?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 26, 1996)

From time to time, Nielsen issues a topical review of this sort, though not typically over 30 year spans

Over a span of three decades, more than ratings have changed. If you are thinking principally of Network news, there has been a many fold change in the number of local news programs over that time, and in the number of independent stations, not to mention cable news sources. Should ratings trends or total news audiences be your focus?

By the way, just for fun, in May-June 1960, The CBS Douglas Edwards News had about an 11.3 HH rating and NBC's Huntley-Brinkley did roughly 11.6. The latest Nielsen pocket piece forthe period March 4-10 1996 shows; ABC World News Tonight at 9.7,CBS Evening News with Dan Rather at 7.9 and NBC Nightly News at 8.9.

Thursday, March 21, 1996

Are there any services that track co-op media expenditures by manufacturers?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 22, 1996)

There is a least one book which lists available co-op programs. Except for those few media with rules requiring a logo in the ad (like "CAP") to qualify a product ad for retail rates, it would be difficult for a monitroing organization of the CMR type to detact co-op and evaluate the manufacturers share of the cost.

But someone could have done estimates somewhere. Try searching Advertising Age at your library.

Thursday, March 21, 1996

Are there any services that track co-op media expenditures by manufacturers?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 22, 1996)

There is a least one book which lists available co-op programs. Except for those few media with rules requiring a logo in the ad (like "CAP") to qualify a product ad for retail rates, it would be difficult for a monitroing organization of the CMR type to detact co-op and evaluate the manufacturers share of the cost.

But someone could have done estimates somewhere. Try searching Advertising Age at your library.

Wednesday, March 20, 1996

I am trying to locate a magazine called "The Net." All I know about it is that it is published by Mindy Sadler (sp?) of San Francisco, and that it critiques ads on the web. I have checked media directories as well as directory assistance in San Francisco. Can you give me any information on this magazine, or suggestions on how I can track them down?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 22, 1996)

The Net Magazine may be an on-line publication only, at The Net.

There is also "The Net" in New Zealand, and 134 total links to references to "The Net Magazine" that turn up by searching AltaVista.

Wednesday, March 20, 1996

Can you recommend any mail lists (online) that deal with media planning, buying and/or media research?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 22, 1996)

Thanks for asking. As a result of your inquiry, and the need for such a list, the staff at AMIChas created a new list devoted exclusively to media planning / buying / research. The list has just this evening been established.It will be announced in all of the appropriate places. You can bethe first to join the list. Send email to listserv@amic.com with any subject and the message:

The archive for mediaplan will on AMIC in the www.amic.com/amic_mem/talk/forums/medplan section of AMIC.

In an answer below on March 5, the Guru has described some marketing mail-lists which do include media topics in their discussions.

Elsewhere on the AMIC site, the Forums section offers newsgroup-style discussion of some other media and media research topics.

Wednesday, March 20, 1996

I am buying a radio schedule (100 GRPs/wk for A25-54) in a market that is approximately 28% black. The urban station in this market is relatively efficient, but is by no means a "must buy". In fact, there are about 10 stations with 9/10 of a rating point of each other (AQH rtg, M-F 6a-7p). This urban station claims that I must have at least one urban station on every buy or I will miss 28% of the market. I disagree. When buying so few points a week, I do not have the budget to buy as many stations as I like. A better use of the money would be to cover the various age cells in this broad demo and try to balance the male/female reach. My question is, What is your opinion on this subject? Is an urban station a "must buy" in this market any more than a country, rock, or news/talk station?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 22, 1996)

There are several levels at which this question can be considered:

The essence is determining the true value of that station: "should you buy it", not "must you buy it"

- If you ignored the fact that this is an urban station would you buy it, based on the general parameters of the buy? Rating/efficiency/rank, etc?

Are you having a negative reaction to being told you must do it?

Do you really miss 28% of the market just by not buying that station? To what reach level are you buying? At 100 GRP / week you're not likely to reach more than 72% of the target in a typical 4 weeks, anyway. So if the station is the onlyone reaching its market segment, how much does it matter if that segementis the 28% you miss rather than any ther 28% of the market.

Is that station is the only one reaching its segment? It is likely that several other stations in a market with that high penetration of Black population also reach that audience, but perhaps with a lower audience composition. Check the schedule you will buy to see how its African-American audience reach compares to its general market reach. Perhaps it's comparable even without that station.

On the other hand, if that segemnt is important, reaching it in a culturally relevant program environment can substantially enhance selling opportunity.

Examine the product usage data about your client according to Simmons/MRI/Scarborough/MMR, etc. Perhaps the African-American consumer is far more valuable to your client as a prospective customer than is the general market, and that Urban station, with its good efficiency, is the first one you should buy, even if it does sell aggressively.

Tuesday, March 19, 1996

are there any international competitive tracking services similar to LNA or ROME reports here in U.S.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, March 21, 1996)

Yes, BARB is a similar service in the UK. There are others around the world. Through international offices, media software service companies like Telmar will be familiar with manipulating the data provided by such services.

For that matter, CMR (212) 789-1422 the producer of LNA and Rome, is a part of VNU, a European company.

Sunday, March 17, 1996

I am involved with a company that is attempting to establish a series of what we call "Megascreens" throughout New Zealand. The Megascreen is a large (9-10 feet diagonal) videowall type screen made up of flat screen cubes. The quality of the picture is excellent, much better than the equivalent stack of TV monitors. We can use TV signal, Super VHS video tape or computer graphic generated ads. One of the problems we are coming up against is that potential advertisers are asking for data on the effectiveness of the Megascreen in terms of CPM's and the like. We have found this sort of data extremely difficult to get hold of for what is a relatively new media option. Do you have any suggestions on if any of this data is available ex the US, or what sort of calculation we should be offering prospective advertisers?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 18, 1996)

The key to your question is getting an audience (traffic) count for your Megascreens. This is more a factor of the specific location in which it is placed than the nature of the medium itself. You need to measure the number of people paasing the sites where your screens are. Then cpm is simply the cost divided by the traffic count.

Friday, March 15, 1996

Can you locate the MRI questionnaire beta test site for me? They are being very hush-hush about it, and I want to view the questionnaire being used.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 18, 1996)

You will have to contact Mediamark Research, Inc (MRI) directly. You might also wantto try using one or more of the search engines to see if they can sniffout something that might be hard to find.

Friday, March 15, 1996

Can you fill me in on "recency"? Sounds like a complicated way to say low media weight, long duration? Is this correct? If so, can it work with a small budget?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, March 18, 1996)

Recency does amount to lower weight and longer duration, but allows for more complex discussion. It is a theory which works in opposition to "effective reach." Effective reach is based on the fact that 3, or some other minimum number of exposures to advertising, is necessary for the advertising to be digested, understood and begin to effect consumer behavior.

Recency posits that an exposure close to the moment of purchase decision is the most effective, therefore maintaining a constant presence of messages is most likely to catch the prospect at the crucial moment.

Obviously, even within the recency model, the more exposure provided at any given point in time the better the chance of catching a consumer at the critical time. Recency argues for continuity, not for low levels, though it is often used to justify low levels.

Recognizing that truly seasonal purchases call for different scheduling than regularly cyclical purchases, the concept says that if a given number of impressions are affordable, all else being equal, those impression will generate more sales when spread consistently rather that concentrated into flights at a presumed "effective" level.

Tuesday, March 12, 1996

Dear Guru;I am in the process of launching a software product aimed at the magazine publishing industry. It is an internet software based on getting their content online, their advertising targeted, their subscriptions in order, and will provide user statistics to maximize their advertising and content.My questions are as follows:How do I find out how mauch advertising revenue is generated by the magazine industry-both online and print. What are the projections for future growth for online advertising for magazines?How do I find out what kind of money magazines have budgeted for online software and services?Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, March 13, 1996)

CMR (Competitive Media Reports) tracks magazine's advertising revenues and web site (magazines' and others). They are in NY at (212) 789-1422.

As far as growth is concerned, trade magazines will offer different opinions and a library search of the ad trades could be informative.

The Guru's opinion is that right now the web is "hot." It porbably is not generating a lot of business for most media who have web presence. But the TV networks and major publishers all have sites. The state of marketing is that a web site is a necessary validation of participation in contemporary marketing.

The software you describe, if it does all you say, will help make a magazine's web presence produce ROI. The trick is probably to get to a magazine before it has hired or contracted out web design services.

Tuesday, March 12, 1996

where do I get media kits for 1) top 50 newspapers 2) top 20 magazines including new age type 3) list of book distributors in usa, japan, germany, england, france, australia, mexico, spain,thank you bill magno

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, March 13, 1996)

Newspaper and magazine media kits are obtained from either the newspapers and magazine themselves or their advertising sales representatives.

Of course you will need to define "top 50 or top 20." You could specify top 50 circulation, top 50 audience in a specific demographic category, top in ad sales dollars, top in ad pages, etc.

If you ask one such publisher or rep e.g. Times Mirror, the person who helps you can porbably provide ranked lists of the others.

Lists of book distributors are not media information. You might try a web search engine like AltaVista.

Friday, March 08, 1996

Guru:Is there a formula for calculating reach & frequency for trade vehicles.

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 10, 1996)

There is no truly simple formula for calculating reach and frequency of any medium. The key datain print R&F are pair-wise duplication between different vehicles and between two or more insertions in the same vehicle.

As the number of insertions in a plan increase, the number of data elements to include in a formula increase. The number of possible pairings for just a 10 insertion plan is 45 ((n x n-1) / 2).

Telmar among others, offers software designed to quickly perform these calculations on defined schedules of media measured by SMRB, MRI, MMR, J.D. Power or others. Using measured media as prototypes, reach of various schedules you might want to consider could then be calculated. From these numerous calculations, you could, by regression analysis, develop a "simple" formula of the form y=ax+b to calculate frequency based on GRP of typical plans of the sort you run in these media (y is frequency; x is grp; a and b are factors from the regression).

A formula of this kind is very specific to the audience dynamics of the media vehicles involved. Please understand, this is not a recommended technique, merely a response to your question.

Thursday, March 07, 1996

Guru:How do I find an the number of Male/Female Age 18-24 users on the Internet. I know their is no exact fiqure on this, however, I'm just looking for approximations. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 10, 1996)

There are extensive research findings on web demographics athttp://www.cc.gatech.edu/gvu/user_surveys/survey-10-1995/#exec

Searching the term "demographics of the web" (including the quotation marks) at AltaVistawill produce many more sources to browse.

Wednesday, March 06, 1996

I am developing plans for an online publication and am need of some advice regarding advertising sales. I'm looking for a resource that can review my plans for editorial content and data I've collected on my potential competition and offer projections on traffic and advertising revenue. I'm also looking for a heads up on where to find the rate cards of selected online publishers.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, March 06, 1996)

One firm that could answer both your needs is i-traffic an on-line media planning service which also maintains a site providing traffic and rate data for major web advertising sites.

Monday, March 04, 1996

I was curious to know whether you have any insight into the 2nd quarter national scatter marketplace. I know things are terribly soft but I thought you might know something that I do not. Also, I was wondering if there is any online forum for broadcast/cable national marketers and ad agencies to converse about up & coming media budgets. I also perused your SQAD info under the COSTS/RATES "category" and was hoping that you might provide similar information for the national advertsisng marketplace.I now realize I had more questions than I thought. Thanx in advance for your help!

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, March 05, 1996)

SQAD (e=mail SQAD@ix.netcom.com)provides network cost projections and in the near future cable costs as well.

There are several on-line marketing forums (e-mail discussion lists) where advertising rate discussions would be within the range of topics. Note that each list has two addresses: one where you send a "subscribe" request and a different one where you post your messages to all listmembers, about discussion topics.

Generally, you must subscribe before you can post. Subscribing will cause the listserver to send you a FAQ (frequently asked questions list) describing the list's topics and rules of disussion). There is no cost to subscribe.

Market-L is the largest, at 900-1000 members and 50-75 posts a day. Topics range from marketing to politics and include a lot of smart alec remarks and heated nonsense amidsolid marketing information. An archiveof market-l is maintained.

Send the message SUBSCRIBE MARKET-L to listproc@mailer.fsu.edu

Post messages to market-l@mailer.fsu.edu

MKTSEG is a discussion about segmented marketing. Topics have often ranged to media issues. There are about 400-500 members and 2-5, on-topic, messages per day. An archive of MKTSEG is maintained at amic.

send the message SUBSCRIBE MKTSEG tolistserv@mail.telmar.com

post messages to mktseg@mail.telmar.com

MavenConference is a new discussion list operated by a group called the MktgMavens (most of the best contributors to Market-L), and is more focused on marketing than advertising. There are about 250 subscribers and 10-15 posts a day, lately. The discussion quality is high. An archive has not yet been established.

send the message SUBSCRIBE MAVENCONFERENCE tolistserv@mail.telmar.com

post messages to Mavenconference@mail.telmar.com

Friday, March 01, 1996

I work for a company that sells a braod range of complextechnical products. In developing a new lit fulfillmentstrategy (first there were printed brochures, then faxback, then ...) I have a few questions:
1. Can you direct me to Web sites that have done a goodjob of providing info/data sheets (ie.designed to obti-mize WEB capabilities not just slapping up existing material)?
2. What about customizing? eg. Cust completes request that indicates "I'm considering widgets produced by X,Y,&Z." Then delivering info sheet that shows comparative"feeds and speeds" of X,Y,&Z's widgets. Do you know of successful examples of this? Any pitfalls?
3) How to make sure to deliver "value added" material?

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, March 03, 1996)

You're not asking a media question here, but. . .

Using Alta Vista to search the word "submit" , which appears on just about all forms pages, found half a million such web pages, of which the first 10 were mostly technical. You be the judge of which of the half million are good or bad:

Thursday, February 29, 1996

I recently heard that their is a company that designs a billboard that is (believe this) a mile wide X 1/4 mile high. The ad would be placed on a rocket (ie, Space Shuttle) and dropped over the earths atmosphere for all the world to see. The ad should last for about 3 months. I found out about this unique media from a friend at Ayer, who works on the AT&T account. Unfortunatly, this was about two years ago and my friend has since lost the reps name & number. Can you help me locate this company. This is not a joke. Thank you, Brian Alter Korey Kay & Partners UFHG59A@Prodigy.com

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, March 01, 1996)

Has NASA announced that it will accept purely commercial payloads? Can a mile-wide sign high enough to stay in orbit 3 months be read with the naked eye?

This 7 million square foot sign would probably have to weigh 20 tons even if made extremely light weight materials. NASA would probably have trouble packing it in the shuttle and the freight charges would probably be, oh say $10 million, not to even consider production cost. . .

and for all this you've got Outdoor?

Good thing your friend doesn't sell bridges.

Tuesday, February 27, 1996

How much are NBA Final Four Playoff :30s spots running for?

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 28, 1996)

The "final four" doesn't refer to NBA professional basketball, but to NCAA college basketball. It takes place as part of a tournament which begins with college basketball's division 1A top 64 teams, although this is often up to great debate. Advertisers in the final four, carried again this year by CBS, and culminating on Monday evening, March 25.

The final four refers to the final four teams left in the tournament, they will play two games and the winners meet on Monday, the losers play in a consulation game.

The tournament consists of the following rounds:
* the opening round, the first group of games played in 8 regional locations - reduces the "field" from 64 teams to 32 and then to 16
* the "sweet 16" round reduces to eight and then four, played at four sites.
* then the finals are played at one site

No advertiser will be sold just final four availabilities. They must take advertising positions in all rounds of the tournament. In fact they are usually given priority based upon their position as advertisers in the regular CBS coverage of college basketball in the fall and winter.

Pricing in the final four is very negotiable as part of these packages, however, as a guideline, last year :30's went for $500,000-$600,000 each.

Needless to say both last year's and this year's tounament coverage is virtually sold out.

Saturday, February 24, 1996

Dear Guru Would you give me some information sources about the laws of advertising in WWW.

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, February 26, 1996)

Aside from the recently passed U.S. telecommunications law creating different standards regarding "indecent materials" in cyberspace than other in media, the Guru is unaware of specific U.S. laws regarding WWW advertising separately form other advertising. Some more restrictive countries may have relevant legislation.

The inherently international nature of the internet makes its content unmanagable under local law.

Presence providers may create their own rules. If you have a concern about legality of material, you should consult your provider and a knowledgeable advertising attorney.

Friday, February 23, 1996

Which West European print media should I select to advertise four wheel power terrain cars? Target group: men, age 28 - 35, with more spending money, countries: France, Germany, Great Britain, Italy. Thanks, Tom

The Media Guru Answers (Sunday, February 25, 1996)

Publicitas is a magazine representative firm which should be able to provide the research and information needed to evaluate this media tactic.

Thursday, February 22, 1996

What www/nn sites can provide me with info re advertising in Moscow and Berlin -- general stuff and also specific stuff about quirks (cultural or otherwise) of the market? Any help from you would be gratefully received. Thanks. enemies@netcom.com

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 23, 1996)

Altavista is a search engine that allows detailed searches for WWW sources like this including Boolean logic to fine tune results.

Wednesday, February 21, 1996

Dear Media Guru- I have a two part question , both dealing with the same subject, tv sampling error. Suppose ER gets a 20% rating and Seinfeld gets an 18%, both off a sample of 1000 resondents. What are the odds of there being absolutely no difference between these two ratings? This is not as simple as looking up the standard error of each rating. I remember that it has something to do with the standard error of the difference, but I just can't recall the calculating process.Could you please explain? Then to complicate matters, I'm looking at the same phenonena on a grander scale. Suppose the estimated delivery in rating points for a tv schedule is 1000 grps and it underdelivers by 10%- ie. 900 grps. What is the likelihood that the difference had to do with pure chance ( sampling error) and how do I calculate that? I know this is more difficult since you have to account for buying many programs in the estimate and the actual. Naturally, we are assuming that the error differences are all due to sampling, and not the idiosyncrasies of the marketplace or the impurity of the sample. In this case I know the answer is going to be technical, but that is what I need. Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 23, 1996)

The Guru loves this kind of stuff. The answer is technical but hopefully, in simple terms.

First, if ER has a 20 rating and Seinfeld has 18, with a sample of 1000 (for that demographic), then the ER 20 rating's standard error is +/- 1.265 while Seinfeld's 18's is 1.215 (See formulas in the Jan 25 18:23 Guru Q&A below).

Note that the absolute size of the error on the 20 is larger but it is relatively smaller. Also note that the range of these errors is such that they can make the two programs' ratings equal: 20 - 1.265 = 18.735 which overlaps 18 + 1.215 or 19.215.

There is a 68% probablity that these two ratings fall within this range. But the swing could go either way on either number. And could fall anywhere within the +/- range specified

There is a 90% probabilty that these two ratings fall within +/- 1.999 on the 18 and +/- 2.081 on the 20. The odds are 95% that they fall within +/- 2.381 for 18 and 2.479 for the 20.

These odds actually relate to reliabilty. That is, if you repeat the same rating study 100 times with the same actual facts existing, 68% of those studies will give ER a rating between 18.735 and 21.265.

Now the 1000 GRP underdelivered by 10% is different As the beginning of the explanation showed, while there is a swing around any rating (a 5 would be +/- 0.689 in the same study), the odds equally favor underestimates and overestimates. This is the same as the reason why small samples don't necessarily underestimate ratings. So in 1000 GRPs made up of 500 spots with an average 2 rating, the sampling error on the individual ratings somewhat cancels out.

To calculate this in an Arbitron measured radio buy using a single survey and one station, for example, the formula is

GRP x ((100 x #spots) - GRP) / sample x Factor)))

"Factor" is from a table provided, specific to demographic and #quarter hours in the daypart of the buy.

So, if your 1000 GRP were based on Adults 18-49 ( with a 1000 A18-49 sample), and a Mon-Fri, 6a-7p schedule, the calculation would be:

(1000 x ((100 x 500) -1000) / (1000 x 2.42)))

or +/- 143 GRP at the 68% confidence interval. Obviously, if the average rating were higher, hence fewer spots or if the sample was larger the variance would be smaller. With an average 20 rating, the swing is about +/- 40 GRP.

So, depending on average ratings and sample sizes, the 10% underdelivery could be within the range of standard error.

Tuesday, February 20, 1996

what is the total dollar value of the New Orleans radio market per year?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 23, 1996)

Two companies provide this sort of data: Duncan's 317-630-2888 and BIA (Broadcast Investment Analysis) 703-818-2425.

Monday, February 19, 1996

What are the sales requirements to be in the Fortune 1000 and 500 Club?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 22, 1996)

In the most recent Fortune 500, the 500th company, Dow Corning Midland, Mich, had $2204.6 Million sales.

See Pathfinder's Fortune 500 ranking

The 1000 is based on MVA, "Market Value Added", which can also be explored at the Pathfinder site. Perhaps you meant a different 1000?

Monday, February 19, 1996

Television's (network, spot are cable) and radio's (network and spot) advertising costs are typically measured in CPP's (cost per rating points). On the other hand, Newspapers' and magazine's advertising costs are measured in CPM's (cost per thousand). It seems the Internet is moving towards the CPM model and I have no idea how "out of home" or Direct Mail are measured. Apples to apples, based on CPM, how do these mediums compare on cost? -- how about ROI?

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 22, 1996)

First, understand that CPP and CPM are just cost indices rather than "measures." CPM (cost per thousand audience impressions) may be converted easily to CPP (cost per percentage point of population universe):

CPP = CPM x universe in thousands x .01


CPM = CPP / (.01 x universe in thousands)

CPM is simpler to deal with because we only need to know the audience exposed, a figure just beginning to be reported on the internet. CPP requires us to know a "universe," the number of people in the whole category under discussion. For the internet, or more specifically the WWW, where ads are usually found, universe is a hotly debated question. Is it the number of people with computers and modems or the number of people with the theoretical possibility to browse the web (an ISP and browser software) or the number of people who actually ever do use the Web? Even if we pick one of these, there are radically varying research estimates of the size of these possible universes.

If we decide to just use the total population as a universe for internet measurement, the ratings are agonizingly small, and we are still working toward how to define the rating. In print, no matter how often a reader picks up the same issue of a magazine, he or she only counts once in that issues impressions or rating. But website accesses are usually counting multiple weekly visits without the ability to distinguish repeats of the same viewer. There is not yet any common ground in pricing to talk of averages. There may be over 100,000 commercial sites, more than all the tv, radio and print vehicles put together.

The comparison you suggest between all media cpms also changes as we define which demographic to consider. TV has established averages to consider and companies like Spot Quotations and Data SQAD@ix.netcom.com publish these cpm/cpp.

Print may vary from $5 to over $200 cpm depending on selectivity of audience and total circulation.

ROI can't be discussed without knowing the goals and depends on ad content, other marketing efforts and how revenue is measured. Web site development and web ads may be meant to sell product, build image or just bring viewers to sites. Web advertising needs to be evaluated against very goal specific potential and possibility.

Friday, February 16, 1996

Dear Mr. Guru, Thank you for your last reponse on how to calculate GRP's. You had mentioned that you had explained it fully except for Neilson's calculation methodology. I would be interested in hearing more about this method of calculation as well. Also, is there a "better" way to measure the actual "Impact" an ad campaign has had if you know the actual length of each ad, the frequency the ads ran and the channels(and shows) that they ran during. ie. frequency X length X Audience(rate for each time slot)?? This is obviously a simplified formula, but your feedback on this would be greatly appreciated. Lastly, for television advertising, what are some of the other accepted methods of measurement. Thanks (Again) darrylw@conceptus.on.ca

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 16, 1996)

It is Neilsen's survey methodology that wasn't covered. They would use the same calculation formulae. The full description of Neilsens methodologies for People Meter, household meter and diary would cover several pages. Contact Neilsen who will be happy to send you methodology booklets.

Regarding "impact" there are as many ways to evaluate this as there are advertisers.

Some advertisers use a factor for copy length based on norms from recall tests. For example, 75% of a :30 is a typical value for a :15.

Some use attentiveness by daypart.

Some use a combination of the two factors.

Some apply the factors to GRP as an indicator; some apply to GRPs and then estimate reach from those adjusted GRPs as an impact indicator.

The frequency of a schedule, as discussed so far, refers to the average frequency of exposure for all pesons reached.

There are those who use "effective reach," counting only persons reached at least 3 times (or any designated minimum) when evaluating the impact of a schedule.

Friday, February 16, 1996

Dear Media Guru, Do you know of any service that will monitor television advertising (will track the actual commercials that are airing in a certain city or state). Would you also know of any company that does this on an ongoing basis and on a large scale. Does Nielson do this?? Any feedback would be greatly appreciated. Thanks Nick

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 22, 1996)

Video Monitoring Services (212-736-2010) and Radio TV Reports (212-309-1400) both track advertising by the specific commercial for national and local television and other media. Both can also capture and deliver copies of competitors' commercials as tapes or photoboards.

Neilsen and MediaWatch (an Arbitron/CMR service) are more oriented to tracking spending by brand / product.

Thursday, February 15, 1996

What is the actual formula for calculating GRP's

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 15, 1996)

There are various formulae, depending on from what data you are working:

GRP = Reach x frequency


GRP = Average rating x number of advertisements


GRP = The sum of the ratings of all the advertisments in a schedule


GRP =The total impressions delivered (i.e. audience among a specific demographic group, expressed in raw numbers of people X number of advertisements) divided by population universe for that demograpic.

Thursday, February 15, 1996

I would like to know a DETAILED calculation for GRP's for Television advertising. I assume the frequency is the number of times the ad ran across all channels. But how do I calulate the Reach for a T.V. AD. Is it based on the rate cards of the networks?(if so, how) or is it based on direct audience measurement. As much detail as possible would be greatly appreciated. darrylw@conceptus.on.ca

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 15, 1996)

Calculation of GRP does not depend on knowing reach, though reach x frequency is ONE formula. Reach is the more complex calculation, GRP is relatively simple (see other formulae in the adjoining question).

Reach has no relationship at all to rates, nor to commercial length, for that matter. Audience research surveys such as Nielsen can tell us the audience of individual programs. The net unduplicated audience, or reach, of actual advertisers' schedules, examined over time covered by a given survey period, typically four weeks, can be determined.

When many such scehdules, usually thousands, have been examined in that way, "curves" on a graph can be drawn representing the intersections of reach values with schedules' GRPs. The graph curves because each added announcement adds fewer new, unduplicated people toi the reach of the schedule.

The curve can be expressed as a formula y = ax+b, which then can be built into the computer model which media planners use to quickly calculate reach from given GRPs and sometimes other descriptive details of scheduling, such as average ratings, numbers of different networks or programs, etc.

The Guru is now nearly out of details unless Nielsen survey methodology is of interest.

Thursday, February 15, 1996

Can you give me a range of rates charged by senior media consultants- daily, hourly, longer term? The rate structure and rationale should be for someone with 20+ years experience as a Media Director at large and medium sized shops, but is now in business for themselves.Thank you.

The Media Guru Answers (Thursday, February 22, 1996)

There are many variables that enter into the determination of rates. These include:

* The presence of a retainer
* The guarantee of a significant number of hours
* The nature and value of the project - i.e., being asked to critique a 20 million dollar media plan vs. a small local market media buy

Rates can range from as low as $55 per hour to up to $300 per hour depending on a number of issues such as those described above.

Wednesday, February 14, 1996

Dear Media Guru, I am a business development executive at Spelling Entertainment (Melrose Place, Beverly Hills 90210, The Usual Supects, etc.) who is running up against tremendous resistance to the idea of launching ad-supported websites for the company. There is a great deal of skepticism here about the revenue potential for such ventures. I have included below the text of a memo which made the rounds today, outlining the major concerns with regard to Web ventures. I would greatly appreciate any comments or rebuttals to the text of the memo. You can contact me at RobCain@aol.com, or at 213-965-5700. Thank you, Robert Cain TEXT OF THE MEMO: I had a very illuminating meeting with a senior executive of one of the nation's largest consumer food producers (over $1 billion in sales). This executive stated that her company is not buying advertising on the Web because of concerns and does not currently anticipate buying advertising on the Web; it does have a web site. The conversation raises several issues we need to address to attract advertising support for [our proposed Web site]. The following is a brief summary of her remarks: 1.

The Media Guru Answers (Wednesday, February 14, 1996)

(a) Statistics do not measure whether 30,000 hits means 30,000 people or 10,000 people three (3) times.

Sunday, February 11, 1996

What advantages does marketing/advertising on the internet have above marketing/advertising in the "USUAL" media?

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, February 12, 1996)

he internet offers many disadvantages to go with its advantages. These all pertain to the WWW.

Some Advantages:

  • Immediacy: Ad copy and new product news can be on-line immediately.
  • Selectivity: Ads can be aimed broadly at computer users, or narrowly at Quentin Tarentino fans, or afficionados of the wines of Australia.
  • Relevance to the moment: Ads can be tied to today's crucial interest, by buying keywords on search engines.
  • Participation: Ad viewers can become involved in the ad by clicking on links to product info most relevant to them, filling out and sending requests within the ad. This is far more inolving than the "paste this stamp here" tricks of direct mail.
  • The ability to link E-mail auto-responders to web sites outdoes the capabilites of fax-back servers as well.
  • Minor advantages include savings on postage, paper and production costs versus traditional print and broadcast media.
The disadvantages are chiefly in audience and audience count:

  • At the most optimistic count, only 30-40% of households are reachable by the Web.
  • Very few individual websites reach even 10% of this universe.
  • Reach versus frequency is not well understood or capable of calculation.
  • Audience demographics are not well known nor well distinguished between thosecapable of using the web and those regularly doing so.

Sunday, February 11, 1996

Guru, I need to buy about thirty industry specific news stories for a publication I'm launching. This may be as many as one hundred a week. They must be fresh. However, I'm having trouble finding where to buy "newsfeed". Seems I'm too small for the big news providers. How do magazines get timely info on an industry without having a numder of reporters in the field. Any suggestions? Thanks

The Media Guru Answers (Monday, February 12, 1996)

One of the major suppliers of news on the internet is Clarinet Communications Corporation. They supply newsfeeds from the AP, Reuters, many industry specific news services.special features. etc. Their primary customers are IAP's (Internet Access Providers), private corporate networks, bulletin board services, etc. The cost and restrictions are a function of your size and intended use. You might want to check out their internet site and contact them if it seems appropriate. They are also the folks that support the rec.humor.funny newsgroup.

Friday, February 09, 1996

I plan on launching an ol-line magazine and in doing research have discovered the provider I have an account with for access currently has told me they "don't do web sites for customers who will in turn rent out that space to someone else". I, of course, want to rent out ad space on my on-line mag. Is this a common practice? Or am I dealing with some small timers? I plan on getting clarification, but thought I'd ask the master.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 09, 1996)

The guru believes you are dealing with very shot sighted small timers. It is not unusual for providers to have a different rate structure for "commercial" (ad bearing) sites versus personal web pages. Personal home pages may be part of a $15 per month interrnet access package while the same provider charges $50 - $5000 per month for commercial sites, depending on storage, traffic, cgi programming, domain registration, etc. There may be some which prohibit reselling ad space; the web is too new to have absolute standards, as yet.

Many providers aggressively pursue such business. It should be easy to find a local one interested in your business. If you are in the NY area, try sales@mail.telmar.com

Monday, February 05, 1996

What are the rates and subscriber profiles of the most popular web sites? What are the customer profiles of AOL, Prodigy and Compuserve?

The Media Guru Answers (Tuesday, February 06, 1996)

The "most popular websites" don't have subscribers, they have visitors who come and go without establishing relationships. Netscape, which may have the largest access count, if only because their browser defaults to Netscape's home page as it's start-up URL, and most users haven't learned how or bothered to change it. (At an estimated 3 million weekly accesses it's been said to charge $15,000 monthly for ads.)

Many major sites don't have "guest" registration procedures that capture even minimal demographics of visitors.

Rates of web sites have not been thoroughly compiled. TrafficResource is an ambitious effort to compile rates and traffic for the top sites, but is apparently not generally accessible at this date.

Standard Rate and Data Service has an Interactive Advertising Resource, but it would be difficult for a printed guide to keep up with the web.

AdAge has a compilation of its Interactive Media articles available on-line. These have frequently discussed rates and traffic.

For profiles of AOL, Prodigy and CompuServe customers, MRI has included the "Big Three" on-line services as brands in its latest study of media and product usage.

Thursday, February 01, 1996

My company is looking to market an advertising medium to national/international companies looking to reach the teen market. My questions: (1) Is the teen market generally considered "difficult to reach"?, and (2) Is there a "rule of thumb" ratio of advertising expenditures to gross sales? (i.e. advertising budget is 6%-9% of gross sales)

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

Question 1. The teen demographic group is one of the harder ones to reach cost-efficiently. This is largely due to the fact that this group is really many groups, with a wide range of interests and lifestyles.

The broader media types, television and newspaper, are very poorly suited to reaching this target group. Radio and select cable television networks are far more likely to be successful and affordable.

There are some magazines which can be very useful, especially niche targeted publications rather than broad books like Time, Newsweek or TV Guide. Many teens strongly identify with their interest in music, sports, cars, motorcycles or lifestyles. Therefore titles such as Spin, Skiing, Hot Rod, Cycle World or Seventeen can and often are very successful as advertising vehicles.

Remember, this is a very unique and complicated set of groups rather than a single homogeneous group.

Question 2. The development of an adequate advertising budget linked to a sales ratio is very hard to accomplish. For example, companies at an early stage of development may have its lowest sales when it has its highest need for advertising support to build sales. At this earliest stage of development, an advertising to sales ratio could be as high as 15%-20%. Later on, when the company has matured and sales are robust 3%-5% may very well be adequate to the task.

Thursday, February 01, 1996

In developing Web pages for our clients, the question of "the importance of placing reciprocal hotlinks on our Web site" always comes up. Is there any research available that proves it is worth the time/money investment to place links on your site that lead to related sites on the Web?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

There is just barely beginning to be research that verifies site visits, which would seem to be the minimum starting point to put a value on reciprocal links.

General feelings among marketers seem to be that the more links the better, if your primary mission is to generate visits to your site. The guru will attest that there has been an increase in visits to his site as other sites have linked to it. Browsers and web servers would need to be able to track "previous site browsed" to track links. Of course survey research and "guest books" are a possibility.

There seem to be two principal kinds of comercial sites:

1. A site meant to promote your own company by virtue of offering information of interest to potential customers or information about your products and services.

2. A site meant to draw visitors by virtue of offering entertainment content, and which profits by selling advertising in the site

Some sites of course, Like AMIC, combine the two.

In either case, but especially the second, it is a concern if links on your site send visitors away from your site without exploring.

Reciprocal links must be carefully selected if your site is committed to a theme or category of content. Many general sites will link to specialized ones but the reverse link may seem odd from the base of a specialty site.

Perhaps the best research is a sort of literature review which can discern the thinking of marketing pros on this question.

"Market-L," the major marketing discussion e-mail list operating on the internet, has been considering this topic this week. The Market-L Archive is available for review. Join the discussion of Market-L by sending a message saying 'SUBSCRIBE (your real name)" to listproc@mailer.fsu.edu

Another list which has discussed this topic is Inet-Marketing. The Inet-marketing Archive can be searched as well. To join this list, send an empty e-mail to im-sub@i-m.com

Tuesday, January 30, 1996

I am studying web audience measurement and I need a technical question answered. When a person accesses a company's web site, what information is automatcally obtained by the company about the person? The person's electronic address? node the person came from? The commercial service the person subscribes to? Or maybe nothing at all?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

The following information is standardly transmitted when accessing a site:

your ip address
your host computer / domain name
your bowser (including version number)
your email address (if set in your browser)
the referring URL (if any)

Of course if you register at the site (if they require or allow registration) anything you enter would be available. In addition the web server could contact your host (i.e. finger) to gather additional information.

Tuesday, January 30, 1996

If a media vehicle is delivering 3.5 million impressions per month, what rate should I pay for advertising if I want a $20 CPM?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

CPM = $cost / thousands of impressions
$20 = $cost / 3500
$20 x 3500 = $70,000

Friday, January 26, 1996

Query:Are there any big media buyers wich are not one of the big add agency? a company that can be the best place to demonstrate my new product to the widest range of potential clients?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

Many of the biggest media buying organizations are not connected to advertising agencies.

These include SFM, TBS, Creative Media, Vitt Media International, and others. There is a section in the Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies ("The Redbook") for media services.

Friday, January 26, 1996

I am doing a research study on the concept of IMC versus it's actual use in advertising agencies. In your view, how has Integrated Marketing Communications affected advertising agencies particularly the media department. Do you think the concept is in question.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

Where IMC has really been implemented the effect on media departments has been profound. Media plans that take account of everything from promotion to packaging and R&D can be quite different than the quick and dirty media plans that are probably far more common. Media is paying far more attention to realistic communication effects within a broader marketing overview.

Of course this style is limited to fairly sophisticated, or adventurous marketing clients and ultimately is more talked about than implemented. The guru believe that an careful comparison of media plans before and after IMC would show more differences in language than in media selection.

Thursday, January 25, 1996

I am currently designing a study to measure audiences of electronic publications on-line and on the Internet. Two questions: 1. What work is being done on this at present, and 2. Which organization would be able to give me the best "standardization" advice?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

Nielsen, Web Track and NetCount are among the companies measuring web audiences. TrafficResource maintains a site listing top sites measured and is moving toward some standards of evaluation of advertising opportunities.

Thursday, January 25, 1996

Are there any big media buyers which are not one of the big add agencies? A company that can be the best place to demonstrate my new product to the widest range of potential clients?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

Many of the biggest media buying organizations are not connected to advertising agencies.

These include SFM, TBS, Creative Media, Vitt Media International, and others. There is a section in the Standard Directory of Advertising Agencies ("The Redbook") for media services.

Thursday, January 25, 1996

I have a total universe of 9500 people and I would like to know how big a sample I would need for as good study. This is for a phone interview.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

The population size is a relatively insignificant factor in calculating reliability of a sample; 500 respondents is just about as reliable in surveying a small town as for the United States as a whole.

To plan a "good study," you need to consider the size of the typical answer you will get.

If your typical response will be 50% of respondents said "yes" then a far smaller sample could be suitable than if answers are "10% use brand B."

You also need to decide what level of reliabilty you require, or how much swing, +/-, is acceptable and to what tolerance.

For example:

If your sample size is 500, a 50% answer is actually reliable +/- 4.4 percentage points, 95% of the time and +/- 3.7 points 90% of the time.

If the sample size is 125, a 50% answer is reliable +/- 8.8 points, 95% of the time. This is double the relative error of the 500 sample (rule of thumb, 4x as much sample reduces error by half).

If the answers anticipated were 10%, then for the 125 sample it varies +/- 5.2 points, or over 50% relative error.

A 10% answer from a 500 total sample yields +/- 2.6% points at 95% tolerance or 26% relative error, which is possibly acceptable for your need.

To examine other possibilities, the formula for 95% tolerance is:

1.96 x squareroot of ((PxQ)/N)


P = the answer size expressed as a decimal fraction
Q = the remaing fraction of the sample
N = the total sample size

To examine 90% tolerance, substitute 1.645 for 1.96

Tuesday, January 23, 1996

What is the price for 1/1 page 4 colour in the Russian floor magazines: "Salon Magazine"/Moscow and "Industrial Architecture"/ S. Petersburg? Can you give me other titles that are relevant for a advertiser of floors?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

A Swiss firm with a U.S. website,Publicitas Advertising Services is in the business of representing international magazines in the US and other countries.

Tuesday, January 23, 1996

how would you make two different media plans with the same budget for the same product? theoretically Is there any literature, examples or cases in this field?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

This question seems to be "tell me all about media."

But assume you have one media plan built properly. That is, by setting up media goals flowing out of the marketing goals and then strategies and tactics which will accomplish those goals best. The next step to create the "different plan" is to begin at the strategies and tactics phase. Develop alternate strategies and tactics which could also achieve the goals.

"Media Planning" by Sissors and Bumba is a classic text in this field. University libraries and some public libraries would have others. The Advertising Research Foundation has a library of case studies and texts, available to members.

Monday, January 22, 1996

Would an Ad Agency be the place to contact to have them sell signbanner-space to be visible on TV during events - such as competions, Rodeos, - and do they sell that signbanner-space on commission? We are looking for a company to sell signbanner space based on "media-equivalence."

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

Ad Agencies are buyers of space, not sellers. Or tecnically, they are agents for the advertisers who are the ultimate purchasers. The advertisers pay the commission to the agency. The space seller indicate the commission as a sort of discount from the published "gross" price and the "net" due from the agency.

There are independent "rep" firms who sell this sort of space. Independent print reps, for example, are listed in front of the SRDS Consumer Print Advertising Resource

Friday, January 19, 1996

I would like to know if in United State exist any research, about outdoor reaching people. If exist, could you give me an explanation, and any address to try to get more information. How an outdoor campaign is evaluated in U.S.? How many people reach, this kind of study. Thank you in advance

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

There are measurement sytems and standards for outdoor media in the U.S. Outdoor (more generally called Out-of-Home media, to include buses, bus shelters, subways, etc) is measured in GRPs as are other media. Outdoor GRP's are measured on a per-day basis, while broadcast media are more often thought of on a per-week basis.

Therefore if one buys 100 Adult 18+ GRPs of outdoor posters, the daily audience exposures (circulation) are equal to the Adult 18+ population of the market area. So a 100 GRP buy is about 3000 GRP per month (100GRP per day x 30 days.

Typical reach systems will report that this level of outdoor delivers a reach in the 90% range with over 30 frequency. You may buy 50 GRP or 25 GRP, of course. Even at these levels reach is typically 80+.

Years ago we talked of "100 showing" or "50 showing" which was sometimes the plant operators rough estimate of 100 or 50 GRP and sometimes just a pricing basis.

Outdoor sales companies, such as Gannett (212) 297-6413 can provide scehdule-specific reach analyses.

Friday, January 19, 1996

HELP! What is the music in the new Publix Supermarkets TV ad - I can hum it to death but cannot name it. I think it's a symphony selection made popular.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

Oh, yeah, the Guru hates when that happens. But it's not a exactly a media question and Publix spots don't air where the Guru lives.

Thursday, January 18, 1996

Is there any magazine research comparing the value of newsstand circ. vs. free point of sale publications? I would like to verify a sales rep's claim that his publication is a better buy, because it is at point of sale.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

Two traditional concepts are worthy of consideration here:

1) It's a salesman's job to tell you his product is better, no matter what is provable

2) Basic media thinking holds that there is more perceived value, to the consumer, in something he/she has paid for than in something received for free. If that is the only distinction, the newstand publication should be stronger

Aside from that there are several questions to consider:

Is the point of sale publication literally at the place where the product is stocked in a store, as in a home decorating guide in the paint and wallpaper section or at paint stores, and you are advertising paint and brushes?

Or is it a general recipe magazine at the supermarket cashier while you are advertising dog food?

If the free title is topical and well placed, is the newsatnd title equally on topic?

How do you measure effectiveness, add recall, coupon redemption, movement on the purchase intent scale actual sales attributable to the magazine?

About the best catalog of print research on-line is the Newsweek Media Research Index

Monday, January 15, 1996

How many marketing dollars do I need to spend to sell one unit software for the home education market? (price point under $50, desired sales 25000 pieces)

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

This is not a media question, and can only be answered with other questions, such as:

What is the average unit marketing expense of comparable, competitive software?

What retail or direct marketing channels will you use?

What marketing expenses do you need to account for; trade show participation/advertising/PR/collateral materials/sales force/other?

Saturday, January 13, 1996

I am trying to find a resource for ad rates on a few cable networks. What does a national spot cost on A&E, Lifetime, TNT, etc. Are there any resources on the net?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

Resources like SQAD (email: SQAD@ix.netcom.com provide csot guides of this sort. Your own recent past experience or preliminary negotiations are the only better sources.

Saturday, January 13, 1996

Query:What are the primary benefits of including Sports Marketing in a media plan. Are there sites on the Web where I can learn more about Sports Marketing, > specifically Collegiate Sports marketing?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

Sports Marketing can mean different things to different marketers. In a media plan it could mean something as simple as ads in game programs or sponsorship of a team.

The benefits in a plan can be developing a relationship with fans of a team or of a sport or more closely targeting prospect for the advertiser who are known to be especially interested in a sport. The extreme can be becoming the official "xxx" of a sport or event. Investing in sports marketing may be highly inefficient in media terms, though often there is only the undefinable cachet of association with an event seen as prestigious by a fan who is a prime prospect. After all, what objective logic leads the game show "Jeopardy" to be an "Official Olympic Sponsor?"

A search through Yahoo produces many entries under sports marketing, which indicates what a broad umbrella is this concept. The "sports and marketing" links provided by AltaVista, seem more likely to answer media plan rationale questions. Space prevents me from displaying them here, but you should be sure to do a search at AltaVista.

Friday, January 12, 1996

I would appreciate it if you could tell me what the major corporations are doing about their global audience. To be more specific, how are they dealing with language translation, or are they? If they are, are they just giving a foreign text version, or are they giving them the full version of the English site? Thanks John

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

It appears that the language of the internet is English. Despite Swiss origins, the US and MIT in particular make the standards today. The intenet facet that the question seems to relate to is the Web, which is one of the "mass" elements of the 'net. Even non-US sites, if marketing related are put up in English or a choice of local language and English. The guru has seen this on European, Asian and Latin American sites.

English is the language of global marketing.

Other facets of the 'net, such as e-mail are more personal and might be in any mutually understood language. Mail-lists, too, are overwhelmingly in English even those not related to marketing. Scanning the list of "publically available mailing lists" shows probably far less than 10% accepting a language other than English.

The beauty of the web though, is that a site could easily be offered in dozens of languages, with little added expense other than translation. The same graphics, supplemented by variant text files would allow for a compact multilingual site.

Friday, January 12, 1996

Internet Web Advertising Rates for banner sponsorships have no pricing model standards. Gateway properties (Excite/Lycos/Netscape/Yahoo) with untargeted audiences base their rates on CPM ranges of 20-50. I need to evaluate prices on regionally focused web sites: untargeted & targeted non-search engine properties. Can you lend any assistance?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

CPMs of $20-50 for unselective audiences seem high. Some thoughts on web site banner cpm are offered in PRICING WEB SITE ADVERTISING: The Media Buyers' View

Thursday, January 11, 1996

What is the average CPP in the Atlanta Metro and ADI for radio and TV? Please break this out by quarter.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

Your ultimate source will request a demographic specification for the CPP. Spot Quotations and Data, Inc. (SQAD) provides this sort of information. Contact SQAD at (914) 524-7600 or SQAD@ix.netcom.com

Thursday, January 11, 1996

For an international print publication covering interactive and online services, including Internet, we are looking for companies who can solicit advertising in our behalf. Can you give some suggestions as to whom we can approach. We do not want to set up our own advertising sales department.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

Independent print representatives are listed in the front of the SRDS Consumer Print or Business Publication Resources. SRDS contact information is at the SRDS web site.

Wednesday, January 10, 1996

Please provide some sources for a small ad agency to use to conduct national magazine print planning for a demanding client. I have several programs with very different audiences and don't have the time or staff necessary.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

"Programs" shouldn't be providing audience data, they should be reading the current data of SMRB, MRI, MMR, etc.

Telmar has software which will analyze media plans using any of these or several other audience studies. SMRB and MRI also offer systems to analyze their audience data in media planning.

If your concern is primarily software cost or staff time, the print media also have these systems and are eager to help you run Reach & Frequency or other analyses of print alternatives. It would be wise to specify the data (SMRB or MRI, etc) which you will use as your standard and ask more than one of the candidate publications to do analyses.

Magazine audience change over time, new magazines come along; it is important to be using current research.

Wednesday, January 10, 1996

What is the best or acceptable way to attract sponsors/ advertisers for my web page?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

The Guru has addressed this issue several times. Use the "find" function of your browser on this page to search for the key words "sponsor" or "web sites" for various thoughts regarding web site advertising sales.

Wednesday, January 10, 1996

Our site is new to the internet, has been reviewed by Point and is being visited approx 3500 times per day. We provide a needed service for working parents at no charge. To continue this service we must find a source for funding. Please advise how to find sponsors/advertisers.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

The Guru's questions are listed below from most recent to least. This question is quite similar to the ones dated January 10 at 21:50 and January 8 at 3:51.

Tuesday, January 09, 1996

At what percent of U.S. households (approximately) does local cable cost the same as national cable?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

The variables of local cable buying (how many sytems, using interconnects, etc) are such that there is no solid answer. One rep firm estimates that somewhere between the top 12-20 markets, costs come to parity.

Monday, January 08, 1996

Our non-profit has a web service which we would like to fund by renting out space to sponsors. Where do we start to see if this is feasible?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

There are several companies today in the business of listing and or selling space available on the web. One is Webtrack . Another is a website sales representative firm operated by Neil Monnens nmonnens@slip.net

telephone 415 776-4866. Otherwise, you might use search engines like AltaVista to locate web user comapnies with a possible affinity for your non-profit who might become sponsors.

Monday, January 08, 1996

At what point does the efficiency of buying local cable diminish so that national cable is a more effective option?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

On an efficiency basis, local cable is almost never superior to national. The decision point is more likely to be out of pocket cost, though the Guru has seen instances of the same cable :30's priced at $50 nationally versus $250 in New York.

The analysis also depends on how large an area is useful to the marketer. If the whole country is geographically acceptable as potential consumers, then the only question might be how far will the budget stretch in delivering "acceptable" levels of weight. If only certain geographies are within the distribution of the advertiser, an analysis of the useful audience within the national cable coverage is needed before the efficiency comparison can be made.

There is no %US "rule of thumb". Local cable is variable enough in its cpm ranges that there often is no relationship of market size to cost.

Monday, January 08, 1996

What do you perceive the future of advertising ?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

Much too broad a question for the Media Guru to answer in a reasonable way. What items of advertising are you interested in; Ad content, spending, new media? Please ask a narrower question, relating to Media Planning if you wish the Media Guru to answer it.

Monday, January 08, 1996

Please explain the future of advertising in media terms? Is internet going to take over other media or is it just going to be another media ?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

There is little prospect of the internet "taking over" other media in its current incarnation.

Look at the history of advertising technology, its always moved FROM media that had more cost and work attached TO media that had less cost and work to enjoy:

First there was print. One had to buy a newspaper or magazine everytime one wanted to use it. One had to do the "work" of reading.

Radio was a one time outlay, and almost no effort to digest, except for conjuring up a picture in the "mind's eye"

TV again was a one time outlay and gave you the picture with the sound leaving no work for the mind.

The internet requires ongoing subscription payments, in many cases (AOL/Prodigy/Compuserve/ISP) payments increase with increased use. Then there's "work" typing. clicking and selecting. The cost of owning necesssary equipment and learning to use it is another barrier.

No doubt technology will ease the cost and work burdens of using the internet but it is more communications than entertainment. It is perhaps analogous to catalog shopping versus retail advertising combined with the store shopping experience: another useful and rapidly growing marketing vehicle, but not the ultimate one.

Some compare the 'net to cable. Microsoft is said to be visualizing 50% computer HH penetration soon, which is in the cable ballpark. But cable still has barely 50 channels competing for audience in any system. The web represent 10's of thousands of commercial sites for a brower to try to find.

Also, today the baby boom is hitting 50, and it's the big population group. Computer use is still primarily a feature of the next consumer wave.

The 'net is not to be ignored, but it's not likely to be the next Television (or even the next Cable) for a while.

Saturday, January 06, 1996

I just started a training business? Have you any ideas of how to market seminars and workshops on the WWW. Is there a site to send newsreleases on the Net to editors of business publications?

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

Remember that the Web is a place where people come to browse, not a vehicle which sends messages to specific people. Within the web, people come to sites because they looked up a topic in a search engine or were sent by a link on another, related, site.

The Web is a good place to list complete details about your seminars once you have found a way to make your URL known to prospects.

You should advertise in publications appealing to the people who might be interested in your training or on sites related to the kind of training you will offer .You need to find sites in the related fields that will support cross-links with you.

Friday, January 05, 1996

What is the range and average cost per :30 spot for a scatter cable buy for upscale men 25-54 and an average rating. Assume full year effort.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

There are innumerable variables to consider, but a ballpark estimate might be 0.3 to 0.7 rating at $2200 - $4000 per :30 spot. Better information could be generated by preliminary negotiation with sellers or reference to the forthcoming SQAD guide to cable costs

Thursday, January 04, 1996

How do television and radio advertisers value an impression? That is, if someone advertises on television is there a formula used to determine prices for :15, :30 and :60 spots? Thanks.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

As a general rule, :30 impressions are the standard reference for TV and :60 for radio. "value" and "price" may or may not correlate:

In TV, a :60 is usually double a :30's price but has the same value in reach. Some advertisers use attentiveness or recall factors to adjust the "value" of a :60 vs a :30 impression. Your question focuses on pricing.

In most cases, :15's are priced at 50% of 30's, but there are instances where 65 or 75% is used.

In radio, :60 is the standard, with :30's typically priced at 80-85% and :15's not in use. Some stations today, especially top rockers with a sensitivity about clutter and inventory sell "units" not differentiating between :60's and :30's in price.

Thursday, January 04, 1996

Does a "Redbook" for online advertising exist? I am interested in finding out about new media client lists at major agencies.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

The "Redbooks" or Standard Directory of Advertisers and The Standard Directory of Agencies do not list media specifically by advertiser. If agencies have New Media as clients, that would show up in the Redbook.

CMR (Competitive Media Reports) may soon begin tracking on-line activity.

The Jupiter Report lists some on line advertisers.

Thursday, January 04, 1996

How to estimate demographic editions for magazines in IntelliQuest, Simmons CompPro and/or John Adams' Studies for coverage, composition and reach/frequency purposes.

The Media Guru Answers (Friday, February 02, 1996)

One good way is to use Telmar's "Prototyper" which can estimate magazine audience based on modelling from known magazines and/or indices on known demographic differences between basic and demographic editions. Composition and coverage results can be used in reach and frequency analyses. Telmar supports all three of the data sets you mention. Send mail to sales@telmar.com for more information about their prototyper.

Other magazine analysis systems like Choices and Memri have similar protyping processes, and may support some or all of the data resources you list